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901 SPE R IME N TA Z ION I SULLA C OLLI NA DE L C A STE LLO DI LI SB ONA

E R IC E R C HE ST R U T T U R ALI ATELI ER BUGI O ,


BEAUDOUIN ET LODS, R I CAR DO BAK GO R DO N,
CONZETT BRONZINI,
FRANCO ALBINI, JO ÃO FAVI LA MENEZES
ICD/ITKE,
LEONARDO MOSSO

DAL 1928

ITALIAN+ENGLISH EDITION
ANNO LXXXIII — SETTEMBRE 2019
ITALIA €12,00
AUT €22,50. BEL €21,70.
CAN $37,00. CHE IT CHF27,00.
CHE DE CHF27,50. DEU €28,50.
ESP €21,40. FIN €22,00. FRA €20,00.
PRT CONT €20,10. USA $31,50.
901 SPE R IME N TA Z ION I SULLA C OLLI NA DE L C A STE LLO DI LI SB ONA
E R IC E R C HE ST R U T T U R ALI ATELI ER BUGI O ,
BEAUDOUIN ET LODS, R I CAR DO BAK GO R DO N,
CONZETT BRONZINI,
FRANCO ALBINI, JO ÃO FAVI LA MENEZES
ICD/ITKE,
LEONARDO MOSSO

DAL 1928

ITALIAN+ENG LISH
+JAPANESE EDITION
CASABELLA-JAPAN.JP
901
«Enfin, le cercle étant le plus simple

Eugène Beaudouin
Marcel Lods
des lieux géométriques, doit
Le conseguenze della forma 1 également fournir des solutions

Logica costruttiva ed espressione strutturale


Marco Biagi schizzo prospettico parziale
partial perspective sketch constructives extrêmement
Conosciuto e apprezzato sia in patria che in
ambito internazionale, ma finora indagato
élégantes, donc légères, par
e valorizzato meno di quanto avrebbe forse conséquent économiques (car dans
meritato, il sodalizio professionale fra Eugène
Beaudouin (1898–1983) e Marcel Lods (1891–1978)
les grandes dimensions ce n’est
ha prodotto, negli anni Trenta in Francia, plus seulement la façon d’utiliser
significative innovazioni tecniche nel campo delle
costruzioni metalliche e della sperimentazione
la matière, mais surtout le choix
tipologica sull’architettura, nonché opere de la forme qui importe)».

nelle opere di due grandi architetti


autenticamente emblematiche degli ideali
di progresso sociale che hanno alimentato E. Beaudouin e M. Lods, relazione al progetto di concorso
la stagione “eroica” del Movimento Moderno. OTUA per un Nouveau Grand Palais des Expositions, Parigi
Personalità fra loro antitetiche, ma 1934
complementari, separati da sette anni di
differenza l’uno dall’altro, i due s’incontrano
nel 1922 all’École des beaux-arts, frequentando
entrambi l’atelier di Emmanuel Pontremoli.
Si ritrovano l’anno successivo, dopo il diploma di
Lods, a collaborare nello studio dello zio paterno
di Beaudouin, Albert, occupandosi insieme della 1

progettazione di complessi d’abitazione a basso


costo nei comuni della banlieue parigina:
segnatamente Vitry (1925), Versailles (1926),
Gennevilliers (1926) e Romainville (1925–27).
Dal 1925 si associano al titolare dell’agenzia, che
si ritira tre anni più tardi, lasciando loro in eredità
consolidati rapporti con la committenza pubblica
degli uffici per le HBM (Habitations à Bon

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Marché) e la SALEFN (Société anonyme des
logements économiques pour familles
nombreuses). Per tre lustri, fino al 1940, la coppia
lavora congiuntamente, coniugando e mettendo
a frutto i diversi talenti e interessi dei due soci:
per il disegno urbano e la dimensione contestuale
dell’architettura, Beaudouin, che collabora con
Forestier al piano per l’Havana (1928) e con Prost
a quello per la regione di Parigi (1930–36); per la
razionalizzazione tecnologica della costruzione
e del cantiere, Lods, che sposa e promuove
attivamente la causa della prefabbricazione in
acciaio, mista o integrale, quale via maestra alla
modernizzazione del settore edile e, soprattutto,
strumento chiave per ridurre i costi delle case alla
scala dei grandi quartieri per le masse popolari.

60 c asa be l l a 901 61
2 5 6

2 5, 6
Eugène Beaudouin e Marcel
Nell’arco di poco più di un decennio, i due 1939– ma, in aggiunta e in special modo, le torri per appartamenti
Lods all’inizio degli anni Trenta giovani professionisti –il compositivo e il a indagare l’opzione di un’architettura prefabbricate della Cité
Eugène Beaudouin and costruttore– bruciano le tappe realizzando una meccanizzata e trasformabile, la cui variabilità de La Muette
Marcel Lods at the start of the prefabricated apartment
the 1930s serie di esperienze pionieristiche e d’assetto funga da moltiplicatore d’efficienza e towers of Cité de La Muette
3, 4 paradigmatiche che esplorano le molteplici versatilità prestazionale del dispositivo edilizio. 7, 8
vedute aeree della Cité de La pianta, sezioni e fotomontaggio
Muette, a Drancy, 1931–34 prerogative e virtualità dell’architettura Questo, sia attraverso l’articolazione distributiva nella natura della Casa
aerial views of the Cité de La industrializzata in metallo. I progetti sviluppati e l’ideazione di raffinati meccanismi di apertura “smontabile” per il weekend
Muette, at Drancy, 1931–34 B.L.P.S. progettata con Jean
affrontano le principali funzioni di vita associata e movimentazione delle facciate o delle partizioni Prouvé, 1937–38
della città contemporanea –residenza, interne degli edifici, come nel caso dei raffinati plan, sections and
photomontage in nature of
infrastrutture di trasporto, servizi per serramenti vetrati coulissantes messi a punto per the “demountable” B.L.P.S.
l’istruzione, la cultura, il tempo libero, fino al spalancare i volumi delle aule nell’esperimento weekend house, designed
with Jean Prouvé, 1937–38
monumento– e il variare dei programmi e la “igienico-pedagogico” dell’École de plein air
7
3 complessità crescente degli interventi sono ogni di Suresnes (1931–35), sia introducendo soluzioni
volta interpretati come opportunità per affinare di parziale automazione del manufatto, come
la collaborazione con gli ingegneri e le imprese nel futuribile bijou mécanique della Maison du
coinvolti e approfondire la ricerca, conseguendo Peuple di Clichy (1935–39): mercato coperto, la
importanti avanzamenti operativi e conoscitivi. mattina, casa del popolo, la sera, inopinatamente
A Bagneux (Cité du Champ-des-Oiseaux, 1927–33), portato a termine in concomitanza con lo
prima, e a Drancy (Cité de la Muette, 1931–34), scoppio della guerra.
poi, il tema degli alloggi sociali finanziati dalla È però grazie ad alcuni concorsi indetti,
Legge Locheur (1928) è, per Beaudouin e Lods, sempre durante gli anni Trenta, dall’OTUA,
una palestra ottimale dove iniziare a cimentarsi l’Office Technique pour l’Utilisation de l’Acier,
con le problematiche e la disciplina della che la riflessione di Beaudouin e Lods sulla
industrialisation ouverte, della costruzione costruzione metallica acquisisce un respiro
standardizzata, per componenti seriali prodotti diverso e si sposta concettualmente dal piano
in officina, da assemblare a secco, scoperta grazie dell’uniformazione a quello dell’unicità, dal
4
all’incontro decisivo con l’ingegnere-impresario pragmatismo tecnologico dell’oggetto outil 8
Eugène Mopin. Drancy, in particolare, con il suo all’eccezionalità dell’invenzione strutturale.
imponente “pettine” di corpi in linea alternati Dopo un primo saggio nel 1933, con il progetto
a torri di sedici piani con ossatura d’acciaio e di un Hangar per aeroplani di forma circolare,
rivestimento in pannelli di calcestruzzo vibrato, in acciaio e lamiera piegata, sostenuto da un
costituisce, per l’epoca, un modello inarrivabile solo appoggio centrale attorno al cui asse una
di razionalizzazione della costruzione e del generatrice parabolica descrive per rotazione
cantiere, in notevole anticipo sui grands un’enorme pensilina autoportante a fungo, è con
ensembles del dopoguerra. In seguito, le l’impegnativa competizione per un Nouveau
collaborazioni reiterate con gli Ateliers Jean Grand Palais des Expositions, bandita dall’OTUA
Prouvé, specializzati nella lavorazione della a cavallo fra il 1933 e il 1934, che trova
lamiera piegata, d’acciaio e alluminio, e con formulazione la visione più eclatante e
l’ingegnere civile e aeronautico Vladimir spettacolare elaborata in carriera dai due
Bodiansky, inducono i due progettisti non solo a architetti parigini. In vista dell’imminente
perlustrare il terreno dell’industrialisation fermée, Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques
della prefabbricazione chiusa di sofisticati dans la Vie Moderne del 1937, infatti, il concorso
organismi composti da elementi interamente vaglia l’opportunità di dotare la capitale di un
coordinati –per esempio nel piccolo prototipo di nuovo palazzo delle esposizioni polivalente,
casa “smontabile” per il weekend B.L.P.S. (1937– capace di accogliere le enormi folle veicolate dalle
38) presentato all’Exposition de l’Habitation nel moderne reti di trasporto di massa e restituire al

