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RULERS OF EVIL

Useful Knowledge About Governing Bodies

F. TUPPER SAUSSY

OSPRAY
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Copyright © 1 9 9 9 by Frederick Tupper Saussy

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1 2 2 3 Wilshire Boulevard, N o . 8 5 5
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ISBN 0-9673768-0-7
First Edition

O S P R A Y B O O K M A K E R S IS AN IMPRIMATUR OF
T H E ORDER OF SIMON PETER, LAS VEGAS, NEVADA
“The worst thing you can do in life is
underestimate your adversary.”

— P R E S I D E N T W I L L I A M J. C L I N T O N ,
C B S News, March 3 1 , 1 9 9 9
xx T h e Capitol dome*
1 Time Magazine Cover*
6 Fasces*
8 T h e Washington Nunciature*
11 Emperor Constantine*
12 Mithras & David†
14 Pope Gregory IX Excommunicating the Holy Roman
Emperor*
18 Pope Clement VII & the Holy Roman Emperor*
21 Martin Luther*
26 Ignatius de Loyola*
34 T h e Baphomet*
36 Map of Troyes*
42 Fingerstroke of G o d *
46 Giulia Farnese*
54 T h e Spirit of Trent (after Sebastiano Ricci)*
62 Ignatius in Heaven†
96 Lorenzo Ricci†
114 Castel Sant’Angelo*
116 Washington in Masonic Regalia*
ILLUSTRATIONS

124 Charles Thomson*


128 Cardinal Robert Bellarmine*
134 John Stuart, Lord Bute*
146 Bishop John Carroll*
154 Archbishop von Hontheim*
166 King George III*
186 East India Company Flag†
202 American Graffiti†
204 The Mosaic Seal†
226 L’Enfant’s Plan of Washington*
228 Congressional Medal of Honor†
232 Seal of Georgetown University‡
234 Persephone, Goddess of the Capitol‡
246 “Apotheosis of Washington”§
248 Constantino Brumidi*
252 Rev. Charles Chiniquy*
257 T h e States§ / T h e Virgin pursues evildoers§
258 Young America§
259 Jehu worshiping Shalmaneser II†
261 Mercury 6k Morris§
293-5 The A n n u Signature*, †, ‡

* sketch by the author


† author’s collection
‡ photographed by the author
§ Architect of the Capitol
Introduction: ix
Preface ix
Foreword xi
Orientation xiii
1: Subliminal Rome 1
2: Missionary Adaptation 9
3: Marginalizing the Bible 15
4: Medici Learning 19
5: Appointment at Cyprus 27
6: T h e Epitome of Christian Values 35
7: T h e Fingerstroke of G o d 43
8: Moving In 55
9: Securing Confidence 63
10: Definitions 77
1 1 : T h e Thirteen Articles Concerning Military A r t 85
12: Lorenzo Ricci’s War 97
1 3 : T h e Secret Bridge 117
14: T h e Dogma of Independence 129
CONTENTS

1 5 : T h e Madness of King George III 135


1 6 : Tweaking the Religious Right 147
1 7 : A Timely Grand Tour 155
18: T h e Stimulating Effects of Tea 167
1 9 : Death and Resurrection of Lorenzo Ricci 187
20: American Grafitti 203
2 1 : Jupiter’s Earthly Abode 227
22: T h e Immaculate Conception 235
23: T h e Dome of the Great Sky 247
24: T h e Mark of Cain 265
2 5 : T h e Two Ministries 279
Appendix 293
A: Fifty Centuries of the A n n u Signature 293
B: Superior Generals of the Society of Jesus 296
c: Glossary 298
D: Notes 303
E: Bibliography 313
F: Index 318
RULERS OF E V I L
Introduction

PREFACE

T
HE O N L Y P E O P L E in the world, it seems, w h o believe in the
conspiracy theory of history are those of us w h o h a v e stud-
ied it. W h i l e F r a n k l i n D . R o o s e v e l t m i g h t h a v e exaggerat-
ed w h e n he said “ N o t h i n g h a p p e n s in p o l i t i c s by a c c i d e n t ; if it
happens, it was planned that way,” C a r r o l l Q u i g l e y – Bill C l i n t o n ’ s
favorite professor at G e o r g e t o w n U n i v e r s i t y – b o l d l y a d m i t t e d in
his Tragedy & Hope ( 1 9 6 6 ) t h a t (a) t h e m u l t i t u d e s w e r e already
u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l of a small b u t p o w e r f u l group b e n t on w o r l d
d o m i n a t i o n and (b) Q u i g l e y himself was a part of that group.
I n t e r n e t c o n s p i r a c y sites strive to identify t h e c o n s p i r a t o r i a l
factions. We get pieces here and pieces there. T h e world is run by
Freemasons, some say. O t h e r say S k u l l & B o n e s , and a loose c o n -
f e d e r a t i o n o f secret s o c i e t i e s . C I A gets lots o f v o t e s , a l o n g w i t h
Mossad ( t h o u g h I suspect these f a c t i o n s are merely tools) a n d , of
course, “ t h e British.” A major f r o n t r u n n e r is t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
B a n k i n g C a r t e l . W h e n V i c t o r M a r s d e n published The Protocols of
the Elders of Zion in 1 9 0 6 , w h i c h purported to be a Jewish p l a n to

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RULERS OF E V I L

take o v e r the world, Jewish writers d e n i e d responsibility, charging


a C a t h o l i c plot to defame Jewry. W h o s e side was M a r s d e n on? You
c a n get so deep into conspiracies t h a t t h e suspects start c a n c e l i n g
e a c h other out. It c a n b e c o m e frustrating.
I’m happy to report that F. Tupper Saussy has c o m e to our e m o -
t i o n a l rescue. D u r i n g his t e n years as a f u g i t i v e from t h e D e p a r t -
m e n t of Justice ( c o n v i c t e d of a c r i m e t h a t c a n n o t be found in t h e
l a w b o o k s ) , Saussy o c c u p i e d himself w i t h an investigation into the
powers that be. It was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n the likes of w h i c h , as far as
I k n o w , has n e v e r before b e e n u n d e r t a k e n . T h e fruit of his amaz-
ing l e g w o r k is Rulers of Evil, a p o w e r f u l b o o k t h a t in less l o v i n g
hands m i g h t h a v e b e e n angry and judgmental.
Saussy’s thesis: T h e r e is i n d e e d a small group t h a t runs the
w o r l d , but we c a n ’ t c a l l it a c o n s p i r a c y b e c a u s e it identifies itself
w i t h signs, m o t t o e s , a n d m o n u m e n t s . S i g n s , m o t t o e s , a n d m o n u -
ments? y o u ask. Quick: w h a t o c c u p i e s t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o n t h e
U . S . C a p i t o l b u i l d i n g ? It’s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t oft-published statue
on earth, and you can’t n a m e it? As l o n g as y o u don’t k n o w whose
feet are firmly p l a n t e d a t o p y o u r country’s l e g i s l a t i v e c e n t e r , or
h o w she got t h e r e , o r w h e n c e she c a m e , t h e group t h a t c o n t r o l s
A m e r i c a r e m a i n s i n v i s i b l e . O n c e y o u k n o w these t h i n g s , t h e fog
begins lifting.
Saussy has analyzed hundreds of signatory clues left by the true
rulers of the world, clues t h a t we h a v e perhaps b e e n trained to ig-
nore. He’s traced t h e m to their origins, and m a t c h e d t h e m to facts
of history g o i n g b a c k six thousand years – all b a l a n c e d against the
most reliable h u m a n reference work there is, the Bible. T h e result:
an u n a v o i d a b l e t o u c h s t o n e for all future works on the subject.
Rulers of Evil is an indispensable study b o o k t h a t you’ll proba-
bly d e f a c e from c o v e r t o c o v e r w i t h h i g h l i g h t i n g . B y all m e a n s
k e e p i t o n your l o w e r library shelf, w i t h i n close r e a c h o f inquisi-
tive children.

— Pat Shannon
Journalist-at-Large, M E D I A BYPASS

X
Introduction

FOREWORD

W
H E T H E R O R N O T it’s appropriate for a literary a g e n t t o
write his client’s Foreword, I don’t know. If I’m breaking
t h e rules h e r e , w e l l , this is a rule-breaking b o o k . E x a m -
p l e . D u r i n g last spring’s B o o k e x p o in Los A n g e l e s , I a g e n t l y
i n t r o d u c e d m y c l i e n t , T u p p e r Saussy, t o o n e o f N e w York’s most
u n s h o c k a b l e p u b l i s h i n g e x e c u t i v e s . A s T u p p e r a r t i c u l a t e l y sum-
marized Rulers of Evil for h i m , I p e r s o n a l l y w i t n e s s e d t h e b r o w of
this fearless e x e c u t i v e d e v e l o p a t w i t c h . I saw h i m a c t u a l l y gulp.
W i t h my o w n ears I h e a r d h i m say, “ T h i s is a little t o o extreme for
us.”
T h e t w i t c h developed as Tupper was saying “the R o m a n
C a t h o l i c C h u r c h really does run t h e w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g t h e U n i t e d
States g o v e r n m e n t , and this is o p e n l y declared in m o n u m e n t s and
emblems and insignia as well as official d o c u m e n t s . . . ” By the time
T u p p e r c a l m l y r e a c h e d his payoff – “ A n d this is good, because it’s
divinely ordained” – the e x e c was staring into space.

xi
RULERS OF E V I L

A l l right, Rulers of Evil is e x t r e m e . ( D o e s that frighten you?) It


was researched and w r i t t e n during a decade of flight that probably
saved the author’s life from v i n d i c t i v e federal authorities. I w a n t e d
to represent this b o o k from the m o m e n t I read t h e first draft b a c k
i n 1 9 9 3 , c o m p l e t e l y u n a w a r e t h a t its author c o u l d c l a i m t h e clas-
sic Miracle On Main Street as his o w n . (Tupper Saussy’s identity was
n o t r e v e a l e d t o m e u n t i l his c a p t u r e i n 1 9 9 7 . H e c a n k e e p a se-
cret.)
Like no b o o k I’ve seen in my thirty years of l i t e r a r y - a g e n t i n g ,
Rulers of Evil lays o u t who’s really w h o in w o r l d power, pegs t h e m
as e v i l ( a b o u t as e v i l as t h e rest of us, more or less), a n d t h e n
explains h o w spiritual wickedness in h i g h places works for the ulti-
mate g o o d of m a n k i n d . It’s the b o o k about conspiracies that does-
n’t a d v o c a t e t h r o w i n g the bums out.
Rulers of Evil is almost a self-help p r o d u c t . T h e useful k n o w l -
edge it imparts reveals t h e w o r l d structure as it really is. O n c e we
c a n see, our c h o i c e s i n c r e a s e , our p a t h w a y s w i d e n , a n d our lives
improve.
But d o n ’ t e x p e c t a breeze. Parts of t h e b o o k are so r i c h in his-
torical detail that your brain m i g h t feel over-burdened. W h e n that
happens, just flip to more readable parts. Or study the pictures. My
c l i e n t d o e s n ’ t m i n d b e i n g read casually, b a c k t o front, front t o
b a c k , m i d d l e o u t , a few pages at a t i m e . E n j o y f r e e d o m of m o v e -
m e n t . If a c h a p t e r doesn’t fit today’s m o o d , find a n o t h e r that does.
U s e a bookmark, or the dustjacket flaps.
U l t i m a t e l y , you’ll get it all. A n d w h e n y o u do, I p r e d i c t you’ll
be a different person. You’ll h a v e a n e w worldview, o n e shaped by
e v i d e n c e t h a t h a s n e v e r b e e n assembled q u i t e this w a y before. I
c a n say this w i t h confidence because Rulers of Evil is still influenc-
ing my o w n life, h a v i n g b e g u n in me a process of answering m a n y
of the heretofore unanswerable questions of our time.

— Peter Fleming
T H E PETER FLEMING A G E N C Y

xii
Introduction

ORIENTATION

“The only new thing in this world is the


history you don’t know.”
— PRESIDENT HARRY S. TRUMAN

O
N FRESHMAN ORIENTATION day at the University of t h e
S o u t h in S e w a n e e , Tennessee, I t o o k a seat across the table
from my faculty advisor. He was a professor of b o t a n y
n a m e d E d m u n d B e r k e l e y . Dr. B e r k e l e y studied t h e tab o n m y
m a n i l a file folder as t h o u g h it were some rare species of leaf. Sud-
d e n l y his eyes leapt i n t o my face. G i d d y e i g h t e e n - y e a r - o l d t h a t I
was, I gulped and tried to smile.
‘ “ S a u s s y , ” ’ h e mused calmly. “ G o o d H u g u e n o t name.”
T h e word stumped me. “ H u g u e n o t ? ”
“‘Saussy’ is a F r e n c h n a m e , ” he lectured. “ S e w a n e e is a Protes-
tant university. Your people must h a v e b e e n Huguenots.”
I silently forgave my father for n e v e r h a v i n g told me our n a m e
was F r e n c h a n d t h a t our a n c e s t o r s m i g h t h a v e b e e n s o m e t h i n g
called “Huguenots.”
“ W h a t exactly are Huguenots?” I inquired.
“ F r e n c h Protestants,” declared my advisor. “Massacred by sol-
diers o r d e r e d b y C a t h e r i n e d ’ M e d i c i i n c a h o o t s w i t h t h e Jesuits.

xiii
RULERS OF E V I L

T h e survivors were e x i l e d . S o m e established in England, others in


Prussia. S o m e c a m e to A m e r i c a , as your people obviously did.”
“Jesuits.” N o w t h a t was a familiar w o r d . In T a m p a , my h o m e -
t o w n , there was a h i g h s c h o o l n a m e d Jesuit. Jesuit H i g h was great-
ly e s t e e m e d a c a d e m i c a l l y a n d a t h l e t i c a l l y . I was aware of a
c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the Jesuits and the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ,
but little else.
“ W h a t are Jesuits?” I asked.
“ O h , t h e Jesuits are m e m b e r s o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus,” h e
replied. “ E x c e l l e n t m e n . I n t e l l e c t u a l s . T h e y w o r k e x c l u s i v e l y for
the Pope, take an oath to h i m and h i m alone. S o m e people call
t h e m the Pope’s private militia. K i n d of a swordless army. C o n t r o -
versial. T h e y ’ v e g o t t e n i n t o t r o u b l e m e d d l i n g w i t h c i v i l g o v e r n -
ments in the past, trying to bring t h e m under the Pope’s d o m i n i o n ,
y o u k n o w , but i n this century t h e y ’ v e b e e n t a m e d d o w n consider-
ably. T h e y ’ r e wonderful educators.”
T h a t n i g h t I called my father, w h o answered Dr. Berkeley’s sur-
mise. Yes, our p e o p l e were H u g u e n o t s . T h e y arrived a t S a v a n n a h
harbor in the latter half of the e i g h t e e n t h century, after a stopover
of several generations in S c o t l a n d . T h e y h a d indeed b e e n run out
of t h e i r b e l o v e d c o u n t r y , t h e same w a y t h e Jews w e r e r u n o u t of
G e r m a n y . N a z i s c h a s e d t h e Jews, Jesuits c h a s e d us. A h , b u t t h a t
was a l o n g time ago, my father said, a n d I agreed. Forgiveness is a
great v i r t u e , a n d it’s best to let b y g o n e s be b y g o n e s . So I forgot
about H u g u e n o t s a n d Jesuits and p l u n g e d i n t o my c o l l e g e career,
my future, my life.

I never had occasion to think about my conversation with


E d m u n d B e r k e l e y u n t i l s o m e t h i r t y years later, i n A u g u s t o f
1 9 8 4 , during a brief but telling e n c o u n t e r w i t h an assistant U n i t e d
States attorney b y the n a m e o f J o h n M a c C o o n . W e were standing
a few p a c e s apart in t h e m a r b l e h a l l w a y outside a federal c o u r t -
room in C h a t t a n o o g a , waiting for the m o r n i n g session to be called.
I was on t h e d o c k e t , s c h e d u l e d to be arraigned on charges of will-
ful failure to file i n c o m e tax returns for t h e years 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 7 8 , and
1979.

xiv
INTRODUCTION ORIENTATION

I h a d no doubt that the charges w o u l d be dropped. T h e statute


I h a d supposedly run afoul of applied to persons “required” to file
returns. Y e t I possessed a letter signed by the I R S District Director
stating t h a t a diligent search of I R S files h a d failed to disclose any
t a x liability i n m y n a m e for t h o s e years. P e o p l e w h o h a v e n o t a x
liability are n o t required to file returns. W h y was I there?
T h e b o o m i n g v o i c e of a lawyer friend broke my c o n c e n t r a t i o n .
“Tupper,” h e said, g u i d i n g m e o v e r t o J o h n M a c C o o n , “ h a v e y o u
met your prosecutor?”
He i n t r o d u c e d us in a j o v i a l f a s h i o n and t h e n rushed off to a
huddle of other litigants.
M a c C o o n and I s h o o k hands. “John,” I asked, feeling t h e n e e d
to m a k e small talk, “are you from C h a t t a n o o g a ? ”
“ N o , ” he replied, “I c a m e from W a s h i n g t o n . ”
S o m e t h i n g inside told m e t o press. “ S o you’re o r i g i n a l l y from
Washington?”
“ N o , originally I’m from N e w Orleans.”
“I h a v e lots of cousins in N e w O r l e a n s , ” I b e a m e d . He seemed
to get a little edgy.
“ W e l l , the n a m e Saussy is n o t u n k n o w n there,” he said.
“ O n e of my favorite cousins lives in N e w O r l e a n s , ” I said, and
n a m e d my cousin.
“He’s your cousin? W h y , he and I were ordained together.”
“ O r d a i n e d ? ” I asked. “ M y c o u s i n is a Jesuit priest. A r e y o u a
Jesuit?”
“Yes,” said my p r o s e c u t o r , n o w visibly a g i t a t e d . “ Y o u k n o w , I
might h a v e to recuse m y s e l f . . . . ”
“I’ve got a better idea, drop the charges.”
“ O h n o , I couldn’t do that.”
T h e dialogue e n d e d suddenly w i t h the hoarse drawl of a bailiff
a n n o u n c i n g that court was n o w in session.

S o J o h n M a c C o o n was a Jesuit! T h e m e d i a , s p o o n f e d by his


offices, h a d already b r a n d e d me a “ t a x protestor.” W h a t was
going on? W e r e the Jesuits chasing Protestants again?
A c t u a l l y , I had n o t protested any taxes at all. I h a d merely dis-

XV
RULERS OF E V I L

c o v e r e d some truths a b o u t t h e t a x a n d m o n e t a r y laws and h a d


dared t o stand o n t h e m . A s w i t h t h e H u g u e n o t s a n d t h e truths
t h e y ’ d d i s c o v e r e d a b o u t C h r i s t i a n i t y , a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e offended.
W a s n ’ t it interesting that b o t h of us – my ancestors and me – were
branded as antisocial, repugnant, as people w h o disturb good order
by daring to “protest”? W a s this a religious p e r s e c u t i o n here? W a s
m y stand o n T r u t h s o m e h o w s o offensive t h a t t h e P o p e h a d dis-
p a t c h e d o n e of his swordless warriors to do me in? A n d t h e n there
was the date. T h e charges against m e were filed o n July 3 1 s t . T h a t
h a p p e n s t o b e t h e Feast D a y o f S t . Ignatius L o y o l a , t h e f o u n d i n g
f a t h e r o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o g m a o f t h e
R o m a n L i t u r g i c a l C a l e n d a r , any cause i n i t i a t e d on a saint’s feast
day is especially worthy of the saint’s a t t e n t i o n .
A bizarre series of furtive p r o c e e d i n g s o c c u r r e d o v e r t h e n e x t
e l e v e n m o n t h s . E x c u l p a t o r y e v i d e n c e was ignored o r suppressed.
T h e r e were prosecutorial improprieties, w h i c h the court excused.
W h e n I attempted to avoid the c o n s e q u e n c e s of the improprieties,
I was p u n i s h e d . Few p r e c e d e n t s for s u c h j u d i c i a l s t e a m - r o l l i n g
could be found outside the annals of the R o m a n Inquisition, w h i c h
I l e a r n e d h a d b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d s i n c e 1 5 4 2 b y t h e Jesuits. W h a t
was this – the A m e r i c a n Inquisition? A l l the w h i l e , the I R S , J o h n
M a c C o o n , and t h e media k e p t labeling m e “tax protestor.” S o m e -
t i m e s t h e y w o u l d slip a n d c a l l me a “ t a x e v a d e r , ” e v e n t h o u g h I
had n e v e r b e e n accused of the m u c h more serious crime of tax eva-
sion.
U l t i m a t e l y , a jury a c q u i t t e d me of willfully f a i l i n g to file in-
c o m e tax returns for 1 9 7 8 and 1 9 7 9 . B u t for 1 9 7 7 they found will-
fulness, and t h e h i g h e r courts u p h e l d t h e i r v e r d i c t . It was o n l y a
misdemeanor. T h e last defendant in my district to be c o n v i c t e d on
the same c o u n t h a d b e e n s e n t e n c e d t o six w e e k s . B u t t h e c o u r t
sentenced me to a full year, the m a x i m u m allowed by statute. T h i s
was due t o w h a t t h e p r o s e c u t o r c a l l e d m y “ u n r e p e n t a n c e . ” S o m e
say I s h o u l d h a v e w e p t c r o c o d i l e tears a n d p r o m i s e d to m e n d my
ways. But that w o u l d be gameplaying. H o w c a n you repent of will-
fully failing to do s o m e t h i n g t h a t was n e v e r required in t h e first
place?

xvi
INTRODUCTION ORIENTATION

W H E N I soberly reviewed the long list of prosecutorial absurdi-


ties, I d e c i d e d t h a t I was b e i n g p u n i s h e d for s o m e t h i n g n o t
remotely c o n n e c t e d to willfulness in filing tax returns. I was b e i n g
p u n i s h e d for m o b i l i z i n g w h a t t u r n e d o u t t o b e t h e o n l y c o n s t i t u -
tional issue no court in the U n i t e d States will fully entertain – the
m o n e y issue.
B a c k in the late seventies, I discovered that constitutional gov-
e r n m e n t was c o n t r a v e n i n g every A m e r i c a n ’ s right t o a n e c o n o m y
free of fluctuating monetary values. I wrote a b o o k The Miracle On
Main Street: Saving Yourself and America from Financial Ruin ( 1 9 8 0 ) ,
in w h i c h I compared A m e r i c a n money as mandated by the C o n -
stitution – gold and silver c o i n – w i t h A m e r i c a n m o n e y currently
in use – notes, c o m p u t e r entries, and base-metal t o k e n s . N o t only
was the m o n e y in use inferior to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l money, but also it
had b e e n i n t r o d u c e d w i t h o u t a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a m e n d m e n t . S i n c e
our v a l u e s w e r e d e n o m i n a t e d i n units o f lawless m o n e y , w e h a d
b e c o m e a lawless n a t i o n . Q u a l i t y of life follows quality of money. I
urged the people to take the initiative in nudging g o v e r n m e n t offi-
cials to restore t h e k i n d of m o n e t a r y system e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e
C o n s t i t u t i o n . T h e u l t i m a t e payoff w o u l d be a w h o l e s o m e society.
M a i n Street activism would h a v e worked a miracle.
MOMS c a u g h t on very quickly. A c t i v i s t s b e g a n asserting e c o -
n o m i c rights in m a n y c r e a t i v e ways. To assist and d o c u m e n t their
w o r k , I l a u n c h e d “ T h e M a i n S t r e e t Journal.” P u b l i s h e d m o r e o r
less monthly, the MSJ reported in detail the interesting, sometimes
frightening c o n s e q u e n c e s of e c o n o m i c rights activism.
B y July 1 9 8 4 , m y b o o k a n d m y j o u r n a l h a d e x p a n d e d i n t o a
g r o w i n g bibliography of historic and legal materials related to t h e
m o n e y issue. I was speaking all over the country, and h o l d i n g well-
a t t e n d e d seminars i n T e n n e s s e e . W e h a d history o n our side. T h e
Framers o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n h a d u n a n i m o u s l y v o t e d d o w n t h e
k i n d of monetary system that was destroying modern A m e r i c a , and
h a d u n a n i m o u s l y v o t e d for t h e system w e w e r e a d v o c a t i n g . W e
had the law o n our side. T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t h a d n e v e r ruled t h a t
A m e r i c a ’ s lawless m o n e t a r y system was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . W h a t w e
d i d n ’ t h a v e o n our side was t h e e n t i t y h a v i n g most t o g a i n from

xvii
RULERS OF E V I L

lawless m o n e y – t h e g o v e r n i n g bodies. We were deeply offending


t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e o f l e g i t i m a c y . A s o n e T e n n e s s e e v i l l a g e lawyer
said, in r e t u r n i n g Miracle On Main Street to t h e friend w h o ’ d
loaned it to h i m , “ T h i s b o o k w o n ’ t get Saussy killed, but they’ll fig-
ure out a h u m a n e way of shutting h i m up.”

T H E R E was a n i n t e r v a l o f t w o years b e t w e e n m y trial a n d t h e


S u p r e m e C o u r t ’ s d e c i s i o n o n it. A b o u t m i d w a y d u r i n g t h a t
i n t e r v a l , I r e c e i v e d a p o s t c a r d from t h e m o s t famous p r i s o n e r in
T e n n e s s e e , James Earl Ray. Mr. Ray, t h e s e l f - c o n v i c t e d assassin of
Dr. M a r t i n L u t h e r K i n g , w a n t e d m e t o h e l p h i m write his autobi-
ography. I i n t e r v i e w e d h i m personally, e x a m i n e d his m a n u s c r i p t ,
and c o n d u c t e d some research o f m y o w n . T h e e v i d e n c e persuaded
m e t h a t Mr. R a y did n o t d e s e r v e t o b e c a l l e d , i n Life M a g a z i n e ’ s
w o r d s , “ t h e world’s m o s t h a t e d m a n . ” H e h a d b e e n t o r t u r e d i n t o
p l e a d i n g guilty. Far from p u n i s h m e n t for murder, his c o n f i n e m e n t
was t h e g o v e r n m e n t ’ s w a y of c o n c e a l i n g t h e true assassins, and at
t h e T e n n e s s e e t a x p a y e r s ’ e x p e n s e . I felt t h a t h e , like myself, was
b e i n g m a l i c i o u s l y used by g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s for t h e purpose of
d e c e i v i n g the public.
I w o r k e d c l o s e l y w i t h Mr. Ray, p u b l i s h i n g his a u t o b i o g r a p h y
under t h e title Tennessee Waltz: The Making of A Political Prisoner.
I included an epilogue of my o w n , “ T h e Politics of W i t c h c r a f t , ” in
w h i c h I discussed h o w Dr. K i n g ’ s m u r d e r b e n e f i t t e d no o n e as
m u c h as it did t h e e c o n o m i c p o w e r s of g o v e r n m e n t . A b o u t a
m o n t h before Tennessee Waltz w o u l d be c o m i n g off the press, I was
notified that the U . S . Supreme C o u r t had denied m y appeal. T h e n
the District Judge ordered me to surrender myself to A t l a n t a Fed-
eral Prison C a m p o n o r before A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 8 7 . A friend h a p p e n e d
to say, “ Y o u k n o w , if your previous writings b r o u g h t about t h e tax
p r o s e c u t i o n , t h i n k w h a t Tennessee Waltz m i g h t p r o v o k e t h e m to,
with you in custody....”
A n d so, w h e n t h e m o m e n t c a m e for m e t o pass t h r o u g h t h e
Prison C a m p gates, s o m e t h i n g got in t h e way. I c a n o n l y c a l l it a
spirit, an irresistible spirit. It was the same spirit that h a d directed
m e t o stand o n t h e t r u t h i n m y w r i t i n g a n d s p e a k i n g . I t was t h e

xviii
INTRODUCTION ORIENTATION

same spirit t h a t h a d led m e t o i n t e r r o g a t e J o h n M a c C o o n a t our


first e n c o u n t e r in that marble hallway b a c k in 1 9 8 4 , the same spir-
it that h a d m o v e d h i m to tell me he was a Jesuit. T h i s spirit turned
me away from the prison gate and led me into a fugitive lifestyle.
I felt an o v e r w h e l m i n g obligation to love my enemies by study-
ing t h e m in intricate detail. I w a n t e d to k n o w t h e e x t e n t of Jesuit
i n v o l v e m e n t i n U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t , presently and histori-
cally. W h a t I discovered was a vast R o m a n C a t h o l i c substratum to
A m e r i c a n history, e s p e c i a l l y t h e R e v o l u t i o n t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e
c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e p u b l i c . I f o u n d t h a t Jesuits p l a y e d e m i n e n t a n d
u n d e r - a p p r e c i a t e d roles i n m o v i n g t h e c o m p l a c e n t N e w E n g l a n -
ders to rebel against t h e i r m o t h e r country. I d i s c o v e r e d facts a n d
m o t i v e s strongly suggesting t h a t e v e n t s t h a t m a d e G r e a t B r i t a i n
d i v i d e in 1 7 7 6 were t h e o u t w o r k i n g s of an ingenious Jesuit strate-
gy. T h i s strategy appears t o h a v e b e e n s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y d e s i g n e d
and supervised by a true f o u n d i n g father few A m e r i c a n s h a v e ever
h e a r d of – L o r e n z o R i c c i ( k n o w n to B r i t i s h Jesuits as L a u r e n c e
R i c h e y ) . In fact, investigating Jesuit i n v o l v e m e n t in the formation
of the U n i t e d States turned up a whole host of hitherto little-
k n o w n n a m e s , s u c h a s R o b e r t B e l l a r m i n e , Joseph A m i o t , t h e
D u k e s o f N o r f o l k , D a n i e l C o x e , S u n - T z u , L o r d B u t e , Francis
Thorpe, Nikolaus von Hontheim, and the Carrolls, Daniel,
C h a r l e s , and John. In their way, these m e n were as essential to our
c o n s t i t u t i o n a l origins a s Jefferson, P a i n e , A d a m s , W a s h i n g t o n ,
L o c k e , and G e o r g e III.

M y i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e g a n i n 1 9 8 7 . I t coursed t e n years, a n d
r a n g e d – w i t h t h e h e l p of our L o r d and m a n y c o u r a g e o u s friends,
to w h o m this b o o k is d e d i c a t e d – from t h e Florida K e y s to P u g e t
S o u n d , from the District o f C o l u m b i a t o s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . T h e
mounting evidence inexorably changed the way I perceived con-
stituted authority, a n d my r e l a t i o n s h i p to it. Finally, on t h e thir-
t e e n t h m i n u t e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h h o u r o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h day o f
N o v e m b e r , 1 9 9 7 , t h e j o u r n e y t h a t h a d b e g u n w i t h t h e filing o f
charges against me t h i r t e e n years earlier r e a c h e d its d e s t i n a t i o n . I
was captured w i t h o u t v i o l e n c e by three U . S . Marshals outside my
office on the canals in V e n i c e , C a l i f o r n i a . A v a l u a b l e p e r s o n h o o d

xix
RULERS OF E V I L

I was prepared to d e n y forever was g i v e n b a c k to m e . For s i x t e e n


m o n t h s , the Bureau of Prisons afforded me the opportunity to dis-
cuss the fruits of my investigation w i t h intelligent prisoners in C a l -
ifornia, G e o r g i a , T e n n e s s e e , O k l a h o m a , a n d Mississippi. T h e i r
straightforward q u e s t i o n s , c o m m e n t s , insights, and c r i t i c i s m s
h e l p e d further prepare my manuscript for a general audience.
N o w t h a t my liberties are fully restored, I am able finally to
relate my findings to y o u in my o w n true v o i c e , tried in adversity,
seasoned by time.

F. Tupper Saussy

XX
RULERS OF EVIL
RULERS OF E V I L
Chapter 1

SUBLIMINAL ROME

“The Roman Catholic Church is a State.”


