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PROJECT REPORT

ON

ELECTRODE DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING


OF PLASTIC TOYS MOULD CORE

SUBMITTED BY:

RANJITH .G
(Electrode Design Engineer)

Guided By:
Mr. R.KARTHIKEYAN
(Senior Electrode Designer)

MEIBAN MOULD MANUFACTURE PTE LTD


MEIBAN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING
11 UBI ROAD, #03-02, LOBBY B
SINGAPORE 408723
www.meibanmold.com.sg

[PROJECT DURATION----- 5 DAYS


DATE --------- 03/09/2010 -08/09/2010]
CONTENTS

1 TYPE OF ENGINEERING PROJECT

2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

3 NATURE OF MY WORK

4 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE CHART

5 CAD/CAM USE IN CURRENT WORLD

6 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT DESCRIPTION

7 WHAT IS MOULD

8 WHY ELECTRODES

9 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRODE DESIGN


• ELECTRODE DESIGN PARAMETERS
• TYPES OF ELECTRODES
• MATERILAS OF ELECTRODES
• HOW ELCTRODE IS MANUFACTURING
• HOW THE ELECTRODE IS SPARKING

10 MEIBAN MOULD MANUFACTURING COMPANY DETAILS

11 CAD/CAM IN UNIGRAPHICS

12 CAD IN UNIGRAPHICS

• WORK BENCEHES USED IN UNIGRAPHICS


• CORE DETAILS
• WHERE ELCTRODE REQUIRED
• ELCTRODE MODELING TECHNIQUES
• HOW ELECTRODE IS MODELING
 TOOLS USED
 MODELING IN UNIGRPHICS OF 1-10 ELECTRODES
 FINAL ELECTRODES POSITIONS
 SUPPLYING ELECTRODES FOR MANUFACTURING IN CNC
MACHINES
 POSITIONS OF ELECTRODES FOR SPARKING
• AFTER COMPLETION OF ELECTRODE DESIGNS
• WORKING EXPERIENCE WITH OTHER MEMBERS
• CONCLUSION
• SUMMARY
TYPE OF ENGINEERING
PROJECT
This project was merely based on plastic moulds which mainly used
for manufacturing of the plastic components like TV cover bodies,
Computer cover bodies, sun glasses, plastic toys,platic utensils ,
electronic items etc.
In case of plastic components it is produced by moulds only, the
moulds are cut on iron materials in the shape of plastic component
but with cavity, into this cavity the molten materials are poured and
cooled to get the shape of the components. For shaping of the
mould parts we are using electrodes and various cutting tools. I
have given the project by MEIBAN MOULD MANUFACTURING PTE
LTD to make electrodes design and locations of electrodes for
sparking of mould parts to get the final shape for plastic mould. First
I did full study of the moulds, where it is touching the plastic
components, what are the components of the moulds like core,
cavity ,sliders ,lifters core pins etc in the mould assembly drawing.
As per the study I made conclusion where more accuracy required
where is the fitting are occurred etc.Because fitting area we don’t
want electrodes. Mainly electrodes are used where we cannot
machine the metal by direct cutter tools like under cuts, very small
depth of cut etc.Based on this study I confirmed the electrode
sparking area. Then I come how these can spark directly from
upside or side ways or under side etc.After that I started to model
these electrodes in U.G for manufacturing. The electrodes are
reviewed by our CNC departments, then they confirmed is it
manufacture able or not. Then go for manufacturing. After that I
have given the locations of electrodes for sparking. I had also made
various complicated components like TV cover bodies Fridges,
Computer cover bodies, Sun glasses design and detailing. Due to
space and time constraints here I am describing the modeling of
electrodes for manufacturing the components of cores only.
OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