62 Robert Maillart: Massa o qualità? Mass or quality? Masse oder Qualität? c asa be l l a 901 63
9 13

9–12 13, 14
veduta d’insieme e particolari
Paese il primato di una costruzione simbolo del indeformabile della cintura, esclusivamente l’esterno e la sala di proiezione
dei percorsi pensili e delle aule progresso tecnico come ai tempi della Tour Eiffel. compressa, le permette di sopportare sforzi al primo piano della Maison
apribili dell’École de plein air La richiesta è di una sala colossale di 120.000 notevoli, evitando la necessità di contrappesi du Peuple di Clichy, 1935–39
di Suresnes, 1931–35 the exterior and screening
overall view and details of the mq, a copertura piana e pianta quadrilatera, priva e riducendo ai minimi termini la freccia room on the first floor of the
roof paths and opening di sostegni interni e con una campata minima di d’inflessione delle funi. L’utilizzo di archi al posto Maison du Peuple of Clichy,
classrooms of the Ecole de plein 1935–39
air of Suresnes, 1931–35 250 m lineari. Le ipotesi di localizzazione sono di pilastri per reggere la copertura comporta il 15
10 demandate ai concorrenti. Alla gara sono ammessi vantaggio di concentrare gli appoggi a terra in soli prospettiva del progetto di
concorso OTUA per un Hangar
dodici raggruppamenti di progettisti e imprese. quattro punti, liberando da impedimenti il recinto per aeroplani ad appoggio
Beaudouin e Lods partecipano coadiuvati da cilindrico che può pertanto essere aperto, centrale unico, 1933 14
perspective of the project
Vladimir Bodiansky e Désiré Douniaux, ingegnere mediante pareti scorrevoli a tutt’altezza, per metà in the competition held by
dello stabilimento di costruzioni metalliche dei del suo sviluppo, sui lati est e ovest, convertendo OTUA for an aircraft hangar
with a single central support,
Frères Paindavoine. La proposta che presentano di fatto l’edificio in una piazza coperta facilmente 1933
è senza dubbio, fra tutte, la più originale e accessibile e rapidamente evacuabile da
memorabile, l’unica, forse, come rileva Georges- moltitudini di persone. Un doppio traliccio di
Henri Pingusson commentando gli esiti della gara forcelle al di sopra degli archi fornisce sostegni
sulle pagine di «Chantiers» (supplemento tecnico cadenzati alla trave torica di bordo, mettendola
de «L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui»), nel giugno 1934, in grado di conservare un profilo sufficientemente
che non si limita a «trasporre forme conosciute, sottile ed elegante. Esso ospita, inoltre, nel suo
anche moderne, in dimensioni di un altro ordine spessore, rampe che consentono alle automobili
11 di grandezza», ma con coraggio e spregiudicatezza di raggiungere la pista panoramica ricavata al
individua una risposta nuova e convincente poiché colmo della cornice e, al pubblico, di distribuirsi
conforme alla scala inedita del problema. Scartate coreograficamente, come un vero e proprio
molteplici alternative, la soluzione che permette di rivestimento vivente, sugli otto ordini di ballatoi
“quadrare il cerchio”, conciliando ragioni statiche, metallici che irrigidiscono i telai dei grandi
funzionali ed espressive, si basa, paradossalmente, serramenti mobili.
sull’adozione di una geometria circolare che Tralasciando i dettagli, il disegno del nuovo
contraddice lo schema planimetrico Grand Palais des Expositions si risolve, in
quadrangolare prescritto dal bando e costa agli definitiva, in un puro volume di acciaio e vetro,
autori la squalifica del progetto, da parte della nudo e astratto nell’immagine, diafano nella
giuria, in sede di valutazione. La forma circolare consistenza a dispetto delle misure, il cui 15

permette di trasformare l’immensa copertura in carattere architettonico, come si legge nella


12
un leggero velario di vetro, funzionante a trazione relazione tecnica di accompagnamento, risiede
anziché a compressione. La struttura, simile anzitutto nella «sincerità dell’espressione
a un’enorme ruota di bicicletta coricata in piano, costruttiva». Un aspetto interessante a margine
si compone di una corona d’acciaio di 400 m della vicenda è tuttavia rappresentato dal fatto
di diametro sollevata a 51 m da terra per mezzo che, come si è detto, questo concorso costituisce
di quattro archi ellittici divergenti al vertice e uno dei rari episodi, nel percorso di ricerca svolto
concorrenti all’imposta. La corona scatolare prima della guerra da Beaudouin e Lods intorno
sostiene una raggiera pressoché orizzontale di cavi alla costruzione metallica, in cui la questione
d’acciaio in tensione, raccordati al centro da un della forma si pone esplicitamente come punto
anello metallico di 15 m di diametro sormontato di partenza del processo progettuale. E ciò è
da una calotta ribassata in mattoni di inevitabile, secondo i due autori, quando l’opera
vetrocemento. Il tetto si comporta come una sorta supera una certa soglia dimensionale: «Poiché,
di cupola rovesciata, sollecitata da forze centripete nelle grandi dimensioni –essi scrivono– a contare
lungo il perimetro. La configurazione garantisce non è più soltanto il modo di utilizzare il
un perfetto bilanciamento dei carichi e il carattere materiale, ma soprattutto la scelta della forma».

64 Robert Maillart: Massa o qualità? Mass or quality? Masse oder Qualität? c asa be l l a 901 65
17

Grand Palais des Expositions,


Parigi, Francia, 1933–34
16
tavola di inquadramento urbano
del progetto, strategicamente
16 collocato sull’Esplanade de la
Défense, tra aeroporti e nuove

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infrastrutture di trasporto,
quale testa di ponte di una
futura espansione di Parigi
Progetto di concorso per un nuovo verso ovest, al termine della
Grand Palais des Expositions, celebre prospettiva che dal
Parigi, Francia, 1933–34 Louvre interseca la Concorde
e Place de l’Étoile
scheda del progetto urban contextualization
progetto of the project, strategically
Beaudouin et Lods Architectes located on the Esplanade de
progettisti la Défense, between airports
Eugène Beaudouin, Marcel and new transport
Lods infrastructures, as the
strutture e impianti bridgehead of the future
Désiré Douniaux, Vladimir expansion of Paris to the
Bodiansky west, at the end of the
impresa famous perspective that from
Établissements Paindavoine the Louvre intersects La
Frères Concorde and Place de
l’Etoile
committente
17
Office Technique pour
prospettiva a volo d’uccello
l’Utilisation de l’Acier
bird’s-eye perspective
cronologia 18
1933–34: progetto vista del modello con gli archi
dati dimensionali ellittici che sostengono la
120.000 mq superficie coperta cintura esterna superiore
totale view of the model with the
localizzazione elliptical arches supporting
Place de la Défense, Parigi, the upper external ring
Francia

fotografie
Henri Lacheroy, René Picard

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18

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66 Robert Maillart: Massa o qualità? Mass or quality? Masse oder Qualität? c asa be l l a 901 67
19