— BISHOP MANDELL CREIGHTON, LETTERS

W
H E N A P U L I T Z E R P R I Z E - w i n n i n g reporter a n n o u n c e d i n
his 1 9 9 2 T i m e M a g a z i n e c o v e r story t h a t a “conspiracy”
1

b i n d i n g President R o n a l d R e a g a n and Pope J o h n Paul II


into a “secret, h o l y alliance” h a d brought about the demise of c o m -
munism, at least o n e reader saw t h r o u g h the h y p e .
Professor C a r o l A . B r o w n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s
fired off a letter to Time’s editors saying,

Last week I taught my students about the separation of


church and state. This week I learned that the Pope is running
U . S . foreign policy. No wonder our young people are cynical
about American ideals.

W h a t B r o w n h a d learned from C a r l Bernstein I h a d discovered


for m y s e l f o v e r s e v e r a l years o f p r i v a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n : t h e p a p a c y
really does run U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r e i g n policy, and always has. Yes,

1
RULERS OF E V I L

B e r n s t e i n n o t e d t h a t t h e l e a d i n g A m e r i c a n players b e h i n d t h e
R e a g a n / V a t i c a n conspiracy, to a man, were “devout R o m a n
C a t h o l i c s ” – namely,

William Casey Alexander Haig


Director, CIA Secretary of State

Richard A l l e n Vernon Walters


National Security Advisor Ambassador-at-Large

Judge William Clark William Wilson


National Security Advisor Ambassador to the Vatican State

B u t t h e reporter n e g l e c t e d t o m e n t i o n t h a t t h e e n t i r e S e n a t e
F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s c o m m i t t e e was g o v e r n e d b y R o m a n C a t h o l i c s ,
as well. Specifically, Senators

Joseph Biden John Kerry


Terrorism, Narcotics, and Interna-
Subcommittee on European Affairs tional Communications

Paul Sarbanes and...


International Economic Policy,
Trade, Oceans, and Environment Christopher Dodd
Daniel P. Moynihan Western Hemisphere and Peace
Near Eastern and South Asian Corps Affairs
Affairs

B e r n s t e i n w o u l d h a v e b e e n w a n d e r i n g o f f - p o i n t t o list t h e
R o m a n C a t h o l i c leaders o f A m e r i c a n d o m e s t i c policy, s u c h a s
S e n a t e majority leader G e o r g e M i t c h e l l and S p e a k e r of the House
T o m Foley.
In fact, w h e n t h e h o l y a l l i a n c e story h i t t h e stands, there was
v i r t u a l l y no arena of federal legislative activity, a c c o r d i n g to The
1992 World Almanac of US Politics, that was n o t directly controlled
b y a R o m a n C a t h o l i c senator o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T h e c o m m i t t e e s
and subcommittees of the U n i t e d States S e n a t e and House of R e p -
resentatives g o v e r n i n g c o m m e r c e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and t e l e c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n s , energy, m e d i c i n e , h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a n d w e l f a r e ,
h u m a n services, c o n s u m e r p r o t e c t i o n , finance and financial insti-
tutions, transportation, labor and u n e m p l o y m e n t , hazardous mate-
rials, t a x a t i o n , b a n k r e g u l a t i o n , c u r r e n c y a n d m o n e t a r y policy,

2
CHAPTER I SUBLIMINAL ROME

o v e r s i g h t of t h e Federal R e s e r v e S y s t e m , c o m m o d i t y prices, rents


s e r v i c e s , small business a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u r b a n affairs, E u r o p e a n
affairs, N e a r E a s t e r n 6 k S o u t h A s i a n affairs, terrorism/narcotics/
international communications, international economic/trade/
o c e a n s / e n v i r o n m e n t a l policy, insurance, housing, community
d e v e l o p m e n t , federal l o a n g u a r a n t e e s , e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i z a t i o n
measures ( i n c l u d i n g w a g e a n d price c o n t r o l s ) , gold and p r e c i o u s
m e t a l s t r a n s a c t i o n s , a g r i c u l t u r e , a n i m a l and forestry industries,
rural issues, n u t r i t i o n , price supports, F o o d for P e a c e , agricultural
exports, soil conservation, irrigation, stream channelization, flood-
c o n t r o l , m i n o r i t y enterprise, e n v i r o n m e n t a n d p o l l u t i o n , appro-
priations, defense, foreign operations, v a c c i n e s , drug labeling and
p a c k a g i n g , drug and a l c o h o l abuse, i n s p e c t i o n and certification of
fish a n d processed f o o d , use of v i t a m i n s and s a c c h a r i n , n a t i o n a l
h e a l t h insurance proposals, h u m a n services, legal services, family
r e l a t i o n s , t h e arts and h u m a n i t i e s , t h e h a n d i c a p p e d , and a g i n g –
in o t h e r words, v i r t u a l l y every aspect of secular life in A m e r i c a –
c a m e u n d e r t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f o n e o f these R o m a n C a t h o l i c
laypersons:

Frank Annunzio Edward Kennedy Daniel Moynihan


Joseph Biden John Kerry John Murtha
Silvio C o n t e John LaFalce Mary Rose Oakar
Kika De la Garza Patrick Leahy David Obey
John Dingell Charles Luken Claiborne Pell
Christopher Dodd Edward Madigan Charles Rangel
Vic Fazio Edward Markey Dan Rostenkowski
James Florio Joseph McDade or Edward Roybal. 2

Henry Gonzalez Barbara Mikulski


Thomas Harkin George Miller

V a t i c a n C o u n c i l IPs Constitution on the Church ( 1 9 6 4 ) instructs


p o l i t i c i a n s to use t h e i r secular offices to a d v a n c e t h e cause of
R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . C a t h o l i c laypersons, “ w h o e v e r they are, are
c a l l e d u p o n t o e x p e n d all t h e i r e n e r g y for t h e g r o w t h o f the
C h u r c h and its c o n t i n u o u s s a n c t i f i c a t i o n , ” a n d “ t o m a k e t h e
C h u r c h present and o p e r a t i v e i n those p l a c e s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s
w h e r e only t h r o u g h t h e m c a n it b e c o m e t h e salt of the earth” (IV,
3 3 ) . V a t i c a n II further instructs all C a t h o l i c s “by their c o m p e t e n c e

3
RULERS OF E V I L

in secular d i s c i p l i n e s and by t h e i r a c t i v i t y [to] v i g o r o u s l y c o n -


tribute their effort so that ... t h e goods of this w o r l d may be more
e q u i t a b l y distributed a m o n g all m e n , a n d m a y i n t h e i r o w n w a y
b e c o n d u c i v e t o u n i v e r s a l progress i n h u m a n a n d C h r i s t i a n free-
d o m ... and [to] remedy t h e customs and c o n d i t i o n s of t h e world,
if they are an i n d u c e m e n t to sin, so that they all may be conformed
to t h e norms of justice and may favor t h e practice of virtue rather
t h a n h i n d e r it” (IV, 3 6 ) .
V a t i c a n II affirms C a t h o l i c doctrine dating back to 1 3 0 2 , w h e n
Pope B o n i f a c e V I I I asserted that “it is absolutely necessary for t h e
s a l v a t i o n o f e v e r y h u m a n c r e a t u r e t o b e subject t o t h e R o m a n
P o n t i f f . ” T h i s was t h e i n s p i r a t i o n for t h e p a p a c y t o c r e a t e t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a t h a t materialized i n 1 7 7 6 , b y a process
just as secret as the R e a g a n - V a t i c a n p r o d u c t i o n of Eastern Europe
i n 1 9 8 9 . W h a t ? A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t R o m a n C a t h o l i c from the
beginning?
Consider: the land k n o w n today as the District of C o l u m b i a
bore t h e n a m e “ R o m e ” i n 1 6 6 3 property records; a n d t h e b r a n c h
o f t h e P o t o m a c R i v e r t h a t b o r d e r e d “ R o m e ” o n t h e s o u t h was
called “Tiber.” T h i s information was reported i n the 1 9 0 2 e d i t i o n
3

of t h e Catholic Encyclopedia’s a r t i c l e on D a n i e l C a r r o l l . T h e arti-


c l e , specifically d e c l a r i n g itself “ o f interest t o C a t h o l i c s ” i n the
1902 e d i t i o n , was d e l e t e d from t h e New Catholic Encyclopedia
( 1 9 6 7 ) . O t h e r facts were reported i n 1 9 0 2 and deleted from 1 9 6 7 .
For e x a m p l e , w h e n C o n g r e s s m e t in W a s h i n g t o n for the first time,
i n N o v e m b e r , 1 8 0 0 , “ t h e o n l y t w o really c o m f o r t a b l e a n d impos-
ing h o u s e s w i t h i n t h e b o u n d s o f t h e c i t y ” b e l o n g e d t o R o m a n
C a t h o l i c s . O n e was W a s h i n g t o n ’ s first mayor, R o b e r t B r e n t . T h e
other was Brent’s brother-in-law, N o t l e y Young, a Jesuit priest.
D a n i e l C a r r o l l was a R o m a n C a t h o l i c congressman from Mary-
land w h o signed t w o o f A m e r i c a ’ s f u n d a m e n t a l d o c u m e n t s , t h e
Articles of Confederation and the U n i t e d States Constitution.
C a r r o l l was a direct d e s c e n d a n t of the C a l v e r t s , a C a t h o l i c family
to w h o m K i n g C h a r l e s I of England had granted M a r y l a n d as a feu-
dal barony. C a r r o l l h a d r e c e i v e d his e d u c a t i o n at St. Omer’s Jesuit
C o l l e g e in Flanders, where y o u n g English-speaking C a t h o l i c s were

4
CHAPTER I SUBLIMINAL ROME

trained in a variety of guerrilla t e c h n i q u e s for a d v a n c i n g t h e cause


o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m a m o n g hostile Protestants.
In 1 7 9 0 , President G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n , a Protestant, appoint-
ed C o n g r e s s m a n Carroll to head a commission of three m e n to
select land for the “federal city” called for in the C o n s t i t u t i o n . Of
all places, t h e c o m m i s s i o n c h o s e “ R o m e , ” w h i c h a t t h e t i m e c o n -
sisted of four farms, o n e of w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o . . . D a n i e l C a r r o l l . It
was u p o n C a r r o l l ’ s farm t h a t t h e n e w g o v e r n m e n t c h o s e t o e r e c t
its most important building, the C a p i t o l .

T HE A m e r i c a n C a p i t o l abounds w i t h clues of its R o m a n origins.


“ F r e e d o m , ” t h e R o m a n goddess w h o s e statue c r o w n s t h e
d o m e , was c r e a t e d i n R o m e a t t h e studio o f A m e r i c a n sculptor
T h o m a s Crawford. We find a w h o l e p a n t h e o n of R o m a n deities in
the great fresco c o v e r i n g the dome’s interior rotunda: Persephone,
C e r e s , Freedom, V u l c a n , Mercury, e v e n a deified G e o r g e W a s h i n g -
t o n . T h e s e figures were t h e c r e a t i o n of V a t i c a n artist C o n s t a n t i n o
Brumidi.
T h e fact t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l S t a t e h o u s e e v o l v e d a s a “ c a p i t o l ”
bespeaks R o m a n influence. No building can rightly be called a
capitol unless it’s a temple of Jupiter, the great father-god of R o m e
w h o ruled h e a v e n w i t h his t h u n d e r b o l t s a n d n o u r i s h e d t h e e a r t h
w i t h his fertilizing rains. If it was a capitolium, it b e l o n g e d to Jupiter
and his priests.
Jupiter’s m a s c o t was t h e e a g l e , w h i c h t h e f o u n d i n g fathers
made their mascot as well. A R o m a n eagle tops the g o v e r n i n g idol
of t h e H o u s e of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a f o r t y - s i x - i n c h sterling silver-
and-ebony w a n d called a “mace.” T h e mace is “the symbol of
a u t h o r i t y i n t h e H o u s e . ” W h e n t h e S e r g e a n t - a t - a r m s displays i t
4

before an unruly m e m b e r of C o n g r e s s , t h e m a c e restores order. Its


position at t h e rostrum tells w h e t h e r the H o u s e is in “ c o m m i t t e e ”
or in “session.”
A m e r i c a ’ s n a t i o n a l m o t t o “Annuit Coeptis” c a m e from a prayer
to Jupiter. It appears in B o o k IX of Virgil’s e p i c p r o p a g a n d a , the
Aeneid, a p o e m c o m m i s s i o n e d just before t h e b i r t h of C h r i s t by
Caius Maecenas, the multi-billionaire power behind Augustus

5
RULERS OF E V I L

Caesar. T h e poem’s o b j e c t i v e was to fashion R o m e into an imperi-


al m o n a r c h y for w h i c h its citizens would gladly sacrifice their lives.
Fascism may be an ugly word to many, but its stately e m b l e m is
a p p a r e n t l y offensive t o n o o n e . T h e e m b l e m o f fascism, a pair o f
t h e m , c o m m a n d s the wall a b o v e and b e h i n d the speaker’s rostrum
in the C h a m b e r of the House of Representatives. They’re called
fasces, and I c a n t h i n k of no reason for t h e m to be there other t h a n
to declare the fascistic nature of A m e r i c a n republican democracy.
A fasces is a R o m a n d e v i c e . A c t u a l l y , it orig-
i n a t e d w i t h t h e a n c i e n t Etruscans, from
w h o m t h e earliest R o m a n s d e r i v e d t h e i r
religious jurisprudence nearly three thousand
years ago. It’s an a x e - h e a d w h o s e h a n d l e is a
b u n d l e of rods t i g h t l y strapped t o g e t h e r by
a red sinew. It symbolizes t h e o r d e r i n g of
priestly f u n c t i o n s i n t o a single infallible
sovereign, an autocrat w h o could require life
and l i m b of his subjects. If t h e fasces is
e n t w i n e d w i t h laurel, like t h e pair o n t h e H o u s e w a l l , i t signifies
C a e s a r e a n military power. T h e R o m a n s c a l l e d this infallible sov-
ereign Pontifex Maximus, “Supreme Bridgebuilder.” No R o m a n was
c a l l e d Pontifex Maximus u n t i l t h e title was g i v e n to Julius C a e s a r
in 48 B C . Today’s Pontifex Maximus is Pope John Paul II.
As we shall discover in a f o r t h c o m i n g chapter, J o h n Paul does
n o t h o l d that title a l o n e . He shares it w i t h a mysterious partner, a
military m a n , a m a n h o l d i n g a n office t h a t has b e e n k n o w n for
more t h a n four c e n t u r i e s as “Papa Nero,” t h e B l a c k P o p e . I shall
present e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e H o u s e fasces represent the B l a c k P o p e ,
w h o indeed rules the world.
Later, I w i l l d e v e l o p w h a t is sure to b e c o m e a c o n t r o v e r s i a l
hypothesis: that the B l a c k Pope rules by d i v i n e a p p o i n t m e n t , and
for the ultimate good of m a n k i n d .

6
RULERS OF E V I L

APOSTOLIC NUNCIATURE, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


3 3 3 9 Massachusetts Avenue N W
Washington, D . C .
Chapter 2

MISSIONARY
ADAPTATION

F
EW PEOPLE SEEM to be aware t h a t t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c
C h u r c h in A m e r i c a is officially r e c o g n i z e d as a S t a t e . H o w
this c a m e about makes interesting reading.
Early i n his a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P r e s i d e n t R o n a l d R e a g a n i n v i t e d
t h e V a t i c a n C i t y , w h o s e r u l i n g h e a d is t h e P o p e , to o p e n its first
embassy i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . H i s H o l i n e s s r e s p o n d e d positively,
and the embassy, or A p o s t o l i c N u n c i a t u r e of the H o l y S e e , o p e n e d
officially o n January 1 0 , 1 9 8 4 .
Shortly thereafter, a c o m p l a i n t was filed against President Rea-
g a n a t U . S . D i s t r i c t C o u r t i n P h i l a d e l p h i a b y t h e A m e r i c a n Jew-
ish C o n g r e s s , t h e B a p t i s t Joint C o m m i t t e e o n P u b l i c A f f a i r s ,
S e v e n t h Day Adventists, the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Churches, the
N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f E v a n g e l i c a l s , and A m e r i c a n s U n i t e d for
S e p a r a t i o n o f C h u r c h and S t a t e . T h e plaintiffs sought t o h a v e the
C o u r t declare that the administration had unconstitutionally

9
RULERS OF E V I L

granted to the R o m a n C a t h o l i c faith privileges that were being


denied to other establishments of religion.
O n M a y 7 , 1 9 8 5 t h e suit was t h r o w n out b y C h i e f Judge J o h n
F u l l a m . Judge F u l l a m ruled t h a t district courts d o n o t h a v e juris-
d i c t i o n to i n t e r v e n e in “foreign policy decisions” of the e x e c u t i v e
b r a n c h . B i s h o p James W . M a l o n e , President o f t h e U . S . C a t h o l i c
C o n f e r e n c e , praised Judge Fullam’s decision, n o t i n g t h a t it settled
“ n o t a religious issue but a public p o l i c y q u e s t i o n . ” T h e plaintiffs
1

appealed. T h e T h i r d C i r c u i t d e n i e d the appeal, n o t i c i n g that “ t h e


R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ’ s unique position of control over a sover-
eign territory gives it advantages that other religious organizations
do not enjoy.” T h e A p o s t o l i c Nunciature at 3 3 3 9 Massachusetts
1

A v e n u e N . W . enables Pontifex Maximus to supervise more closely


A m e r i c a n c i v i l g o v e r n m e n t – “ p u b l i c p o l i c y ” – as a d m i n i s t e r e d
t h r o u g h R o m a n C a t h o l i c laypersons. ( O n e s u c h l a y p e r s o n was
C h i e f Judge F u l l a m , w h o s e R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m a p p a r e n t l y es-
caped the a t t e n t i o n of the plaintiffs.)
T h i s same i m p e r i u m ran p a g a n R o m e i n essentially t h e same
way. T h e public servants were priests of the various gods and god-
desses. M o n e t a r y affairs, for e x a m p l e , were g o v e r n e d by priests of
the goddess M o n e t a . Priests of Dionysus managed architecture and
c e m e t e r i e s , w h i l e priests o f Justitia, w i t h h e r sword, a n d L i b e r a ,
b l i n d f o l d e d , h o l d i n g h e r scales aloft, ruled t h e c o u r t s . H u n d r e d s
2

of priestly orders, k n o w n as the Sacred C o l l e g e , managed hundreds


o f g o v e r n m e n t bureaus, from t h e j u s t i c e system t o t h e c o n s t r u c -
tion, cleaning, and repair of bridges ( n o bridge could be built w i t h -
out the approval of Pontifex Maximus), buildings, temples, castles,
baths, sewers, ports, highways, walls and ramparts of cities and the
boundaries of lands. 3

Priests d i r e c t e d t h e p a v i n g a n d repairing of streets a n d roads,


supervised t h e c a l e n d a r and t h e e d u c a t i o n o f y o u t h . Priests
regulated w e i g h t s , measures, and t h e v a l u e of m o n e y . Priests sol-
e m n i z e d and certified births, baptisms, puberty, purification, c o n -
fession, adolescence, marriage, divorce, death, burial, e x c o m m u n i -
c a t i o n , c a n o n i z a t i o n , deification, a d o p t i o n into families, a d o p t i o n
i n t o tribes a n d orders of n o b i l i t y . Priests ran t h e libraries, t h e

10
CHAPTER 2 MISSIONARY A D A P T A T I O N

m u s e u m s , t h e c o n s e c r a t e d lands a n d treasures. Priests registered


t h e trademarks and symbols. Priests were in charge of p u b l i c wor-
ship, directing the festivals, plays, e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , games and cer-
emonies. Priests wrote and h e l d custody over wills, testaments, and
legal c o n v e y a n c e s .
By t h e fourth century, o n e h a l f of t h e
lands and o n e fourth of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of
the R o m a n Empire were o w n e d by the
priests. W h e n t h e E m p e r o r C o n s t a n t i n e
4

and his S e n a t e f o r m a l l y a d o p t e d C h r i s -
tianity as the Empire’s official religion, the
e x e r c i s e was more of a merger or acquisi-
t i o n t h a n a r e v o l u t i o n . T h e w e a l t h o f the
priests merely b e c a m e the i m m e d i a t e pos-
session of the C h r i s t i a n churches, and the
priests merely declared t h e m s e l v e s C h r i s -
Constantine tians. Government continued without
i n t e r r u p t i o n . T h e p a g a n gods a n d g o d -
desses were artfully outfitted w i t h n a m e s appropriate to C h r i s t i a n -
ity. 1
T h e sign o v e r t h e P a n t h e o n i n d i c a t i n g “ T o [the fertility
goddess] C y b e l e a n d A l l t h e G o d s ” was r e - w r i t t e n “ T o M a r y and
A l l t h e S a i n t s . ” T h e T e m p l e o f A p o l l o b e c a m e t h e C h u r c h o f St.
Apollinaris. T h e Temple of Mars was reconsecrated C h u r c h of
Santa Martina, with the inscription “Mars h e n c e ejected, Marti-
na, m a r t y r e d maid/ C l a i m s n o w t h e w o r s h i p w h i c h t o h i m was
paid.”
H a l o e d icons of A p o l l o were identified as Jesus, and the cross-
es of B a c c h u s and T a m m u z w e r e a c c e p t e d as t h e official symbol of
t h e C r u c i f i x i o n . P o p e L e o I d e c r e e d t h a t “ S t . Peter a n d S t . Paul
h a v e replaced R o m u l u s and R e m u s as Rome’s protecting patrons.” 2

Pagan feasts, too, were Christianized. D e c e m b e r 25 – the celebrat-


ed birthday of a n u m b e r of gods, a m o n g t h e m Saturn, Jupiter, T a m -
muz, B a c c h u s , Osiris, and Mithras – was claimed to h a v e b e e n that
of Jesus as w e l l , and the traditional S a t u r n a l i a , season of d r u n k e n
merriment and gift-giving, e v o l v e d into C h r i s t m a s .
B a c c h u s was popular in a n c i e n t France under his G r e e k n a m e

11
RULERS OF E V I L

S k e t c h of Mithras (left), from a stone carving. Mithras was “Sol Invictus” the
“unconquerable Sun,” an imperial Roman god since the third century BC Under
Constantinian Christianity, artisans re-consecrated him Jesus and other biblical
names. In the silver dish made on Cyprus in the eighth century A D , Mithras
(note the peculiar stance) slaying the Cosmic Bull became David killing a lion.

Dionysus – or, as the F r e n c h rendered it, Denis. His feast, t h e Fes-


turn Dionysi, was h e l d every s e v e n t h day of O c t o b e r , at t h e e n d of
t h e v i n t a g e season. A f t e r t w o days of w i l d partying, a n o t h e r feast
was h e l d , the Festum Dionysi Eleutherei Rusticum ( “ C o u n t r y Festi-
val of Merry Dionysus”). T h e papacy cleverly brought the worship-
pers of D i o n y s u s i n t o its j u r i s d i c t i o n by t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e words
D i o n y s o s , B a c c h u s , E l e u t h e r e i , a n d R u s t i c u m i n t o . . . a group of
C h r i s t i a n martyrs. O c t o b e r s e v e n t h was e n t e r e d o n t h e Liturgical
C a l e n d a r as the feast day of “St. B a c c h u s the Martyr,” w h i l e O c t o -
ber n i n t h was i n s t i t u t e d a s t h e “ F e s t i v a l o f S t . D e n i s , a n d o f his
c o m p a n i o n s S t . E l e u t h e r e a n d S t . R u s t i c . ” The Catholic Almanac
( 1 9 9 2 e t seq) sustains t h e f a b r i c a t i o n b y d e s i g n a t i n g O c t o b e r
n i n t h as the

Feast Day of Denis, bishop of Paris, and two companions identi-


fied by early writers as Rusticus, a priest, and Eleutherius, a dea-
con martyred near Paris. Denis is popularly regarded as the
apostle and patron saint of France.

12
CHAPTER MISSIONARY A D A P T A T I O N

P L A Y I N G loose w i t h t r u t h a n d S c r i p t u r e i n order t o b r i n g every


h u m a n creature into subjection to the R o m a n Pontiff is a tech-
n i q u e c a l l e d “ m i s s i o n a r y a d a p t a t i o n . ” T h i s is e x p l a i n e d as “ t h e
adjustment of the mission subject to t h e cultural r e q u i r e m e n t s of
t h e mission o b j e c t ” so t h a t the papacy’s needs will be b r o u g h t “as
m u c h as possible in a c c o r d w i t h e x i s t i n g socially shared p a t t e r n s
of t h o u g h t , e v a l u a t i o n , and a c t i o n , so as to a v o i d unnecessary and
serious disorganization.” 1

R o m e has so seamlessly adapted its mission to A m e r i c a n secu-


larism that we do n o t t h i n k of the U n i t e d States as a C a t h o l i c sys-
t e m . Y e t t h e rosters o f g o v e r n m e n t r a t h e r d e c i s i v e l y s h o w this t o
be the case.
By far the greatest c h a l l e n g e to missionary adaptation has b e e n
S c r i p t u r e – t h a t is, t h e O l d a n d N e w T e s t a m e n t s , c o m m o n l y
k n o w n as the H o l y Bible. A l m o s t for as long as R o m e has b e e n the
seat of Pontifex Maximus, there has b e e n a curious e n m i t y b e t w e e n
b e t w e e n t h e p o p e s a n d t h e B i b l e w h o s e b e l i e v e r s t h e y are pre-
sumed to head. In the n e x t chapter, we shall begin our examina-
tion of that enmity.

13
RULERS OF E V I L

ROME vs. SCRIPTURE


Pope Gregory IX ( 1 2 2 7 - 4 1 ) , founder of the Inquisition
and champion of Aristotle, excommunicates Holy
Roman Emperor Frederick II, upside down with Bible.
(From the painting by Vasari.)
Chapter 3

MARGINALIZING
THE BIBLE

E
V E R Y R U L E D S O C I E T Y has s o m e form o f h o l y scripture. T h e
h o l y scriptures o f C a e s a r e a n R o m e were t h e p r o p h e c i e s and
ritual d i r e c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n the t e n S i b y l l i n e gospels a n d
Virgil’s Aeneid.
T h e Aeneid i m p l i e d t h a t e v e r y R o m a n ’ s duty was to sacrifice
his individuality, as h e r o i c A e n e a s h a d d o n e , to t h e greater glory
of R o m e a n d Pontifex Maximus. T h e S i b y l l i n e s , b o r r o w i n g from
Isaiah’s m u c h earlier p r o p h e c y o f Jesus C h r i s t , p r o p h e s i e d t h a t
w h e n C a e s a r A u g u s t u s s u c c e e d e d his u n c l e Julius as Pontifex Max-
imus h e w o u l d rule t h e w o r l d a s “ P r i n c e o f P e a c e , S o n o f G o d . ”
A u g u s t u s would issue in a “ n e w world order,” as indeed he did.
T h e S i b y l l i n e s and t h e Aeneid were so b e l o v e d by t h e g o v e r n -
m e n t priests t h a t they were c o n s i d e r e d part of the R o m a n consti-
t u t i o n . T h e same scriptures were m a d e part o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
Constitution w h e n the mottoes “ANNUIT COEPTIS” and “NOVUS
ORDO SECLORUM,” taken from the Aeneid and the Sibyllines

15
RULERS OF E V I L

respectively, were i n c o r p o r a t e d , b y t h e A c t o f July 2 8 , 1 7 8 2 , into


the G r e a t Seal of the U n i t e d States. 1

T h e S i b y l l i n e s a n d t h e Aeneid w e r e o p e n o n l y t o priests and


c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e d persons. T h e p e o p l e l e a r n e d t h e i r sacred c o n -
t e n t b y t h e t r i c k l e - d o w n o f priestly r e t e l l i n g . W h e n t h e O l d and
N e w Testaments were adopted as the Empire’s official sacred writ-
ings they, too, were g i v e n to the e x c l u s i v e care of the priests. A n d
i n a c c o r d w i t h R o m a n t r a d i t i o n , t h e p e o p l e l e a r n e d sacred c o n -
tent from discretionary retelling. T h i s had to be, for the sake of the
H o l y E m p i r e . For s h o u l d t h e p e o p l e a c q u i r e b i b l i c a l k n o w l e d g e ,
t h e y w o u l d k n o w t h a t Pontifex Maximus was n o t a l e g i t i m a t e
C h r i s t i a n e n t i t l e m e n t . K n o w i n g t h i s , t h e y w o u l d n o t b o w t o his
supremacy. T h e E m p i r e c o u l d c o l l a p s e . A n d s o t h e m o n a r c h i a l
R o m a n C h u r c h forcibly suppressed the Bible’s intelligent reading.
T h i s i s w h y the m i l l e n n i u m b e t w e e n C o n s t a n t i n e and G u t e n b e r g
is k n o w n as “the Dark A g e s . ”
S p r i n k l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e E m p i r e , h o w e v e r , w e r e isolated
C h r i s t i a n assemblies w h o had preserved Scripture from the days of
the early C h u r c h . For t h e m the Bible invited an o n g o i n g , personal
c o m m u n i o n w i t h t h e C r e a t o r o f t h e u n i v e r s e . T h e y l i v e d b y the
writings of w h i c h R o m e was so jealous. By the t h i r t e e n t h century,
these assemblies h a d g r o w n s o v i b r a n t t h a t P o p e G r e g o r y I X
d e c l a r e d u n a u t h o r i z e d B i b l e study a heresy. He further d e c r e e d
2

t h a t “it i s t h e duty o f e v e r y C a t h o l i c t o p e r s e c u t e h e r e t i c s . ” T o
m a n a g e the persecution, G r e g o r y established the Pontifical Inqui-
sition.
T h e Inquisition treated the slightest departure from t h e life of
the c o m m u n i t y as proof of direct c o m m u n i o n with the Bible or
S a t a n . Either instance was a sin worthy of d e a t h . C a s e s were pros-
3

e c u t e d a c c o r d i n g to a strict r o u t i n e . First, t h e inquisitors w o u l d


enter a t o w n and present their credentials to the c i v i l authorities.
In the pope’s n a m e , they would require the governor’s cooperation.
N e x t , t h e l o c a l priest w o u l d b e ordered t o s u m m o n his c o n g r e g a -
t i o n t o h e a r t h e inquisitors p r e a c h against heresy, w h i c h was
d e f i n e d as a n y t h i n g t h e least b i t o p p o s e d to t h e p a p a l system. A
brief grace p e r i o d f o l l o w e d t h e s e r m o n , w h e r e i n t h e p e o p l e w e r e

16
CHAPTER 3 M A R G I N A L I Z I N G THE BIBLE

g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o step forward and a c c u s e t h e m s e l v e s o f


c r i m e s . T h o s e w h o did w e r e usually p u n i s h e d mildly. Later, t h e
inquisitors w o u l d r e c e i v e at their lodgings unverified accusations,
g u a r a n t e e i n g i n t h e pope’s n a m e t h e a n o n y m i t y o f i n f o r m a n t s .
M a n y i n n o c e n t lives were ruined by false testimony.
Trials were c o n d u c t e d arbitrarily and secretly by tribunals c o n -
sisting of t h e inquisitors, t h e i r staffs, and their witnesses, all c o n -
cealed under hoods. T h e accused were never told the charges
against t h e m , and they were forbidden to ask. No defense witness-
e s w e r e p e r m i t t e d . T h e a c c u s e d h a d b u t o n e o p t i o n : t o confess
g u i l t a n d die. T h o s e w h o refused t o confess ( a n d witnesses w h o
b a l k e d at testifying) w e r e carried to t h e d u n g e o n for torture ses-
sions (boys u n d e r f o u r t e e n a n d girls u n d e r t w e l v e e x e m p t e d ) .
Inquisitors a n d e x e c u t i o n e r s w e r e c o m m a n d e d b y p a p a l e d i c t t o
show no mercy. No acquittal was ever recorded. Every fully prose-
c u t e d case e n d e d in t h e d e a t h of the d e f e n d a n t and t h e forfeiture
of his or her property, since it was assumed (as in A m e r i c a n forfei-
ture cases since 1 9 8 4 ) t h a t t h e property was g a i n e d i n sin. S o m e -
times the property of family members for generations to c o m e was
forfeited. T h e s e forfeitures were paid out in expenses to the scribes
and executioners, half of the remainder going into the papal treas-
ury and h a l f t o t h e inquisitors. A l t h o u g h p o p e s a n d inquisitors
amassed great fortunes from t h e I n q u i s i t i o n , its greatest b e n e f i c i -
ary was, and has been, the R o m a n system. 4

T h e I n q u i s i t i o n was most effective against t h e isolated truth-


seeker i n a n i g n o r a n t c o m m u n i t y . A s c o m m u n i t i e s b e c a m e more
literate, t h e I n q u i s i t i o n grew subtler. W h a t b r o u g h t l i t e r a c y t o
c o m m u n i t i e s was t h e e p i d e m i c of B i b l e - r e a d i n g m a d e possible by
the perfection of Johannes Gutenberg’s i n v e n t i o n of m o v a b l e type.