Design and detailing of electrodes is essential for manufacturing of


the moulds. Because we cannot machine under cuts on moulds. We
cannot bend the machine head downwards and machine the
component. So that we are using electrode only. For Very small
taper, cuts etc some times we don’t have same size of cutters. For
that also we are using elcrodes.We cannot achieve the sharp
corners and very small fillets with help of tools, for that also we are
using moulds. So electrodes are acting like cutters for
manufacturing the semi-finished components with desired accuracy.
Design of the electrode also very important and very challenging
thing, because while modeling the electrode it won’t happen any
undercut or any unmanufacturable complicated models or very
small items. So it is very care full while modeling the electrodes
also. For making the electrodes we are using std materials it’s sizes
are 23x23, 30x30, 36x36, 23x30, 23x36 etc.
After modeling the electrodes detailing also very important, because
if we give a wrong placement of the electrodes. It will spark the
mould wrongly and all mould will be waisted,we cannot go for
injecting the plastic component. So detailing also very important to
get the accurate component.
Other than material selection for electrode also very important, if
the size is coming above 100x100,we will go for graphite material,
below that size we go for copper.
So ultimately we have take lots of parameters into consideration
while designing the electrodes.
NATURE OF MY WORK
My post on this MEIBAN MOULD MANUFACTURE PTE LTD was
electrode designer. From the name itself my work is design and
detailing of electrodes for sparking the moulds. This is a fully mould
manufacturing company, they are making various plastic
components like TV cover body, Sun glasses, Computer cover
bodies etc.Above me one senior electrode designer was there, he is
in charge of the whole electrode department, his was MR.
Karthikeyan.After finishing my electrode, he will countercheck the
design sometimes before going for production. He will give me the
instructions for which mould I have to make the electrodes, for
which I have to detailing. Other than sometimes I have to give the
Ø3mm ball checking positions details for QC departments etc.Some
times we are giving separate detailing drawing for turning
electrodes. I was giving the electrode sparking detailed drawing for
the whole electrodes sparking from other designers also. My
working time on this company is from 8.30am to 8.30 am, including
Saturdays also. While my this senior electrode designer gone to
India I have worked as major electrode designer on this company,
at that my work was challenging and very critical, but it was given
me lots of knowledge of electrodes.
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
CHART
Operation Manager

Administrative
Section

Moulds Designs Electrode Designs

Senior Mould designers Senior electrode designers

Mould designers Electrode designers

Senior CNC Engineer EDM Supervisor

CAM programmers CNC programmers EDM M/C workers

Q.C Section

Mould Assembly
Section
MY DUTIES

Dispatch Section

CAD/CAM USE IN CURRENT


WORLD
CAD is mainly used for modeling any designed part on
computer, but CAM is used for manufacturing that product directly
into the machine. CAD/CAM is defined as Computer Aided Design
and computer aided manufacturing. It is the technology concerned
with the use of design and production.

Computer Aided Design (CAD):