22

19
facciata sud
southern facade
20
facciata est
eastern facade
21
vista della maquette
view of the model
22
spaccato assonometrico
axonometric cutaway
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23

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20 pianta delle fondazioni a livello
-17 m, riportante la proiezione
del livello -5 m con il teatro
sotterraneo centrale da 6000
posti e le sue due gallerie di
accesso
plan of the foundations at
level -17 m, showing the
projection of level -5 m with
the central underground
theater for 6000 seats and the
two access tunnels
24
pianta ai livelli 0 e +4 m
plans at levels 0 and +4 m

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21

23 24

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68 Robert Maillart: Massa o qualità? Mass or quality? Masse oder Qualität? c asa be l l a 901 69
25

Le alternative
strutturali Schematizzate nei disegni riprodotti in
questa pagina –già pubblicati su «La
lunghezza dell’arco.
5 Stessi svantaggi dei sistemi parassiti.
Marco Biagi construction moderne», n. 3, del 1934– Riduzione del peso del sistema principale
la soluzione strutturale prescelta e quelle e migliore utilizzo del metallo. Gli sforzi
invece studiate e infine scartate da si dirigono verso gli appoggi, con
Beaudouin, Lods e Bodiansky per il conseguente riduzione dei pesi e
progetto del nuovo Grand Palais des possibilità di luci maggiori. Aumento del
Expositions presentato al concorso volume dei supporti e tensione dei cavi da
bandito dall’OTUA nel 1933. Le linee assorbire attraverso contrappesi esterni.
continue rappresentano le travi maestre, 6 Schema poligonale. Le travi maestre
quelle tratteggiate le travi secondarie. si appoggiano l’una sull’altra. Riduzione
1 Travatura rettilinea su pianta significativa del peso proprio, le travi

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rettangolare. Grande incidenza del peso sono più leggere verso il centro del
proprio rispetto al sovraccarico. La portata poligono e la luce libera dei sistemi
delle travi determinata dalle prescrizioni parassiti decresce parallelamente
del programma è vicina al limite di anch’essa. Il peso proprio della
utilizzo; l’equilibrio è difficilmente costruzione è ripartito sugli appoggi
raggiungibile. Aumentando il numero come nel caso 5.
delle travi maestre si ottengono elementi 7 Variante sullo schema poligonale.
lunghi, di piccola sezione, soggetti Le travi sono sostituite da archi sollecitati
a flessione, che comportano perciò a compressione. Le estremità degli archi
una cattiva utilizzazione del metallo. sono raccordate da una cintura
1 2
Il peso cresce rapidamente, gli sforzi perimetrale che lavora a trazione. Il peso
tendono a convergere al centro della trave. proprio della costruzione è scaricato sugli
2 Gli stessi svantaggi del primo caso. appoggi più che nel sesto caso. Vi è
Gli sforzi convergono ancora al centro l’inconveniente del sistema parassita
della trave. Il movimento è però meno secondario; l’instabilità a flessione degli
rapido rispetto al primo caso, con una elementi non permette di moltiplicare
3 4
certa riduzione dei pesi. gli archi.
3 Griglia nervata. Possibile riduzione dei 8 Cupola rovescia, velario a pianta
sistemi parassiti; campionatura più circolare su cavi in tensione. La
25, 26
piccola delle travi maestre. Apparizione distribuzione degli sforzi è stabile. 26
viste del modello dall’alto,
di elementi sottili soggetti a flessione. Gli altri pesi sono scaricati sul piano sul particolare del velario
L’aumento dell’interasse fra le travi di appoggio. Una corona esterna bilancia plissettato di vetro, sospeso tra
cavi d’acciaio ad alta resistenza
comporta un incremento del sistema per compressione la somma delle di 74.400 mmq di sezione,
6 parassita. Circolo vizioso. Il volume sollecitazioni di trazione trasmesse disposti a raggiera lungo l’anello
5
perimetrale a intervalli di 18 m
complessivo degli sforzi tende sempre dai cavi e consente la rimozione dei l’uno dall’altro
a dirigersi verso il centro. contrappesi di ancoraggio esterni. view of the model from
above, showing the pleated
4 Stesse caratteristiche del caso 2; in La portata del sistema parassita è ridotta glass curtain suspended
aggiunta occorre osservare la spinta degli al minimo (semplice vetratura). between high-strength steel
cables with a section of
archi. L’importanza del sistema parassita La moltiplicazione dei cavi assicura una 74,400 mm2, arranged like
non può essere contrastata se non ripartizione uniforme degli sforzi di spokes along the perimeter
ring at intervals of 18 m
7 8
attraverso la moltiplicazione degli archi, compressione lungo l’anello esterno.
il che riporta al caso 2. La distribuzione La compressione è assorbita dall’ampia
degli sforzi è stabile, il peso proprio può sezione dell’anello esterno, poco soggetto
essere ripartito uniformemente sulla a flessione.

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70 Robert Maillart: Massa o qualità? Mass or quality? Masse oder Qualität? c asa be l l a 901 71
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27

27, 28
viste del modello con il sistema
delle rampe perimetrali che
permettono alle automobili di
raggiungere la pista circolare
predisposta in copertura
views of the model with the
system of perimeter ramps
permitting automobiles to
reach the circular track on
the roof
29, 30, 31
pianta, facciata e prospettiva
del progetto di Paul Tournon
e Marcel Chappey, vincitore
del primo premio al concorso
plan, facade and perspective
of the project by Paul
Tournon and Marcel
Chappey, winner of first prize
in the competition
32
il modello nello studio degli
architetti
the model in the architects’
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studio
28