17
RULERS OF E V I L

NOMINATION
Charles Habsburg (right, King of Spain and
Holy Roman Emperor) confides to Pope
C l e m e n t VII (Giulio d’Medici) his choice of the
man to stop defections to Protestantism.
(After the painting by Vasari.)
Chapter 4

LEARNING

G
U T E N B E R G C H O S E t h e Bible t o d e m o n s t r a t e m o v a b l e type
not so much that the c o m m o n man might be brought
n e a r e r t o G o d , b u t t h a t h e a n d h i s b a c k e r , Dr. J o h a n n e s
Faust, m i g h t make a killing in the b o o k trade.
Prior to 1 4 5 0 , Bibles were so rare t h e y were c o n v e y e d by deed,
like parcels of real estate. A Bible t o o k nearly a year to m a k e , c o m -
m a n d i n g a p r i c e e q u a l to t e n t i m e s t h e a n n u a l i n c o m e of a pros-
perous m a n . J o h a n n e s G u t e n b e r g i n t e n d e d his first p r o d u c t i o n , a
folio edition of the 6 t h - c e n t u r y Latin Bible ( k n o w n as the V u l -
g a t e ) , to f e t c h m a n u s c r i p t p r i c e s . Dr. Faust d i s c r e e t l y sold it as a
o n e - o f - a - k i n d to kings, n o b l e s , and c h u r c h e s . A second e d i t i o n in
1 4 6 2 sold for as m u c h as 6 0 0 c r o w n s e a c h in Paris, but sales were
t o o sluggish t o suit Faust, s o h e slashed p r i c e s t o 6 0 c r o w n s and
then to 30.
T h i s p u t e n o u g h c o p i e s i n t o c i r c u l a t i o n for C h u r c h a u t h o r -
ities to n o t i c e t h a t several were identical. S u c h extraordinary uni-
formity b e i n g regarded a s h u m a n l y i m p o s s i b l e , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s

19
RULERS OF E V I L

charged that Faust had produced the Bibles by magic. On this pre-
text, the A r c h b i s h o p of M a i n z h a d G u t e n b e r g ’ s shop raided and a
fortune i n c o u n t e r f e i t Bibles seized. T h e red ink w i t h w h i c h they
were embellished was alleged to be h u m a n blood. Faust was arrest-
ed for conspiring w i t h S a t a n , but there is no record of any trial.
M e a n w h i l e , the pressmen, w h o h a d b e e n sworn n o t t o disclose
G u t e n b e r g ’ s secrets w h i l e in his s e r v i c e , fled t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of
M a i n z a n d set u p shops o f t h e i r o w n . A s paper m a n u f a c t u r e im-
proved, along w i t h t e c h n i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s i n matrix c u t t i n g and
type-casting, books b e g a n to proliferate. M o s t were editions of the
V u l g a t e . I n t h e d e c a d e f o l l o w i n g t h e M a i n z raid, five L a t i n and
t w o G e r m a n Bibles were published. Translators busied t h e m s e l v e s
i n other countries. A n Italian version appeared i n 1 4 7 1 , a B o h e m i -
an in 1 4 7 5 , a D u t c h and a F r e n c h in 1 4 7 7 , and a S p a n i s h in 1 4 7 8 .
As quickly as our generation has b e c o m e computer-literate, the
G u t e n b e r g g e n e r a t i o n l e a r n e d t o read b o o k s , a n d careful readers
found s h o c k i n g discrepancies b e t w e e n t h e papacy’s interpretation
of G o d ’ s W o r d and the W o r d itself.
I n 1 4 8 5 , t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f M a i n z issued a n e d i c t p u n i s h i n g
unauthorized Bible-reading with excommunication, confiscation
o f b o o k s , a n d h e a v y fines. T h e g r e a t R e n a i s s a n c e t h e o l o g i a n
Desiderius Erasmus c h a l l e n g e d t h e A r c h b i s h o p b y p u b l i s h i n g , i n
1 5 1 6 , t h e first p r i n t e d e d i t i o n o f t h e G r e e k N e w T e s t a m e n t . H e
addressed the anti-Bible mentality in his preface w i t h these words:

I vehemently dissent from those who would not have private


persons read the Holy Scriptures nor have them translated into
the vulgar tongues, as though either Christ taught such difficult
doctrines that they can only be understood by a few theologians,
or the safety of the Christian religion lay in ignorance of it. I
should like all women to read the Gospel and the Epistles of
Paul. Would that they were translated into all languages so that
not only the Scotch and Irish, but Turks and Saracens might be
able to read and know them.

A C a t h o l i c m o n k n a m e d M a r t i n Luther, against t h e a d v i c e of
his superiors, plunged into the N e w T e s t a m e n t of Erasmus. He was

20
CHAPTER 4 MEDICI LEARNING

s h o c k e d by the absence of scriptural authority


for s o m a n y C h u r c h traditions. O f the s e v e n
C h u r c h S a c r a m e n t s o n l y t w o , Baptism and
the Lord’s Supper, were grounded in
S c r i p t u r e . T h e r e m a i n i n g five – C o n f i r -
mation, Absolution, Ordination, Mar-
riage, a n d E x t r e m e U n c t i o n – w e r e t h e
inventions of post-biblical councils and
d e c r e e s . L u t h e r f o u n d n o scriptural m a n -
date for c e l i b a c y of m o n k s and n u n s , or for
pilgrimages and the v e n e r a t i o n o f sacred
relics. T h e C h u r c h t a u g h t t h a t prayer, g o o d
Martin Luther
w o r k s , a n d regular p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e S a c r a -
m e n t s m i g h t save m a n from eternal d a m n a t i o n . L u t h e r found this
to be opposed to the t e a c h i n g of Scripture. A c c o r d i n g to Scripture,
o n l y o n e t h i n g c a n s a v e m a n from t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f his sins:
G o d ’ s grace, and t h a t alone.
T h e most explosive result of Luther’s Bible-reading was its atti-
tude t o w a r d t h e papacy. N o w h e r e i n S c r i p t u r e c o u l d the passion-
ate m o n k f i n d that G o d h a d ordained a n imperious R o m a n “ V i c a r
of C h r i s t ” to rule o v e r a vast e c o n o m y based on selling rights to do
e v i l . T h e s e rights w e r e c a l l e d i n d u l g e n c e s . T h e y h a d b e e n a
C h u r c h t r a d i t i o n s i n c e P o p e L e o III h a d b e g u n g r a n t i n g t h e m i n
the year 8 0 0 , p a y a b l e i n t h e m o n e y c o i n e d b y P o p e A d r i a n I i n
780.
I n d u l g e n c e s w e r e f l o a t e d o n t h e C h u r c h ’ s credibility, r a t h e r
like g o v e r n m e n t bonds are issued on the credibility of states today.
I n 1 4 9 1 , for e x a m p l e , I n n o c e n t V I I g r a n t e d t h e 2 0 - y e a r Butter-
briefe i n d u l g e n c e , by w h i c h G e r m a n s c o u l d pay /20th of a guilder
1

for the a n n u a l privilege of eating dairy products e v e n w h i l e merit-


ing from fasting. T h e p r o c e e d s of t h e Butterbriefe w e n t to b u i l d a
bridge at Torgau. Rome’s i n d u l g e n c e e c o n o m y was as e x t e n s i v e as
1

A m e r i c a ’ s i n c o m e tax system today. A n d it was every bit as fueled


by t h e people’s t r e m b l i n g c o m p l i a n c e , v o l u n t a r i l y , to a p r e s u m p -
tion of liability.
In 1 5 1 5 Pope L e o X issued a Bull of Indulgence authorizing let-

21
RULERS OF E V I L

ters of safe c o n d u c t to Paradise and p a r d o n s for e v e r y e v i l imagi-


n a b l e , from a 2 5 - c e n t purgatory release ( t h e d e a d left purgatory
2

the instant one’s coins hit the b o t t o m of the indulgence-salesman’s


b u c k e t ) to a l i c e n s e so p o t e n t t h a t it w o u l d e x c u s e s o m e o n e w h o
h a d raped t h e V i r g i n Mary. For t h e p a y m e n t o f four d u c a t s , o n e
could be forgiven for murdering one’s father. Sorcery was pardoned
for 6 d u c a t s . For r o b b i n g a c h u r c h , t h e law c o u l d be r e l a x e d for
o n l y 9 d u c a t s . S o d o m y was p a r d o n e d for 1 2 d u c a t s . H a l f t h e rev-
enues from Leo’s i n d u l g e n c e w e n t to a fund for the b u i l d i n g of S t .
Peter’s C a t h e d r a l , and the o t h e r h a l f t o p a y i n g 4 0 % interest rates
on b a n k loans subsidizing t h e m a g n i f i c e n t works of art and archi-
tecture w i t h w h i c h His Holiness was establishing R o m e as the cul-
tural c a p i t a l o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . H i s t o r i a n s h a v e glorified L e o ,
w h o s e father h a p p e n e d to be t h e great F l o r e n t i n e b a n k e r L o r e n z o
d ’ M e d i c i , by marking the s i x t e e n t h century as “the C e n t u r y of L e o
X.”
In early 1 5 2 1 , M a r t i n Luther formally protested the indulgence
racket by nailing his famous Ninety-five Theses Upon Indulgences to
the d o o r o f the castle c h u r c h o f W i t t e n b u r g . T h e c h u r c h was said
to o w n a l o c k of t h e H o l y Virgin’s hair w o r t h t w o m i l l i o n years of
indulgences. Luther’s Theses e x h o r t e d Christians “to follow C h r i s t ,
their H e a d , t h r o u g h penalties, deaths, and hells,” rather t h a n pur-
c h a s e “a false assurance of p e a c e ” from C h u r c h i n d u l g e n c e - s a l e s -
men.
L e o h a d L u t h e r arrested and d e t a i n e d for t e n m o n t h s in W a r t -
burg C a s t l e . W h i l e i n custody, L u t h e r m a n a g e d t o t r a n s l a t e t h e
G r e e k N e w T e s t a m e n t o f Erasmus i n t o G e r m a n . Its p u b l i c a t i o n
alarmed t h e broadest r e a c h e s o f R o m a n authority. D ’ A u b i g n e , i n
his History of the Reformation, tells us t h a t “ I g n o r a n t priests shud-
dered a t the t h o u g h t t h a t e v e r y c i t i z e n , nay e v e r y p e a s a n t , w o u l d
n o w be able to dispute w i t h t h e m on the precepts of our Lord.”
M e a n w h i l e , Leo X died. T h e new pope, A d r i a n V I , hardly
eulogized L e o w h e n confessing t o t h e D i e t o f N u r e m b e r g t h a t “for
m a n y years, a b o m i n a b l e t h i n g s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e C h a i r o f
Peter, abuses in spiritual matters, transgressions of the C o m m a n d -
ments, so that everything here has been wickedly perverted.” 3

22
CHAPTER 4 MEDICI LEARNING

A d r i a n died shortly after speaking these lines, to be s u c c e e d e d by


t h e C a r d i n a l w h o h a d b e e n h a n d l i n g M a r t i n Luther’s case all
along, another M e d i c i , L e o X’s first cousin, G i u l i o d ’ M e d i c i . G i u l i o
t o o k the papal n a m e C l e m e n t V I I .
Just as L e o X’s c o r r u p t i o n h a d i g n i t e d L u t h e r , C l e m e n t VII’s
shrewdness d e t e r m i n e d h o w t h e C h u r c h w o u l d deal w i t h t h e pro-
liferation of Bibles. C l e m e n t was personally advised by t h e cagey
N i c c o l o M a c h i a v e l l i , inventor of modern political science, and
C a r d i n a l T h o m a s Wolsey, C h a n c e l l o r o f England. M a c h i a v e l l i and
Wolsey opined that b o t h printing and Protestantism could be
t u r n e d t o R o m e ’ s a d v a n t a g e b y e m p l o y i n g m o v a b l e type t o p r o -
duce a literature that would confuse, diminish, and ultimately mar-
ginalize t h e Bible. C a r d i n a l Wolsey, w h o w o u l d later found C h r i s t
C h u r c h C o l l e g e at O x f o r d , c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e p r o j e c t as “to put
learning against learning.” 4

A g a i n s t t h e Bible’s l e a r n i n g , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w m a n
c o u l d h a v e e t e r n a l life simply by b e l i e v i n g in t h e facts of Christ’s
d e a t h and resurrection, w o u l d be put t h e learning of the gnostics.
G n o s t i c i s m h e l d out the h o p e that m a n c o u l d a c h i e v e everlasting
life by d o i n g g o o d works himself. To put it succinctly, Bible-learn-
ing was Christ-centered; gnostic learning was m a n - c e n t e r e d .
A n e n o r m o u s trove o f gnostic learning h a d b e e n brought from
the eastern M e d i t e r r a n e a n by agents of C l e m e n t VII’s great-grand-
father, C o s i m o d ’ M e d i c i . Suppressed since t h e E m p e r o r Justinian
h a d piously shut d o w n t h e p a g a n c o l l e g e s o f A t h e n s b a c k i n 5 2 9 ,
these c e l e b r a t e d m y s t i c a l , scientific a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l scrolls and
manuscripts flattered h u m a n i t y . T h e y t a u g h t t h a t h u m a n intelli-
g e n c e was c o m p e t e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t r u t h from f a l s e h o o d w i t h o u t
g u i d a n c e or assistance from any g o d . S i n c e , as Protagoras put it,
“ m a n is t h e measure of all t h i n g s , ” m a n c o u l d c o n t r o l all t h e liv-
ing powers of the u n i v e r s e . If e l e c t e d and initiated into t h e secret
k n o w l e d g e , or gnosis, m a n could master the cabalah – the “royal sci-
e n c e ” of n a m e s , n u m b e r s , a n d s y m b o l s – to c r e a t e his v e r y o w n
divinity.
C o s i m o had stored huge quantities of this pagan material in his
library in F l o r e n c e . T h e M e d i c i Library, w h o s e final a r c h i t e c t was

23
RULERS OF E V I L

M i c h a e l a n g e l o , w e l c o m e d scholars f a v o r e d b y t h e papacy. T h e s e
s c h o l a r s , n o t surprisingly, s o o n b e g a n e m u l a t i n g t h e p a p a c y i n
focusing more u p o n h u m a n i t y t h a n u p o n the O l d and N e w Testa-
m e n t s . So e x t e n s i v e was the M e d i c i Library’s p h i l o s o p h i c a l influ-
e n c e t h a t e v e n scholars t o d a y c o n s i d e r i t t h e cradle o f W e s t e r n
civilization.
M a r t i n L u t h e r , s e e i n g t h a t learning against learning was t h e
future o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , v o i c e d a n “ A p p e a l t o t h e R u l i n g C l a s s e s ”
( 1 5 2 0 ) , i n w h i c h h e wrote, rather prophetically:

Though our children live in the midst of a Christian world,


they faint and perish in misery because they lack the Gospel in
which we should be training and exercising them all the time. I
advise no one to place his child where the Scriptures do not
reign paramount. Schools will become wide-open gates of hell if
they do not diligently engrave the Holy Scriptures on young
hearts. Every institution where men are not increasingly occu-
pied with the word of G o d must become corrupt.

It was o n e t h i n g to r e c o m m e n d learning against learning, a n d


quite a n o t h e r to m a n a g e its m u l t i p l e d i m e n s i o n s . Learning against
learning a m o u n t e d t o n o less t h a n m a k i n g war o n t h e B i b l e . T o
w a g e s u c h a war, t h e p a p a c y n e e d e d a n e w priestly order of pious
soldiers c o n d i t i o n e d to w i e l d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e a p o n s on a b a t t l e -
field of... human thought. B u t first, t h e r e h a d to be a g e n e r a l . T h e
m a n c h o s e n to lead t h e assault on t h e B i b l e was a s w a s h b u c k l i n g
adventurer from the proud Basque country of n o r t h e r n S p a i n .

24
RULERS OF EVIL

I G N A T I U S OF L O Y O L A
Chapter 5

APPOINTMENT
AT CYPRUS

H
IS N A M E W A S Iñigo de L o y o l a . H e was born in 1 4 9 1 to a
r i c h family, y o u n g e s t o f e i g h t b o y s , o n e o f t h i r t e e n c h i l -
dren. His older b r o t h e r h a d sailed t o the N e w W o r l d w i t h
Christopher Columbus.
Iñigo served as a page in t h e c o u r t of K i n g F e r d i n a n d and
Q u e e n Isabella o f S p a i n . H e b e c a m e friends w i t h Ferdinand’s Bel-
g i a n g r a n d s o n , C h a r l e s H a b s b u r g , w h o s e o t h e r g r a n d f a t h e r was
Holy R o m a n Emperor Maximilian. ( T h e Holy R o m a n Emperor
was a k i n d of secular p o p e w h o presided o v e r t h e C h r i s t i a n k i n g -
doms of the western world.) C h a r l e s was propelled to great author-
ity before his t w e n t y - f i r s t b i r t h d a y by t h e d e a t h s of his t w o
grandfathers w i t h i n a space of t w o years. From Ferdinand, C h a r l e s
i n h e r i t e d S p a i n . From M a x i m i l i a n , h e inherited the H o l y R o m a n
E m p i r e . C h a r l e s H a b s b u r g was K i n g C h a r l e s I of S p a i n , E m p e r o r
C h a r l e s V of R o m e . He was the most powerful secular figure in Eu-
rope. A n d h e was I ñ i g o ’ s friend.

27
RULERS OF EVIL

In 1 5 1 8 , Iñigo was part of a l e g a t i o n n e g o t i a t i n g for C h a r l e s


w i t h Spain’s t r a d i t i o n a l rival, F r a n c e , at t h e c o u r t of t h e D u k e of
N a j e r a in Valladolid. W h i l e the summit was in session, C a t h e r i n a ,
t h e Emperor’s sister, was p r e s e n t e d to t h e N a j e r a c o u r t . Iñigo fell
i n l o v e w i t h her. H e was t w e n t y - s e v e n and she was e l e v e n . ( T h e
Emperor was eighteen.) T h e m a t c h , h o w e v e r , was n o t to be.
O n M o n d a y , M a y 20, 1 5 2 1 , w h i l e c o m m a n d i n g a garrison a t
the Duke’s fortress in P a m p l o n a , Iñigo was struck by a F r e n c h can-
n o n b a l l . H i s right leg was s h a t t e r e d , a n d w i t h it – s i n c e a w e l l -
shaped leg was a m o n g a courtier’s most prized assets – the prospects
for a romantic life w i t h C a t h e r i n a , or any other w o m a n . An h o n o r
guard of F r e n c h soldiers bore the w o u n d e d c h a m p i o n on a stretch-
er to his family’s c a s t l e in t h e S p a n i s h P y r e n e e s . Surgeons
b u t c h e r e d h i s leg a n d reset t h e b o n e s . H e lost a p p e t i t e a n d was
told he might die. He made confession and was g i v e n last rites. But
a few days after the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul, he was p r o n o u n c e d
o u t o f death’s i m m e d i a t e grasp. H e c r e d i t e d this r e c o v e r y t o his
d e v o t i o n to St. Peter.
Iñigo r e m a i n e d b e d r i d d e n for n e a r l y a year. U n d e r t h e c o n -
c e r n e d if d i s t a n t eye of t h e y o u t h f u l Emperor, he s p e n t his t i m e
“ s e a r c h i n g for substitutes for t h e s h a t t e r e d ideals, a m b i t i o n s , and
values t h a t h a d b e e n so c e n t r a l to his sense of h i m s e l f . ” He gazed
2

obsessively at a small i c o n of S a i n t C a t h e r i n e , a gift from Q u e e n


Isabella t o his sister-in-law. T h e i c o n sparked dreams o f C a t h e r i -
na, w h i c h o n l y t h r o t t l e d his h e a r t w i t h d e s o l a t i o n . H e t u r n e d t o
books, L u d o l p h of Saxony’s Life of Christ and Voragine’s Lives of the
Saints – the only t w o v o l u m e s in t h e family library despite the fact
that a Spanish Bible had b e e n available for forty years.
T h e i c o n and the books gave h i m visions. T h e visions, i n turn,
led h i m to d e v e l o p a process of “preparing and disposing t h e soul
to rid itself of all inordinate a t t a c h m e n t s , and, after their r e m o v a l ,
o f s e e k i n g and f i n d i n g t h e w i l l o f G o d . ” I ñ i g o called this process
3

“the Spiritual Exercises.”


In t h e Exercises, a D i r e c t o r leads a R e t r e a t a n t t h r o u g h Four
W e e k s of intense prayer, meditation, and dialogue w i t h the Blessed
V i r g i n Mary, Jesus, a n d G o d t h e Father. F r e q u e n t r e p e t i t i o n o f

28
CHAPTER 5 APPOINTMENT AT CYPRUS

“Anima Christi,” L o y o l a ’ s o w n h a b i t u a l prayer for d i s o r i e n t a t i o n


a n d sensory d e p r i v a t i o n ( “ B l o o d o f C h r i s t , i n e b r i a t e m e ” ) , i s
advised. T h e First W e e k i s s p e n t c o n s i d e r i n g a n d c o n t e m p l a t i n g
sins, c r e a t i n g v i v i d m e n t a l p i c t u r e s of “ h e l l in all its d e p t h and
b r e a d t h , p u t t i n g y o u r five senses at t h e s e r v i c e of your i m a g i n a -
t i o n . ” T h e S e c o n d W e e k e x p l o r e s t h e life o f C h r i s t u p t o P a l m
Sunday inclusively; the Third W e e k undertakes the Crucifixion,
i n w h i c h t h e R e t r e a t a n t i s d i r e c t e d t o “ i m a g i n e C h r i s t our Lord
present before y o u o n t h e C r o s s , a n d b e g i n t o speak w i t h h i m ...
and ask ‘What h a v e I d o n e for Christ? W h a t am I doing for Christ?
W h a t o u g h t I t o d o for C h r i s t ? ’ ” T h e F o u r t h W e e k i s o c c u p i e d
4

w i t h t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n a n d A s c e n s i o n , after w h i c h t h e R e t r e a t a n t
prays “for a k n o w l e d g e of the deceits of t h e rebel c h i e f and h e l p to
guard myself against t h e m ; and also to ask for a k n o w l e d g e of the
true life e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e s o v e r e i g n a n d true C o m m a n d e r , and
the grace to imitate h i m . ”
By the time the Exercises h a v e run their course, the Re-
treatant’s purified i m a g i n a t i o n is totally d o m i n a t e d by m e n t a l pic-
tures o f Jesus resurrected, Jesus t h e K i n g M i l i t a n t . O n e c a n n o w
answer the King’s call to c o n q u e r Protestantism and its rebel c h i e f
( “ t h e e n e m y of h u m a n n a t u r e ” ) w i t h t h e selfless fidelity of a
c h i v a l r o u s k n i g h t . O n e ’ s c o n s c i o u s n e s s has b e e n altered. O n e ’ s
soul and brain h a v e b e e n washed. O n e ’ s liberty has b e e n sacrificed
t o authority. O n e ’ s i n d i v i d u a l i t y has b e e n surrendered t o t h e
C h r i s t o f R o m e . O n e n o l o n g e r has a w i l l o f one’s o w n . O n e v o l -
unteers for any assigned task no matter h o w adverse.
M a r t i n L u t h e r s p e n t L o y o l a ’ s year o f r e c o v e r y i m p r i s o n e d a t
Wartburg C a s t l e for insulting the papacy w i t h his Ninety-Five The-
ses. R e m a r k a b l y , w h i l e o n e prisoner e x p e r i e n c e d m y s t i c a l v i s i o n s
that urged h i m t o defend t h e C h u r c h ’ s h o n o r i n t h e r o m a n t i c a l l y
chivalrous m a n n e r of the K n i g h t s Templar, the other was translat-
ing ( w i t h t h e miraculous permission of his keepers) t h e N e w Tes-
t a m e n t i n t o G e r m a n s o t h a t ordinary p e o p l e m i g h t learn t h e will
o f G o d directly. T h e s e p a r a l l e l , s i m u l t a n e o u s quests for h o l i n e s s
would define m o d e r n life’s underlying conflict: W h i c h Master Do I
S e r v e , R o m e or the W o r d of G o d ?

29
RULERS OF EVIL

P U R I F I E D b y t h e Spiritual Exercises, I ñ i g o ’ s sensual a t t a c h m e n t


t o Princess C a t h e r i n a was transformed t h r o u g h S a i n t C a t h e r -
ine i n t o a higher, spiritual a t t a c h m e n t to a h i g h e r f e m i n i n i t y – to
Mary, the Q u e e n o f H e a v e n . A n apparition o f the V i r g i n appeared
to h i m o n e n i g h t and validated that he was free of fleshly lusts and
was n o w w o r t h y of a p i l g r i m a g e to Jerusalem. In M a r t i n Luther’s
o p i n i o n , “as far as G o d is c o n c e r n e d , Jerusalem a n d all t h e H o l y
L a n d are n o t o n e w h i t m o r e , or less, interesting t h a n t h e c o w s in
Switzerland.” 5
B u t to a spiritual warrior p r e p a r i n g to lead t h e
C h u r c h to war against S c r i p t u r e , a t o u c h d o w n in Jerusalem was
absolutely necessary. Jerusalem was t h e d o m a i n of K i n g S o l o m o n ’ s
T e m p l e , t h e geo-spiritual c e n t e r of t h e K n i g h t s Templar. If Iñigo
was to r e v i v e t h e Templars, as t h e Emperor desired, it was liturgi-
cally i m p e r a t i v e t h a t his n e w l y - w a s h e d spirit present itself in t h e
Sacred C i t y for initiation into the mysteries of h o l y warfare.
A l l pilgrims to the H o l y L a n d were required by law to apply to
the p o p e at Easter for permission to proceed. In early M a r c h 1 5 2 2 ,
more t h a n a year in a d v a n c e , Iñigo set out for R o m e in all his aris-
t o c r a t i c finery, r i d i n g o n t h e b a c k o f a m u l e . T h e c o r r u p t L e o X
h a d d i e d s u d d e n l y o f m a l a r i a i n D e c e m b e r 1 5 2 1 , and o n January
9, 1522, Charles Habsburg (King and Emperor) had engineered
the nearly u n a n i m o u s e l e c t i o n o f his former tutor, A d r i a n D e d a l ,
to succeed L e o as A d r i a n V I . Iñigo h e a d e d for R o m e c o i n c i d e n t a l -
l y w i t h A d r i a n ’ s j o u r n e y across S p a i n t o B a r c e l o n a , t h e p o i n t o f
e m b a r c a t i o n for v o y a g e s t o Italy. T h e n e w p o p e s t o p p e d i n
N a v a r r e , in n o r t h e r n S p a i n , for an official r e c e p t i o n by the D u k e
of Najera’s successor. Iñigo, t o o , s t o p p e d at N a v a r r e to do some
undescribed business at the Duke’s residence at N a v a r e t t e . Perhaps
A d r i a n gave h i m a discreet audience.
Further on, the pilgrim kept an all-night vigil at a c h a p e l of the
V i r g i n of Aranzazu, Protectress of the Basques, v o w i n g his chastity
t o h e r small, dark statue. H e c o n t i n u e d o n t o M o n t s e r r a t , w h e r e
he l o d g e d in a B e n e d i c t i n e abbey. T h e r e , he r e d e d i c a t e d h i m s e l f
t o G o d ’ s s e r v i c e before a n o t h e r statue o f t h e V i r g i n , t h e B l a c k
M a d o n n a o f M o n t s e r r a t , Protectress o f C a t a l o n i a , Patroness o f
C h r i s t i a n C o n q u e s t . T h e spiritual e x e r c i s e h e r e must h a v e b e e n

30
CHAPTER 5 APPOINTMENT AT CYPRUS

i n t e n s e , for in t h e late a f t e r n o o n of t h e third day, Iñigo traded


c l o t h e s w i t h a beggar, h u n g his sword a n d dagger o n t h e M a d o n -
na’s shrine, and gave his mule to the abbey.
W h i l e A d r i a n VI proceeded on to Barcelona, Iñigo detoured
on foot to the village of M a n r e s a for ten m o n t h s of p e n a n c e s , spir-
itual p r e p a r a t i o n , a n d n o t e - t a k i n g . S t r i p p e d o f e v e r y t h i n g but
s a c k c l o t h , a gourd for d r i n k i n g , a n d a pilgrim’s staff, he a d o p t e d
t h e lifestyle of t h e early K n i g h t s Templar, b e g g i n g food a n d alms.
He was i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e Illuminati, t h e “ E n l i g h t e n e d O n e s , ” a
secret s o c i e t y o f g n o s t i c f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s w h o p r e a c h e d t h a t all
matter is absolutely and eternally evil.
T h e g n o s t i c s t a u g h t t h a t h u m a n i t y itself i s o f S a t a n i c o r i g i n .
A d a m and E v e were the offspring o f devils. H u m a n i t y c a n a c h i e v e
s a l v a t i o n from d e a t h and eternal p u n i s h m e n t , h o w e v e r , by freeing
soul from b o d y for a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e pure l i g h t of G o d l i n e s s .
T h i s is d o n e by w i t h d r a w i n g from sensual pleasure and i n t u i t i v e l y
discovering h i d d e n truths as c o n v e y e d by t h e c a b a l a h . ( T h e gnos-
tics’ c o n t e m p t for a n y t h i n g h a v i n g to do w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l side of
e x i s t e n c e translated i n t o w i l d l y i r o n i c b e h a v i o r . S o m e p r a c t i c e d
radical c e l i b a c y b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e result o f s e x u a l inter-
c o u r s e , c o n c e p t i o n , w o u l d o n l y i m p r i s o n m o r e souls i n p h y s i c a l
b o d i e s . O t h e r s p r a c t i c e d u n b r i d l e d s e x u a l l i b e r t i n i s m i n order t o
p r o v e they were c o m p l e t e l y free from all physical i n h i b i t i o n . S t i l l
o t h e r s c o m b i n e d t h e t w o , p u r s u i n g h y p o c r i t i c a l lives o f c e l i b a t e
fornication, of w h i c h “safe sex” is the m o d e r n institution. Loyola’s
particular c u l t apparently c h o s e the asceticism of self-flagellation,
for I ñ i g o w a n d e r e d m a n y n i g h t s a b o u t t h e M a n r e s a c o u n t r y s i d e
w h i p p i n g himself w i t h a scourge studded w i t h iron barbs. Later in
life, h e w o u l d d e c i d e t h a t t h e w h i p s a n d barbs “sapped one’s
strength,” that t h e G o d h e a d c o u l d as adequately be sought by the
more h u m a n e self-mortification of the Spiritual Exercises.)
W h i l e I ñ i g o was o u t l i n i n g t h e Exercises i n M a n r e s a , Luther’s
translation of the N e w T e s t a m e n t was i n t r o d u c i n g readers and lis-
teners in G e r m a n y , Switzerland, France, B o h e m i a , and England to
a different form of spiritual e x e r c i s e , o n e in w h i c h G o d ’ s w i l l ,
a n c i e n t a n d i m m u t a b l e , was expressed n o t w i t h i n t h e p r i v a t e

31
RULERS OF EVIL

i m a g i n a t i o n but publicly, in the printed W o r d , for all to see. P e o -


ple d e v o u r e d t h e N e w T e s t a m e n t e v e n before i t r e a c h e d t h e
bindery. I n o n e c o n t e m p o r a r y ’ s w o r d s , “ T h e s h e e t , y e t w e t , was
b r o u g h t from t h e press u n d e r s o m e o n e ’ s c l o a k , a n d passed from
shop to shop.” 6

T H E p i l g r i m sailed from B a r c e l o n a t o t h e I t a l i a n p o r t city o f


G a e t a , and w a l k e d t h e r e m a i n i n g d i s t a n c e t o R o m e , arriving
there o n P a l m Sunday, M a r c h 29, 1 5 2 3 . T w o days later, a c c o r d i n g
to V a t i c a n archives, “Iñigo de Loyola, cleric of the diocese of Pam-
p l o n a ” received permission from Pope A d r i a n VI to visit Jerusalem.
From R o m e , I ñ i g o p r o c e e d e d t o V e n i c e , w h e r e o n e o f C h a r l e s
Habsburg’s agents r e c e i v e d h i m graciously and i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o
the D o g e , A n d r e a G r i t t i , the highest official in V e n e t i a n c i v i l gov-
e r n m e n t . A famed d i p l o m a t and linguist, G r i t t i arranged free pas-
sage for Iñigo aboard a small ship w h o s e n a m e – the “Negrona” –
was appropriate for an e v a n g e l i s t d e d i c a t e d to the B l a c k V i r g i n of
Christian Conquest.
On July 1 4 , 1 5 2 3 , t h e Negrona left V e n i c e , a r r i v i n g a m o n t h
later at the island of C y p r u s . At C y p r u s , o n e D i e g o M a n e s and his
s e r v a n t , a l o n g w i t h several C y p r i o t officials, boarded ship for the
rest of the voyage to Haifa. D i e g o M a n e s was a C o m m a n d e r of the
K n i g h t s H o s p i t a l l e r s o f S t . J o h n o f Jerusalem. S i n c e 1 3 1 2 , t h e
7

Hospitallers had h e l d title to the vast w e a l t h of the K n i g h t s T e m -


plar. T h e y h a d b e e n d r a w i n g u p o n t h e s e assets t o d e f e n d t h e
R o m a n e c o n o m y against Islamic marauders i n the east. B u t w h e n
the Turks attacked the Hospitallers’ headquarters on the Island of
R h o d e s , t h e assets were frozen by t h e p o p e a n d his former p u p i l ,
the H o l y R o m a n Emperor C h a r l e s . N o assistance i n any form was
f o r t h c o m i n g from e i t h e r party. C o n s e q u e n t l y , in D e c e m b e r 1 5 2 2 ,
the Hospitallers had no c h o i c e but to surrender R h o d e s and retreat
t o w h a t w o u l d b e c o m e t h e i r final d o m i c i l e , M a l t a . T h e message
was clear. N o w t h a t Luther’s G e r m a n - l a n g u a g e N e w T e s t a m e n t
was in print, Protestantism l o o m e d a greater m e n a c e to R o m e t h a n
Islam ever did.
It is possible t h a t in a J e r u s a l e m - b o u n d ship n a m e d Negrona,

32
CHAPTER 5 APPOINTMENT AT CYPRUS

C o m m a n d e r D i e g o M a n e s t u r n e d o v e r t h e litanies, lists, secret


codes, formulae, c a b a l a h , and other portable assets comprising the
K n i g h t s T e m p l a r resources to Iñigo. If this i n d e e d h a p p e n e d , t h e
western world’s secret infrastructure was n o w Loyola’s to p o p u l a t e
and m a n i p u l a t e in the cause of learning against learning. T h a t is my
h y p o t h e s i s . W h a t is n o t h y p o t h e s i s is t h a t as s o o n as t h e p i l g r i m
r e t u r n e d from Jerusalem h e b e g a n v e s t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h M e d i c i
learning.
T h e idea of uniting the Templars w i t h the Hospitallers was first
argued p u b l i c l y in a b o o k p u b l i s h e d in 1305 by R a i m o n L l u l l , a
r e n o w n e d illuminatus from M a j o r c a . Llull’s b o o k , Libre de Fine,
(“Free A t L a s t ” ) a p p e a r e d i n t h e midst o f a raging c o n t r o v e r s y
between the French monarchy and the R o m a n papacy over w h o
held jurisdiction over the Templars. T h a t is the subject of our n e x t
chapter.