It is defined as the use of computer system to assist in the
creation, modification, analysis and optimization of design .The CAD
soft wear consist of computer programs to implement computer
graphics on the system plus application program it facilitate the
engineering function of the user company. Computer-aided
design (CAD), also known as Computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD), is the use of computer technology for the process
of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting
describes the process of drafting with a computer. CADD software,
or environments, provide the user with input-tools for the purpose of
streamlining design processes; drafting, documentation, and
manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in the form of
electronic files for print or machining operations. The development
of CADD-based software is in direct correlation with the processes it
seeks to economize; industry-based software (construction,
manufacturing, etc.) typically uses vector-based (linear)
environments whereas graphic-based software utilizes raster-based
(pixilated) environments. It is used in wide range of fields in
mechanical sectors like structural fields,Platic Moulds,Castings,Aero
space,automobile,Ship fields etc.Here I am going to explain below
how we can use this software in Product design, Plastic moulds
design and electrode design. In product design we are crating a
component like Head light of a car,bottles,T.V Cover body etc.But in
Plastic mould design we are designing moulds for manufacturing
that plastic component by injection method of plastic materials. So
here application is different we are not going to model the
component ,but going to design the moulds using mould design
techniques and design calculations. But in Product modeling we are
designing that component using various parameter like it’s analysis
report, considering it’s application and cost and usage of that
component and various other parameters. But in electrode design
it’s design method also different. Here we are not using the method
of adding the materials, but we are using the material removal
method. We are not using the tools that all used in previous
method. Here my task also is to design the electrode to
manufacture that moulds with final shape. It actually comes under
CAM section, because we are using the design to manufacturing the
component. Here same CAD i.e. U.G NX5 is using for detailing also
this used for Electrode discharging.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM):
It is the use of computer software to control machine tools and
related machinery in the manufacturing of work pieces. This is not
the only definition for CAM, but it is the most common; CAM may
also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a
manufacturing plant, including planning, management,
transportation and storage. Its primary purpose is to create a faster
production process and components and tooling with more precise
dimensions and material consistency, which in some cases, uses
only the required amount of raw material (thus minimizing waste),
while simultaneously reducing energy consumption.
CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after Computer Aided
Design (CAD) and sometimes Computer Aided Engineering (CAE), as
the model generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into
CAM software, which then controls the machine tool. Here we are
using CAM version of U.G software. We taking models and
electrodes from design section of CAD and giving the tool paths for
manufacturing the component ad send directly to the machine.
INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT
DESCRIPTION
Here I am mainly doing Electrodes design for manufacturing
section and Detailing of the Electrodes for sparking the moulds. As
Electrode is cutting tools ,we are modeling the electrodes as cutters
which are used in EDM(Electrode Discharge machines),In which
machines we are holding these electrodes and Sparks the directly
half machined moulds in Kerosene oils. It is not like ordinary
material removal method, we can remove the materials very small
quantity like microns and get finial highly accuracy moulds for
injecting the moulds. Here I am giving typical EDM machines for
easy clarification.
I am giving pictuarised representation of EDM Discharging
Machining is given above. One more method of EDM also there i.e.
Wire cut EDM. It is used for removing the materials throughout the
work piece, but in EDM discharge we are not removing the full
materials from the work piece. Wire cut EDM representation is given
below.

Electrode is mainly used for Ordinary EDM machines only ,not for
wire cut EDM Machines. Electrode is not only for moulds other than
for sparking intricate mechanical parts also like under cuts on bolts,
machine parts.Elctrode is replica of the complicated shapes of
moulds, so that this surface finish and shape cannot achieved
through ordinary cutter. A shape of electrode is given below, from
this How electrode is modeling and how is holding in machines that
can be understood very easily.

In electrode Designing I am using the Assembly work bench of U.G


software. We are importing the designed Core, Cavity, Slides, and
Lifter etc into the assembly work bench and add STD square blocks
and removing the materials from them and modify into simple and
machinable shape. Then add STD bases of company to this
reshaped block. Giving finished electrode for sparking.
WHAT IS MOULD
Molding or moulding is the process of manufacturing by
shaping the raw material using a rigid frame or model called a
pattern.
A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid
like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw materials. The liquid
hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the
opposite of a cast. The manufacturer who makes the molds is called
the mold maker. A release agent is typically used to make removal
of the hardened/set substance from the mold easier.
Types of molding include:
1. Compaction plus sintering
2. Injection molding
3. Reaction injection molding
4. Compression molding
5. Transfer molding
6. Extrusion molding
7. Blow molding
8. Rotational molding
9. Thermoforming
10. Vacuum forming, a simplified version of thermoforming
11. Laminating
12. Expandable bead molding
13. Foam molding
14. Rotomolding
15. Vacuum plug assist molding
16. Pressure plug assist molding
17. Matched mold
characteristics of three PLATE MOLD we can see from picture that
:
1. Attached tension link, tension link function is o pull plate
number 3 or cavity plate then by puller bolt, cavity plate will also
pull the second plate, and cut the runner from nozzle.
2. second plate, it's indicate that those mold is 3 plate mold type,
why because in 2 plate type, second plate is doesn't use. second
plate is necessary when gate type is pin point gate.
3. runner plate, if you see more carefully, between second plate
and third plate attached runner plate, in 2 plate mold type,
runner plate does not use, because runner attached in third plate.