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29 30

31

72 Robert Maillart: Massa o qualità? Mass or quality? Masse oder Qualität? c asa be l l a 901 73
page 20 1936. And it seems significant that joined together in the upper part by that of Albini. The parallels between formed a rigid structure, together be burned they force is to bury them of the structure and the roofing on which three other small pieces are cellulose, chitin or collagen, and a
Veliero: Franco Albini’s celibate Carla, the other sister, was involved in two cables, also pulled by tensioners: the two works are striking: even if with the other two: a strong triangle as a final solution: this is the case of technique. The ground seam usually placed to permit the deviation, in an matrix material that supports them
machine the world of the arts, being an the upper one functions as a catenary, Albini was not aware of Le Grand Verre that would stand up to the stresses of composite materials. This is why solves a problem of geometry and organized way, of the outflow of and maintains their relative position.
Roberto Dulio illustrator herself. while the lower one is attached to the by Duchamp, the conceptual conver- the bookcase. But it was probably composites –carbon, Kevlar and other transmission of weights and tensions rainwater on the upper surface of the The astounding performance and
Therefore certain choices of central framework of the metal gence of the two lines of research Albini himself who discarded this fibers– are now among the worst in relation to the ground. The shape of pavilion, towards the three ground unrivalled resource efficiency of
The Veliero by Franco Albini came installation and furnishing presented tie-rods, arranged at a distance that would be surprising to say the least. solution, which would have weighed pollutants of our planet. As a result, the borders reveals their role as supports. biological structures stems from these
down with a crash, not driven onto the at the Milan Triennales can be traced would become variable, determined Two immaterial prisms in which the down and disfigured “his experiment many university research centers and load-bearing beams, generally display- The highly integrative process fibrous systems. Their organization,
cliffs of a rocky shoreline, but in the back to this subtle influence. Among by the reticular holes in the two glass, in different ways, supports the in suspension,” already before he private think tanks are conducting ing arched forms and illustrating the enables the design and engineering of directionality and density is finely
architect’s home in Milan. The them, we find the bed suspended at a wooden struts. Small wooden shelves suspension of elements –enigmatic called on Poggi. experimentation to invent ways of structural stress, in a sort of visualiza- 376 unique plate segments with 17 000 tuned and locally varied in order to
collapse was caused by the weight of dizzying height, and the shower in a are attached to the tie-rods, and objects for Duchamp, books for At the time, the idea of putting the treating and transforming these tion of the moment diagram. The different finger joints in response to ensure that material is only placed
books on the glass shelves sustained glass cylinder of the “Room for a Man” extend crosswise on the width of the Albini– that are artificially suspended Veliero into production remained a materials at the end of their life cycle. lightness of the structure and the multi- faceted design criteria, from where it is needed.
by ties, which formed the slender, at the 6th Triennale (1936); the glass base. On these shelves, stabilized by in the space of an almost traditional mere hypothesis, blocked by the Many of these projects call for the thinness of the roof surface reduce the scale of the overall structure down The pavilion covers a floor area of
daring structure of the futuristic radio (1938); the Mitragliera lamp pairs of ulterior inclined tie-rods, bourgeois parlor. The collapse caused difficulty of making such a precarious structure that transforms composite the distance between interior and to sub-millimeter details. Without any around 400 square meters and
bookcase. (1938–40); the meadow of daisies made of brass, the shelving is placed by the breaking of the glass also construction system stable. It was materials to be easy to transport, exterior, natural and artificial to a loss of precision, this multi-scale achieves a free span of more than 23
The works of Franco Albini in the under a glass floor, the paraboloid in “fervetro,” i.e. tempered glass, suggests the kinship between the two only after Albini’s death, at the time of permitting further reduction of minimum, directing the architectural approach allows addressing architec- meters. It is enclosed by fully trans-
1930s and 1940s –installations and aviary and the cableway seats sus- which leaves the central part in which experimental works. the exhibition in Milan at Rotonda energy expenditure in the environ- research towards something more tural and structural considerations parent, mechanically pre-stressed
furnishings, more than works of pended in the “Living Room in a Villa” the vertical ties pass unencumbered. An initial reworking of the Veliero della Besana Franco Albini. Architettu- ment. The transformation of compos- sustainable for the environment, in a concurrently. Despite the pioneering ETFE membrane. The primary load
architecture, or namely what we would at the 7th Triennale (1940). A complex, unstable system, not so –we don’t know if it was prior to or ra e design 1930-1970 (1979), and then ite materials is addressed in two greater proximity between man and character of the project, and despite bearing structure is made from 60
call “design” today, though at the time In particular, the use of glass, the much due to the slimness of the after the spectacular shipwreck– must in the exhibition at the Castello projects developed by two university nature. an incredible short development time bespoke fiber composite components
it was part of a more substantial field leaning towards a technical imaginary structure –in any case reinforced with have taken place before 1948. This is Visconteo of Pavia Poggi. Design per departments in Stuttgart that have of only 13 months from commission only. With 7.6 kilograms per square
of action of architects– are frequently and at the same time the decontextu- respect to the initial, smaller version the date of the famous photographic un’industria (1986), that Roberto been working on the theme of light * Sigfried Giedion, The Eternal to the opening, the integrative meter it is exceptionally lightweight,
cited as examples of a rigorous alization of common objects, screened (13 days earlier!), with just four portrait of the architect made by Poggi, with the help of his son Carlo, a structures for years: the Institute for Present: The Beginnings of Architecture computational process allows for the approximately five times lighter than a
functionalism or a strict observance or suspended through transparent shrouds and the base reduced to two Irving Penn, which would be pub- structural engineer, was able to Computational Design and Construc- (1957). careful design of each building more conventional steel structure.
of rationalism. These are vague crystals, seem to establish a surpris- crossed parts– as to the precarious lished the following year, together reconstruct the Veliero, leaving it tion (ICD) and the lnstitute of Build- element in minute detail. For this, a Elaborate testing procedures required
definitions, never fully clear and thus ing parallel with a famous work by character of the static behavior and with those of other Italian designers, without books and stiffening the base ing Structures e Structural Design novel, transportable, 14-axes robotic for full approval showed that a single
interchangeable. These works by Marcel Duchamp: La mariée mise à nu vertical balancing. When the book- in the American edition of «Vogue», with iron beams placed below it. This (ITKE). page 49 timber-manufacturing platform was fibrous component can take up to 250
Albini, to a superficial glance, would par ses célibataires, même (1915–23), case is empty, in fact, the upper cables accompanied by a text by Ernesto latter device has also been used for Both pavilions are located in the BUGA Wood Pavilion developed by ICD University of kilo newton of compression force,
seem to jibe perfectly with the better known as Le Grand Verre. A are put under tension determined Nathan Rogers. Next to the portrait of the recent reissue of the bookcase undulated landscape of the park of from the project description Stuttgart and BEC GmbH, and located which equals around 25 tons or the
rhetorical definition of those dubious celibate machine to the extent that the mainly by the lateral shrouds. But Albini there is also a photograph of (2011), which remains stable only the Bundesgartenschau in Heilbronn, at the industrial partner Mueller weight of more than 15 cars.
critical categories. But their nature, two parts that sublimated the male when the books are inserted, their the Veliero, defined in the caption as under a modest load (150 kg). in the Baden-Württemberg region. Its segmented wood shell is based on Blaustein Holzbauwerke GmbH for The pavilion is made from more
and their very origin, beyond the and female universes through weight on the shelves pulls on the “his experiment in suspension – a Today the Veliero, after the latest If it is true, as Sigfried Giedion* biological principles found in the production. The platform includes than 150.000 meters of spatially
useful purpose, are extraneous to complex symbolism could not come lowered upper cable, and tends to crystal and wire bookcase, handsome shipwreck, proudly displays its broken states, that architecture “is the plate skeleton of sea urchins, which two high-payload industrial robots arranged glass and carbon fibers.
mere functionality and to any act of into contact, separated by the two bring the posts closer together, as a great bridge.” In the image, with tie-rods. In any case, this object draws construction of interior space through have been studied by the Institute for mounted on a 20-foot standard They all need to be individually
rationalist faith, since they find their different panels of the same work. without encountering resistance to respect to the photographs published on an imaginary universe, indicated structure,” in these two cases precise- Computational Design and Construc- container base. The flexibility of designed and placed, which is very
inspiration in an imaginary oriented Le Grand Verre was shown at the the compression. The increasing in Domus in 1941, we can see that the starting with the name with which it ly the structural aspect is the protago- tion (ICD) and the Institute for industrial robots allows the integra- hard to achieve with a typical linear
by other perspectives. Brooklyn Museum in New York in proximity of the two struts can only be wooden base of the bookcase seems to became famous, that brings together nist with two very different materials Building Structures and Structural tion of all pre-fabrication steps of the workflow and established production

en glish Albini’s apprenticeship in the


studio of Gio Ponti is often reduced to
1926 and 1927, and published in issue
6 of Minotaure (1935) to illustrate an
countered by the lateral shrouds,
which however wind up forcefully
be raised off the ground to permit the
insertion of a sturdy structure,
the most refined technical aspects of
airplanes and ships; the desire for a
that share in the will to reduce the
structural component to the essential.
Design (ITKE) at the University of
Stuttgart for almost a decade.
pavilion’s segments within one
compact manufacturing unit.
technologies. Thus, it requires a novel
co-design approach, where architec-