33
RULERS OF EVIL

THE BAPHOMET
Chapter 6

THE EPITOME
OF CHRISTIAN VALUES

S
INCE THEIR FOUNDING o n F r e n c h soil i n 1 1 1 8 , t h e K n i g h t s
T e m p l a r h a d g r o w n from a pair of self-impoverished k n i g h t s
h o p i n g to k e e p M u s l i m terrorists from m o l e s t i n g pilgrims in
the H o l y Land to a m a m m o t h organization controlling interna-
t i o n a l f i n a n c e a n d p o l i t i c s . T h e f o u n d e r s , H u g h d e P a y e n and
G o d f r o i de S t . O m e r , o r g a n i z e d a group of e x c o m m u n i c a t e d
k n i g h t - c r u s a d e r s and secured t h e i r a b s o l u t i o n by a b i s h o p . A f t e r
placing the restored knights under oaths of poverty, chastity, secre-
cy, a n d o b e d i e n c e , t h e y p l e d g e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o r e b u i l d i n g
S o l o m o n ’ s T e m p l e . G i v e n space adjacent to an Islamic mosque sit-
uated u p o n t h e T e m p l e ’ s supposed ruins, t h e y t o o k t h e c o r p o r a t e
n a m e “Poor K n i g h t s of C h r i s t and of the T e m p l e of S o l o m o n . ”
Bernard, A b b o t o f C l a i r v a u x , t h e l e a d i n g propagandist o f the
day, e x t o l l e d t h e T e m p l a r s as “ t h e e p i t o m e a n d a p o t h e o s i s of
Christian values.” Bolstered by such unprecedented promotion,
the P o o r K n i g h t s a t t r a c t e d t h e best and t h e brightest y o u n g m e n

35
RULERS OF EVIL

o f Europe t o b e c o m e C r u s a d e r s , t o v o w c e l i b a c y and l e a v e t h e i r
families in defense of Christ’s t o m b against M u s l i m terrorists.
T h e m i s s i o n failed w i t h i n n i n e years.
E v e n so, Bernard’s p r o p a g a n d a caused the
T e m p l a r s to be r e c e i v e d as c o n q u e r i n g
h e r o e s w h e n t h e y returned t o F r a n c e .
T h e y set u p t h e i r p e r m a n e n t l o d g e a t
Troyes under the patronage of the court of
C h a m p a g n e . (For n e a r l y a century, T r o y e s
had b e e n Europe’s leading s c h o o l for the study
of the cabalah, w h i c h may explain why the
city is laid out in the shape of a c h a m p a g n e cork.)
For m a k i n g t h e Templars a world power, Bernard shares credit
w i t h C a r d i n a l A i m e r i c o f S a n t a M a r i a N u o v a . A i m e r i c was the
C h u r c h ’ s h i g h e s t j u d i c i a l officer. It was his unlawful c o n n i v a n c e 1

t h a t c r e a t e d H o n o r i u s II, t h e p o p e w h o o r d a i n e d t h e T e m p l a r s as
t h e C h u r c h ’ s most h i g h l y - e s t e e m e d religious order. It was A i m e r -
ic, t o o , w h o d e v i s e d a radical “ i n n e r r e n e w a l o f t h e C h u r c h , ”
w h i c h inspired n o b l e m e n t h r o u g h o u t England, S c o t l a n d , Flanders,
S p a i n , and Portugal to shower the Templars w i t h d o n a t i o n s of land
and m o n e y – over and above the properties required of all initiates
u p o n joining the Order.
W h e n Honorius died in 1 1 3 0 , A i m e r i c led a minority of cardi-
nals i n a n o t h e r c o n n i v a n c e resulting i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f I n n o c e n t
II, w h o was c o n s e c r a t e d pope in A i m e r i c ’ s titular c h u r c h of S a n t a
Maria N u o v a . In 1 1 3 9 , I n n o c e n t issued a bull placing the Templars
under an e x c l u s i v e v o w of papal o b e d i e n c e – a measure by w h i c h
A i m e r i c effectively put all Templar resources at the disposal of the
papacy. W i t h i n a n o t h e r d e c a d e , the K n i g h t s were g i v e n e x c l u s i v e
rights by Pope Eugenius III to wear the rose croix, the rosy cross, on
t h e i r w h i t e t u n i c s . A s t h e i r list o f properties l e n g t h e n e d w i t h
d o n a t i o n s from Italy, A u s t r i a , G e r m a n y , Hungary, a n d t h e H o l y
L a n d , the Templars built hundreds of great stone castles. W e a l t h y
travelers lodged in these castles because of their u n m a t c h e d secu-
rity. C o n v i n c e d t h e y w e r e b u i l d i n g a n e w w o r l d , t h e T e m p l a r s
c a l l e d e a c h o t h e r frère maçon ( “ b r o t h e r m a s o n ” ) . Later, this t e r m
would be anglicized into “Freemason.”

36
CHAPTER 6 THE EPITOME OF CHRISTIAN VALUES

T h e Templars i n v e n t e d m o d e r n b a n k i n g b y applying a n orien-


tal i n v e n t i o n t o their c o m m e r c e . A g e n t s o f t h e C h i n e s e e m p e r o r
Kao-tsung, i n v e n t o r of p a p e r c u r r e n c y c a l l e d fei-chi’en, “flying
m o n e y , ” s o u g h t trade w i t h t h e m i d d l e east d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f
Templar occupation. 2
K a o - t s u n g ’ s was t h e first g o v e r n m e n t o n
earth to enforce c i r c u l a t i o n of drafts as legal tender for debts. Evi-
dently, K a o - t s u n g ’ s a g e n t s i n t r o d u c e d t h e K n i g h t s t o this n e w
m e d i u m of e x c h a n g e created out of m e r c h a n t drafts. T h e Templars
e n h a n c e d their already b o o m i n g business o f ( i ) a c c e p t i n g current
a c c o u n t s , deposit a c c o u n t s , deposits of j e w e l s , v a l u a b l e s and title
deeds, (2) m a k i n g loans and advances (charging “fees” because the
C h u r c h forbade i n t e r e s t ) , a n d (3) a c t i n g as agents for t h e secure
t r a n s m i s s i o n of s u c h t h i n g s by (4) a d d i n g c i r c u l a t i n g letters of
c r e d i t – flying m o n e y – to serve as p a p e r currency. To supply t h e
T e m p l a r s ’ c u r r e n c y n e e d s may e x p l a i n w h y p a p e r i n F r a n c e was
first manufactured in the Poor Knights’ h o m e t o w n of Troyes.
B y 1 3 0 0 , presiding o v e r t h e w o r l d e c o n o m y from t h e i r Paris
office, 3
the Templars had become an international power unto
t h e m s e l v e s . E n g a g e d i n d i p l o m a c y a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l s o f state
from t h e H o l y L a n d w e s t w a r d , t h e y set t h e tastes, t h e goals, the
morality, the rules of the civilized world. Kings did their bidding –
w h e n H e n r y III of England t h r e a t e n e d to confiscate certain of the
Order’s properties, he was upbraided by the Master Templar in the
city of L o n d o n :

“ W h a t sayest thou, O King? So long as thou dost exercise


justice, thou wilt reign. But if thou infringe it, thou wilt cease to
be King.” 4

But suddenly, at their very z e n i t h , t h e P o o r K n i g h t s suffered a


strange reversal o f f o r t u n e s . I n 1 3 0 2 , K i n g P h i l i p I V o f F r a n c e
dared t o c h a l l e n g e t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y o n his o w n soil. H e asserted
t h a t i n France e v e r y o n e , K n i g h t s T e m p l a r s i n c l u d e d , was subject
t o t h e K i n g . P o p e B o n i f a c e V I I I j u m p e d i n and d e c l a r e d t h a t
France, the K i n g , t h e Templars, all of t h e m , and e v e r y b o d y else as
well, b e l o n g e d to Pontifex Maximus – “It is absolutely necessary for
the s a l v a t i o n of every h u m a n creature to be subject to the R o m a n

37
RULERS OF EVIL

Pontiff.” P h i l i p t h e n accused the p o p e of illegitimacy, sexual mis-


c o n d u c t , and heresy. B o n i f a c e prepared a b u l l e x c o m m u n i c a t i n g
Philip, but before it could be published, a band of the Philip’s mer-
c e n a r i e s s t o r m e d t h e V a t i c a n a n d d e m a n d e d t h e pope’s resigna-
t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e intruders w e r e d r i v e n off, t h e s h o c k t o b o d y
and soul was t o o m u c h for Boniface, and he died a m o n t h later.
T w o successor popes h e l d firm against Philip, until Bertrand de
G o t , A r c h b i s h o p o f B o r d e a u x , was e l e c t e d i n 1 3 0 5 . C r o w n e d i n
Lyons w i t h the papal n a m e C l e m e n t V , d e G o t m o v e d t h e papacy
to A v i g n o n , and b e g a n a long train of concessions to Philip’s royal
p r e r o g a t i v e . Finally, o n Friday, O c t o b e r 1 3 , 1 3 0 7 , P h i l i p arrested
all b u t t h i r t e e n o f t h e T e m p l a r s i n F r a n c e , tried t h e m a n d , u p o n
e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r p r a c t i c e o f t h e c a b a l a h , f o u n d t h e m guilty o f
b l a s p h e m y a n d m a g i c . A t least fifty k n i g h t s w e r e b u r n e d a t t h e
stake.
F r o m c a p t u r e d d o c u m e n t s i t was l e a r n e d t h a t t h e T e m p l a r s ,
from the very b e g i n n i n g , h a d r e n o u n c e d w h a t R o m a n theologians
c a l l e d “ t h e r e l i g i o n o f S t . Peter.” T h e y h a d b e e n i n i t i a t e d i n t o a
secret gnostic b r a n c h of the Eastern C h u r c h k n o w n as “the Primi-
t i v e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h . ” B e c a u s e t h e P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n s ’ apos-
t o l i c s u c c e s s i o n c l a i m e d t o flow from J o h n t h e B a p t i s t a n d the
apostle John they were called “Johannites.” 5

T h e Johannites believed that a l t h o u g h Jesus was “imbued w i t h


a spirit w h o l l y divine and e n d o w e d w i t h the most astounding qual-
ities,” he was n o t the true G o d . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h gnostic logic, the
true J o h a n n i t e G o d w o u l d n e v e r l o w e r H i m s e l f t o b e c o m e v i l e
h u m a n matter. Jesus was in fact a false M e s s i a h sent by t h e powers
of darkness. He was justly crucified – a l t h o u g h w h e n his side was
pierced he did repent of his pretensions and receive divine forgive-
ness. T h a n k s to his r e p e n t a n c e , Jesus n o w enjoys e v e r l a s t i n g life
in the celestial c o m p a n y of the saints.
R e g a r d i n g miracles, t h e J o h a n n i t e s b e l i e v e d t h a t Jesus “did or
may h a v e d o n e e x t r a o r d i n a r y o r m i r a c u l o u s things,” and t h a t
“since G o d can do things incomprehensible to h u m a n intelli-
g e n c e , all t h e acts of C h r i s t as t h e y are d e s c r i b e d in t h e G o s p e l ,
w h e t h e r acts o f h u m a n s c i e n c e o r w h e t h e r acts o f d i v i n e p o w e r ”

38
CHAPTER 6 T H E EPITOME OF CHRISTIAN VALUES

c a n be a c c e p t e d as true – e x c e p t for t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n , w h i c h is
o m i t t e d from the Templars’ copy of the G o s p e l of St. J o h n . T h e r e - 6

fore, for all his w o n d e r f u l attributes, C h r i s t “was n o t h i n g , a false


prophet and of no value.” O n l y the Higher G o d of H e a v e n had
power to save m a n k i n d . 7

B u t t h e H i g h e r G o d a v o i d e d h u m a n matter, and s o lordship


o v e r the material w o r l d b e l o n g e d t o S a t a n a e l , t h e e v i l b r o t h e r o f
Jesus. S a t a n a e l alone c o u l d e n r i c h m a n k i n d . Templar c a b a l a h rep-
r e s e n t e d S a t a n a e l as t h e h e a d of a g o a t e m b l a z o n e d w i t h , s o m e -
times c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n , a p e n t a g r a m . 8
T h i s s y m b o l is d e e p l y
r o o t e d i n O l d T e s t a m e n t c a b a l a h , i n w h i c h t h e g o a t i s identified
w i t h power i n the world and separation from G o d . O n the greatest
Israelite feastday, Yom Kippur, the Day of A t o n e m e n t , one goat was
spared t h e sacrificial k n i f e , a n d was s p r i n k l e d w i t h t h e b l o o d o f
a n o t h e r g o a t k i l l e d for t h e sins o f Israel. T h e spared g o a t , t h e
scapegoat, was t h e n banished from the c o n g r e g a t i o n to bear Israel’s
sins into the wilderness, w h i c h typified the w o r l d . T h e scapegoat 9

escaped w i t h his life, his freedom.


King S o l o m o n conferred with evil spirits, 10
but Scripture
describes t h e spirits o n l y generally. H o w e v e r , the Zohar, or “ B o o k
o f S p l e n d o r , ” o n e o f t h e m a i n w o r k s o f a n c i e n t c a b a l i s t i c litera-
ture, tells us e v i l spirits appeared to the Israelites “under the form of
he-goats and made k n o w n to t h e m all t h a t they w i s h e d to l e a r n . ” 11

T h e T e m p l a r s c a l l e d this g o a t - i d o l “ B a p h o m e t , ” from baphe- and – m e t i s , G r e e k wor


B a p h o m e t encapsulates the career of S o l o m o n , w h o Scripture says
was absorbed into the w i s d o m of G o d more t h a n any other h u m a n
being, 12
yet finished out his life in c o m m u n i o n w i t h he-goatish evil
spirits. 13
By the Templars’ Johannite standard, c o m m u n i n g w i t h
the e v i l spirits was the secret to c o n t r o l l i n g the world. By t h e bib-
lical standard, h o w e v e r , S o l o m o n represents t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f
h u m a n perfectibility. Perfectibility is indeed attainable, a c c o r d i n g
t o S c r i p t u r e , b u t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e r e d e m p t i v e process s h o w n i n
the N e w Testament w h i c h R o m e kept the Templars from reading.

39
RULERS OF EVIL

O N M a r c h 22, 1 3 1 2 , C l e m e n t V dissolved the K n i g h t s Templar


w i t h his d e c r e e Vox clamantis ( “ W a r C r y ” ) . B u t t h e dissolu-
t i o n p r o v e d a mere formality to further appease P h i l i p . M o r e
importantly, it permitted the Templars, in other manifestations, to
c o n t i n u e e n r i c h i n g t h e papacy. For G r a n d M a s t e r Jacques d e
Molay, just prior to his e x e c u t i o n in 1 3 1 3 , sent the surviving thir-
t e e n F r e n c h T e m p l a r s t o establish four n e w M e t r o p o l i t a n lodges:
o n e at S t o c k h o l m for the n o r t h , o n e at N a p l e s for t h e east, o n e at
Paris for t h e s o u t h , and o n e at E d i n b u r g h for t h e west. T h u s , t h e
K n i g h t s remained the militant arm of the papacy. E x c e p t that their
w e a l t h , t h e i r secrecy, t h e i r g n o s t i c c a b a l i s m , a n d t h e i r o a t h o f
papal o b e d i e n c e were obscurely dispersed under a variety of corpo-
rate names.
A subtle p r o v i s i o n in Vox clamantis transferred m o s t T e m p l a r
estates t o t h e K n i g h t s o f S t . J o h n o f Jerusalem, w h o t o o k posses-
sion after K i n g Philip’s d e a t h . In G e r m a n y and A u s t r i a , t h e T e m -
plars b e c a m e “Rosicrucians” and “ T e u t o n i c Knights.” T h e T e u t o n -
ic K n i g h t s grew strong in M a i n z , b i r t h p l a c e of G u t e n b e r g ’ s press.
S i x c e n t u r i e s later, a s t h e “ T e u t o n i c O r d e r , ” t h e K n i g h t s w o u l d
p r o v i d e the n u c l e u s o f A d o l f Hitler’s p o l i t i c a l support i n M u n i c h
and V i e n n a .
T h e Edinburgh lodge w o u l d b e c o m e the headquarters o f S c o t -
tish R i t e Freemasonry, w h i c h M a s o n i c historians c a l l “ A m e r i c a n
Freemasonry” because all but five of the signers of the D e c l a r a t i o n
of I n d e p e n d e n c e are said to h a v e p r a c t i c e d its craft. In S p a i n and
Portugal the Templars b e c a m e the “llluminati” in w h o m Iñigo had
t a k e n m e m b e r s h i p at M a n r e s a , and “ K n i g h t s of C h r i s t . ” It was
under the red pattée cross of t h e K n i g h t s of C h r i s t that C o l u m b u s
had t a k e n possession of w h a t he called “las Indias” for K i n g Ferdi-
n a n d V of S p a i n , grandfather of Iñigo’s discreet p a t r o n , C h a r l e s I
and V, the H o l y R o m a n Emperor.
As early as A u g u s t of 1 5 2 3 , as I h y p o t h e s i z e d in t h e p r e v i o u s
c h a p t e r , this v a s t y e t f r a g m e n t e d s u b t e r r a n e a n e m p i r e – R o m a n
Catholicism’s unseen root-system binding together the world –
b e l o n g e d t o Iñigo d e L o y o l a . H i s spiritual dynasty, w h i c h c o n t i n -
ues to this day, w o u l d use this system to cause G o d - f e a r i n g m e n

40
CHAPTER 6 THE EPITOME OF CHRISTIAN VALUES

w h o h a t e d the papacy to perform, w i t h o u t realizing it, exactly h o w


the papacy w a n t e d t h e m to.
But w h a t of Iñigo’s e d u c a t i o n ? His rise in a c a d e m e is t h e sub-
ject of t h e n e x t chapter.

41
RULERS OF EVIL

“Hoc E S T D I G I T U S D E I ! ”
Pope Paul III declares Loyola’s plan for the Company
of Jesus an Act of God. (From a Jesuit altar)
Chapter 7

THE FINGERSTROKE
OF GOD

D
ETERMINED ON a priestly life, I ñ i g o de L o y o l a r e t u r n e d to
B a r c e l o n a from Jerusalem i n t h e spring o f 1 5 2 4 . H e spent
t h e n e x t t h r e e years i n S p a i n g e t t i n g t h e requisite L a t i n .
S i n c e direct c o n t a c t w i t h the Bible was prohibited by law, his read-
ing coursed the humanities.
W i t h t h e esoteric e x p e r i e n c e o f his S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s , h e
charmed the wives of important men. He received frequent invi-
tations to dine at e l e g a n t tables, but preferred to beg food door to
door and distribute t h e c h o i c e p i c k i n g s t o t h e p o o r a n d sick. H e
lived in an attic and slept on the floorboards, trying desperately to
persuade G o d of his worthiness. He prayed for six hours e a c h day,
a t t e n d e d mass t h r e e t i m e s a w e e k , c o n f e s s e d e v e r y S u n d a y , and
c o n t i n u e d w h i p p i n g himself. He devised secret p e n a n c e s , s u c h as
boring holes in his shoes and going barefoot in winter.
S o m e t i m e s t h e Exercises aroused in his followers instances of
bizarre c o n d u c t – s w o o n i n g , long spells of fainting or m e l a n c h o l i a ,

43
RULERS OF EVIL

r o l l i n g a b o u t the g r o u n d , b e i n g gripped w i t h c o r p s e - l i k e rigidity.


T h e S p a n i s h Inquisition investigated h i m o n suspicion o f preach-
ing g n o s t i c i l l u m i n i s m . W h e n I ñ i g o insisted t h a t h e was n o t
preaching at all, but was merely talking about the things of G o d in
a familiar way, the Inquisitor released h i m . In successive frays, the
I n q u i s i t i o n ordered I ñ i g o ( 1 ) t o get rid o f his e c c e n t r i c c l o t h i n g
and dress like o t h e r students, (2) to refrain from h o l d i n g meetings
until he h a d c o m p l e t e d four years of study, and (3) to refrain from
defining w h a t constituted a grave sin. W e a r y i n g of the harassment,
he d e c i d e d to seek his four years of e d u c a t i o n b e y o n d t h e Inquisi-
tion’s reach.
He set o u t for t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Paris w i t h a p a c k m u l e carry-
ing his b e l o n g i n g s . H e arrived a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o n February 2 ,
1 5 2 8 , a n d s o o n afterward registered i n t h e r u n - d o w n old C o l l e g e
o f M o n t a i g u . J o h n C a l v i n , w h o w o u l d b e c o m e Protestantism’s
great t h e o l o g i c a l systems designer, was l e a v i n g M o n t a i g u just as
L o y o l a arrived. Erasmus, t h e C o l l e g e ’ s m o s t famous a l u m n u s ,
r e m e m b e r e d g r a d u a t i n g from M o n t a i g u “ w i t h n o t h i n g e x c e p t a n
infected body and a vast array of lice.” T h e student body consisted
mostly of wayward Parisian boys kept under harsh discipline; Iñigo
was thirty-seven.
Paris was e x p e n s i v e , e v e n for students. M u c h of the funds Iñigo
had raised in B a r c e l o n a h a d b e e n stolen by o n e of his disciples. In
early 1 5 2 9 he w e n t i n t o B e l g i u m , w h e r e it is b e l i e v e d he r e c e i v e d
m o n e y from p e o p l e close t o t h e H o l y R o m a n Emperor. O n e o f
t h e s e was Juan d e C u e l l a r , Treasurer o f t h e K i n g d o m o f S p a i n .
A n o t h e r was Luis V i v e s , personal secretary to the Emperor’s aunt,
Q u e e n C a t h e r i n e o f E n g l a n d , a n d p r i v a t e tutor t o h e r daughter,
Princess M a r y (afterward t h e “ B l o o d y ” Q u e e n ) . I ñ i g o returned t o
Paris m u c h better off. He upgraded his lodgings.
I n O c t o b e r , h e left M o n t a i g u and e n r o l l e d a t t h e C o l l e g e o f
S t e . Barbe across t h e street. He pursued a course in arts a n d p h i -
l o s o p h y t h a t w o u l d last t h r e e a n d a h a l f years. H i s n a m e appears
on t h e S t e . Barbe registry as “Ignatius de L o y o l a . ” S o m e Jesuit his-
torians h a v e guessed h e a d o p t e d t h e n a m e i n v e n e r a t i o n o f
Ignatius of A n t i o c h , an early C h r i s t i a n martyr. It was at S t e . Barbe

44
CHAPTER 7 T H E FINGERSTROKE OF G O D

that Iñigo b e g a n earnestly organizing his army, but n o t before trav-


e l i n g a g a i n to B e l g i u m to ask Juan de C u e l l a r and Luis V i v e s for
yet more money.
A r m e d w i t h his c o m m a n d o f t h e T e m p l a r secrets and w i t h in-
t r o d u c t i o n s p r o v i d e d b y t h e E m p e r o r a n d V i v e s , Ignatius crossed
to E n g l a n d . T h i s significant v o y a g e is m e n t i o n e d only o n c e in his
autobiography. H e admits t h a t h e “returned w i t h more alms t h a n
he usually did in o t h e r years.” Perhaps Q u e e n C a t h e r i n e , the Em-
peror’s a u n t , i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o t h e H o w a r d s a n d t h e Petres,
k n o w n to be a m o n g the first families to receive and nourish Jesuits
sent to England.
S t a r t i n g w i t h his t w o S t e . Barbe r o o m m a t e s , Ignatius s o o n
g a t h e r e d a c i r c l e of six close friends r a n g i n g in age from t e e n s to
early twenties. S o m e w h a t like himself, they were adventurous, im-
pressionable, i n t e l l i g e n t , and u n p e r s u a d e d of t h e Bible’s supreme
authority. T h e i r fondest dream was to save the H o l y L a n d from the
Muslims b y performing h e r o i c Templaresque exploits. O n e b y o n e
Ignatius g a v e t h e m t h e S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s , and o n e b y o n e t h e y
b e c a m e disciples. W i t h i n a few years they were calling t h e m s e l v e s
La Compañìa de Iesus, the C o m p a n y of Jesus.
O n A u g u s t 1 5 , 1 5 3 4 , Feast D a y o f the A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r -
g i n i n t o h e a v e n , t h e c o m p a n i o n s swore o a t h s o f s e r v i c e t o t h e
Blessed V i r g i n i n S t e . Marie’s C h u r c h a t M o n t m a r t r e , and t o S t .
D e n i s , p a t r o n saint o f F r a n c e , i n his c h a p e l . ( T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f
the M o n t m a r t r e O a t h s must h a v e b e e n intense, for Francis Xavier,
w h o would b e c o m e St. Francis, A p o s t l e to the East, made the Spir-
itual Exercises w i t h “a p e n i t e n t i a l fervor,” says Broderick in Origin
of the Jesuits, “ t h a t n e a r l y cost h i m t h e use of his l i m b s . ” ) T h e y
v o w e d poverty, chastity, and to rescue Jerusalem from the Muslims.
H o w e v e r , s h o u l d t h e rescue p r o v e infeasible w i t h i n a year, t h e y
v o w e d t o u n d e r t a k e w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n w h a t e v e r o t h e r task t h e
pope m i g h t require of t h e m .
W e l l before a year h a d passed, C l e m e n t V I I d i e d a n d t h e
Jerusalem d r e a m was o v e r w h e l m e d b y more p r e s e n t dangers.
Luther’s B i b l e i n G e r m a n was c r e a t i n g d e f e c t i o n i n r e c o r d n u m -
bers t h r o u g h o u t G e r m a n y , N o r w a y , S w e d e n , a n d D e n m a r k . I n

45
RULERS OF EVIL

F r a n c e , t h e response to LeFevre’s B i b l e was so d e c i s i v e t h a t K i n g


Francis I e x c l a i m e d t h a t he w o u l d b e h e a d his o w n c h i l d r e n if he
found them harboring the blasphemous heresies acquirable
t h r o u g h direct c o n t a c t w i t h scripture. E n g l a n d was lost in its en-
tirety, due n o t t o B i b l e r e a d i n g , w h i c h H e n r y V I I I p r o s e c u t e d a s
avidly as any pope, but to the royal love life. Henry had d e m a n d e d
t h a t C l e m e n t V I I g r a n t h i m a d i v o r c e from t h e Emperor’s a u n t
C a t h e r i n e , and t h e n recognize the P r o t e s t a n t - o r i e n t e d A n n e B o -
l e y n a s his n e w Q u e e n . W h e n C l e m e n t s t o o d m u t e , H e n r y t o o k
all o f E n g l a n d a w a y from R o m e a n d m a d e h i m s e l f “ c o m p l e t e
o w n e r of the lands and t e n e m e n t s [of England], as w e l l at law as in
equity.” 1

C l e m e n t V I I was s u c c e e d e d b y t h e old-
est c a r d i n a l , an erudite h u m a n i s t w i t h for-
midable diplomatic skills, 66-year-old
A l e s s a n d r o Farnese. C a r d i n a l Farnese h a d
b e e n privately educated in the h o u s e h o l d of
L o r e n z o d ’ M e d i c i and h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d
Treasurer o f t h e V a t i c a n i n 1 4 9 2 . H e was
c r o w n e d P o p e Paul III. V a t i c a n wags c a l l e d
Farnese “ C a r d i n a l P e t t i c o a t ” b e c a u s e his
strikingly b e a u t i f u l sister G i u l i a h a d b e e n
Giulia Farnese, with mistress to t h e l i c e n t i o u s P o p e A l e x a n d e r
metal blouse V I , for w h i c h the same wags n i c k n a m e d her
“Bride of C h r i s t . ” G i u l i a posed undraped for
the statue of the G o d d e s s Justice that still reclines voluptuously on
Paul Ill’s t o m b in S t . Peter’s B a s i l i c a . T w o c e n t u r i e s later, at t h e
c o m m a n d , in t h e interests of d e c e n c y , of Pius IX, the first pope to
be officially declared infallible, Giulia’s exposed breasts were fitted
w i t h a metal blouse. 2