green arrow show injection nozzle machine where must be


attached and indicate flow of plastic material during injection
process.

number 1 until 10 is shown the plate of mold


plate 1 is top plate
plate 2 is gate opener plate, retainer plate, and others name depend
in fabrics
plate 3 is cavity plate
plate 4 is core plate
plate 5 is backing plate
plate 6 is support plate
plate 7 is ejector plate
plate 8 is ejector retainer plate
plate 9 is bottom plate
plate 10 is runner plate
and the slider part name are
g for angular pin, this pin always have certain degree, usually
between 10-30, angular pin will transfer vertical movement to
horizontal movement, others construction, angular pin not from the
top but from bottom, this kind of construction is rare to use now.
h is slider core, when contact with angular pin, this part also the
core from slider construction, at this part we can attach insert part
that mold the shape of plastic.
i is slider locking block, we can depend in angular pin when mold
closed, slider pin is too week, so the holder of pressure from inside
mold during injection process is locking block.
k is slider lock plate, for non mass production you do not have to
attach this part, but if the mold used in mass production, i suggest
to use this part, because slider locking block and slider core always
have friction, then when this part broken or got abrasive is will need
expensive cost to repair it, so use lock plate is better, is cheaper.
l(L) is slider insert, this part which form the plastic product, it's
attach in slider core

The parts of a car which are manufactured by Moulds are given


below. Moulds are using for manufacturing Plastic Chairs, Electronic
Cover Bodies, Cars parts,Uttensils,Bottles and various types of
plastic parts. Bottles are manufactured by Blow moulds, Cover
bodies, Plastic Chairs are by injection Moulds, Electronic Switches
are manufactured by Compression Moulds.
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-
synthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial
products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass,
and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or
reduce costs. Monomers of plastic are either natural or synthetic
organic compounds.

Plastics can be classified by chemical structure, namely the


molecular units that make up the polymer's backbone and side
chains. Some important groups in these classifications are the
acrylics, polyesters, silicones, polyurethanes, and halogenated
plastics. Plastics can also be classified by the chemical process used
in their synthesis, such as condensation, polyaddition, and cross-
linking.

2 types plastic are there i.e. thermoplastic and thermosetting


plastic.
Thermoplastic polymers are normally produced in one step and
then made into products in a subsequent process. They become soft
and formable when heated. The polymer melt can be formed or
shaped when in this softened state. When cooled significantly below
their softening point they again become rigid and usable as a
formed article. This type of polymer can be readily recycled because
each time it is reheated it can again be reshaped or formed into a
new article.

Thermosetting polymers are normally produced and formed in


the same step. Upon heating, thermosetting polymers will become
soft, but cannot be shaped or formed to any great extent, and will
definitely not flow.

WHY ELECTRODES
The electrodes are EDM machines cutters like ordinary cutting tools
used in ordinary CNC machines. So Electrode design we can say as
cutting tool design.
When needed this Electrodes.
• The geometry which we cannot be machined by regular
method.
• To get high surface finish.
• To avoid cutter radius in die

The things we are taken into consideration for designing the


electrodes Spark gap, it depends upon size and surface finish
.Usually acceptable spark gaps are 0.1,0.15,…… etc.
After modeling the shape of the surface we have to give some
straight portion to electrodes it’s length is up to 6mm after that
always using std base materials.