text s a Novecento interval that comes prior


to the birth of the unbendingly
avant-garde architect. But instead of
article by André Breton on Duchamp,
after which the Museum of Modern
Art of New York presented the
stressing the base, on the four corners
where they are attached. Another
point of great stress on the base –com-
probably in metal, that would stiffen
the base against the stress generated
by the hinge for the attachment of the
lightness that defies the laws of
gravity and any functional or techni-
cal logic; the adventure of sailing on
The research conducted by the two
institutes moves in two different
directions of investigation: the use of
As part of the project, a robotic
manufacturing platform was devel-
oped for the automated assembly and
During production, each bespoke
shell segment is robotically assem-
bled. This entails the placement of
tural design, structural engineering
and robotic fabrication are developed
in continuous computational feed-
seeking formal –and undoubtedly exhibition Fantastic Art, Dada, pression, in this case– is located in the struts and the tensioners of the the sea; the reversal between symbolic a natural and traditional material like milling of the pavilion’s 376 bespoke preformatted timber plates and back. In this way, the fiber arrange-
unripe– echoes of that initial phase, it Surrealism (1937–38). It is probable central point of attachment of the shrouds. In the same photograph we form and legitimized meaning of the wood, and the use of glass and carbon hollow wood segments. This fabrica- beams, their temporary fixation with ment, density and orientation of each
seems worthwhile to reflect on the that Albini saw the article by Breton in hinge of the two struts. These can also observe that the vertical tie Surrealist aesthetic. A dream that had fibers. It is therefore interesting to tion process ensures that all segments beech nails, and the controlled building component can be individu-
conception of design Ponti developed Minotaure –the magazine was easily different and opposing stresses tend rods of the shelves are simultaneously to remain suspended on the air and observe the two projects side by side, fit together with sub-millimeter application for the structural glue ally calibrated, structurally tuned and
in his Milanese workshop, based on available in Ponti’s library, and to make the base flex markedly. To attached, in a clearly inconsistent on the waves, without being useful, precisely to understand their differ- precision like a big, three-dimension- joint between plate and beam. In a architecturally articulated, while
an incessant and renewed dialogue of perhaps in that of «Casabella» or of counter this, the base itself was manner, both to the upper catenary except as a way of feeding the imagi- ences, in terms of design and imple- al puzzle. The stunning wooden roof second step, the intricate finger-joints remaining directly producible.
architecture with the other arts, and the sisters Maria and Carla– and that thickened in the section at the center, and to the lower cable. This second nation. mentation of the structures, but also spans 30 meters over one of BUGA’s and openings are machined into the The building components are
of the architect with artists. unusual use of glass might have like a very flattened pyramid. Clearly detail can also be seen in another atmospheric and spatial construction. main event and concert venues, using segments with 300 μm accuracy. From produced by robotic, coreless filament
Also Edoardo Persico, beyond the attracted his prehensile eye. The fact these measures did not suffice to portrait of Albini, shortly thereafter, It is clear that in both cases the use of a minimum amount of material while the assembly of beams and plates, to winding, a novel additive manufactur-
mythopoeia that clings to his relation- remains that the definition of a prevent the collapse of the bookcase, this time made by Mario De Biasi, who page 46 the computer becomes central: its also generating a unique architectural multi-tool machining and sensorial ing approach pioneered and devel-
ship with Albini, was substantially celibate machine perfectly fits his which in the photographs of the time, photographed the architect across the Experimentation and research capacity to calculate and to extend space. process- and image based quality oped at the University of Stuttgart.
poised between art and architecture, Veliero bookcase (1938), so disastrous- in any case, is always shown with only shelves of the Veliero. on light structures: two possible that potential in the numerical To achieve this goal, the pavilion control – everything happens in a fully Fibrous filaments are freely placed
those with a background that was ly unsuitable for the storage of books. moderate loads on the shelves. Only later did Franco Albini hand interpretations control of machinery becomes the builds on the biomimetic principle of automated workflow, controlled by 2 between two rotating winding
utterly heterodox with respect to those Impressed by the ribs, longerons, In Duchamp’s celibate machine the over the parts of the bookcase to the Massimo Curzi most important factor, exploiting the using “less material” by having “more million custom lines of robotic code scaffolds by a robot. During this
spheres themselves. Much has been struts and tie-rods of airplanes – a female part could not join with the most expert producer of his furniture, speed of calculation and the precision form”, both on the level of the overall that were directly exported from the process, the predefined shape of the
written about the figure of the knowledge and interest borne out by male part; in Albini’s Veliero the static Roberto Poggi, hypothesizing a Architecture has always spoken of the in controlling details that would shell and its individual segments. In computational design framework. On building component emerges only
Neapolitan critic: whatever the true the photographs conserved by the model of the bookcase without books revision of the project, perhaps in historical period in which it was otherwise be impossible to produce. order to minimize material consump- average, the assembly time per from the interaction of the filaments,
depth of his personality, his ability to architect himself, probably for the could not coincide with that of the order to put it into production, as had made, condensing its thought, the In this pursuit of efficiency of tion and weight, each wood segment is segment is 8 minutes, with the high eliminating the need for any mold or
stimulate the imagination of artists installation of the Hall of Aerodynam- bookcase loaded with books. Precisely already happened for other “unstable” ability to obtain and work with form, the computer can optimize the built up from two thin plates that precision milling taking another core. This allows for bespoke form
and architects remains unchallenged. ics in the Mostra dell’Aeronautica this factor –far more plausible than pieces by Albini, including the rocking materials, to calculate structures and use of materials, combining the plank a ring of edge-beams on top and 20-40 minutes. and individual fiber layup for each
And, like Ponti, he urged them to heed italiana at the Palazzo dell’Arte in the legendary high-pitched sound said chair that appeared in the 1930s to take a position on themes being calculation of stresses and deforma- bottom, forming large-scale hollow component without any economic
the suggestions of the artists. Milan (1934), while the immediately to have broken the glass and caused among the architect’s experimental debated in the society in that mo- tions with the densification of the wooden cases with polygonal forms. disadvantage. In addition, there is no
It is not too farfetched to think prior years were those of a relation- the collapse– can be evoked to justify furnishings, and was produced by the ment. material. While in the wooden The bottom plate includes a large page 55 production waste or material off-cuts.
that Albini fed on the artistic research ship of clientele (1931–33) with the the spectacular débâcle of the striking workshop in Pavia starting in 1959. In One of the biggest problems of our pavilion this solution gives rise to a opening, which constitutes a distinc- BUGA Fiber Pavilion During manufacturing, a lattice of
of his time, also in less conventional famous pilot Arturo Ferrarin – Albini aerial structure deployed as a book- Poggi’s workshop, where the Veliero planet today is the recycling of change of geometries and dimension- tive architectural feature and provides from the project description translucent glass fibers is generated,
expressions and in directions abso- configured a daring device, a sort of case. was stored until 2010, two struts have materials, granting them a new life ing of the parts, in the fiber pavilion, access to the hidden connections onto which the black carbon fibers are
lutely independent with respect to hymn in praise of “suspension” The Veliero appears in issue 163 of recently been rediscovered. One of that makes it possible to reduce the as in an ulterior shift of scale, there is during assembly. The lightweight The pavilion demonstrates how placed where they are structural
those of his mentors. Given his verbal through chains and stays, which Domus in July 1941, also on its cover. them has the same length as the quantities of energy used and to the addition of the control of the building elements are connected by combining cutting-edge computation- needed.
reticence, we do not know what his probably also reflects the images of In the Milanese living room of the originals (about 270 centimeters), and postpone the moment of their final position of the filaments to the finger joints, which follow the al technologies with constructional Each component takes between
references were, but in some of his the utopias of Soviet Constructivism, apartment of Albini, on Via De Togni, was probably made by Poggi himself elimination. The ability to give every millimeter, optimizing the form even morphological principles of anatomic principles found in nature enables the four to six hours to make from around
more experimental works we can especially that of Ivan Leonidov. It was the bookcase displayed its enigmatic to test the possible workmanship of material as many “life cycles” as further to its structural efficiency. The features found on the edge of sea development of truly novel and 1000 meters of glass fiber and 1600
clearly see the surfacing of a underly- Franca Helg, after World War II, who and unstable balance. In a photo- the piece. The other is shorter, with a possible becomes a priority. While for fascination with light structures has a urchins’ plates. In the assembled genuinely digital building system. The meters of carbon fiber on average.
ing Surrealist temptation. After all, gave the bookcase the Veliero name graph probably taken between 1927 length that corresponds exactly to the many materials like aluminium, deeply rooted tradition in Germany, state, the shell works as a form-active pavilion’s load-bearing structure is
the magazine Minotaure (1933–39), (meaning “sailboat”), making the and 1933, almost definitely unknown upper distance between the two struts paper and glass recycling seems and in Stuttgart in particular, where structure through its expressive robotically produced from advanced
which was to represent an incisive nautical aspect prevail – that of to Albini, we see Le Grand Verre in the of the bookcase (about 200 centime- feasible with a minimum expenditure the presence of Frei Otto triggered a doubly curved geometry. fiber composites only. This globally page 60
channel of the spread of that move- shrouds and masts, which were also apartment of the American collectors ters), and was plausibly made in the of energy and minimum environmen- radical change in the architectural The composition becomes unique structure is not only highly The consequences of form
ment, did circulate in Italy. Well part of Albini’s imaginary. Louise and Walter Arensberg, with the 1950s by the same craftsmen –un- tal impact, for many other materials approach from the postwar period on. statically stable only when it has been effective and exceptionally light- Marco Biagi
known to Ponti himself, as well as to Two reticular struts in ash wood glass broken after shipping following known thus far– who made the Veliero. the energy required becomes more of For this type of architecture, where completely assembled. The void inside weight, but it also provides a distinc-
Carlo Mollino, it spread in the context with brass tips, splayed and hinged to the closing of the exhibition at the The hinge attachments at the extremi- an issue. Furthermore, if some the method of assembly of the parts each element can be exploited, in the tive yet authentic architectural «Enfin, le cercle étant le plus simple
of an essentially French-speaking a base, also in ash, are held taut by Brooklyn Museum. Set in a domestic ties of the bronze tips of this third materials at the end of their life can becomes the most characterizing lower part, to position a refined LED expression and an extraordinary des lieux géométriques, doit égale-
cosmopolitanism. An indisputable four metal tie-rods –the shrouds– on space, with books in the background strut also perfectly accommodate the be burned, polluting the environment detail of the spatial continuum, the lighting system, while at the same spatial experience. ment fournir des solutions construc-
go-between for Albini with French each side, arranged in pairs and seen through the transparency of the blade visibly added to the two upper but providing us with useful energy, points of greatest impact and concen- time the upper part of each element is In biology most load-bearing tives extrêmement élégantes, donc
literary and artistic culture was his anchored to the base by tensioning work, a resemblance surfaces between tips of the splayed struts. The third for others this passage becomes tration of architectural details are the closed and sealed thanks to a plywood structures are fiber composites. They légères, par conséquent économiques
sister Maria, who moved to Paris in mechanisms. The two struts are the celibate machine of Duchamp and strut, replacing the cables, would have impossible, because since they cannot ground seam, the shape of the borders panel glued directly to the framework are made from fibers, as for example (car dans les grandes dimensions ce