Paul III is a major figure in t h e history of the S o c i e t y of Jesus,


and c o n s e q u e n t l y of the U n i t e d States of A m e r i c a , since it was he
w h o a p p r o v e d , i n t h e s u m m e r o f 1 5 3 9 , Ignatius d e L o y o l a ’ s busi-
ness p l a n . Ignatius p r o p o s e d a “ m i n i m a l s o c i e t y ” t h a t w o u l d “ d o
battle in the Lord God’s service under the banner of the Cross.”
T h e militia would be very small, no more t h a n sixty members, and

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CHAPTER 7 T H E FINGERSTROKE OF G O D

e a c h w o u l d h a v e to t a k e four v o w s – of poverty, chastity, o b e d i -


e n c e to the C h u r c h , a n d a v o w of special o b e d i e n c e to t h e p o p e .
T h e y w o u l d n o t b e c o n f i n e d t o a n y specific parish b u t w o u l d b e
dispersed t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e papacy’s n e e d s .
T h e y would wear no particular habit, but would dress according to
the e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h they found themselves. T h e y would
infiltrate the world in an unpredictable variety of pursuits – as doc-
tors, lawyers, authors, reforming theologians, financiers, statesmen,
courtiers, diplomats, explorers, tradesmen, merchants, poets,
scholars, scientists, architects, engineers, artists, printers, philoso-
phers, and w h a t e v e r else the world m i g h t d e m a n d and the C h u r c h
require.
T h e i r h e a d w o u l d be a S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . In t h e Constitutions
w h i c h Ignatius was w r i t i n g , t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l w o u l d b e
“obeyed and r e v e r e n c e d at all times as the o n e w h o holds the place
of C h r i s t our Lord.” T h e phrase “holds the place of C h r i s t ” means
3

t h a t t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l w o u l d share w i t h t h e P o p e , a t a l e v e l
u n p e r c e i v e d b y t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , t h e d i v i n e title o f “ V i c a r o f
C h r i s t ” first c l a i m e d by G e l a s i u s I on M a y 1 3 , 4 9 5 . Loyola’s c o m -
pleted Constitutions w o u l d repeat five h u n d r e d times that o n e is to
see C h r i s t i n t h e p e r s o n o f t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . T h e G e n e r a l ’ s
4

e q u a l status w i t h t h e P o p e , a d v a n t a g e d b y a n obscurity t h a t ren-


ders h i m virtually invisible, is w h y the c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f of the
S o c i e t y of Jesus has always b e e n called Papa Nero, the B l a c k Pope.
T h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l ’ s small army w o u l d b e t r a i n e d b y t h e
Spiritual Exercises to practice a brand of o b e d i e n c e L o y o l a termed
contemplativus in actione, active c o n t e m p l a t i o n , instantaneous obe-
d i e n c e w i t h all c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t suppressed. A s stated i n S e c t i o n
3 5 3 . 1 o f t h e E x e r c i s e s , “ W e must p u t aside all j u d g m e n t o f our
o w n , a n d k e e p t h e m i n d e v e r ready a n d p r o m p t t o o b e y i n all
t h i n g s t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l C h u r c h . ” B u t Jesuit o b e d i e n c e w o u l d b e
more t h a n mere o b e d i e n c e o f the will. A n o b e d i e n t will suppress-
es w h a t it w o u l d do in order to o b e y w h a t a superior w a n t s d o n e .
Ignatius d e m a n d e d o b e d i e n c e o f t h e understanding. A n o b e d i e n t
understanding alters its p e r c e p t i o n of reality according to the supe-
rior’s dictates. S e c t i o n 3 6 5 . 1 3 declares, “ W e must h o l d fast to the

47
RULERS OF EVIL

following principle: What seems to me white, 1 will believe black if the


hierarchical Church so defines.” Francis X a v i e r w o u l d later describe
this q u a l i t y of s u b m i s s i o n in a v o w t h a t u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y s u m m a -
rized t h e Jesuit mission: “I w o u l d n o t e v e n b e l i e v e in t h e Gospels
were the H o l y C h u r c h to forbid it.”
T h e S o c i e t y d o e s n o t o p e n its e x t r e m e o a t h o f o b e d i e n c e t o
p u b l i c i n s p e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , a script alleged to be a true facsimile
was translated by E d w i n A. S h e r m a n and deposited in the Library
of C o n g r e s s w i t h the n u m b e r BX3705.S56. A c c o r d i n g to this docu-
ment,

when a Jesuit of the minor rank is to be elevated to command,


he is conducted into the C h a p e l of the C o n v e n t of the Order,
where there are only three others present, the principal or Supe-
rior standing in front of the altar. On either side stands a monk,
one of whom holds a banner of yellow and white, which are the
Papal colors, and the other a black banner with a dagger and red
cross above a skull and crossbones, with the initials ’I.N.R.I.,’
and below them the words ’ICSTUM NACAR REGES IMIOS,’ the
meaning of which is ’It is just to annihilate impious rulers.’ [Bib-
lically, these initials represent the Roman inscription above
Christ’s head on the cross: ’Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews.’]
On the floor is a red cross upon which the postulant or can-
didate kneels. T h e Superior hands him a small black crucifix,
which he takes in his left hand and presses to his heart and the
Superior at the same time presents to him a dagger, which he
grasps by the blade and holds the point against his heart, the
Superior still holding it by the hilt....
T h e Superior gives a preamble, and then administers the
oath:
I, , now, in the presence of Almighty God,
the Blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed Michael the Archangel, the
blessed St. Paul and all the Saints and sacred Hosts of Heaven,
and to you, my Ghostly Father, the Superior General of the
Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola, in the Pontificate
of Paul the Third, and continued to the present, do by the
Womb of the Virgin, the Matrix of G o d , and the Rod of Jesus
Christ, declare and swear, that His Holiness the Pope is Christ’s

48
CHAPTER 7 T H E FINGERSTROKE OF G O D

Vice-Regent and is the true and only Head of the Catholic and
Universal C h u r c h throughout the earth; and that by virtue of
the keys of binding and loosing, given to His Holiness by my
Saviour, Jesus Christ, he hath power to depose heretical kings,
princes, states, commonwealths and governments, all being ille-
gal without his sacred confirmation, and that they may safely be
destroyed.
Therefore, to the utmost of my power, I shall and will defend
this doctrine and His Holiness’ right and custom against all
usurpers of the heretical or Protestant authority whatever, espe-
cially the Lutheran C h u r c h of Germany, Holland, Denmark,
Sweden and Norway, and the now pretended authority and
churches of England and Scotland, and branches of the same
now established in Ireland and on the C o n t i n e n t of America
and elsewhere; and all adherents in regard that they be usurped
and heretical, opposing the sacred Mother Church of Rome.
I do now renounce and disown any allegiance as due to any
heretical king, prince, or state named Protestants or Liberals, or
obedience to any of their laws, magistrates or officers.
I do further declare that the doctrines of the churches of
England and Scotland, of the Calvinists, Huguenots and others
of the name Protestants or Liberals to be damnable, and they
themselves damned and to be damned who will not forsake the
same.
I do further declare that I will help, assist and advise all or
any of His Holiness’ agents in any place wherever I shall be, in
Switzerland, German, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway,
England, Ireland, or America, or in any other kingdom or terri-
tory I shall come to, and do my uttermost to extirpate the hereti-
cal Protestants or Liberals’ doctrines and to destroy all their
pretended powers, regal or otherwise.
I do further promise and declare that, notwithstanding I am
dispensed with, to assume any religion heretical, for the propa-
gating of the Mother Church’s interest, to keep secret and pri-
vate all her agents’ counsels from time to time, as they may
entrust me, and not to divulge, directly or indirectly, by word,
writing, or circumstance whatever; but to execute all that shall
be proposed, given in charge or discovered unto me, by you, my
Ghostly Father, or any of this sacred convent.

49
RULERS OF EVIL

I do further promise and declare that I will have no opinion


or will of my own, or any mental reservation whatever, even as a
corpse or cadaver, but will unhesitatingly obey each and every
command that I may receive from my superiors in the Militia of
the Pope and of Jesus Christ.
That I will go to any part of the world whithersoever I may
be sent, to the frozen regions of the North, the burning sands of
the desert of Africa, or the jungles of India, to the centres of civ-
ilization of Europe, or to the wild haunts of the barbarous sav-
ages of America, without murmuring or repining, and will be
submissive in all things whatsoever communicated to me.
I furthermore promise and declare that I will, when oppor-
tunity presents, make and wage relentless war, secretly or open-
ly, against all heretics, Protestants and Liberals, as I am directed
to do, to extirpate and exterminate them from the face of the
whole earth; and that I will spare neither age, sex, or condition;
and that I will hang, burn, waste, boil, flay, strangle and bury
alive these infamous heretics, rip up the stomachs and wombs of
their women and crush their infants’ heads against the walls, in
order to annihilate forever their execrable race. T h a t when the
same cannot be done openly, I will secretly use the poisoned cup,
the strangulating cord, the steel of the poinard or the leaden bul-
let, regardless of the honor, rank, dignity, or authority of the per-
son or persons, whatever may be their condition in life, either
public or private, as I at any time may be directed so to do by any
agent of the Pope or Superior of the Brotherhood of the Holy
Faith, of the Society of Jesus.
In confirmation of which, I hereby dedicate my life, my soul,
and all my corporeal powers, and with this dagger which I now
receive, I will subscribe my name written in my own blood, in
testimony thereof; and should I prove false or weaken in my
determination, may my brethren and fellow soldiers of the Mili-
tia of the Pope cut off my hands and my feet, and my throat from
ear to ear, my belly opened and sulphur burned therein, with all
the punishment that can be inflicted upon me on earth and my
soul be tortured by demons in an eternal hell forever!
A l l of which I, , do swear by the
blessed Trinity and blessed Sacrament, which I am now to
receive, to perform and on my part to keep inviolably; and do

50
CHAPTER 7 THE FINGERSTROKE OF G O D

call all the heavenly and glorious host of heaven to witness these
my real intentions to keep this my oath.
In testimony hereof I take this most holy and blessed Sacra-
ment of the Eucharist, and witness the same further, with my
name written with the point of this dagger dipped in my own
blood and sealed in the face of this holy Convent.
He receives the wafer from the Superior and writes his name with
the point of his dagger dipped in his own blood taken from over the
heart....

W H E N Ignatius c o n c l u d e d his p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e P o p e report-


edly cried o u t “ H o c est digitus Dei!” – “ T h i s is t h e finger-
stroke o f G o d ! ” O n S e p t e m b e r 27, 1 5 4 0 , Paul III sealed his
a p p r o v a l w i t h t h e h i g h e s t and most s o l e m n form o f p a p a l pro-
n o u n c e m e n t , a d o c u m e n t k n o w n as a “bull” (from the L a t i n bulla,
m e a n i n g “ b u b b l e , ” d e n o t i n g t h e a t t a c h e d o v o i d o r c i r c u l a r seal
bearing the pope’s n a m e ) . Paul’s bull o r d a i n i n g the Jesuits is enti-
tled Regimini militantis ecclesiae, “ O n the S u p r e m a c y of the C h u r c h
M i l i t a n t . ” T h e title forms a c a b a l i s t i c d e v i c e c o m m o n t o p a g a n
R o m a n d i v i n i n g . K n o w n as notariqon, this d e v i c e is an a c r o n y m
t h a t e n h a n c e s t h e m e a n i n g o f its initialized w o r d s , i n t h e w a y
“ M A D D ” tells u s t h a t M o t h e r s A g a i n s t D r u n k D r i v e r s are more
t h a n “against” d r u n k e n drivers, they’re very angry. “Regimini mili-
tantis ecclesiae” p r o d u c e s t h e n o t a r i q o n “ R [ O ] M E , ” t h e empire
w h o s e s a l v a t i o n t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus was o r d a i n e d by this b u l l to
secure through the arts of war.
T h e f o l l o w i n g A p r i l , the original six and a few other members
e l e c t e d Ignatius d e L o y o l a their first S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . W h a t h a d
b e e n approved as a m i n i m a l society soon multiplied to a thousand
strong. Ignatius did this by administering to only sixty the extreme
oath of obedience to the pope, while admitting hundreds more
u n d e r lesser o a t h s . E v e r s i n c e , t h e e x a c t size o f t h e S o c i e t y has
been k n o w n only to the Superior G e n e r a l . As the world gained
increasing numbers of doctors, lawyers, authors, reforming t h e o l o -
gians, financiers, statesmen, courtiers, diplomats, explorers, trades-
m e n , m e r c h a n t s , poets, scholars, scientists, a r c h i t e c t s , e n g i n e e r s ,
artists, printers, and philosophers, it was e x t r e m e l y difficult for an

51
RULERS OF EVIL

ordinary citizen to tell w h i c h were Jesuits and w h i c h were not. N o t


e v e n Jesuits c o u l d say for sure, because of a p r o v i s i o n in the C o n -
stitutions ( S e c t i o n s 8 1 - 8 6 of Part I) w h i c h authorizes the Superi-
o r G e n e r a l t o “ r e c e i v e a g e n t s , b o t h priestly a g e n t s t o h e l p i n
spiritual matters and lay agents to give aid in temporal and domes-
tic functions.” C a l l e d “coadjutors,” these lay agents could be of any
religious d e n o m i n a t i o n , race, n a t i o n a l i t y , o r sex. T h e y t o o k a n
o a t h w h i c h b o u n d t h e m “for w h a t e v e r time the Superior G e n e r a l
of t h e S o c i e t y should see fit to e m p l o y t h e m in spiritual or t e m p o -
ral s e r v i c e s . ” T h i s p r o v i s i o n was a v a i l e d b y s o m a n y b l a c k p o p e s
t h a t t h e F r e n c h h a d a n a m e for p e o p l e s u s p e c t e d of b e i n g Jesuit
a g e n t s : les robes-petites ( “ s h o r t - r o b e s ” ) . T h e E n g l i s h c a l l e d t h e m
“short-coats” or “Ignatians.”
Within two years of Regimini militantis ecclesiae, Paul III
appointed the Society to administer the R o m a n Inquisition (not
t o b e confused w i t h t h e S p a n i s h Inquisition, w h i c h reported o n l y
t o t h e S p a n i s h c r o w n ) . W h e n t h e Jesuits w e r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h
t h e I n q u i s i t i o n , P a u l m a d e his m o v e t o “ r e c o n c i l e ” w i t h t h e
Protestants.

52
RULERS OF EVIL

T H E SPIRIT O F T R E N T
Sketch from the Sebastiano painting of the
Psychopomp directing Paul III (left center)
and his cardinals to the Council of Trent.
Chapter 8

MOVING IN

T
H E T E R M “ P R O T E S T A N T ” was c o i n e d i n 1 5 2 9 t o describe the
large n u m b e r o f p r i n c e s and d e l e g a t e s o f f o u r t e e n c i t i e s ,
largely G e r m a n , w h o protested Emperor C h a r l e s Habsburg’s
attempt to enforce the Edict of Worms. T h i s edict bound the
Empire’s t h r e e h u n d r e d p r i n c e l y states and free cities t o R o m a n
C a t h o l i c i s m . T h e P r o t e s t a n t s p r o p o s e d a c o m p r o m i s e formula –
basically a s t a t e m e n t of t h e L u t h e r a n faith – k n o w n as t h e A u g s -
burg C o n f e s s i o n .
For fifteen years the Edict of W o r m s and the A u g s b u r g C o n f e s -
sion k e p t C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t rulers in a M e x i c a n standoff.
T h e n , o n D e c e m b e r 1 3 , 1 5 4 5 , Paul III c a l l e d b o t h factions t o the
small G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g n o r t h e r n I t a l i a n c a t h e d r a l city o f T r e n t .
T h e promise was to resolve differences peacefully in an e c u m e n i -
cal c o u n c i l .
T h e C o u n c i l o f T r e n t h a d n o t b e e n seated four m o n t h s before
it d e c r e e d t h a t t h e b o o k s and b i b l i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n s of Luther,

55
RULERS OF EVIL

L e F e v r e , Z w i n g l i , C a l v i n , a n d o t h e r “ u n a p p r o v e d persons” w e r e
“ a l t o g e t h e r forbidden [and] a l l o w e d to no o n e , since little a d v a n -
tage, but m u c h danger, generally arises from reading t h e m . ” 1

T h e n t h e Jesuits m o v e d in. D i e g o L a i n e z , A l f o n s o S a l m e r o n ,
t w o o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o m p a n i o n s , a n d C l a u d e LeJay, all t h r e e i n
their early thirties, d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s at T r e n t early on by
spurning the grand style of the other delegates. T h e y set up house-
k e e p i n g in a “narrow, s m o k e - b l a c k e n e d baker’s o v e n ” a n d w o r e
c l o t h i n g s o h e a v i l y p a t c h e d a n d greasy t h a t o t h e r priests w e r e
embarrassed to associate w i t h t h e m . T h e y carried w i t h t h e m intri-
2

c a t e advisories from Ignatius himself, w r i t t e n from t h e delegates’


p o i n t of view, as for e x a m p l e :

W h e n the matter that is being debated seems so manifestly


just and right that I can no longer keep silent, then I should
speak my mind with the greatest composure and conclude what
I have said with the words ’subject of course to the judgment of
a wiser head than mine.’ If the leaders of the opposing party
should try to befriend me, I must cultivate these men, who have
influence over the heretics and lukewarm Catholics, and try to
win them away from their errors with holy wisdom and love....

M o s t of the eighteen-year lifetime of the C o u n c i l of Trent c o n -


sisted o f t w o i n t e r m i s s i o n s s p a n n i n g four a n d t e n years e a c h . A t
the b e g i n n i n g of t h e s e c o n d intermission, Ignatius f o u n d e d a spe-
cial c o l l e g e i n R o m e for G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g Jesuits called t h e G e r -
m a n i c u m . T h r e e years later, the Peace of A u g s b u r g established the
p r i n c i p l e cuius regio, eius religio, “ w h o s e t h e r e g i o n , his t h e reli-
g i o n . ” T h e P e a c e o f A u g s b u r g was Jesuit paydirt. T h e y c o u l d n o w
b r i n g w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n s t o R o m e simply b y w i n n i n g o v e r a few
princes. A n d so they did. By 1560, the S o c i e t y had returned virtu-
ally all of S o u t h G e r m a n y and A u s t r i a to the C h u r c h .
T h e fruits of the G e r m a n i c u m were so successful that w h e n the
C o u n c i l o f T r e n t finally a d j o u r n e d o n D e c e m b e r 4 , 1 5 6 3 , its
decrees and c a n o n s c o n c e d e d n o t h i n g to the Protestant reformers.
I n d e e d , u n d e r t h e spiritual d i r e c t i o n o f S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l D i e g o
L a i n e z – Ignatius h a d d i e d in 1 5 5 6 – t h e C o u n c i l d e n i e d e v e r y

56
CHAPTER 8 M O V I N G IN

Protestant doctrine point by point. A n a t h e m a t i z e d (eternally


d a m n e d ) was a n y o n e w h o b e l i e v e d that salvation is G o d ’ s free gift
t o His faithful and d o e s n o t d e p e n d u p o n p a r t a k i n g o f C h u r c h
s a c r a m e n t s . A n a t h e m a t i z e d was a n y o n e w h o l o o k e d t o t h e Bible
for t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y o n “ d o c t r i n e , reproof, c o r r e c t i o n , and
instruction in righteousness” rather t h a n to the t e a c h i n g C h u r c h .
3

A n a t h e m a t i z e d was a n y o n e w h o regarded a s u n w o r t h y o f b e l i e f
such unscriptural doctrines as (1) the efficacy of papal indulgences,
(2) of confession a l o n e to a priest as necessary to s a l v a t i o n , (3) of
the mass as a true and real sacrifice of the body of C h r i s t necessary
to s a l v a t i o n , (4) t h e l e g i t i m a c y of t e a c h i n g s on purgatory, (5) the
celibate priesthood, (6) i n v o k i n g saints by prayer to intercede w i t h
G o d , ( 7 ) t h e v e n e r a t i o n o f relics, and (8) t h e use o f images and
symbols.
T h e C o u n c i l o f T r e n t hurled one h u n d r e d twenty-five a n a t h e -
mas – e t e r n a l d a m n a t i o n s – against P r o t e s t a n t i s m . T h e n , as an
a d d e n d u m t o its c l o s i n g s t a t e m e n t s , t h e C o u n c i l r e c o m m e n d e d
t h a t t h e Jesuits “ s h o u l d b e g i v e n pride o f p l a c e o v e r m e m b e r s o f
o t h e r orders as preachers a n d professors.” It was at T r e n t t h a t t h e
R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h b e g a n m a r c h i n g t o the beat o f the B l a c k
Papacy.
A g e n e r a t i o n later, t h e g u i d e l i n e s of t h e R o m a n I n q u i s i t i o n
under Jesuit d i r e c t i o n were published at t h e c o m m a n d of the C a r -
dinals Inquisitors G e n e r a l . T h i s Directorium Inquisitorum ( 1 5 8 4 )
was d e d i c a t e d t o G r e g o r y X I I I , t h e p o p e w h o b e s t o w e d u p o n
Jesuits t h e right t o d e a l i n c o m m e r c e and b a n k i n g , a n d w h o also
decreed that every papal legate should h a v e a Jesuit advisor on his
personal staff. H e r e follows a summary of t h e Directorium Inquisi-
4

torum (translated by J. P. Callender, 1838):

He is a heretic who does not believe what the Roman Hier-


archy t e a c h e s — A heretic merits the pains of fire By the
Gospel, the canons, civil law, and custom, heretics must be
burned.... For the suspicion alone of heresy, purgation is
demanded.... Magistrates who refuse to take the oath for defense
of the faith shall be suspected of heresy Wars may be com-
menced by the authority of the C h u r c h . . . . Indulgences for the

57
RULERS OF EVIL

remission of all sin belong to those who signed with the cross for
the persecution of heretics Every individual may kill a
heretic. Persons who betray heretics shall be rewarded....
Heretics may be forced to profess the Roman faith.... A heretic,
as he sins in all places, may everywhere be judged.... Heretics
must be sought after, and be corrected or exterminated....
Heretics enjoy no privileges in law or equity.... T h e goods of
heretics are to be considered as confiscated from the perpetra-
tion of the crime... T h e pope can enact new articles of faith....
Definitions of popes and councils are to be received as infalli-
ble.... Inquisitors may torture witnesses to obtain the truth.... It
is laudable to torture those of every class who are guilty of
heresy T h e Pope has power over infidels.... T h e Church may
make war with i n f i d e l s — Those who are strongly suspected are
to be reputed as heretics He who does not inform against
heretics shall be deemed as s u s p e c t e d — Inquisitors may allow
heretics to witness against heretics, but not for them.... Inquisi-
tors must not publish the names of informers, witnesses, and
accusers.... Penitent heretics may be condemned to perpetual
imprisonment Inquisitors may provide for their own expendi-
tures, and the salaries of their officers, from the property of
heretics.... Inquisitors enjoy the benefits of a plenary indulgence
[a full papal forgiveness of sin] at all times in life, and in death.

T h e Inquisition’s effect, o f c o u r s e , was t o send t h e more


resourceful of the “heretics, Protestants and Liberals” w h o escaped
torture or e x e c u t i o n scurrying u n d e r g r o u n d , or into t h e b u r g e o n -
ing w o r l d o f c o m m e r c e , o r i n t o regions w h e r e P r o t e s t a n t c i v i l
authorities kept Inquisitors at bay. Yearning for a less intrusive reli-
gious e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y j o i n e d a t t r a c t i v e p h i l o s o p h i c a l fraternities
where they could speak freely against R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . For this
ostensible reason, these fraternities or cults or lodges o p e r a t e d in
secrecy. In fact, they were the r e m n a n t s of the T e m p l a r n e t w o r k –
Rosicrucians, T e u t o n i c K n i g h t s , the numerous and various rites of
Freemasonry. Like the Templars and the Jesuits, they were religious
h i e r a r c h i e s o f strict o b e d i e n c e . T h e y differed from t h e Jesuits,
h o w e v e r , in that their pyramid c u l m i n a t e d in an ultimate authori-
ty no brother c o u l d identify w i t h certainty. T h e h i g h e s t master of

58
CHAPTER 8 M O V I N G IN

a L o d g e r e c e i v e d c o m m a n d m e n t s from an “ U n k n o w n Superior,” a
Superior whose will the master’s w h o l e struggle up the degrees had
trained h i m t o o b e y w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . W h a t t h e masters n e v e r
realized was that this mysterious personage, as we shall e x a m i n e in
more detail later, was in fact n o n e other t h a n the Black Pope.

A c e n t u r y after T r e n t , a d e s c e n d a n t of Paul III, R a n u c c i o Far-


nese, c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e great V e n e t i a n p a i n t e r S e b a s t i a n o
R i c c i t o c o m m e m o r a t e t h e genesis o f this d e f i n i t i v e C o u n c i l .
S e b a s t i a n o p r o d u c e d his famous “ P a u l III and t h e c a r d i n a l s en
route to T r e n t . ” T h e w o r k is b r e a t h t a k i n g l y c a n d i d . In t h e air,
a b o v e t h e pope’s h e a d , h o v e r s a deity, d i r e c t i n g t h e e n t o u r a g e
o n w a r d . T h e deity i s n o t Jesus o r M a r y o r Y a h w e h , G o d o f t h e
B i b l e . It is M e r c u r y of t h e S i b y l l i n e a n d V i r g i l i a n gospels – t h e
holy scripture of C a e s a r e a n R o m e .
M e r c u r y i s t h e c e l e b r a t e d g o d o f c o m m e r c e . T h e m e t a l most
essential to c o m m e r c i a l fluidity is n a m e d for h i m . M e t a l l i c mercu-
ry is k n o w n to scientists as the e l e m e n t Hg (derived from the L a t i n
hydrargyrum, “liquid silver”). It is Hg’s unique c h e m i c a l nature that
produces refined gold, t h e f u n d a m e n t a l substance i n w h i c h c o m -
mercial value is denominated. Liquid at room temperature, Hg
draws impurities out of gold ore and binds t h e m into an amalgam.
W h e n t h e a m a l g a m i s h e a t e d , t h e h e a t drives away b o t h H g a n d
the impurities. W h a t is left is pure gold suitable for further a m a l -
g a m a t i o n into coin.
Mercury’s t h e o l o g i c a l life b e g a n in a n c i e n t B a b y l o n , w h e r e he
was k n o w n a s M a r d u k . T h e B i b l e calls h i m M e r o d a c h , t h e
H e b r e w s c a l l e d h i m E n o c h , the E g y p t i a n s c a l l e d h i m T h o t h , t h e
S c a n d i n a v i a n s worshiped h i m as O d i n , the Teutons as W o t a n , and
t h e O r i e n t a l s as B u d d h a . L i v y says he was i n t r o d u c e d to t h e
R o m a n s in 495 BC as a Latinate version of the G r e e k god H e r m e s . 5

By w h a t e v e r n a m e , in w h a t e v e r culture, Mercury is considered


the god of the U n i v e r s a l M i n d , of W r i t i n g , N u m b e r , and T h o u g h t .
Just as M e r c u r y t h e m e t a l draws o u t impurities and b i n d s t h e m
i n t o a mass t h a t is b u r n e d a n d discarded, M e r c u r y t h e d e i t y uses
his i n t e l l e c t u a l b r i l l i a n c e to play Pied Piper to impure h u m a n i t y .

59
RULERS OF EVIL

He attracts followers and leads their souls to Hades, for w h i c h the


G r e e k s g a v e h i m t h e title Psychopompas (from psycho- “soul” and
pompous, “ d i r e c t o r ” ) . B e c a u s e H a d e s is n o t t h e m o s t desirable of
destinations, the P s y c h o p o m p h a d to construct elegant missionary
a d a p t a t i o n s . H e h a d t o c h a r m souls, deceive t h e m i n t o f o l l o w i n g
h i m any way he c o u l d – w h e t h e r by words, sights, or sounds. Like
H g , his m e t a l l i c form, M e r c u r y c o u l d c h a n g e his shape i n s t a n t a -
neously. D i d y o u see t h e v i l l a i n in t h e m o v i e Terminator II? W i t h
his e v e r - c h a n g i n g v o i c e s , p h y s i o g n o m i e s , and i d e n t i t i e s , he is
state-of-the-art P s y c h o p o m p . I n m a n y cultures, Mercury’s i n g e n -
ious d e c e p t i o n s e a r n e d h i m t h e title o f “ T h e Trickster.” H e was
patron deity of deceivers. A n d of thieves – e v e n as a baby, Mercury
couldn’t resist stealing A p o l l o ’ s c a t t l e . . . .
W a s Sebastiano R i c c i telling us that Mercury was the d o m i n a t -
ing spirit of the C o u n c i l of Trent? C e r t a i n l y the C o u n c i l required,
and still requires, R o m a n C a t h o l i c s t o h o n o r m a n y t r a d i t i o n s
w h i c h t h e B i b l e e i t h e r c o n d e m n s o r does n o t a u t h o r i z e . Y e t t h e
C o u n c i l also required, and still requires, that the Bible be h o n o r e d
as d i v i n e l y inspired. H o n o r i n g the B i b l e by a d v o c a t i n g u n b i b l i c a l
norms? T h i s calls for a skill w o r t h y of the P s y c h o p o m p , a skill that
m a k e s o n e b e l i e v e t h a t b l a c k i s w h i t e . A s w e ’ v e s e e n , this i s t h e
Jesuit skill – securing o b e d i e n c e of t h e subject’s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . If
i n d e e d the S o c i e t y of Jesus performs the f u n c t i o n of Mercury, it is
p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a n a t u r a l process k n o w n t o p a g a n a n d b i b l i c a l
scriptures alike, a process by w h i c h impure h u m a n i t y is attracted
t o o b l i v i o n , l e a v i n g b e h i n d o n l y t h e pure. T h e t h e o l o g i c a l impli-
cations of this process we shall discuss toward the end of this book.
W i t h the Inquisition and the C o u n c i l of Trent to pave their
way, the S o c i e t y of Jesus quickly b e c a m e w h a t Loyola had dreamed
i t w o u l d b e c o m e : t h e resurrected K n i g h t s T e m p l a r . I n t h e n e x t
chapter, we shall e x a m i n e the c o n t i n u a t i o n of their m e t e o r i c rise
as developers of the m o d e r n world.