History of EDM In 1770, English Physicist Joseph Priestley


studied the erosive effect of electrical discharges. Furthering
Priestley's research, the EDM process was invented by two Russian
scientists, Dr. B.R. Lazarenko and Dr. N.I. Lazarenko in 1943. In their
efforts to exploit the destructive effects of an electrical discharge,
they developed a controlled process for machining of metals. Their
initial process used a spark machining process, named after the
succession of sparks (electrical discharges) that took place between
two electrical conductors immersed in a dielectric fluid. The
discharge generator effect used by this machine, known as the
Lazarenko Circuit, was used for many years in the construction of
generators for electrical discharge.
Additional researchers entered the field and contributed many
fundamental characteristics of the machining method we know
today. In 1952, the manufacturer Charmilles created the first
machine using the spark machining process and was presented for
the first time at the European Machine Tool Exhibition in 1955.
In 1969 Agie launched the world's first numerically controlled wire-
cut EDM machine. Seibu developed the first CNC wire EDM machine
1972 and the first system manufactured in Japan.

FUNDAMENTALS OF
ELECTRODE DESIGN
ELECTRODE DESIGN PARAMETERS:
The following are to be taken into consideration while electrode
designing.
• Use only subtract commands to make electrode.
• Do not use extract face commands.
• For drawing no of electrodes in a single base involves drawing
of
individual features.
• We have to group the electrodes to minimize the electrode
costs and sparking time (i.e. similar features should be
grouped to form a single).
• Always check whether there is interference with the electrode
plate.
• Electrode drawing should be given consisting of geometry key
dimension & electrode holding plate dimension & it’s entire
point.
• X, Y, Z dimensions should be given for positioning the
electrodes.
• Avoid under cut in designing
• It should be simple to manufacture using ordinary cutters.

TYPES OF ELECTRODES:

There are 3 type of electrodes are using , due to the insufficient


sparking space they are

• Full sized Electrode


• One way cut way electrode
• Double cut aways electrode

FULL SIZED ELECTRODE:


In this centre point of the electrode is on the middle of the
electrode. View that I have given is top side view.

ONE WAY CUT AWAY:


In this centre point of the electrode is on the chamfered face
opposite to cut way side.

TWO WAY CUT AWAY:


In this centre point of the electrode is on the chamfere origin
point only.

STD SIZE OF ELECTRODES:


The Std sizes of electrodes are
23x23,23x30,23x36,30x30,30x36,23x48,23x60,30x48,30x60,36x36,
36x48, 36x60, if above 100 always giving STD sizes are 5mm
increment of the got size of the electrode.

MATERIALS OF ELECTRODES:

The mainly used materials is copper for the sizes from 23mm
to below 100mm size. Above 100mm size always using graphite
only. Because above 100mm we cannot achieve that much hardness
in case of copper, but below 100mm size we are using copper for
minimizing the cost.

HOW ELCTRODE IS MANUFACTURING:


Electrodes are manufacturing using the same method of CAM
tools only, it is dine in CAM workbench only. In our company mainly
using software for this are UG NX5, Master CAM. The commands
mainly used are roughing and finishing tool paths for getting the full
finished component. First we are creating the tool paths in UG CAM
or Master CAM and then generate the CNC codes from this and send
to machines or directly send the tool paths to machines. We making
no of electrodes in mass production in machine using pallets. We are
changing these pallets after finishing one set of electrodes. After
collecting the electrodes it is given to EDM for sparking and giving
the electrode sparking location detailed drawings also.

HOW THE ELECTRODE IS SPARKING:

Electric discharge machining (EDM), sometimes colloquially also


referred to as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking
or wire erosion, is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape
is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). Material is removed
from the work piece by a series of rapidly recurring current
discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid
and subject to an electric voltage. One of the electrodes is called the
tool-electrode, or simply the ‘tool’ or ‘electrode’, while the other is
called the work piece-electrode, or ‘workpiece’.
When the distance between the two electrodes is reduced, the
intensity of the electric field in the volume between the electrodes
becomes greater than the strength of the dielectric (at least in some
point(s)), which breaks, allowing current to flow between the two
electrodes. This phenomenon is the same as the breakdown of a
capacitor (condenser) (see also breakdown voltage). As a result,
material is removed from both the electrodes. Once the current flow
stops (or it is stopped - depending on the type of generator), new
liquid dielectric is usually conveyed into the inter-electrode volume
enabling the solid particles (debris) to be carried away and the
insulating proprieties of the dielectric to be restored. Adding new
liquid dielectric in the inter-electrode volume is commonly referred
to as flushing. Also, after a current flow, a difference of potential
between the two electrodes is restored to what it was before the
breakdown, so that a new liquid dielectric breakdown can occur.
MEIBAN MOULD
MANUFACTURING COMPANY
DETAILS
Meiban Group Ltd is a Singapore-based company. The Company
along with its subsidiaries is engaged in contract manufacturing of
consumer products; manufacture, assembly and sale of plastic
injection moulded components; produce, design, manufacture and
sale of high precision injection moulds; investment holding and
management of factory property, and precision machining and
marketing of group products and services. Its subsidiaries include
Meiban International Pte. Ltd., Meiban Investment Pte Ltd, Meiban
Innovation (Shanghai) Co., Ltd and Meiban Mold Manufacture Pte
Ltd.

Meiban Group Ltd., a precision plastic manufacturer, provides plastic


injection molding and related services primarily in Singapore,
Malaysia, and China. The company operates in two segments, Plastic
Moulding and Contract Manufacturing. The Plastic Moulding segment
involves in the manufacture, assembly, and sale of plastic injection
molded components; and design, manufacture, and sale of high
precision injection moulds, as well as in precision machining. The
Contract Manufacturing segment engages in contract manufacturing
consumer products. The company serves automotive, medical,
business equipment and consumer products industries. Meiban
Group Ltd. was founded in 1986 and is headquartered in Singapore,
Singapore.
CAD/CAM IN UNIGRAPHICS

Computer Aided Design – CAD:

CAD is technology concerned with using computer systems to


assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a
design. Any computer program that embodies computer graphics
and an application program facilitating engineering functions in
design process can be classified as CAD software. The most basic
role of CAD is to define the geometry of design – a mechanical part,
a product assembly, an architectural structure, an electronic circuit,
a building layout, etc. The greatest benefits of CAD systems are that
they can save considerable time and reduce errors caused by
otherwise having to redefine the geometry of the design from
scratch every time it is needed.
Unigraphics is High end software of CAD, other than it is a
parametric software so that we can edit the modeling in any time.
Here I am giving the full details of CAD section of UG NX-5.At first we
have to select Modeling from Application Tool bar. Then we can get
a modeling work Benches like given below. In that Extrude, Revolve,
Rib, Offset Face, Split Body etc available to model the product.
Computer Aided Manufacturing – CAM:

CAM technology involves computer systems that plan,


manage, and control the manufacturing operations through
computer interface with the plant’s production resources.
One of the most important areas of CAM is numerical control (NC).
This is the technique of using programmed instructions to control a
machine tool that cuts, mills, grinds, punches or turns raw stock into
a finished part. Another significant CAM function is in the
programming of robots. Process planning is also a target of
computer automation.
Unigraphics is High end software of CAM also, other than it is a
parametric software so that we can edit the tool path in any time.
Here I am giving the full details of CAM section of UG NX-5.At first
we have to select Modeling from Application Tool bar. Then we can
get a Manufacturing work Benches like given below. In that various
tool path creations tools are there like Roughing, Semifinishing
finishing, Pencil tool paths etc.Fore example the view of
manufacturing work bench is given below.
CAD IN UNIGRAPHICS
WORK BENCHES USED IN UNIGRAPHICS:

Mainly used work benches are Modeling Work Benches,Drafting


Work benches and Assembly Work Benches.
UG main window is given below.
MODELING WORK BENCHES:

This work benches is mainly used for modeling a component in


U.G-NX5,The various tools used are Extrude,Revolves ,Sweep,
Variable Sweep,Draft,Edge Blend,Chamfer,Shell hole ,Offset Face
etc.Here the Tools I have used is Extrude, Offset
face,Chamfer,Replace Face, Split Body. In this work bench any way
we have to use the Sketch icon. Sketch is skeleton of any modeling.