102 e n g l ish t e x t s c asa be l l a 901 103


n’est plus seulement la façon d’utiliser excellent proving ground for Beau- tion assessed the possibility of giving of visitors. A double set of forks above Same characteristics as case 2; seems, part of the defences of Lisbon, modernization of services, which the elevators spanning the level shift (with opaque glass) in the studio, low reconstruction called for extensive use
la matière, mais surtout le choix de la douin and Lods, in which to begin to the capital a new multifunctional the arches provides cadenced support furthermore, we have to observe the with its thick walls, its battlements difficult topography and lack of between Rua dos Fanqueiros and Rua in the bedrooms to widen the view of wood in the structures and floors,
forme qui importe).» tackle the issues and the discipline of convention center capable of welcom- for the circular border beam, enabling thrust of the arches. The importance and its towers. There did kings dwell; resources had made obsolete. Anyone da Madalena, from which the ascent and to provide an unexpected with the aim of making them more
(E. Beaudouin and M. Lods, descrip- industrialisation ouverte, of standard- ing the enormous crowds conveyed by it to conserve a sufficiently slim and of the parasitic system cannot be and it was the scene of many a who has at least once roamed the continues using the elevator of the perspective of the street. Reaching the flexible. Following this criterion,
tion of project for the OTUA competi- ized construction for serial compo- the modern mass transport network, elegant profile. The beam also countered except by multiplication of remarkable event in the political countless flights of steps and ramps former Mercado do Chão do Loureiro fifth level, the space suddenly and Favila Menezes has reconstituted the
tion for a Nouveau Grand Palais des nents produced in a factory and then and of putting the country back at the contains the ramps that allow the arches, which brings us back to history of Portugal. Nowadays, though that wind along the slopes of the (José de Lima Franco, 1951), which surprisingly expands, reaching the internal spaces and concealed a new
Expositions, Paris 1934) assembled, discovered thanks to a forefront with a construction that automobiles to reach the panoramic case 2. The distribution of the stresses surrounded and choked by a great castle hill will still remember the level reaches the intersection of Rua Costa level of the surrounding rooftops, to stairway offering access to the three
decisive encounter with the engineer- would be a symbol of technical track created at the top of the cornice, is stable; the weight can be uniformly number of houses, full of barracks, shifts of the urbanized strips, and the do Castelo and Calçada do Marquês de look towards a dual horizon: that of levels. Stone was used traditionally to
Known and admired both in France developer Eugène Mopin. Drancy, in progress, as in the days of the Tour permitting the public to be choreo- spread along the length of the arch. modified, spoilt and mutilated by effort it takes to reach the top of the Tancos. Treating the castle hill as an the city and that of the hill. Observing equip kitchens with worktops and
and on an international level, but still particular, with its impressive array of Eiffel. graphically arranged like a true living Same disadvantages as the earthquakes and misuse, it is still buildings that are often without independent subject, but also as a the longitudinal sections we can see sinks, or to make custom articles for
seldom studied and appreciated, the parallel linear volumes alternating The request was for a colossal hall cladding on the eight orders of metal parasitic systems. Reduction of weight worth seeing for what it once was. The elevators. These interventions as a hinge capable of connecting different that the house, whose summit is the bathrooms. An external staircase
professional partnership of Eugène with 16-story towers with a steel of 120,000 m2, with a flat roof and a balconies that stiffen the frames of of the main system and better use of view from the castle is marvellous.» whole, done over the span of 15 years, urban zones, has improved ease of detached from the streetfront, leads to the level of the patio at the
Beaudouin (1898–1983) and Marcel skeleton clad in vibrated concrete pan- quadrilateral plan, free of internal the large mobile casements. Overlook- the metal. The stresses are directed Fernando Pessoa, Lisbon: What the have objectively improved the life of use, demonstrating that the residen- attempts to establish a relationship entrance door of the house of the
Lods (1891–1978) produced significant els, was an unrivaled model, at the supports and with a minimum span of ing the details, the design of the new towards the imposts, with subsequent Tourist Should See the residents, although in tune with tial zone could be drawn out of the with the landscape, but also offers clients, whose service spaces are
technical innovations in the 1930s in time, of rationalization of construc- 250 linear meters. The hypotheses of Grand Palais des Expositions, in reduction of weights and the possibili- the attenuation of the economic crisis marginal status of its traditional reserved, perfectly domestic outdoor below, at the level of the garden. The
France in the field of metal construc- tion and the worksite, a remarkable location were left up to the competi- definitive terms, is a pure volume in ty of larger spans. Increase in the The hill of the castle of São Jorge does they have also favored a massive occupancy. In any case, it is clear that spaces. The living room necessarily recovery of the wooden carpentry of
tions and typological experimentation example and forerunner of the grands tors. Twelve groups of designers and steel and glass, bare and abstract in volume of the supports and tension of not represent only the geographical conversion of residences into tempo- the transformation of Lisbon into a faces in the direction of the Baixa and the roofs was long and meticulous,
on architecture, as well as works that ensembles of the postwar era. contractors were allowed to partici- its image, diaphanous in its consisten- cables to be absorbed through center of the Portuguese capital, but rary lodgings and second homes. popular tourist attraction, and not the river, while the kitchen faces a like the preparation of the stucco used
were authentic emblems of the ideals Later, the repeated collaborations pate. Beaudouin and Lods were joined cy in spite of its size, whose architec- external counter-weights. also the historical center, since its Already during the first “rediscovery” just a destination for the educated patio from which a flight of steep for the outer facades and the rooms of
of social progress that fed the “heroic” with Ateliers Jean Prouvé, specialized by Vladimir Bodiansky and Désiré tural character –as we can read in the Polygonal scheme. The main neighborhoods –Alfama, Castelo and of the Baixa Pombalina, whose rebirth traveler, raises new issues regarding steps crosses a terraced garden. the four apartments. It is clear that
period of the Modern Movement. in working with shaped sheet metal, Douniaux, an engineer of the metal accompanying technical report– lies beams rest one on the next. Signifi- Mouraria– are among those that best began with the reconstruction that be- the preservation of its historical Climbing up, one shortly arrives at the the timing and the criteria of interven-
Antithetical but complementary in steel and aluminium, and with the construction plant of the Brothers above all in the “honesty of the cant reduction of specific weight; the survived the catastrophic earthquake came indispensable after the great fire center, which looks more cared-for but foot of the castle walls, as the gaze tion applied by the owners and the
personalities, seven years apart in age, civil and aeronautical engineer Paindavoine. Their proposal is constructive expression.” An interest- beams are lighter towards the center of 1755. At the foot to the hill, a short of Chiado on 25 August 1988, the also quite lacking in authentic life. extends from the Mar da Palha to designers have nothing in common
the two met in 1922 at the École des Vladimir Bodiansky, prompted the undoubtedly the most original and ing aspect on the sidelines of the of the polygon and the open span of distance from the riverbank, stands focus of developers, and the most This is a dilemma that is impacting Ponte 25 Abril and beyond. The with the familiar approach to real
beaux-arts, in the atelier of Emmanuel two designers not only to explore the memorable of all, and the only one, story, however, is the fact that (as we the parasitic systems decreases the Sé Patriarcal; halfway up there is sensitive designers, concentrated on many big cities in southern Europe (in material quality of the building is of estate transformations also taken in
Pontremoli. They met up again one area of industrialisation fermée, the perhaps, as Georges-Henri Pingusson have seen) the composition represent- parallel to it. The weight of the the Roman Theater, and the castle is the environmental potential of the Italy we could cite Naples and Paler- the sort used increasingly often by Bak Lisbon, whose objective is the “stage”
year later, after Lods had graduated, to closed prefabrication of sophisticated points out in his commentary on the ed one of the rare episodes in the path construction is spread on the sup- at the top. These quick hints will hill, especially in its southwestern mo, but also Genoa, Bari or Catania), Gordon: floors in polished concrete, the typical architecture generated the