60
RULERS OF EVIL

IGNATIUS IN H E A V E N
Padre Pozzo’s spectacular ceiling at the Church of St. Ignatius
in Rome. Note how the light emanates from Ignatius rather
than Jesus Christ, who still bears His cross.
Chapter 9

SECURING
CONFIDENCE

S
T R E N G T H E N E D B Y Trent’s u n q u a l i f i e d e n d o r s e m e n t , t h e
Jesuits quickly b e c a m e the C h u r c h ’ s most popular confessors.
Ignatius d i r e c t e d t h a t “ a Jesuit s h o u l d n o t a l l o w a n y o n e t o
leave t h e confessional entirely w i t h o u t c o m f o r t . ” If a confessant’s
o p i n i o n on any m a t t e r c o u l d be found in the least bit defensible,
Ignatius said, “ h e should be p e r m i t t e d to adhere to it, e v e n w h e n
the contrary o p i n i o n c a n be said to be more correct.”
People relished confessing to Jesuits. “ A l w a y s go to the Jesuits
for c o n f e s s i o n , ” it was said in G e r m a n y , “for t h e y put c u s h i o n s
under your knees and under your elbows, too.”
M e r c h a n t s , aristocrats, courtiers, and c r o w n e d heads insisted
that Jesuit confessional d i r e c t i o n was the best in all C h r i s t e n d o m .
T h e y c o n s i d e r e d the Jesuits to be t h e greatest c o n v e r t e r s of hard-
e n e d sinners, t h e surest m o r a l guides t h r o u g h life’s b e w i l d e r i n g
c o m p l e x i t i e s . Indeed, for t w o centuries, all the F r e n c h kings, from
H e n r y III t o Louis XV, w o u l d confess t o Jesuits. A l l G e r m a n

63
RULERS OF EVIL

e m p e r o r s after t h e early s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o u l d confess t o


Jesuits, t o o . Jesuits w o u l d t a k e t h e c o n f e s s i o n s of all D u k e s of
Bavaria after 1 5 7 9 , most rulers of P o l a n d and Portugal, t h e S p a n -
ish kings in the e i g h t e e n t h century, and James II of England.
T h e sacrament o f confession k e p t Jesuit i n f o r m a t i o n c h a n n e l s
l o a d e d w i t h v i t a l state secrets. It also furnished t h e S o c i e t y an
ideal v e h i c l e for influencing political a c t i o n . O n e of the most dra-
m a t i c i n s t a n c e s is f o u n d in t h e f a m o u s m e m o i r of F r a n ç o i s de la
C h a i z e , Jesuit c o n f e s s o r t o t h e p a i n f u l l y diseased K i n g o f F r a n c e
from 1 6 7 5 until 1709. “ M a n y a time since,” wrote La C h a i z e ,

when I have had him [Louis XIV] at confession, I have shook


hell about his ears, and made him sigh, fear, and tremble, before
I would give him absolution. By this I saw that he had still an
1

inclination to me, and was willing to be under my government;


so I set the baseness of the action before him by telling the
whole story, and how wicked it was, and that it could not be for-
given till he had done some good action to balance that, and
expiate the crime. Whereupon he at last asked me what he must
do. I told him that he must root out all heretics from his king-
dom.

Louis o b e y e d h i s confessor b y r e v o k i n g t h e E d i c t o f N a n t e s
( O c t o b e r 1 6 8 5 ) , w h i c h immediately resulted in:

the demolition of all the remaining Protestant temples through-


out France, and the entire prohibition of even private worship
under penalty of confiscation of body and property; the banish-
ment of all Protestant pastors from France within fifteen days;
the closing of all Protestant schools; the prohibition of parents
to instruct their children in the Protestant faith; the injunction
upon them, under a penalty of five hundred livres in each case,
to have their children baptized by the parish priest, and brought
up in the Roman Catholic religion; the confiscation of the prop-
erty and goods of all Protestant refugees who failed to return to
France within four months; the penalty of the galleys for life to
all men, and of imprisonment for life to all women, detected in
the act of attempting to escape from France. 2

64
CHAPTER Q SECURING CONFIDENCE

It was inevitable that the C o u n c i l of T r e n t would establish the


Jesuits as t h e s c h o o l m a s t e r s of Europe. W i t h m o n e y from royalty
and c o m m e r c e ( a n d n o t so m u c h as a p f e n n i g from t h e C h u r c h ) ,
t h e S o c i e t y built a n e x t e n s i v e system o f s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s . N o
t u i t i o n was charged, but e a c h p r o s p e c t i v e student was t h o r o u g h l y
e x a m i n e d t o see i f h e h a d a p t i t u d e s t h e S o c i e t y c o u l d use. W i t h
the f o u n d i n g of the first Jesuit s c h o o l at C o i m b r a , Portugal, by the
Emperor’s youngest sister C a t h e r i n a (Iñigo’s r o m a n t i c interest w h o
h a d since married t h e K i n g of Portugal), the principal Jesuit o c c u -
pation became teaching. By 1556, three-fourths of the Society’s
m e m b e r s h i p w e r e d e d i c a t e d i n 4 6 Jesuit c o l l e g e s t o “ l e a r n i n g
against l e a r n i n g , ” t o i n d o c t r i n a t i n g m i n d s w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g o f
illuminated humanism as opposed to the learning of Scripture.
T h i s n e t w o r k would e x p a n d by 1 7 4 9 to 669 colleges, 1 7 6 seminar-
ies, 61 houses of study, and 24 universities partly or w h o l l y under
Jesuit direction.
M a n y P r o t e s t a n t families sent t h e i r sons t o Jesuit s c h o o l s ,
despite M a r t i n Luther’s early w a r n i n g in An Appeal to the Ruling
Class ( 1 5 2 0 ) t h a t “unless t h e y d i l i g e n t l y train a n d impress S c r i p -
ture u p o n y o u n g students, schools will p r o v e to be w i d e n i n g gates
of h e l l . ” T h e Jesuit c u r r i c u l u m , or ratio studiorum ( “ m e t h o d of
s t u d y ” ) , g a v e S c r i p t u r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n a t t e n t i o n . Part IV, S e c t i o n
3 5 1 o f L o y o l a ’ s C o n s t i t u t i o n s prescribes courses i n “ t h e h u m a n e
letters of different languages, logic, natural and moral philosophy,
metaphysics, scholastic and positive theology,” w i t h “Sacred Scrip-
ture” b r i n g i n g up t h e rear. H o w rigorously any o n e of these sub-
jects was t o b e studied d e p e n d e d u p o n “ c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t i m e s ,
p l a c e s , p e r s o n s , and o t h e r s u c h factors, a c c o r d i n g t o w h a t seems
e x p e d i e n t i n our Lord t o h i m w h o h o l d s t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r g e . ”
S e c t i o n 3 6 6 puts S c r i p t u r e a t t h e m e r c y o f these factors: “ T h e
scholastics should acquire a g o o d f o u n d a t i o n in L a t i n before they
a t t e n d lectures on t h e arts, a n d in t h e arts before t h e y pass on to
s c h o l a s t i c t h e o l o g y ; and in it before t h e y study p o s i t i v e theology.
S c r i p t u r e m a y be studied e i t h e r c o n c o m i t a n t l y or later o n . ” If
S c r i p t u r e s h o u l d b e studied a t all, t h e c o m m e n t a r y a n d c r i t i c a l
interpretation of Protestant scholastics were to be ignored: “In the

65
RULERS OF EVIL

case of C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r s , e v e n t h o u g h a w o r k may be g o o d it
should n o t be lectured on w h e n the author is bad, lest a t t a c h m e n t
to h i m be acquired.”
“ T h e curriculum of the Jesuit colleges c a m e to be adopted to a
great e x t e n t as t h e basis of the curricula in the E u r o p e a n colleges
generally,” wrote Dr. James J. W a l s h , D e a n of F o r d h a m U n i v e r s i t y
M e d i c a l S c h o o l . Moreover, according to Dr. W a l s h ,
3

T h e Founding Fathers of our American Republic, that is to say


the groups of men who drew up and signed the Declaration of
Independence, who were the leaders in the American Revolu-
tion, and who formulated the Constitution of the United
States ... were, the majority of them, educated in the colonial
colleges or in corresponding colleges abroad ... which fol-
lowed ... almost exactly the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum. T h e fact has
been missed to a great extent in our histories of American edu-
cation....

E m b e d d e d in t h e ratio studiorum w e r e t h e e l e m e n t s of e n t e r -
t a i n m e n t , of dramatic p r o d u c t i o n – composition, rhetoric, and elo-
q u e n c e . T h e s e courses i n t e r l i n k e d w i t h the Spiritual Exercises t o
intensify t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l i t y o f C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e o v e r S c r i p t u r e
a n d P r o t e s t a n t i s m . T h e y resulted in a g e n r e of s p e c t a c u l a r plays
that w o n distinction as “Jesuit theatre.”
T h e first Jesuit theatre was performed in V i e n n a in 1 5 5 5 , near-
ly forty years before the emergence of Shakespeare. It was instantly
popular and quickly spread to other parts of Europe. B e t w e e n 1597
and 1 7 7 3 more t h a n five h u n d r e d Jesuit theatricals were staged in
the lower R h i n e regions alone. Jacob Bidermann’s play Cenodoxus
( “ N e w f a n g l e d B e l i e f s ” ) , a p o i n t - b y - p o i n t r e b u t t a l of Luther’s
teachings, p r o v e d the p o w e r of e n t e r t a i n m e n t to a c h i e v e political
reform. “ S u c h a w h o l e s o m e impression was m a d e , ” w r o t e Father
B i d e r m a n n r e c a l l i n g t h e 1609 o p e n i n g of Cenodoxus in M u n i c h ,
“ t h a t a full f o u r t e e n persons of t h e h i g h e s t rank of t h e B a v a r i a n
court retired into solitude during the days that followed, to perform
the Spiritual Exercises and to reform their m a n n e r of living. Truly
a hundred sermons would n o t h a v e done so m u c h g o o d . ” 4

66
CHAPTER 9 SECURING CONFIDENCE

A n e x e m p l a r y Jesuit drama, performed i n 1625 a t t h e C o l l e g e


o f S t . O m e r i n h o n o r o f B e l g i a n royalty, allegorized t h e glorious
e n d t o c i v i l war i n B e l g i u m b r o u g h t b y t h e a d v e n t o f Princess
Isabella and her h u s b a n d , A l b e r t . T h e play, as r e v i e w e d by a c o n -
temporary official,

represented a country, long heavily oppressed under the Iron


A g e , supplicating the help of Jupiter, who, after having sum-
moned a council of the gods, sent down Saturn, lately married
to Astraea. These visitors were received with much pomp by
twelve zodiacs or princes sent by Mercury. They then dispatched
four most potent heroes, Hercules, Jason, Theseus and Perseus
from the Elysian Fields, with commands to conquer Iron A g e ,
War, Error, and Discord. T h e heroes expelled those terrible mon-
sters from the country and substituted in their stead G o l d e n
A g e , Peace, Truth, and Concord. T h e Princess with the whole
assembly were highly delighred. 5

T h e faculty o f M u n i c h C o l l e g e praised t h e w a y Jesuit theatre


captivated Protestants, especially the parents of school-aged
youngsters: “ T h e r e is no better means of m a k i n g friends out of the
heretics and the e n e m i e s of t h e C h u r c h , and filling up the enroll-
m e n t o f the s c h o o l t h a n g o o d high-spirited p l a y a c t i n g . ” Moliere’s
Jesuit t h e a t r i c a l s in Paris w e r e so p o p u l a r t h a t e v e n t h e dress
rehearsals were sold out. Mozart, at the age of e l e v e n , was c o m m i s -
sioned to write music for a play at t h e Jesuit c o l l e g e in Salzburg,
w h e r e h i s f a t h e r was m u s i c a l d i r e c t o r t o t h e A r c h b i s h o p . E v e n
from t h e W e s t Indies a Jesuit missionary reported t h a t “ n o t h i n g
has made a more forceful impression on the Indians t h a n our play.”
In E n g l a n d , Jesuit t h e a t r e was n o t k n o w n as s u c h b e c a u s e of
Q u e e n Elizabeth’s statute m a k i n g it a c a p i t a l crime to be, or e v e n
to assist, a Jesuit w i t h i n h e r orbit. B u t if the purpose of Jesuit the-
atre was t o capture t h a t share o f man’s spiritual a t t e n t i o n w h i c h
m i g h t o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e B i b l e , t h e n Eng-
land certainly p r o d u c e d the greatest Jesuit playwright of t h e m all.
Shakespeare occupies us w i t h the h u m a n process in a way that sub-
tly marginalizes the Bible – exactly pursuant to the Jesuit mission.

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RULERS OF EVIL

S h a k e s p e a r i a n c h a r a c t e r s do p r e a c h , a n d t h e y p r e a c h a r e l i g i o n ,
but it is n o t t h e G o s p e l of Jesus C h r i s t . It is t h e g n o s t i c illumina-
t i o n o f M e d i c i l e a r n i n g t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e p r e a c h e s , t h e stuff o f
Jesuit schools. N o t surprisingly, the secret tradition of Templarism
claims S h a k e s p e a r e , at least the writer of his plays, to h a v e b e e n a
Rosicrucian steeped in M e d i c i learning:

The philosophic ideals promulgated throughout Shakespear-


ian plays distinctly demonstrate their author to have been thor-
oughly familiar with certain doctrines and tenets peculiar to
Rosicrucianism; in fact, the profundity of the Shakespearian pro-
ductions stamps their creator as one of the illuminati of the
ages....
W h o but a Platonist, a Qabbalist, or a Pythagorean could
have written The Tempest, Macbeth, Hamlet, or The Tragedy of
Cymbeline? W h o but one deeply versed in Paracelsian lore could
have conceived A Midsummer Night’s Dream?

Y e t , as G a r r y W i l l s in his b o o k Witches & Jesuits p o i n t s out,


Macbeth is an e l a b o r a t e c o n d e m n a t i o n of t h e Jesuits as satanists,
murderers, w i t c h e s . Macbeth is o n e of m a n y of its period’s “ p o w d e r
plays,” a g e n r e in w h i c h c e r t a i n buzz w o r d s , w e l l u n d e r s t o o d by
c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , m e m o r i a l i z e t h e g u i l t and e x e c u t i o n o f e i g h t
Jesuits for h a v i n g s c h e m e d t h e G u n p o w d e r P l o t o f N o v e m b e r 5 ,
1 6 0 5 . T h e P l o t aimed t o b l o w u p t h e entire g o v e r n m e n t o f G r e a t
Britain, i n c l u d i n g the royal family, in a single c a t a s t r o p h i c e x p l o -
sion under the Houses of Parliament.
H o w c o u l d a play d e f a m i n g Jesuits be of s e r v i c e to t h e Jesuit
agenda? As we shall see, warfare in defense of the p a p a c y requires
e x t r a v a g a n t measures. I n fact, b o t h t h e G u n p o w d e r P l o t , w h i c h
failed, and the c e l e b r a t i o n of its d e t e c t i o n , w h i c h lives on in Mac-
beth, served R o m e abundantly. K i n g James I, w h o declared himself
t h e Plot’s d i v i n e l y - i l l u m i n a t e d d i s c o v e r e r , b l a m e d t h e P l o t o n
“Jesuits and papists.” B u t at the same time, James e x o n e r a t e d “less
f a n a t i c a l C a t h o l i c s . ” A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l s , “ t h e P l o t g a v e [James]
6

his best opportunity to separate loyal and moderate C a t h o l i c s from


the mad extremists of the Plot.” In short, the Plot secured England

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CHAPTER 9 SECURING CONFIDENCE

for “loyal and m o d e r a t e ” R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . In t h e reasoning of


a Superior G e n e r a l , particularly the G e n e r a l of the G u n p o w d e r
Plot and S h a k e s p e a r i a n theatre, C l a u d i o A c q u a v i v a , t h e sacrifice
of e i g h t Jesuits was a small t a c t i c a l price to pay for m o v i n g the
K i n g o f E n g l a n d t o express c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e pope’s B r i t i s h sub-
jects, estimated at half t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the realm.

C ERTAINLY the most elaborate single Jesuit theatrical e v e n t was


p r o d u c e d by G r e g o r y XV, t h e first Jesuit pupil to be e l e c t e d
Pope. T h i s was the c a n o n i z a t i o n of Ignatius de L o y o l a , the c l i m a x
o f G r e g o r y ’ s brief p o n t i f i c a t e ( h e r e i g n e d o n l y three years). C a n -
onization is authorized n o w h e r e in the Bible. Rather, it is a process
a d a p t e d from t h e p a g a n t r a d i t i o n o f “ a p o t h e o s i s , ” w h e r e b y t h e
priestly college declared a particularly effective mortal to be a god.
In R o m a n Catholicism, the Sacred Congregation of Rites con-
ducts a l e n g t h y inquisition into the works of a deceased candidate.
T h e inquisition c a n take dozens, e v e n hundreds o f years. T h e c a n -
didate’s w o r k s are d e f e n d e d before a t r i b u n a l of t h r e e judges
against a “devil’s a d v o c a t e . ” A final j u d g m e n t is d e c l a r e d by t h e
Pope, w h o orders t h e C h u r c h t o b e l i e v e t h a t the candidate’s soul
is in H e a v e n , and to v e n e r a t e the person w i t h the title of “ S a i n t . ”
( T h e Bible teaches that a n y o n e w h o hears and does the c o m m a n d -
m e n t s of Jesus is a saint. W i t h o u t any h i e r a r c h i c a l red tape, he or
she a v o i d s j u d g m e n t and goes to h e a v e n i m m e d i a t e l y u p o n physi-
cal death.)
Loyola’s c a n o n i z a t i o n was c e l e b r a t e d o n M a r c h 1 2 , 1 6 2 2 i n a
c e r e m o n y t h a t was “ a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d display o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l
p o m p , pageantry, and e x t r a v a g a n c e . ” O n e e y e w i t n e s s d e s c r i b e d
7

t h e e v e n t a s “ a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e b o r n spirit o f t h e C a t h o l i c
C h u r c h , o f t h e t r i u m p h o f t h e Blessed V i r g i n o v e r L u t h e r a n d
Calvin.” 8

R I D I N G t h e crest o f h u m a n i s t e x u b e r a n c e f o l l o w i n g Loyola’s
c a n o n i z a t i o n , Jesuit priest A t h e n a s i u s K i r c h e r ( 1 6 0 2 - 1 6 8 0 )
c o n t r i b u t e d p o w e r f u l l y to Jesuit t h e a t r e as sensory e x p e r i e n c e .
W i t h his m e g a p h o n e , w h i c h enabled the voice of one to reach

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RULERS OF EVIL

thousands, K i r c h e r i n v e n t e d broadcasting. H e also fathered m o d -


ern c a m e r a theory w i t h his p e r f e c t i o n of the lanterna magica. T h e
magic lantern projected sharp images through a lens u p o n a screen,
g i v i n g audiences the illusion of b u r n i n g cities and conflagrations.
Kircher’s w o r k i n f l u e n c e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p h e n a k i s t o s c o p e
( 1 8 3 2 ) , the zoetrope (1860), the kinematoscope ( 1 8 6 1 ) , the
k i n e o g r a p h ( 1 8 6 8 ) , the p r a x i n o s c o p e ( 1 8 7 7 ) , and finally, T h o m a s
A l v a Edison’s k i n e t o g r a p h for filming a c t i o n t o b e projected o n t o
a s c r e e n t h r o u g h his k i n e t o s c o p e ( 1 8 9 4 ) . E d i s o n h a d a p e t n a m e
for t h e tar-papered studio i n W e s t O r a n g e , N e w Jersey, w h e r e all
his p r o t o t y p i c a l films w e r e m a d e . He c a l l e d it “ B l a c k M a r i a , ” a
term that aptly described the image to w h o m Iñigo de L o y o l a ded-
icated his life in 1522 – the B l a c k M a d o n n a of Montserrat.
T h e A m e r i c a n cinema’s earliest subject m a t t e r t o capture t h e
popular i m a g i n a t i o n – the “ c o w b o y ” – was a Jesuit c o n t r i b u t i o n as
w e l l . E u s e b i o K i n o , w h o s e statue i s o n e o f t w o r e p r e s e n t i n g A r i -
zona in t h e U . S . C a p i t o l b u i l d i n g , was a Jesuit professor from
Ingolstadt C o l l e g e in Bavaria. B e t w e e n 1687 and 1 7 1 1 K i n o intro-
d u c e d c a t t l e and their m a n a g e m e n t to s o u t h e r n A r i z o n a . For this
he is gratefully r e m e m b e r e d as “ F a t h e r of t h e C a t t l e Business.”
P o n d e r i n g t h e w o r k s o f K i r c h e r and K i n o , w e c o m e t o a rather
a s t o n i s h i n g awareness: K i n o ’ s c o w b o y s , as p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h
Kircher’s m a g i c l a n t e r n , i n d o c t r i n a t e d A m e r i c a ’ s earliest m o v i e
a u d i e n c e s w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g message o f Jesuit t h e a t r e and
R o m a n C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y – t h a t k n o w i n g and o b e y i n g S c r i p t u r e
is n o t necessary in c o m p r e h e n d i n g the ways of good and evil, or in
doing justice under natural law.
U s i n g c i n e m a and radio to unite C a t h o l i c laypersons w i t h the
R o m a n h i e r a r c h y was a m a i n purpose o f “ C a t h o l i c A c t i o n . ”
C a t h o l i c A c t i o n was i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1 9 2 2 b y Pius X I , w h o s e t w o
confessors, Fathers Alissiardi and C e l e b r a n o , were Jesuits. T h e first
p o p e to install a radio station at the V a t i c a n ( 1 9 3 1 ) and to estab-
lish n a t i o n a l film r e v i e w offices ( 1 9 2 2 ) , Pius XI ordered C a t h o l i c s
into politics. In the letter Peculari quadam ( “ C o n t a i n i n g the flock”)
h e w a r n e d t h a t “ t h e m e n o f C a t h o l i c A c t i o n w o u l d fail i n t h e i r
duty if, as opportunities allow it, they did n o t try to direct the pol-

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CHAPTER 9 SECURING CONFIDENCE

itics of their p r o v i n c e and of their country.”


T h e m e n o f C a t h o l i c A c t i o n did try. T h e i r first major effort
was t o e m p l o y B l a c k P o p e V l a d i m i r L e d o c h o w s k i ’ s strategy o f
b r i n g i n g t h e C a t h o l i c n a t i o n s o f c e n t r a l and eastern Europe
together into a p a n - G e r m a n federation. To head the federation,
L e d o c h o w s k i required a charismatic leader charged w i t h subduing
the c o m m u n i s t i c S o v i e t U n i o n o n t h e east, P r o t e s t a n t Prussia,
P r o t e s t a n t G r e a t B r i t a i n , and r e p u b l i c a n F r a n c e o n t h e w e s t . 9

L e d o c h o w s k i c h o s e the C a t h o l i c militarist A d o l f Hitler, w h o told


Bishop Bernind of O s n a b r u c h in 1936 that

there was no fundamental difference between National Social-


ism and the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . Had not the church, he argued,
looked on Jews as parasites and shut them in ghettos? ’I am only
doing,’ he boasted, ’what the church has done for fifteen hun-
dred years, only more effectively.’ Being a Catholic himself, he
told Berning, he ’admired and wanted to promote Christianity.’ 10

To promote C h r i s t i a n i t y as taught h i m by R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m ,
H i t l e r a p p o i n t e d L e n i R i e f e n s t a h l t o c r e a t e t h e greatest fascist
films ever produced. H e r deification of H i t l e r and r o m a n t i c i z a t i o n
of a u t o c r a c y in s p e c t a c l e s like Triumph of the Will are, in t h e m -
selves, the history of G e r m a n c i n e m a in the thirties and early for-
ties. In print, Ledochowski’s p a n - G e r m a n manifesto took the form
of Hitler’s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Mein Kampf ( “ M y S t r u g g l e ” ) , g h o s t -
w r i t t e n b y t h e Jesuit F a t h e r S t a e m p f l e 11
a n d p l a c e d beside t h e
Bible on the altars of G e r m a n c h u r c h e s . 12

A f t e r W o r l d W a r II, during S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 7 , Pope J o h n XXIII


g a v e Jesuit t h e a t r e e v e n b r o a d e r h o r i z o n s w i t h his e n c y c l i c a l
Miranda prorsus ( “ L o o k i n g a h e a d ” ) , saying,

M e n must be brought into closer communion with one


another. T h e y must become socially minded. These technical
arts (cinema, sound broadcasting, and television) can achieve
this aim far more easily than the printed word. [Italics mine] T h e
Catholic Church is keenly desirous that these means be convert-
ed to the spreading and advancement of everything that can be

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truly called good. Embracing, as she does, the whole of human


society within the orbit of her divinely appointed mission, she is
directly concerned with the fostering of civilization among all
peoples.

To C a t h o l i c film p r o d u c e r s a n d d i r e c t o r s , Miranda prorsus


delivered

a paternal injunction not to allow films to be made which are at


variance with the faith and Christian moral standards. Should
this happen – which G o d forbid – then it is for the Bishops to
rebuke them and, if necessary, to impose upon them appropriate
sanctions.

J o h n XXIII urged that Pius XI’s national film r e v i e w i n g offices

be entrusted to men who are experienced in cinema, sound


broadcasting, and television, under the guidance of a priest spe-
cially chosen by the Bishops.... At the same time We urge that
the faithful, and particularly those who are militant in the cause
of C a t h o l i c A c t i o n [Jesuits and their protégés], be suitably
instructed, so that they may appreciate the need for giving to
these offices their willing, united, and effective support.

I n 1 9 6 4 , P o p e Paul V I a m p l i f i e d Miranda prorsus w i t h t h e


d e c r e e Inter mirifica ( “ A m o n g t h e W o n d e r s ” ) , s a y i n g “it is t h e
C h u r c h ’ s birthright to use and o w n ... the press, the c i n e m a , radio,
television and others of a like nature.” Paul cited

a special responsibility for the proper use of the means of social


communication [which] rests on journalists, writers, actors,
designers, producers, exhibitors, distributors, operators, sellers,
critics – all those, in a word, who are involved in the making and
transmission of communications in any way whatever.... They
have power to direct mankind along a good path or an evil path
by the information they impart and the pressure they exert. It
will be for them to regulate the economic, political, and artistic
values in a way that will not conflict with the common good....

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CHAPTER 9 SECURING CONFIDENCE

T h e q u a l i t y of e n t e r t a i n m e n t ’ s c o n t e n t was d e c r e e d in a sec-
tion of Inter mirifica e n c o u r a g i n g ” t h e c h r o n i c l i n g , the description
o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m o r a l e v i l [which] c a n , w i t h t h e h e l p o f
t h e m e a n s o f social c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d w i t h suitable dramatiza-
tion, lead to a deeper k n o w l e d g e and analysis of m a n and to a m a n -
ifestation of the true and the g o o d in all their splendor.” E m b o l d -
e n e d b y this papal d e c r e e , social c o m m u n i c a t o r s since 1 9 6 5 h a v e
pushed t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l guarantees of “free s p e e c h ” to t h e limit
by c h r o n i c l i n g , describing, and representing moral e v i l w i t h s u c h
progressively v i v i d , repulsive, prurient, yet often a p p e a l i n g detail
that e n t e r t a i n m e n t has b e c o m e , in the o p i n i o n of many, a verita-
ble technological “how to” of m o r a l e v i l . It c l e a r l y does n o t lead
a u d i e n c e s t o a d e e p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f H o l y S c r i p t u r e . T h i s fact
identifies e n t e r t a i n m e n t today as a successful Jesuit theatrical mis-
sion.

D URING its four c e n t u r i e s of e x i s t e n c e , t h e Jesuit e d u c a t -


ional/theatrical enterprise has p r o d u c e d a proud, poised, and
i m a g i n a t i v e graduate. H e o r she i s e n l i g h t e n e d b y t h e M e d i c i
Library’s h u m a n i t i e s , facile in w o r l d l y matters, m o v e d by t h e a t r i -
cality, a n d indifferent t o w a r d H o l y S c r i p t u r e . P r o d u c i n g Jesuitic
graduates has b e c o m e the aim of m o d e r n public e d u c a t i o n , despite
t h e h e a v y price o f i g n o r i n g S c r i p t u r e ( w h i c h , a s L u t h e r w a r n e d
and t h e C o l u m b i n e murders attest, has i n d e e d t u r n e d t h e p u b l i c
schools into “ w i d e n i n g gates of h e l l ” ) . Jesuit theatre and the Spiri-
tual Exercises, w h o s e original purpose was to bring h u m a n under-
standing into papal subservience through esoteric emotional
e x p e r i e n c e s , h a v e e v o l v e d i n t o t h e full p a n o p l y o f c o n t e m p o r a r y
social c o m m u n i c a t i o n .
T h e great o b j e c t i v e of obscuring Scripture has operated to dis-
courage the formal study of the basics of w h i c h the Bible is t h e cor-
nerstone – literature, science, and history. Research by the N a t i o n -
al A s s o c i a t i o n of Scholars ( N A S ) of U . S . N e w s & W o r l d Report’s
annual listing of “ A m e r i c a ’ s Best C o l l e g e s ” (including b o t h private
and public) disclosed startling figures. 15
In 1 9 1 4 , nearly all of these
institutions h a d required courses in English c o m p o s i t i o n ; by 1 9 6 4

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t h e figure was 8 6 % ; i n 1 9 9 6 , 3 6 % . I n 1 9 1 4 , 8 2 % o f t h e best c o l -


leges and universities had t r a d i t i o n a l m a t h e m a t i c s r e q u i r e m e n t s ;
b y 1 9 6 4 o n l y 3 6 % did; b y 1 9 9 6 , 1 2 % . I n 1 9 1 4 , 1 9 3 9 a n d 1 9 6 4 ,
more t h a n 7 0 % o f t h e institutions required a t least o n e course i n
t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ; t h a t figure fell t o 3 4 % i n 1 9 9 6 . Literature
courses w e r e required a t 7 5 % o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1 9 1 4 , a n d a t
5 0 % i n 1 9 3 9 and 1 9 6 4 . Today, n o t o n e o f t h e “ b e s t ” i n s t i t u t i o n s
has a literature r e q u i r e m e n t . M o s t c o l l e g e s today are t u r n i n g out
graduates w h o h a v e studied little o r n o history. I n 1 9 1 4 , 9 0 % o f
A m e r i c a ' s elite c o l l e g e s required history; i n 1 9 3 9 and 1 9 6 4 more
t h a n 5 0 % did; b y 1 9 9 6 o n l y o n e o f t h e 5 0 best s c h o o l s offered a
required history course. T h e day is approaching, perhaps, w h e n the
only historians will be amateurs w h o study history as self-help, w h o
e x a m i n e the past in order to m a k e sense of the present and n o t be
caught unprepared by the future.
A m e r i c a ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g has b e e n systematically b e n t t o the
will of the C h u r c h M i l i t a n t , w h i l e the intellectual means for sens-
ing t h e c a p t u r e h a v e b e e n d i s c o n n e c t e d . M o s t o f t h e c o n t e n t o f
m o d e r n media, w h e t h e r television, radio, print, film, stage, or w e b ,
is s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t Jesuit ratio studiorum. T h e Jesuit c o l l e g e is no
longer just a c h a r t e r e d institution; it has b e c o m e our entire social
e n v i r o n m e n t - t h e m o v i e s , t h e m a l l , t h e s c h o o l , t h e h o m e , the
mind. H u m a n experience has b e c o m e a Spiritual Exercise man-
aged b y c h a r i s m a t i c spiritual directors w h o k n o w h o w t o m a n i p u -
late a democracy's e m o t i o n s . Logic, perspective, n a t i o n a l memory,
and self-discipline are purged t o t h e p o i n t t h a t “ u n b r i d l e d e m o -
t i o n a l responses,” as e c o n o m i s t T h o m a s S o w e l l put it, “are all we
h a v e left.”
D e s p i t e its a s c e n d a n c y o v e r A m e r i c a n life, few A m e r i c a n s
understand the term “Jesuit.” In our n e x t chapter, we shall e x a m -
ine h o w this t e r m is d e f i n e d in our basic r e f e r e n c e w o r k s . T h e s e
definitions will h e l p us to better understand t h e k i n d of c h a r a c t e r
produced by Ignatian psychological t e c h n i q u e .