Begin Sketch using Icon


to begin sketch click the sketch icon like picture below, it usually
located at feature tool bar.
after clicking the icon, next step is to define the plane of sketch,
default plane are X -Y plane, if we clicking OK to the default value,
we will make sketch plane on X - Y Plane. as see on picture below,
we can choose sketch plane. direction of plane, plane option and
reference. at this tutorial we use X-Y default plane.

After click OK, Sketch plane will available, at those plane we can
draw using 2D model type like line, arc, profile, circle. Try using
profile to make like continues line connection

We can choose preferred snap point option, when we choose profile


we also can choose basic shape, line or arc. begin to sketch with 0,0
coordinate, click the 0,0 then bring it horizontal click other position.
and the closed line connection like picture below. then after make
closed connection line, right click your mouse choose OK.

The other tool available are Extrude, revolve, Hole, Block Cylinder,
Cone, Spere, Boss etc.
DRAFTING WORK BENCH:
The Unigraphics Drafting application lets you create drawings,
views, geometry, dimensions, nd drafting annotations necessary for
the completion of a drawing. The goal of this chapter is to give the
designer/draftsman enough knowledge of drafting tools to create a
basic drawing of their design. The drafting application supp orts the
drafting of engineering models in accordance with ANSI standards.
After explaining the basics of the drafting application, we will go
through a step-by-step approach for drafting some of our earlier
models.
The Drafting application is based on creating views from a solid
model as illustrated below. Drafting makes it easy to quickly create
a drawing with orthographic views, section views, imported view,
auxiliary views, dimensions and other annotations.
Some of the useful features of Drafting application are: 1) After you
choose the first view, other orthographic views can be added and
aligned by the click of some buttons. 2) Each view is associated
directly with the solid. Thus when the solid is changed, the drawing
will be updated directly including the views and dimensions. 3)
Drafting annotations (dimensions, labels, and symbols with leaders
are placed directly on the drawing and are also updated
automatically when the solid is changed.

The drafting environment picture is given above.


ASSEMBLEY MODELING WORK BENCH:

In Unigraphics assembly work bench is a separate section that


contains the individual parts. They are added to the part file in such
a way that the parts are virtual in the assembly and linked to the
original part. This eliminates the need for creating separate memory
space for the individual parts in the computer. All the parts are
selectable and can be used in the design process for information
and mating to insure a perfect fit as intended by the designers. The
following figure is a schematic which shows how components are
added to make an assembly.

There are two basic ways of creating any assembly model.

• Top-Down Modeling

• Bottom-Up Modeling

Top-Down Modeling The assembly part file is created first and


components are created in that file. Then individual parts are
modeled. This type of modeling is useful in a new design.

Bottom-Up Modeling The component parts are created first in


the traditional way and then added to the assembly part file. This
technique is particularly useful when parts already exist from the
previous designs and are being reused.

CORE DETAILS:
The Core model that I have got from our Mould Design Department
is given above, this was core of plastic toys component. It have lots
of small undercuts seen in that picture with lots of curved shaped
small undercuts and some square shaped cuts also have.
The manufacturing method that we are following in our company is
that first we take raw size material from our store for this core. Then
machine in it in our CNC using our available tools in our company
using ordinary tool paths creation method the software that we are
using in our company was U.G-NX5 and Master CAM X.After that
rough finishing of the component we have to go for electrode
machining where our tool cannot run peoperly.For this we first
design the electrode shape as replica of the part of the core where
we cannot reach. Then spark these areas with these electrodes to
get the final shape of the components.