work in the studio of the paternal organisms composed of entirely results of the competition in Chantiers of research conducted prior to the war ports as in case 5. suffice to convey a sense of the portion with its fine view of the city and in this sense the policies imple- ceilings in fair-face concrete, semi- (often haphazard) conservation of the
uncle of Beaudouin, Albert, focusing coordinated parts –for example, in the (the technical supplement of by Beaudouin and Lods on metal Variation of the polygonal scheme. importance of the place, but it is and the river below. Starting from mented in Lisbon can be of help to built-in lighting (simple lamp sockets enclosure, with a complete replace-
on the design of low-cost housing small prototype of the “demountable” L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui) in June construction in which the question of The beams are replaced by arches above all through the view that we can these conditions, the meaning of our cope with an unavoidable and positions so that only a portion of the ment of the internal structures using
complexes in the suburbs of Paris: in weekend house B.L.P.S. (1937–38) 1934, that is not limited to “transpos- the form becomes the explicit starting under compressive stress. The appreciate its landscape value, even survey is double: to assess the state of complex phenomenon using the tools bulb remains visible). The spaces are conventional, stereotyped construc-
particular, in Vitry (1925), Versailles presented at the Exposition de ing familiar, also modern forms into point of the design process. And this extremities of the arches are connect- prior to that of its architecture. While advance of an important public of planning and design. completed by fixed furnishings and tion techniques. In this case, instead,
(1926), Gennevilliers (1926) and l’Habitation in 1939– but also and dimensions of another order of is inevitable, according to the two ed by a perimeter belt that works the present appearance of the castle of project of vertical access towards the casements in wood, made to measure, we can see how the enhancement of a
Romainville (1925–27). Starting in especially to investigate the option of magnitude,” but instead courageously authors, when the work goes beyond a under tension. The weight of the São Jorge is the result of restoration top of the hill, and to present two as are the handrails and parapets in place, an artifact and an asset cannot
Learning from the section. A single-
1925 they became partners of the head mechanized and transformable and open-mindedly identifies a new certain dimensional threshold: construction is discharged on the done in the modern era (in 1938, original residential projects, one coated steel tubing. A terse vocabulary be separated from knowledge of its
family house on Rua Costa do Castelo
of the studio, who retired three years architecture, whose variable arrange- and convincing response, suited to “because, in large dimensions –they supports more than in case 6. There is during the regime of António de created from scratch in an urban void, that has the aim of focusing all the culture of origin. A material culture
later, leaving behind consolidated ment functioned as a multiplier of the unusual scale of the problem. write– what counts is no longer simply the problem of the secondary parasitic Oliveira Salazar, otherwise known as and another based on restoration and As can be seen in the longitudinal attention on the space and the light, that is indispensable to guide design-
relations with public agencies such as efficiency and versatile performance After the discarding of multiple the way the material is utilized, but system; the flexion instability of the Estado Novo), with the intent of transformation of a historical sections, the building at the edge of avoiding useless affectations. ers through an aware process of
the HBM (Habitations à Bon Marché) of the constructed device. This alternatives, the solution that makes it above all the choice of the form.” members does not permit multiplica- returning it to its completeness and building. The makers of the projects Rua Costa do Castelo and aligned with selection and synthesis. These two
and the SALEFN (Société anonyme des happened through the layout, and the possible to “square the circle,” tion of the arches. monumental dignity, the three are two architects born in Lisbon, its frontage has a dual function: it is a meaningful architectural episodes,
logements économiques pour familles Reverse dome, circular-plan Time as palimpsest. A residential
invention of refined mechanisms of reconciling static, functional and neighborhoods that wind across the with deep ties to the history and private home and a vertical access inserted in a delicate context, repre-
nombreuses). For 15 years, until 1940, opening and movement of the facades expressive factors, is paradoxically page 70 curtain on tensioned cables. The slopes still conserve their original culture of the city: Ricardo Bak system from street level to the level of
building on Largo Santa Cruz do
Castelo
sent a concrete response to a recur-
the duo worked together, combining or the internal partitions of buildings, based on the use of a circular geome- The structural alternative distribution of stresses is stable. The morphology and street layout. The Gordon (b. 1967) and João Favila the castle walls. An extreme synthesis ring problem, demonstrating that
and exploiting their different talents as in the case of the elegant coulis- try that contradicts the quadrangular Marco Biagi other weights are discharged on the defense system of historic Lisbon Menezes (b. 1966). Favila, since 2009, of what has been implemented on an Behind a simple 19th-century facade, with sensitivity it is possible for
and interests: urban design and the santes glazed frames developed to layout scheme stipulated by the impost area. An external ring balanc- pivoted on the fortified circle of the is in charge of three projects emerging urban scale by the plans for recovery the construction renovated by João themes of regeneration and reuse –if
contextual dimension of architecture, open the volumes of the classrooms in guidelines. This caused the disqualifi- Schematically formulated in the es through compression the sum of castle from which the late Roman from the plan for the vertical access and enhancement of the paths along Favila Menezes conceals a typological authentically rooted– to offer archi-
for Beaudouin, who collaborate with the “hygienic-pedagogical” experi- cation of the project on the part of the drawings shown here –previously the tensile stresses transmitted by the (later Moorish) walls extended in the systems of the castle hill, with a the slopes of the hill. Resulting from a complexity that is the result of tects opportunities for expression and
Forestier on the plan for Havana ment of the Ecole de plein air of jury. The circular form, however, made published in La construction moderne, cables and permits removal of the direction of the river. Only two preliminary study co-authored by him long program of research and overlapping interventions, from the experimentation. For all too long, the
(1928) and with Prost on that of the Suresnes (1931–35), or by introducing it possible to transform the immense no. 3, 21 October 1934– we see the external anchoring counter-weights. centuries after the Reconquest (1147) a with João Simões, Pedro Domingos selection of a suitable lot, involving medieval period to the present. In this spheres of conservation and composi-
Paris region (1930–36); technological solutions of partial automation of the roof into a light curtain of glass, selected structural solution and those The reach of the parasitic system is second ring of walls (1373–75), known and Rui Mendes. The first route, necessary reinforcements and the sense, the presence of a large under- tion have been kept artificially
rationalization of construction and artifact, as in the futuristic bijou functioning by tension instead of studied and discarded by Beaudouin, reduced to a minimum (simple as Fernandina from the patronymic of already partially in use, is the “Percur- construction of proper foundations, ground cistern is emblematic, a vast separate, while instead it is time to
the worksite, for Lods, who actively mécanique of the Maison du Peuple in compression. The structure, like an Lods and Bodiansky for the design of glazing). The multiplication of the the ruler Dom Fernando I, enclosed a so da Mouraria,” a system of steps and the house designed by Ricardo Bak yet invisible spaces that makes the encourage and intensify the occasions
promoted mixed or complete prefabri- Clichy (1935–39): an indoor market in enormous bicycle wheel placed flat, is the new Grand Palais des Expositions cables ensures uniform sharing of the much larger area, extending all the escalators that will lead in two Gordon is comparable to a site-specif- history of the building and its of dialogue and collaboration, in an
cation in steel as the path to moderni- the morning, a community center in composed of a steel crown with a submitted to the competition organ- compressive stress along the outer way to the hill opposite and including segments from Praça Martim Moniz ic installation whose aim is to shed countless transformations even more idea of continuity of history.
zation of the construction sector, and the evening, inadvisably completed at diameter of 400 meters, raised 51 ized by OTUA in 1933. ring. The compression is absorbed by the valley in which the so-called Baixa to the level of Rua Costa do Castelo, light on the rules through which to enigmatic. The request of the clients,