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RULERS OF E V I L
Chapter 10

DEFINITIONS

T
HE T E R M “Jesuit” was first used to describe a m e m b e r of the
S o c i e t y o f Jesus i n 1 5 5 9 . I t did n o t o r i g i n a t e from w i t h i n
the Society, but from outsiders. W h e t h e r intended derisive-
ly or respectfully, “Jesuit” does appear to h a v e b e e n inspired.
W e find i n t h e B i b l e ( N u m b e r s 2 6 : 4 4 ) t h e m e n t i o n o f “Je-
suites.” T h e s e Jesuites w e r e t h e p r o g e n y o f Jesui, w h o s e n a m e i n
H e b r e w , Yishviy, m e a n s “ l e v e l . ” T h e Jesuits c e r t a i n l y l e v e l l e d the
Protestant m e n a c e .
Jesui was a g r e a t - g r a n d s o n of A b r a h a m . H i s f a t h e r was t h e
Israelite tribal c h i e f t a n A s h e r (Asher, “ h a p p y ” ) . A t G e n e s i s 4 9 : 2 0 ,
A s h e r ' s posterity is d i v i n e l y p r o p h e s i e d to “ y i e l d r o y a l d a i n t i e s
(ma-adanim, ' d e l i g h t s ' ) . ” T h e i r u n i q u e l y p r i v i l e g e d access to the
minds and wills of kings has c e r t a i n l y e n a b l e d t h e Jesuits to yield
copious harvests of royal delights.
B u t in fulfilling t h e i r scriptural p r o p h e c y , t h e Jesuits s e e m to
h a v e a l i e n a t e d t h e m s e l v e s from p e o p l e w h o use t h e E n g l i s h lan-

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g u a g e . T h i s does n o t d i s a p p o i n t S t . Ignatius. “ L e t u s h o p e , ” h e
o n c e wrote, “ t h a t the S o c i e t y may n e v e r be left u n t r o u b l e d by the
hostility of the world for very long.”
A m e r i c a ' s first i n d i g e n o u s d i c t i o n a r y was c o m p i l e d b y N o a h
W e b s t e r and published in 1 8 2 8 . His American Dictionary of the Eng-
lish Language reflects t h e p l a c e h e l d by Jesuits in t h e o p i n i o n of a
public w h o s e senior citizens h a d b r o u g h t forth t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f
I n d e p e n d e n c e a n d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ( W e b s t e r h i m s e l f was forty-
o n e w h e n the C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified):

Jesuit. One of the society of Jesus, so called, founded by Ignatius


Loyola; a society remarkable for their cunning in propagat-
ing their principles.
Jesuited. Conforming to the principles of the Jesuits.
Jesuitess. A female Jesuit in principle.
Jesuitic, jesuitical. Pertaining to the Jesuits or their principles
and arts. 2. Designing; cunning; deceitful; prevaricating.
Jesuitically. Craftily.
Jesuitism. T h e arts, principles and practices of the Jesuits. 2.
Cunning; deceit; hypocrisy; prevarication; deceptive prac-
tices to effect a purpose.

O n e h u n d r e d s e v e n t y - e i g h t years later, W e b s t e r ' s Third New


International Dictionary ( 1 9 8 6 ) informs us t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e has
n o t repented:

Jesuit: 1: a member of a religious society for men founded by St.


Ignatius Loyola in 1 5 3 4 . 2: one given to intrigue or equivo-
cation: a crafty person: C A S U I S T
Jesuited: jesuitic
Jesuitic or jesuitical: 1: of or relating to the Jesuits, Jesuitism, or
Jesuitry. 2: having qualities thought to resemble those of a
Jesuit - usu. used disparagingly
Jesuitize: to act or teach in the actual or ascribed manner of a
Jesuit: to indoctrinate with actual or ascribed Jesuit princi-
ples
Jesuitry: principles or practices ascribed to the Jesuits, as the
practice of mental reservation, casuistry, and equivocation

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CHAPTER 1O DEFINITIONS

Webster's o n l i n e dictionary, WWWebster ( 1 9 9 9 ) , is particular-


l y r e v e a l i n g . H e r e w e read t h a t “Jesuit” m e a n s “ a m e m b e r o f t h e
R o m a n C a t h o l i c S o c i e t y of Jesus founded by S a i n t Ignatius L o y o l a
i n 1 5 3 4 and d e v o t e d t o m i s s i o n a r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k , ” and
t h a t a Jesuit is “ o n e g i v e n to intrigue or e q u i v o c a t i o n . ” WWWeb-
ster defines “ t o i n t r i g u e ” as m e a n i n g “ t o c h e a t , trick, p l o t , and
s c h e m e , ” and “ t o e q u i v o c a t e ” as “ t o use e q u i v o c a l l a n g u a g e espe-
cially w i t h i n t e n t to d e c e i v e ; to avoid c o m m i t t i n g oneself in w h a t
o n e says.” “ E q u i v o c a l ” l a n g u a g e , a c c o r d i n g to t h e same source, is
language “subject to t w o or m o r e interpretations and usually used
to mislead or confuse; of u n c e r t a i n nature or disposition toward a
person or t h i n g ; of doubtful a d v a n t a g e , g e n u i n e n e s s , or moral rec-
titude.”
T h e Jesuit discipline has e l e v a t e d m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n , casuist-
ry, and e q u i v o c a t i o n to h i g h arts - you will n o t find a more hilari-
ous d e f e n s e of t h e s e arts t h a n B l a i s e Pascal's classic “ P a s t o r a l
L e t t e r s ” ( 1 6 5 7 ) , freely a v a i l a b l e o n the i n t e r n e t . Purportedly writ-
ten to a friend, the “Letters” report c o n v e r s a t i o n s Pascal is h a v i n g
w i t h a Jesuit casuist. T h e Jesuit defends his arts thusly:

M e n have arrived at such a pitch of corruption nowadays


that, unable to make them come to us, we must e'en go to them,
otherwise they would cast us off altogether; and, what is worse,
they would become perfect castaways. It is to retain such char-
acters as these that our casuists have taken under consideration
the vices to which people of various conditions are most addict-
ed, with the view of laying down maxims which, while they can-
not be said to violate the truth, are so gentle that he must be a
very impracticable subject indeed who is not pleased with them.
T h e grand project of our Society, for the good of religion, is
never to repulse any one, let him be what he may, and so avoid
driving people to despair.

Jesuit m o r a l t h e o l o g y hardly needs a satirist. Its h u m o r is self-


contained. Consider Hermann Busenbaum, one of the Society's
most v e n e r a t e d m o r a l t h e o l o g i a n s . B u s e n b a u m literally w r o t e the
b o o k on self-serving logic. His celebrated Medulla theologiae moralis

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( “ T h e M a r r o w o f M o r a l T h e o l o g y , ” 1645) e n j o y e d more t h a n t w o
h u n d r e d printings and was required ethics reading in all the Jesuit
c o l l e g e s . A m a n of stout a p p e t i t e s , B u s e n b a u m c o n s t r u c t e d an
e q u i v o c a t i o n to relieve himself of the obligation to eat fish on Fri-
days: “ O n Fridays every good C a t h o l i c must eat only creatures that
live in the water, w h i c h justifies ordering a nice roast d u c k ! ”
Busenbaum demonstrated h o w mental reservation could en-
able a criminal to escape a charge of breaking and entering:

“Did you force the window to gain felonious entry into these
premises?” asks the judge. “Certainly not!” replies the accused,
qualifying his denial with the mental reservation “I entered
through the skylight.”

Father Gury, w h o taught moral theology at the R o m a n C o l l e g e


from his b o o k Casus Conscientire ( 1 8 7 5 ) , a p p r o v e d of t h e w a y an
adulterous wife, h a v i n g just r e c e i v e d a b s o l u t i o n for h e r sin from a
priest, used m e n t a l reservation to mislead her husband:

To the entreaties of her husband, she absolutely denied the


fault: “I have not committed it,” she said; meaning “adultery
such as I am obliged to reveal;” in other words, “I have not com-
mitted an adultery.” She could deny her sin as a culprit may say
to a judge who does not question him legitimately: “I have not
committed any crime,” adding mentally, “in such a manner that
I should reveal it.” This is the opinion of St. Liguori, and of
many others.

T h e “ S t . L i g u o r i ” t o w h o m G u r y refers i s A l p h o n s e L i g u o r i ,
d e c l a r e d P a t r o n S a i n t o f C o n f e s s o r s a n d M o r a l i s t s b y P o p e Pius
X I I . S t . L i g u o r i was n o t a Jesuit himself, b u t he was d e v o t e d to
t h e m . H e f a c i l i t a t e d adultery b y m e a n s o f a n e q u i v o c a t i o n : “ A n
adulteress q u e s t i o n e d by h e r h u s b a n d , may d e n y h e r guilt by
d e c l a r i n g t h a t she has n o t c o m m i t t e d 'adultery,' m e a n i n g 'idola-
try,' for w h i c h the term 'adultery' is often e m p l o y e d in the O l d Tes-
tament.”
Casuistry is t h e process of a p p l y i n g moral principles falsely in
d e c i d i n g t h e rights or w r o n g s of a case - t h e w o r d “casuistry”

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CHAPTER 1O DEFINITIONS

c o m e s from “cases.” WWWebster equates casuistry w i t h rationali-


zation, “ t o cause s o m e t h i n g to seem reasonable; to p r o v i d e plausi-
ble b u t u n t r u e reasons for c o n d u c t . ” (In early 1 9 9 9 , P r e s i d e n t
C l i n t o n ' s biographer, D a v i d Maraniss, could be seen remarking on
talkshows that the President o w e d his formidable skills as a crimi-
nal d e f e n d a n t to “his training in casuistry at G e o r g e t o w n U n i v e r -
sity.”) T h e great Jesuit casuist A n t o n i o Escobar p a r d o n e d e v i l d o -
ing as long as it was c o m m i t t e d in pursuit of a lofty goal. “Purity of
i n t e n t i o n , ” h e d e c l a r e d i n 1 6 2 7 , “ m a y justify a c t i o n s w h i c h are
contrary t o t h e moral c o d e and t o h u m a n laws.” H e r m a n n Busen-
b a u m ratified Escobar w i t h his o w n f a m o u s m a x i m “ C u m finis est
licitus, etiam media sunt licita,” “If t h e e n d is legal, t h e m e a n s are
legal.” Escobar and Busenbaum boil d o w n to the essential doctrine
of terrorism: “ T h e end justifies the means.”
C a s u i s t r y s o l v e d t h e p r o b l e m o f usury. A l t h o u g h t h e v o i c e o f
Jesus c o m m a n d e d “ l e n d , h o p i n g for n o t h i n g again; a n d your
reward w i l l b e great” ( L u k e 6 : 3 5 ) , Jesuit lenders o f t e n c h a r g e d
exorbitant interest. Father G u r y explained the principle:

If lending one hundred francs you are losing ten francs by it,
you lend really one hundred and ten francs. T h e n you shall
receive one hundred and ten francs.

Indeed, casuistry has set the moral t o n e of world e c o n o m i c s . In


his Universae theologiae moralis (“Catholic Moral Theology”,
1 6 5 2 - 6 6 ) , A n t o n i o Escobar rendered t h e o p i n i o n t h a t “ T h e giv-
ing of short w e i g h t is n o t to be r e c k o n e d as a sin w h e n the official
price for certain goods is so low that the m e r c h a n t would be ruined
thereby.” B y this r e a s o n i n g , the i n t e r n a t i o n a l n e t w o r k o f c e n t r a l
banks ( b e g i n n i n g w i t h the K n i g h t s Templars and sustained by the
S o c i e t y of Jesus) has b e e n absolved of m a n i p u l a t i n g m o n e t a r y val-
ues if d o i n g so h e l p s i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n - s t a t e s m a n a g e
t h e i r subjects. S u b j e c t s are c y c l i c a l l y required to part w i t h true
value - that is, hard-earned gold and silver c o i n a g e - in e x c h a n g e
for i n t a n g i b l e c r e d i t d e n o m i n a t e d i n p a p e r n o t e s w h o s e official
promises t o repay i n precious c o i n a g e . . . are c y c l i c a l l y b r o k e n . A s
the most powerful office in R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m , the b l a c k papacy

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m i g h t h a v e p r o m o t e d stable n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i e s b y m e a n s o f the
d i v i n e l y fair m o n e t a r y system c o m m a n d e d in the Bible at L e v i t i -
cus 1 9 -

Ye shall do no unrighteousness in measure. Just balances,


just weights, shall ye have: I am the Lord your G o d , which
brought you out of the land of Egypt.

Instead, it has p r o m o t e d Escobar's casuistry, w h i c h directs mer-


c h a n t s to survive official value manipulations by c h e a t i n g o n e an-
other. T h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s . W h e n
g i v i n g short w e i g h t b e c o m e s policy, a moral paradigm is set. T h a t
p a r a d i g m g o v e r n s m o r e t h a n just c o m m e r c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . It af-
fects h u m a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as w e l l . Partners in f r i e n d s h i p s , mar-
riages, and families b e g i n g i v i n g short w e i g h t - g i v i n g less t h a n
r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s results i n o n e - s i d e d , frustrating, d y s f u n c t i o n a l
e m o t i o n a l transactions, and ultimately an aberrant society. T h e ul-
timate beneficiary of aberrant societies, of course, is Pontifex Max-
imus, w h o s e profession is their regulation.
I f w e d e p e n d solely o n d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s , w e l e a r n t h a t
Jesuits are c h u r c h m e n and t e a c h e r s of a doubtful m o r a l r e c t i t u d e
w h o are likely t o c h e a t , trick, p l o t , s c h e m e , d e c e i v e , and confuse
us w h i l e a v o i d i n g to c o m m i t t h e m s e l v e s verbally. W h e n we study
t h e i r p u b l i s h e d moralists, we sense a rather v i b r a n t p r e s e n c e of
T h e Trickster. B u t in t h e S o c i e t y ' s d e f e n s e , it must be said these
are legitimate character traits for a militia e m p o w e r e d by a declara-
t i o n o f war, a n d w e must r e m e m b e r t h a t P a u l Ill's b u l l o r d a i n i n g
t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus, Regimini militantis ecclesiae, is just s u c h a dec-
laration. H u m a n life in a declared war b e c o m e s subject to t h e first
great rule of war, belli legum dormit, “ i n war the law sleeps.” W h e n
t h e law sleeps, the u n a r m e d priest's only w e a p o n s are the intrigue,
deceit, e q u i v o c a t i o n , casuistry, and m e n t a l reservation w i t h w h i c h
t h e Jesuits h a v e m a d e t h e m s e l v e s so n o t o r i o u s a n d so o f t e n
despised.
In f o r t h c o m i n g chapters, we shall be e x a m i n i n g h o w the S o c i -
ety of Jesus m a d e war against G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e British
c o l o n i e s d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century, and

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CHAPTER 1O DEFINITIONS

t h e n against t h e s o v e r e i g n A m e r i c a n S t a t e s a c e n t u r y later. In
e a c h instance, the warfare was of the highest sophistication. It was
so subtly c o n c e i v e d a n d so masterfully e x e c u t e d , t h a t n e i t h e r of
the major c o m b a t a n t s c o u l d discern t h e presence of Jesuits in the
e q u a t i o n . T h e a m a z i n g t e c h n o l o g y of Jesuit warfare - t h a t is t h e
subject of our n e x t chapter.

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Chapter 11

THE THIRTEEN
ARTICLES CONCERNING
MILITARY ART

B
E F O R E T H E A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , R o m a n C a t h o l i c s were
barred from v o t i n g or h o l d i n g p u b l i c office t h r o u g h o u t the
British colonies. T h e y were a persecuted minority every-
where but in the proprietary d o m a i n of W i l l i a m P e n n (Pennsylva-
n i a a n d D e l a w a r e ) . S o m e o f t h e i r most e n e r g e t i c p e r s e c u t o r s , i n
fact, were the very H u g u e n o t s w h o m the C a t h o l i c s had chased out
of F r a n c e in t h e w a k e of Louis X I V ' s r e v o c a t i o n of t h e E d i c t of
Nantes.
T h e basis o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c p e r s e c u t i o n was p o l i t i c a l .
C a t h o l i c s o w e d a l l e g i a n c e to Pontifex Maximus, t h e B i s h o p of
R o m e . T h e Bishop of R o m e was a foreign ruler w h o , as a matter of
public policy, regarded the British k i n g and his Protestant C h u r c h
as h e r e t i c s to be d e s t r o y e d . F r o m t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i s t s ' stand-
p o i n t , to allow C a t h o l i c s to v o t e or h o l d office was t a n t a m o u n t to
surrendering t h e i r c o l o n i e s to a foreign conqueror. A crucial part
of m a i n t a i n i n g personal liberty in Protestant c o l o n i a l A m e r i c a was

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k e e p i n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c s o u t o f g o v e r n m e n t . B u t t h e n c a m e the
R e v o l u t i o n . T h e c o l o n i a l citizenry fought for and w o n their inde-
p e n d e n c e from G r e a t B r i t a i n . T h e y e s t a b l i s h e d a C o n s t i t u t i o n
that a m o u n t e d t o . . . surrendering their country to a foreign conqueror.
C o n s i d e r t h e l e g a l i t i e s . Before t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified,
A m e r i c a n C a t h o l i c s h a d few c i v i l rights; after r a t i f i c a t i o n , t h e y
had t h e m all. A r t i c l e V I , s e c t i o n 3 provides that “ n o religious test
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust
under the authority of the U n i t e d States,” w h i l e the First A m e n d -
m e n t d e n i e s C o n g r e s s t h e p o w e r “ t o m a k e any law r e s p e c t i n g a n
establishment of religion, or p r o h i b i t i n g the free exercise thereof.”
W i t h A r t i c l e I V S e c t i o n 3 and the First A m e n d m e n t , t h e C o n s t i -
t u t i o n w e l c o m e d a g e n t s of Pontifex Maximus, t h e world's c h i e f
e n e m y of Protestantism, into the ranks of g o v e r n m e n t .
Of the 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 enumerated inhabitants in 1 7 8 7 America,
the R o m a n C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n consisted o f n o more t h a n 1 6 , 0 0 0
i n M a r y l a n d , 7 , 0 0 0 i n P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1 , 5 0 0 i n N e w York, and 2 0 0
in Virginia. O n c e the C o n s t i t u t i o n was in place, a steady influx of
1

European immigrants transformed Roman Catholicism from


A m e r i c a ' s smallest to largest religious d e n o m i n a t i o n . By 1 8 5 0 , the
higher powers at R o m e could view the U n i t e d States as a viable
tributary, if n o t a n o t h e r papal state.
T h i s a w e s o m e result did n o t just h a p p e n . I submit t h a t it was
b r i l l i a n t l y d e s i g n e d and c o m m a n d e d by a m a n I am pleased to
h o n o r a s t h e A m e r i c a n republic's least k n o w n f o u n d i n g father,
L o r e n z o R i c c i ( p r o n o u n c e d “ R i c h e y . ” ) R i c c i was a T u s c a n aristo-
crat by b i r t h , a s t o i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r by r e p u t a t i o n , a n d a Jesuit
father b y profession. H e was S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f
Jesus during the formative years of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , from
1 7 5 8 until 1 7 7 5 . H e also may b e credited w i t h h a v i n g w r i t t e n the
most celebrated treatise on war ever published, a work entitled The
Thirteen Articles Concerning Military Art.
T h e r e p u t e d a u t h o r of this w o r k is a q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l C h i n e s e
general b e l i e v e d t o h a v e lived i n the s i x t h century B C n a m e d S u n -
tzu. Sun-tzu was u n k n o w n to western languages until Joseph-Marie
A m i o t , astronomer to the Emperor of C h i n a , brought forth a

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CHAPTER 11 T H E THIRTEEN A R T I C L E S C O N C E R N I N G M I L I T A R Y A R T

F r e n c h e d i t i o n of the Thirteen Articles in 1 7 7 2 . A m i o t was a Jesuit


priest under o b e d i e n c e to G e n e r a l R i c c i . I base my inference t h a t
R i c c i is t h e a u t h o r of A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u on a r e m a r k from today's
premier Jesuit spokesman, M a l a c h i M a r t i n , retired professor at the
Pontifical Institute in R o m e , to the effect that a b o o k w r i t t e n by a
Jesuit, due to t h e o b e d i e n c e factor, c a n be presumed “ i n e s s e n c e ”
t o b e t h e w o r k o f his S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l . A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u , t h e n ,
2

c a n be presumed to h a v e b e e n “written” by Lorenzo R i c c i .


T h e b l a c k pope's d e c i s i o n t o publish S u n - t z u prior t o the out-
break of t h e R e v o l u t i o n he h a d e n g i n e e r e d d e m o n s t r a t e s , I
b e l i e v e , his confidence t h a t d i v i n e authority h a d already delivered
victory to him. Ricci knew that circumstances had reached the
p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g w h i c h his enemy, t h e forces o f
P r o t e s t a n t i s m o n b o t h sides o f the A t l a n t i c , c o u l d d o t o alter the
o u t c o m e . He was like a chess master w h o sees t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of
c h e c k m a t e four m o v e s a h e a d and reveals his w i n n i n g m e t h o d out
o f c o u r t e s y t o t h e i m m i n e n t loser. H i s m e t h o d was s o s u b l i m e l y
S u n - t z u a n that his o p p o n e n t s n e v e r e v e n p e r c e i v e d his army to be
an o p p o n e n t - just as Protestants today are unaware that extirpat-
ing their credo is still the unrelenting Jesuit mission.
The Thirteen Articles w e r e i g n o r e d by A m e r i c a n s u n t i l t h e
n i n e t e e n - s e v e n t i e s , w h e n our corporate e x e c u t i v e s discovered that
their o r i e n t a l counterparts were d o i n g business a c c o r d i n g to S u n -
tzuan strategies. A s U . S . c o r p o r a t i o n s increased their p r e s e n c e i n
t h e Pacific R i m , S u n - t z u b e c a m e a major s u r v i v a l t o o l . S i n c e t h e
middle eighties, more t h a n fifty editions of the Articles h a v e b e e n
p u b l i s h e d in this c o u n t r y , m o s t l y u n d e r t h e “Art of War” t i t l e .
T h e s e e d i t i o n s represent S u n - t z u w e l l e n o u g h , but n o n e o f t h e m
are d e r i v e d from t h e 1 7 7 2 A m i o t t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o F r e n c h ( w h i c h
itself was based on a T a r t a r - M a n c h u r i a n v e r s i o n of t h e older C h i -
nese m a n u s c r i p t s ) . A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u appears n e v e r t o h a v e b e e n
published in English, although a 1 9 9 6 commission by La Belle

Église produced a very fine manuscript English translation by Her-


mine F. G a r c i a . T h a t manuscript is the source of my citations here.
O n l y the A m i o t e d i t i o n reflects i n virtually t h e Jesuit G e n e r -
al's o w n words h o w h e f o r m e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a b y

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d i v i d i n g the British E m p i r e against itself, w h i l e at t h e same time


d i v i d i n g the rest of Europe against Britain, against e v e n the G e n -
eral's o w n army! T h e A m i o t is all the more remarkable for appear-
ing in the very midst of the unfolding of this extraordinary process.

A M I O T begins The Thirteen Articles by n o t i n g h o w odd it is that


the b e n i g n C h i n e s e morality should spawn a warrior of S u n -
tzu's magnitude:

If we are to judge the Chinese by their morals ... and in gen-


eral by everything one can currently observe of them, we would
instantly conclude that this must be the most pacifist Nation in
the world, far from having the brilliant qualities necessary for
Warriors. Yet, surprisingly, this very Nation, which has subsisted
for nearly four thousand years in approximately the same state
we see it in today, has always, or almost always, triumphed over
its enemies; and when it had the misfortune of being conquered,
it gave its laws to the conquerors themselves.

W e k n o w t h i s , A m i o t says, from t h e A n n a l s , w h i c h c o n t a i n
“admirable accounts of prodigious bravery,” and lists of actions and
military c o n d u c t of various founders of dynasties. He exclaims

W h a t Heroes! W h a t Politicians! W h a t Warriors! No


Alexander or Caesar could surpass them. W h y shouldn't these
great men, these powerful geniuses, who made such fine politi-
cal and civil Laws, have made military laws which were just as
fine?

T h e r e f e r e n c e t o C a e s a r i s s i g n i f i c a n t . D e c l a r i n g C h i n a ' s dy-
nastic heroes t o b e Caesar's equals, A m i o t equates L o r e n z o R i c c i ,
the r e i g n i n g bearer of C a e s a r e a n authority, w i t h t h e greatest ori-
e n t a l W a r r i o r s . W e r e t h e o r i e n t a l m i l i t a r y laws “just as f i n e ” as
Caesar's? “It is n o t up to me to judge this,” A m i o t answers. “ O u r
Warriors must p r o n o u n c e themselves in this regard.”
If t h e t e r m “ O u r W a r r i o r s ” m e a n s “our Jesuit b r e t h r e n , ” as I
b e l i e v e it does, t h e n we h a v e before us R i c c i ' s c l a n d e s t i n e order
that the b o o k be r e c e i v e d by the scattered members of the S o c i e t y
CHAPTER 11 T H E THIRTEEN A R T I C L E S C O N C E R N I N G M I L I T A R Y A R T

as the latest statement of the General's military Law. ( C l a n d e s t i n e


generals order clandestinely.) A m i o t admits that translating a war
m a n u a l was “ c o n t r a r y to my taste, & so far from t h e o b j e c t of my
profession.” He says that he only undertook the work in hopes that
t h e reader m i g h t h a v e “ s o m e pleasure c o n v e r s i n g w i t h these for-
eign H e r o e s and r e c e i v i n g some of their instructions and [finding]
s o m e t h i n g useful.” W h a t c a n n o t b e d e n i e d i s t h a t R o m e was
served by critical e v e n t s in A m e r i c a and E n g l a n d during the years
of Ricci's reign in ways that flow quite discernably from t h e strate-
gies, laws, and m a x i m s set f o r t h in t h e Thirteen Articles. I b e l i e v e
t h a t a n y o n e r e a d i n g A m i o t ' s S u n - t z u i n 1 7 7 2 , k n o w i n g t h a t its
translator was a Jesuit, k n o w i n g t h e Jesuit m i s s i o n , and k n o w i n g
the nature of Jesuitic o b e d i e n c e , c o u l d observe world e v e n t s w i t h
this k n o w l e d g e , a n d p r e d i c t t h a t t h e dispute b e t w e e n t h e A m e r i -
c a n c o l o n i s t s and t h e British E m p i r e w o u l d e n d - as it a c t u a l l y
did - in R o m a n d o m i n a n c e over a new, i n d e p e n d e n t republic.
Before p r e s e n t i n g t h e w o r k s o f S u n - t z u , A m i o t r e c o u n t s a n
important legend demonstrating the severity of S u n - t z u a n author-
ity. It is a severity t h a t e m p o w e r s t h e G e n e r a l to overrule e v e n his
S o v e r e i g n in order to secure the army's perfect o b e d i e n c e . H e a r i n g
t h a t t h e K i n g o f O o was p r e p a r i n g for war a n d n o t w i s h i n g t o
remain idle, Sun-tzu offered his services to the K i n g . T h e K i n g had
read Sun-tzu's b o o k and liked it, but doubted its practicability.

“Prince,” replied Sun-tzu, “I said nothing in my Writings


that I had not already practiced in the army. W h a t I have not
yet said, but of which I presume to assure Your Majesty today, is
that I am capable of transmitting these practices to anyone
whomsoever & training them in military exercises when I am
authorized to do so.”
“I understand,” replied the King. “You wish to say that you
will easily teach your maxims to intelligent men who are already
both prudent and valorous; that you will have no difficulty giv-
ing training in military exercises to men accustomed to hard
work who are docile & full of good will. But the majority is not
of that nature.”
“It matters not,” replied Sun-tzu. “I said anyone whomsoever

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and I exclude no one from my offer, including the most muti-


nous, the most cowardly and the weakest of men.”
“To hear you speak,” said the King, “you would even inspire
women to have the feelings of Warriors; you would train them
to bear arms.”
“Yes, Prince,” replied Sun-tzu in a firm voice, “and I beg Your
Majesty to be assured of it.”
T h e King, who in the circumstances in which he found him-
self was no longer entertained by the customary amusements of
Court, took advantage of this opportunity to find a new sort of
amusement. He said, “Bring me one hundred eighty of my
wives.” He was obeyed, & the Princesses a p p e a r e d . A m o n g
them were two in particular whom the King loved tenderly; they
were placed ahead of the others. “We will see,” said the King,
smiling. “We will see, Sun-tzu, if you will be true to your word. I
make you General of these new troops. A l l throughout my
palace you need only choose the place which seems the most
comfortable to give them military training. W h e n they are suffi-
ciently instructed you will let me know, & I will come myself to
render justice to them & to your talent.”
T h e General sensed the ridicule of the role he was asked to
play. But he did not back down, and instead appeared quite sat-
isfied by the honor bestowed on him by the King, not only by
allowing him to see his wives but also by putting them under his
direction. “I will do well with them, Sire,” he said in an assured
tone, “and I hope that soon Your Majesty will have cause to be
satisfied with my services. At the very least, Your Majesty will be
convinced that Sun-tzu is not a man who takes risks.”
O n c e the King had retired to his apartments, the Warrior
thought only of executing his commission. He asked for weapons
& all the military equipment needed for his newly created sol-
diers. While waiting for everything to be ready, he led his troop
into one of the courtyards of the palace which seemed the best
suited for his work. S o o n the items he had requested were
brought to him. Sun-tzu then spoke to the Princesses. “Here you
are,” he said, “under my direction and my orders. You must lis-
ten to me attentively and obey me in whatever I command you
to do. T h a t is the first & most essential military law: make sure
you don't break it. By tomorrow I want you to perform exercises

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CHAPTER 11 T H E THIRTEEN A R T I C L E S C O N C E R N I N G M I L I T A R Y A R T

before the King, & I intend for them to be done perfectly.”


After those words he strapped on their swords, put spears in
their hands, divided them into two groups, and put one of the
favorite Princesses at the head of each. O n c e that arrangement
was made, he began his instructions in these terms: “Can you tell
the difference between your chest and your back, & your right
hand from your left hand? Answer me.” At first the only
response he received was some bursts of laughter. But he
remained silent and very serious. “Yes, of course,” the Ladies
then replied in one voice. “If that is so,” resumed Sun-tzu, “then
listen carefully to what I am going to say. W h e n the drum strikes
only one beat, you will remain as you are now, only paying atten-
tion to what is before your chest. W h e n the drum strikes two
beats, you must turn so that your chest is in the place where your
right hand was before. If instead of two beats you hear three, you
must turn so that your chest is precisely where your left hand was
before. But when the drum strikes four beats, you must turn so
that your chest is where your back was, & your back will be
where your chest was.
“ W h a t I just said may not be clear enough; let me explain.
A single drum beat means that you must not change your posi-
tion & you must be on guard. Two beats means you must turn
right. Three beats means you must turn left. A n d four beats
means you make a half turn. I will explain even more.
“This is the order I shall follow. First I will strike one beat:
at that signal you will be ready to receive my orders. A few
moments later I will strike two beats: then, all together, you will
turn to the right with gravity, after which I will not strike three
beats but four, & you will make a half-turn. I will then have you
return to your first position and, as before, I will strike one beat.
At the first signal, be ready. T h e n I will strike, not two beats but
three, & you will turn left; at four beats you will complete the
half-turn. Have you well understood what I am saying? If you
have any difficulties, you have but to speak to me of them and I
shall attempt to explain the matter.” “We have understood,”
replied the Ladies. “If that is so,” responded Sun-tzu, “I will
begin. Do not forget that the sound of the drum takes the place
of the General's voice, but he is the one who is giving you these
orders.”