above all a key means of reducing the the moment of the outbreak of war. meters off the ground by means of Rectilinear beams on a rectangu- the large section of the outer ring, Pombalina was built after the earth- continuing upward through the design a new type of inhabited space, who live in one portion, was to
costs of housing on the scale of the However, it was thanks to several four elliptical arches diverging at the lar plan. Large impact of own weight with very limited flex. quake. Remains of the Fernandina recovery of an existing walkway near exploiting the limitations implied by separate the construction on the
large developments for the working competitions, also in the 1930s, top and meeting at the impost. The with respect to overload. The reach of wall and some of its towers still stand the walls. The second, known as the topography of the site. Without a street from the more internal volume
class masses. organized by OTUA, Office Technique hollow crown supports a practically the beams determined by the specifi- in the urban fabric of contemporary “Percurso da Graça,” will connect the basement, the four above-ground located at the boundary with the walls
Across a span of little more than one pour l’Utilisation de l’Acier, that the horizontal array of spokes in ten- cations of the program is close to the page 76 Lisbon, as along the crest to the east Mouraria district with Miradouro da levels of the building form a vertical of the castle of São Jorge. This would
decade, the two young professionals reflections of Beaudouin and Lods on sioned steel cables, connected at the limit of use; equilibrium is hard to In Lisbon, on the castle hill of Rua do Alecrim (against which Graça, situated at a level slightly below sequence of spaces, the first of which make it possible to rent the perimeter
–composer and builder– raced metal construction took on a different center by a metal ring 15 meters in achieve. Increasing the number of Federico Tranfa Álvaro Siza Vieira designed one of the that of the castle of São Jorge. The is the portico with parking places, housing units, while making perma-
through a series of pioneering and breadth and a conceptual shift from diameter topped by a low cap of glass main beams, we obtain long members most dense and detailed residential third, called “Percurso da Sé,” is now separated from the street by means of nent use of the spaces spanning the
paradigmatic experiences that the plane of uniformity to that of blocks and concrete. The roof acts as a with a small section subject to flex, «Drop me off in the Baixa, please, I’ll projects of his remarkable career). The under construction, and is based on a metal gate, but having a pavement two courtyards (Pátio da Cerqueira
explored the multiple prerogatives uniqueness, from technological sort of overturned dome, subject to leading therefore to poor use of the catch a tram from there, Whatever urban growth of the 18th and 19th the installation of a new elevator that that is basically continuous with the and Pátio da Cisterna), though this
and potentialities of industrialized pragmatism of the outil object to the centripetal forces along the perimeter. metal. next, I’m taking you home, it isn’t any centuries assigned the hillside will transport pedestrians from Rua street. The first level contains the would alter the original use made of
metal architecture. The projects they exceptional quality of structural The configuration guarantees perfect The weight grows rapidly, the trouble, But you’re going out of your neighborhoods an almost exclusive Afonso de Albuquerque to Rua Cruzes studio, the second the children’s the spaces, since the rooms inhabited
developed addressed the main invention. After an initial trial in 1933, balancing of the loads and the main beam is heavier at the center way, The car is, not me, It’s quite a working-class role, making them the da Sé, along the southern side of the bedrooms, and the third is for the by the previous owners were those
functions of life in the contemporary in the project for an aircraft hangar undeformable character of the belt, (the stresses tend to converge at the climb up to the district where I live, At custodians of the tradition, including cathedral. All the projects, with the master bedroom, introduced by a facing Largo Santa Cruz do Castello.
city –housing, transport infrastruc- with a circular form in steel and exclusively compressed, permits center of the beam). the foot of the castle, So you know that of Fado, that spread precisely aim of simplifying implementation vestibule-closet. The rooms are In the implementation phase the
ture, education, culture, leisure time, shaped sheet metal, and a single resistance to remarkable stresses, The same disadvantages as the where I live, In the Rua do Milagre de from the taverns of Alfama and procedures, have been designed on connected by a fair-face concrete already complex program had to come
all the way to monuments– and the central support around whose axis a avoiding the need for counterweights first case. The stresses still converge at Santo António…» Mouraria. The twisted layout and public land or make use of buildings staircase and an elevator. In this to terms with the constructed
variations of the programs and parabolic generator inscribed, by and reducing deflection of the cables the center of the beam. The move- José Saramago, The History of the Siege minute scale of the urban hillside that are municipal properties to portion of the house there are substance of the building, so old as to
growing complexity of the projects rotation, an enormous self-supporting to a minimum. The use of arches ment, however, is less rapid than in of Lisbon, 1989. fabric did not lend themselves to new contain the necessary infrastructures windows on the street that establish a require constant consideration of the
were interpreted each time as oppor- mushroom-like canopy, it was in the instead of pillars to support the room the first case, with a certain reduction lifestyles, and even less to the connecting the various levels. This relationship of proximity with the need to intervene in an invasive,
tunities to refine their collaboration demanding competition for a Nouveau has the advantage of concentrating of the weights. «The tourist who has time to spare modernization of the city, which extremely effective strategy links back surroundings. Large windows, though non-reversible way. Through slow,
with the engineers and contractors Grand Palais des Expositions, the ground imposts at just four Ribbed grille. Possible reduction should not miss going up to this castle demanded large spaces and, if to the one implemented in 2009-2013 not so large as to compromise privacy patient unraveling, the constructive
involved, and to move forward with organized by OTUA in late 1933 and points, freeing the cylindrical of parasitic systems; smaller number which is built on an eminence which possible, straight streets. In recent by João Pedro Falcão de Campos (b. in the rooms, positioned so as not to and typological tangle of the building
the research, making important early 1934, that the most remarkable enclosure of impediments and thus al- of main beams. Appearance of slender commands a view of the Tagus and of times, thanks to resources from the 1961), hired by the municipal govern- correspond to those of the building in gradually reveals a possible key of
operative and cognitive advances. and spectacular vision developed in lowing it to be fully open, by means of elements subject to flex. Increase of a great part of the city. The castle has European Union, the historical center ment to identify a path of crossing of front, only a few meters away. What is interpretation that led to the design of
At Bagneux (Cité du Champ-des-Oi- the career of the two Parisian archi- full-height sliding walls for half the the interval between the beams leads three chief doors, known as Trason, of Lisbon has been subjected to many the Baixa and of ascent to the castle striking about the openings is their a commercial space and three
seaux, 1927–33), first, and at Drancy tects was formulated. With an eye on surface, on the east and west sides, to increase of the parasitic system. Martim Moniz, and São Jorge doors. projects of regeneration and restora- starting from the new Chiado station position with respect to the floor level, independent apartments as well as the
(Cité de la Muette, 1931–34), later, the the upcoming Exposition Internation- thus converting the building into a Vicious circle. The overall volume of The three are very ancient. The castle tion. They also had the objective of of the Metro line. Falcão de Campos, because the designer has placed them home of the clients, accessed across
theme of social housing financed ale de Arts et Techniques dans la Vie covered plaza easily accessed and the stresses still tends to shift towards itself is remarkable enough. It was preventing population shrinkage, on that occasion, made use of a at variable heights, depending on the the internal courtyard. The Pombali-
under the Locheur Act (1928) was an Moderne of 1937, in fact, the competi- ready for fast evacuation of multitudes the center. built by the Moors and formed, so it encouraging private investment and municipal building to insert public function of the rooms. They are high na standard of post-earthquake

104 e n g l ish t e x t s c asa be l l a 901 105


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