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After repeating his instructions three times, Sun-tzu again


aligned his small army, after which he had the drum strike one
beat. At that sound, all the Ladies began to laugh. At two drum
beats, they laughed even louder. Ever serious, the General spoke
to them thus: “It is possible that I did not explain clearly enough
the instructions I gave you. If that is so, it is my fault. I will
attempt to remedy it by speaking to you in a way that is more
accessible to you (& at once he repeated the lesson three times
in other terms), and then we will see,” he added, “if you obey me
any better.” He had the drum strike one beat, and then two. See-
ing him look so serious, and given the strange situation they
found themselves in, the Ladies forgot to obey him. After
attempting in vain to stop the laughter that was choking them,
they finally let it burst forth loudly.
Sun-tzu was in no way disconcerted, but in the same tone he
had used when speaking to them before, he said: “If I had not
explained myself clearly, or if you had not assured me, in unison,
that you understood what I said, you would in no way be guilty.
But I spoke to you clearly, as you admitted yourselves. W h y did
you not obey? You deserve punishment, and military punish-
ment. A m o n g the Makers of War, whoever does not obey the
orders of his General deserves death. Therefore you will die.”
After that short preamble, Sun-tzu ordered the women who
formed the two lines to kill the two who were leading them. Just
then, one of the men whose job it was to guard the women, see-
ing that the Warrior was not joking, ran to warn the King of
what was happening. T h e King sent someone to Sun-tzu to for-
bid him from going any farther, & in particular from mistreating
the two women he loved the best & without whom he could not
live.
T h e General listened with respect to the words that were
spoken on behalf of the King, but he refused to bow to his wish-
es. “ G o tell the King,” he replied, “that Sun-tzu believes him to
be too reasonable & too just to think he might have changed his
mind so soon, & that he truly wishes to be obeyed in what you
have just told me on his behalf. T h e Prince is the lawmaker; he
would not give orders which would sully the dignity he vested in
me. He asked me to train one hundred and eighty of his Wives
as soldiers, he made me their General. T h e rest is up to me. They

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CHAPTER 11 T H E THIRTEEN A R T I C L E S C O N C E R N I N G M I L I T A R Y A R T

disobeyed me, they will die.” So saying, he pulled out his sword
and with the same calmness he had displayed until then, he cut
off the heads of the two who were leading the others. He imme-
diately put two others in their place, and had the drum strike the
various beats he had explained to his troops. A n d it was as if
those women had been professional soldiers all their lives; they
made their turns silently and impeccably.
Sun-tzu spoke thus to the Envoy: “ G o tell the King,” he said,
“that his wives know how to drill. N o w I can lead them to war,
make them affront all sorts of perils, & even make them pass
through water & fire.”
W h e n the King learned what had happened, he was pene-
trated by the deepest sorrow. W i t h a great sigh he said, “Thus
have I lost what was dearest to me in this world.... Have that
Foreigner return to his country. I do not want him, nor his serv-
i c e s — What have you done, barbarian?... How can I go on liv-
ing?” ... and so on.
As unconsolable as the King was, time and the circum-
stances soon made him forget his loss. His enemies were ready to
descend upon him. He asked Sun-tzu to return, made him Gen-
eral of his armies, & with his help he destroyed the C h o u King-
dom. Those of his neighbors who had formerly been the most
worrisome were now penetrated by fear at the mere mention of
the glorious acts of Sun-tzu, and thought only of living peaceful-
ly under the protection of a Prince who had such a man at his
service.

T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n confirms that Paul Ill's war declaration Regi-


mini militantis ecclesiae is a b o u t p r o t e c t i n g t h e life of t h e n a t i o n ,
w h i c h i s t h e R o m a n C h u r c h . P r o t e c t i n g the C h u r c h may require
the S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l to sacrifice his soldiers, his c i t i z e n s , and if
n e e d b e , his s o v e r e i g n , t h e p o p e . In a v e r y real sense, t h e great
G e n e r a l is so i n s c r u t a b l y a l o n e , so o m n i p o t e n t , t h a t he is at war
w i t h . . . everyone. S a c r i f i c i n g his o w n (just as S a t u r n , t h e grandfa-
ther-god of R o m e devoured his o w n children) in order to defeat an
e n e m y short of c o m i n g to blows, this is a great General's legitimate
obligation. Sun-tzu writes:

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Without giving battle, without spilling a drop of [the


enemy's] blood, without even drawing a sword, the clever Gen-
eral succeeds in capturing cities. Without setting foot in a for-
eign Kingdom, he finds the means to conquer them. He acts in
such a way that those who are inferior to him can never guess his
intentions. He has them change location, even taking them to
rather difficult places where they must work and suffer. W h e n a
clever General goes into action, the enemy is already defeated.
W h e n he fights, he alone must do more than his entire army, not
through the strength of his arm but through his prudence, his
manner of commanding, & above all his ruses.

L o r e n z o R i c c i ' s m o s t c o m p e l l i n g ruse was d i s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e


S o c i e t y of Jesus, a c a m p a i g n t h a t m i m i c k e d t h e c o l l a p s e of t h e
K n i g h t s Templar four centuries earlier. W i t h astonishing precision,
t h e D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t ran c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the e s c a l a t i o n of hos-
tilities b e t w e e n the A m e r i c a n colonies and the British C r o w n .
It was an amazing juggle t h a t s p a n n e d s e v e n t e e n years. It saw
Ricci's secret liaisons in and around the British Parliament buy leg-
islation that inflamed his secret liasons in and around t h e A m e r i -
c a n c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t s to f o r m u l a t e a c u l t u r e of r e b e l l i o n . It
saw his o w n v i s i b l e army, m u t e a n d defenseless, s y s t e m a t i c a l l y
assaulted by the E u r o p e a n powers and e v e n t u a l l y suppressed “for
all e t e r n i t y ” by a 1 7 7 3 papal brief. O n c e t h e stage was set and the
a c t i o n scripted, it saw the G e n e r a l slip into deeper c o v e r to let the
Protestant powers e x h a u s t t h e m s e l v e s in wars that w i t h i n a single
generation resulted in a glorious R o m a n presence where o n c e Eng-
land had reigned.
C l a n d e s t i n e military o p e r a t i o n s inspired b y t h e i n g e n u i t y o f
S u n - t z u are v i r t u a l l y impossible to d o c u m e n t . If strategic n o t e s
w e r e t a k e n , i f w r i t t e n c o m m a n d s w e r e g i v e n , t h e y w e r e carefully
destroyed. S u c h that survive may h a v e b e e n spared in order to mis-
inform. T h e m o u t h s o f c o v e r t o p e r a t i v e s are k e p t shut o u t o f a
simple desire to stay alive. Sensational disclosures, too, we c a n pre-
sume to be misinformational. To determine that Lorenzo R i c c i did
in f a c t m o u n t a n y c l a n d e s t i n e o p e r a t i o n at all requires a careful
e v a l u a t i o n of circumstantial e v i d e n c e . W a s there an o u t c o m e that

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CHAPTER 11 T H E THIRTEEN A R T I C L E S C O N C E R N I N G M I L I T A R Y A R T

b e n e f i t t e d h i m and his S o v e r e i g n ? D i d h e h a v e t h e authority, the


m o t i v e , t h e resources, the ability, and the o p p o r t u n i t y to do w h a t
created the outcome? As to outcome: English-speaking Protes-
tantism did in fact violently divide, and the victorious party more-
o v e r i n v i t e d R o m a n C a t h o l i c religionists t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n its
p o l i t i c a l g o v e r n m e n t . A s t o a u t h o r i t y for w a g i n g war against
P r o t e s t a n t i s m , Regimini militantis ecclesiae authorized t h e G e n e r a l
t o prosecute e n e m i e s o f the R o m a n faith. A s t o m o t i v e : t h e Jesuit
o a t h spiritually obligated the e x t i r p a t i o n of Protestantism in b o t h
A m e r i c a and G r e a t B r i t a i n . A s t o resources, t h e b l a c k papacy,
e v e n as its martial strategy b r o u g h t its o w n organization to appar-
e n t o b l i v i o n , h a d i n s t a n t c a l l o n t h e v a s t reserve o f R o m a n
C a t h o l i c w e a l t h - as the old S p a n i s h proverb goes, “Don Dinero es
muy Catolico.” R i c c i ' s ability to d i r e c t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o v e r t
operation was stated and defined by the m o m e n t o u s p u b l i c a t i o n of
The Thirteen Articles in w h a t was t h e n the language of internation-
al d i p l o m a c y . Finally, a m a n c o m m a n d i n g u n l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l
resources and u n l i m i t e d o b e d i e n c e of an u n l i m i t e d supply of w e l l -
t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l enjoys u n l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o d o a n y t h i n g
possible, and some things d e e m e d impossible. To deny that Loren-
z o R i c c i o r c h e s t r a t e d A m e r i c a n I n d e p e n d e n c e may b e t o ignore
his talent and d e m e a n his office.

L e t u s m o v e n o w t o t h e n e x t chapter, a n d b e g i n our e x a m i n a -
t i o n of h o w the G e n e r a l did it.

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RULERS OF E V I L

LORENZO RICCI A/K/A LAURENCE RICHEY.


(From a painting believed contemporaneous.)
Chapter 12

LORENZO RICCI’S WAR

L
O R E N Z O R I C C I ’ S strategy of d i v i d i n g the British imperial sys-
t e m c a n be discerned in events occurring as early as 1 7 5 2 . In
t h a t year, C a t h o l i c interests i n A m e r i c a w e r e rather p o o r l y
m a n a g e d b y t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n for t h e P r o p a g a n d a a t R o m e , de-
p e n d i n g u p o n a tangle of ambassadors (or n u n c i o s ) and intermedi-
aries i n M a d r i d , Paris, L o n d o n , a n d Brussels. T h e Jesuit m i s s i o n
was to consolidate these often adversarial parts into a d y n a m i c and
i n d e p e n d e n t w h o l e g o v e r n e d directly from the m i n d of the b l a c k
papacy.
In 1 7 5 2 , the S o c i e t y of Jesus was brilliantly powerful, and had
b e e n so for nearly a century. “ M o s t statesmen,” a fine Jesuit histo-
rian has w r i t t e n , “ r e c k o n e d t h a t the S o c i e t y was a major force in
politics, an international G r e a t Power, acting primarily for its o w n
i n t e t e s t s . ” L o r e n z o R i c c i h a d b e e n S p i r i t u a l F a t h e r o f this great
1

p o w e r for nearly a year. A l t h o u g h t h a t title assured h i m of u n a n i -


mous e l e c t i o n a s S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l u p o n t h e d e m i s e o f G e n e r a l

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RULERS OF E V I L

Luigi C e n t u r i o n i , it presently e n d o w e d h i m w i t h d i p l o m a t i c over-


sight e m b r a c i n g t h e w h o l e w o r l d . R i c c i ’ s p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c
interests included France and its possessions in N e w France - the
w h o l e Mississippi valley, from C a n a d a and t h e G r e a t Lakes d o w n
t o t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o ; and E n g l a n d and its c o l o n i e s i n N e w Eng-
land - all t h e lands to t h e s o u t h of F r e n c h C a n a d a a n d n o r t h of
Spanish Florida stretching from the A t l a n t i c to the Pacific coasts.
B o t h empires w e r e t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t J e s u i t - d r i v e n . G r e a t
B r i t a i n was run by t h e C a t h o l i c - l o a t h i n g system of Freemasonry,
w h o s e h i g h e s t adepts o b e y e d t h e r e v e r e d “ u n k n o w n superior.”
F r a n c e was run b y L o u i s XV, w h o o b e y e d t h e same superior
t h r o u g h his Jesuit confessor, Père de Sacy. De Sacy’s g o o d - n a t u r e d
ministry reduced t h e King’s dinner, on a strict fast day, from eight
courses to five, and limited his w i n e c o n s u m p t i o n to three glasses
per sitting.
Sun-tzu wrote;

I demand the art of making enemies move as one wishes.


Those who possess that admirable art know how to arrange their
men & the army they command in such a way that they make
the enemy come toward them whenever they judge it appropri-
ate. They know how to make generous gifts when appropriate,
even to those they wish to conquer. They give to the enemy &
the enemy receives; they abandon things to him & he comes to
take them. They are ready for anything, they take advantage of
any circumstance. T h e y do not fully trust those whom they
employ but choose others to be their overseers. T h e y do not
count on their own strength alone but use other means which
they believe can be useful to them. T h e y consider the men
against whom they must fight to be stones or pieces of wood
which they have been asked to roll down a slope. You, therefore,
who are commanding an army must act in such a way that the
enemy is in your hands like a round stone that you have caused
to roll down a mountain a thousand paces high. Thus it will be
recognized that you have power & authority, and that you are
truly worthy of the position you occupy.

Lorenzo R i c c i transformed British and F r e n c h c o l o n i a l person-

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nel into round stones by creating a crisis b e t w e e n their conflicting


imperial claims t o d o m i n i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n 1 7 5 2 his spiri-
tual f a t h e r h o o d directed F r e n c h soldiers and their Indian allies to
destroy the important British c o l o n i a l trading center on the upper
G r e a t M i a m i river. T h e n f o l l o w e d t h e p l u n d e r i n g , c a p t u r e o r
k i l l i n g – n o t m u r d e r i n g , but p a p a l l y - a b s o l v e d e x t i r p a t i n g – of
e v e r y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g trader i n t h e upper O h i o v a l l e y t h a t t h e
F r e n c h and Indians could locate. A l t h o u g h these lands were legal-
ly British, dating from a grant to Virginia by K i n g James I in 1 6 0 9 ,
the i m p o r t a n t V i r g i n i a families failed t o e m p a t h i z e w i t h t h e mis-
fortunes of e x p l o r e r - i n h a b i t a n t s in s u c h r e m o t e and u n d e v e l o p e d
w i l d e r n e s s . B u t w h e n , t o w a r d the e n d o f 1 7 5 2 , t h e V i r g i n i a g o v -
e r n m e n t g r a n t e d a n a d d i t i o n a l 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 acres o f O h i o v a l l e y
l a n d , e m p a t h i e s burst i n t o b l o o m . S u d d e n l y t h e V i r g i n i a n s h a d
s o m e t h i n g to lose, a n d it was b e i n g lost to a b a n d of R o m a n
C a t h o l i c s and their Indian converts.
I n 1 7 5 3 , F r e n c h e n g i n e e r s c o n s t r u c t e d a c h a i n o f forts c o n -
n e c t i n g L a k e Erie w i t h t h e O h i o R i v e r . T h e g o v e r n o r o f V i r g i n i a
d i s p a t c h e d a small m i l i t i a to c o n f r o n t these C a t h o l i c trespassers.
L e a d i n g t h e m i l i t i a was a r e c e n t i n i t i a t e i n t o t h e F r e d e r i c k s b u r g
Masonic Lodge, twenty-one-year-old Major George Washington.
W a s h i n g t o n w a r n e d t h e garrison at Fort L e B o e u f t h a t it was ille-
gally o c c u p y i n g V i r g i n i a real estate “so n o t o r i o u s l y k n o w n t o b e
t h e property o f t h e C r o w n o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . ” H e read a l o u d t h e
governor’s d e m a n d that they depart. T h e F r e n c h ignored h i m and
he returned h o m e .
Despite the clear indication that the French intended not to
c o n c e d e t o the governor’s demands, Virginia encouraged the O h i o
C o m p a n y to build a palisaded fort at t h e fork w h e r e t h e A l l e g h e -
ny and M o n o n g a h e l a Rivers j o i n to create the O h i o R i v e r – where
Pittsburgh n o w stands. T h e g o v e r n m e n t pledged V i r g i n i a n troops
to support the venture.
C o n s t r u c t i o n b e g a n i n the spring o f 1 7 5 4 . A l m o s t immediate-
ly, F r e n c h and Indians d e s c e n d e d u p o n t h e tiny crew of w o o d c u t -
ters and carpenters and o v e r w h e l m e d t h e m . By the time W a s h i n g -
t o n , n o w a L i e u t e n a n t C o l o n e l , c o u l d r e a c h t h e s c e n e , h e was

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forced by C a t h o l i c fire-power to fall b a c k to Fort N e c e s s i t y . H e r e


W a s h i n g t o n surrendered o n July 4 . I t was this c l a s h b e t w e e n
B r i t i s h a n d F r e n c h armies t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d w h a t was c a l l e d b y
c o n t e m p o r a r y writers “ T h e M a r i t i m e W a r , ” o r “ G r e a t W a r , ” o r
“ G r e a t W a r for the Empire,” or “ S e v e n Years’ War,” or “ F r e n c h and
Indian Wars.” It could more appropriately be called “Lorenzo
Ricci’s War.”

A s t h e s e r o u n d e d stones b e g a n r o l l i n g , m o r e s u c c u m b e d to
Ricci’s gentle t o u c h . T h e c o l o n y most affected by the fighting
was m e e k P e n n s y l v a n i a , t h e c o l o n y originally settled by adherents
o f t h e r e n o w n e d Q u a k e r leader, W i l l i a m P e n n . P e n n h a d b e e n
d e a d a w h o l e g e n e r a t i o n , and o w n e r s h i p of his c o l o n y h a d de-
v o l v e d u p o n a British c o r p o r a t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e d some of Penn’s
d e s c e n d a n t s and was k n o w n austerely a s “ t h e P r o p r i e t o r s . ” T h e
Proprietors w a n t e d wars in P e n n s y l v a n i a to be fought by Pennsyl-
vanians. T h e Q u a k e r s , w h o controlled the Assembly, abhorred the
n o t i o n o f P e n s y l v a n i a n s bearing arms. W h e n t h e A s s e m b l y v o t e d
to raise a war c h e s t , t h e Q u a k e r s stepped d o w n and o u t of power.
First, h o w e v e r , t h e y a p p o i n t e d their most c e l e b r a t e d member, Dr.
B e n j a m i n Franklin, official printer of Pennsylvania’s paper curren-
cy, to sail to L o n d o n and represent t h e m against the Proprietors.
Dr. Franklin, w h o h a p p e n e d to be G r a n d Master of Pennsylva-
n i a Freemasonry, arrived i n L o n d o n t o find t h a t K i n g G e o r g e II,
h a v i n g made peace with France as recently as 1 7 4 8 , favored the
Proprietors. T h e king’s attitude was “ L e t A m e r i c a n s fight A m e r i -
cans.” Franklin e x p l a i n e d that Virginia’s undisciplined m i l i t i a m e n
a n d t h e pacifists o f P e n n s y l v a n i a w e r e n o m a t c h for seasoned
F r e n c h regulars and savage Indian braves. France was jeopardizing
British i m p e r i a l interests. T h e k i n g a c q u i e s c e d t o Franklin’s rea-
soning and ordered G e n e r a l Edward Braddock to take a small army
t o c l e a r t h e forks o f t h e O h i o o f t h e F r e n c h trespassers. H e also
sent A d m i r a l Edward Boscawen’s fleet to t h e G u l f of S t . L a w r e n c e
t o p r e v e n t t h e arrival o f m o r e F r e n c h r e i n f o r c e m e n t s i n C a n a d a .
A l l this was i n p e r f e c t o b e d i e n c e t o L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s strategy o f
establishing a British military presence in A m e r i c a . T h e C r o w n
u l t i m a t e l y w o u l d require t h e A m e r i c a n s t o pay for this p r e s e n c e ,

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w h i c h w o u l d e x p o s e t h e c o l o n i s t s t o t a x a t i o n from afar, w h i c h
they c o u l d readily be f o m e n t e d to resist. T h e resistance w o u l d be
m e t w i t h harassment, w h i c h w o u l d incite rebellion and, ultimate-
ly, division.
T h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l similarities b e t w e e n Q u a k e r s a n d L o y o l a n
g n o s t i c i s m should n o t escape our n o t i c e . “ Q u a k e r , ” the term, was
first used by an English judge in 1 6 5 0 to ridicule h o w the leader of
that denomination, G e o r g e Fox, admonished h i m to “tremble at
t h e W o r d o f t h e L o r d ! ” F o x s u m m o n e d all w h o s o u g h t spiritual
truth and peace to c o m e out of the c h u r c h e s and seek an intimate,
“ p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h r i s t . ” Jesus o f t h e Q u a k e r s spoke
t h r o u g h i n n e r i l l u m i n a t i o n , a l i g h t a v a i l a b l e to all, h a v i n g n o t h -
ing to do w i t h outward forms of ceremony, ritual, or creed. To t h e
Quaker, every person was a w a l k i n g c h u r c h ; every heart was G o d ’ s
altar and shrine. T h e r e was no n e e d , therefore, to a t t e n d “steeple
houses,” or pay taxes to support a state c h u r c h clergy, or doff a h a t
to k i n g or c o m m o n e r , or fight wars, or distinguish b e t w e e n sex or
social class. S u c h d o c t r i n e , of course, was h i g h l y offensive to t h e
C h u r c h of England, and so the Q u a k e r s were mercilessly persecut-
ed as treasonous criminals.
T h e y found a h a v e n across the A t l a n t i c i n t h e c o l o n y c o n v e -
niently granted by King Charles II to W i l l i a m Penn, one of the
more o u t s p o k e n English Q u a k e r s . C h a r l e s granted the land to set-
tle a d e b t t h e C r o w n o w e d Penn’s d e c e a s e d father, A d m i r a l Sir
William Penn. Knowledgeable contemporaries publicly charged
t h e y o u n g e r P e n n w i t h b e i n g “ a Jesuit i n disguise.” A c t u a l l y , all
C a t h o l i c clergy in E n g l a n d were to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t “in disguise,”
t h a n k s to a law p r o h i b i t i n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c s from w e a r i n g cleri-
cal garb. P r o m u l g a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f h a n d i c a p p i n g “Popery,”
the law m i g h t as w e l l h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n by Jesuits, as its effect
reduced the Jesuit profile to n o t h i n g – the level preferred by c o v e r t
militias. E i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y L o n d o n was t e e m i n g w i t h disguised
Jesuit missioners trained at places like St. Omer’s in moral t h e o l o -
gy (casuistry, e q u i v o c a t i o n , m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n ) , as w e l l as espi-
o n a g e , c l o a k - a n d - d a g g e r d i p l o m a c y , guerrilla t a c t i c s , a n d the
m a n i p u l a t i o n of public o p i n i o n .

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W i l l i a m Perm’s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n b e g a n a t C a r d i n a l W o l s e y ’ s
e n d o w m e n t for the furtherance of papal supremacy, C h r i s t C h u r c h
C o l l e g e a t O x f o r d . Before c o m p l e t i n g O x f o r d , P e n n was sent b y
his f a t h e r t o t h e small U n i v e r s i t y o f S a u m e r , F r a n c e . P e n n left
S a u m e r an a c c o m p l i s h e d propagandist less interested in a c h i e v i n g
specific biblical o b j e c t i v e s ( “ M u c h reading is an oppression of the
m i n d , ” h e w o u l d later advise his c h i l d r e n ) t h a n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g
i l l u m i n a t e d social justice t h r o u g h reason and natural understand-
ing. H i s most i n f l u e n t i a l w o r k , t h e p a m p h l e t “ N o C r o s s , N o
C r o w n , ” published in 1 6 6 9 , a g i t a t e d for Q u a k e r separatism.
C h a r l e s II readily a c c o m m o d a t e d P e n n ’ s a g i t a t i o n s by l a u n c h i n g
t h e G r e a t P e r s e c u t i o n o f 1 6 8 2 , w h i c h c r e a t e d e n o r m o u s migra-
tions o f diehard Protestants and C a t h o l i c s alike t o t h e A m e r i c a n
c o l o n i e s . If P e n n was n o t t h e Jesuit he was b e l i e v e d to be, he was
at least a rather superior Jesuit p r o d u c t , a n o t h e r in a l o n g train of
P r i n c e s ( d e s i g n a t e d “ P r o p r i e t o r ” i n P e n n ’ s c a s e , deferring t o t h e
Q u a k e r s ’ dislike for titles o f n o b i l i t y ) w e l l - t r a i n e d t o p o p u l a t e ,
a d m i n i s t e r and d e f e n d t h e i r l a n d - g r a n t s i n o b e d i e n c e t o t h e w i l l
of the G r a n t o r . Penn’s e x a m p l e , and Franklin’s after h i m , inspired
Franklin’s esteemed m a s o n i c brother Jean-François A r o u e t , better
k n o w n as V o l t a i r e , a founder of the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , to m e m o r i a l -
ize Q u a k e r s as the noblest k i n d of born-again European.

Y e t w e l l - i n f o r m e d E n g l i s h m e n saw n e i t h e r Q u a k e r n o r regen-
eration in Penn’s curiously c o m p r o m i s i n g friendship w i t h James II,
w h o s u c c e e d e d C h a r l e s I I i n 1 6 8 5 . W h a t possible league c o u l d a
Quaker have with a King? Worse, a K i n g converted to R o m a n
C a t h o l i c i s m by Jesuits? C e r t a i n l y no true Q u a k e r c o u l d h a v e writ-
t e n Penn’s C h a r t e r for the C i t y o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , w h i c h a m o u n t e d
to his gift of that estate to the C h u r c h of England. In the Charter’s
P r e a m b l e , P e n n stated: “I h a v e , by v i r t u e of t h e king’s letters
patent, under the great seal of England, erected the said t o w n into
a b o r o u g h , and do, by these presents, erect the said t o w n and bor-
o u g h i n t o a C i t y . ” T h e n a m e “city,” i n e v e r y case, signifies t h e
2

l o c a t i o n of a bishop’s see, the seat of his authority (from t h e L a t i n


sedes), and t h e territory u n d e r his s u p e r v i s i o n . N o p l a c e i n Eng-
3

land was called a C i t y unless g o v e r n e d by a bishop – as in the S e e

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o r C i t y o f Canterbury, S e e o r C i t y o f York, S e e o r C i t y o f L o n d o n ,
o f B a t h and W e l l s , o f Bristol, o f Salisbury, etc. W i t h t h e Philadel-
p h i a charter, P e n n erected for the persecuting C h u r c h of E n g l a n d
a nearly invisible m e c h a n i s m for r e c y c l i n g t h e very v i c t i m s of its
persecutions. Indeed, Penn’s last w i l l a n d t e s t a m e n t , w h i c h
b e c a m e effective w i t h his d e a t h i n E n g l a n d i n 1 7 1 8 a t t h e age o f
7 4 , t u r n e d all P e n n s y l v a n i a i n t o t h e same m e c h a n i s m w i t h these
words: “ T h e g o v e r n m e n t of my p r o v i n c e of P e n n s y l v a n i a , and ter-
ritories t h e r e u n t o b e l o n g i n g , and A l l P o w e r s r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o , I
g i v e a n d d e v i s e t o t h e m o s t h o n o u r a b l e t h e Earl o f O x f o r d , a n d
Earl Mortimer, and their heirs, u p o n trust, to dispose thereof to the
Q u e e n [ A n n e ] , o r t o any o t h e r person, t o t h e best a d v a n t a g e and
profit they c a n . ” W i t h a stroke of Penn’s quill, the c h i l d r e n of the
Q u a k e r s w h o had followed h i m out of the C h u r c h of England were
literally g i v e n back. T o b e c o m e free o f this b o n d a g e , the Q u a k e r s
were obliged to align themselves with the C h u r c h of R o m e , at
least t h e b l a c k papacy. T h i s a l l i a n c e was f a c i l i t a t e d b y B e n j a m i n
Franklin, w h o s e political career was built on d e f e n d i n g the Q u a k -
e r interests against t h e Proprietary heirs, w h i c h were t h e C h u r c h
o f E n g l a n d . A g a i n s t this c o m m o n enemy, Franklin and t h e Q u a k -
ers u n i t e d , k n o w i n g l y o r u n k n o w i n g l y , w i t h t h e designs o f t h e
R o m a n C h u r c h Militant.

W H I L E these stones rolled unstoppably toward their o b j e c t i v e ,


Jesuit G e n e r a l Luigi C e n t u r i o n i died. Early i n M a y o f 1 7 5 8
the G e n e r a l C o n g r e g a t i o n arrived a t R o m e t o c h o o s e his succes-
sor. O n t h e last day o f t h e m o n t h t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n u n a n i m o u s l y
elected Lorenzo R i c c i , the Society’s Spiritual Father and Secretary,
as its e i g h t e e n t h B l a c k Pope.
R i c c i , a professor of p h i l o s o p h y , t h e o l o g y , and t h e classics at
the R o m a n C o l l e g e , was k n o w n for his p a t i e n t , p l a c i d n a t u r e , his
e v e n temper. H e i n h e r i t e d a n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e m a r k a b l y g o o d
shape. T h e L a t i n A m e r i c a n missions w e r e flourishing. A mission
h a d just b e e n established i n P o l a n d . E v e r y w h e r e t h e s c h o o l s and
c o l l e g e s w e r e p r o s p e r i n g . In t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , Jesuits w e r e
c o u n t e d a m o n g the world’s leading authorities. T h e i r presence i n

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e c o n o m i c and secular g o v e r n m e n t had n e v e r b e e n more imposing.


As the papal n u n c i o to V i e n n a stated in a letter to his superior at
t h e V a t i c a n , “ t h e Jesuits h a v e t h e upper h a n d o v e r e v e r y t h i n g ,
e v e n t h e most p r o m i n e n t ministers o f S t a t e , and d o m i n e e r o v e r
t h e m if they do n o t carry out their w i l l . ” 4

But the Society’s legendary power could hinder C a t h o l i c activ-


ity in t h e P r o t e s t a n t missions. To defeat G r e a t B r i t a i n w i t h o u t a
b a t t l e L o r e n z o R i c c i required t h e abilities and resources o f a n
i m p o r t a n t M a r y l a n d family, t h e C a r r o l l s . T h e three C a r r o l l sons,
D a n i e l , J o h n and their first cousin C h a r l e s , all n o w in their t w e n -
ties, h a d b e e n t r a i n e d in Jesuit warfare at S t . O m e r ’ s . J o h n was
t e a c h i n g t h e r e . C h a r l e s was s t u d y i n g law a t t h e Jesuit C o l l e g e
Louis-le-Grand in Paris, about to undertake further studies at L o n -
don’s Inner T e m p l e . D a n i e l – of D a n i e l ’ s a c t i v i t i e s b e t w e e n 1 7 5 3
and 1 7 8 1 , v e r y l i t t l e is k n o w n . W h a t is w e l l - k n o w n is t h a t the
C a r r o l l lads w e r e a m o n g t h e w e a l t h i e s t A m e r i c a n s a l i v e . T h e
mother of Daniel and John, Eleanor Darnall, claimed direct
descent from the C a l v e r t s , the o w n i n g family of original Maryland.
S h e h a d c o m e i n t o possession o f m u c h o f t h e land t h a t D a n i e l
w o u l d transfer t o t h e District o f C o l u m b i a . C h a r l e s C a r r o l l stood
t o i n h e r i t A m e r i c a ’ s largest p r i v a t e estate; later, J o h n A d a m s
would label h i m A m e r i c a ’ s richest citizen.
Lorenzo R i c c i c o u l d n o t w i n his W a r w i t h o u t the o v e r t partic-
i p a t i o n o f t h e C a r r o l l s . B u t N e w E n g l a n d was v i r u l e n t l y Protes-
t a n t . W h a t P r o t e s t a n t leader w o u l d s t o o p t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h
d e v o u t R o m a n C a t h o l i c s s c h o o l e d i n trickery b y t h e all-powerful
Jesuits? W o u l d u n i t i n g w i t h Jesuits n o t be laying A m e r i c a ’ s future
at the feet of the Bishop of R o m e ? In this consensus R i c c i was able
to d i s c e r n a v a l u a b l e n e g a t i v e w e a p o n . If t h e stones of e n v y and
h a t r e d were g i v e n a g e n t l e n u d g e , t h e i r o w n w e i g h t and m o m e n -
t u m c o u l d spectacularly blast the S o c i e t y of Jesus to s m i t h e r e e n s .
W i t h t h e S o c i e t y out o f t h e way, R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m w o u l d h a n g
in t h e w i n d , defenseless. To a Protestant’s p e r c e p t i o n , the C h u r c h
w o u l d no longer be a forceful c o n t e n d e r for p o l i t i c a l power. S u n -
tzu advised a ruse k n o w n in t h e lingo of m o d e r n c o v e r t profession-
als as “ b l o w n c o v e r as cover:”

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There will be times when you will lower yourself, and others
when you pretend to be afraid. Sometimes you will feign weak-
ness so that your enemies, opening the door to presumption &
pride, come to attack you unwisely.... G i v e out false informa-
tion about the state [you] are in ... [The enemy], believing [it]
to be true, will act in consequence toward his Generals & all the
Officers presently at his service....

Yes, sudden misfortune w o u l d bless the Society. W e a k n e s s and


persecution would be transformed into magnificent n e w capital for
building s y m p a t h e t i c relationships w i t h o t h e r w e a k and persecut-
ed p e o p l e , s u c h as t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i s t s w e r e d e s t i n e d s o o n to
b e c o m e . W i t h o u t detailing his strategy (for Sun-tzu says “You will
act in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h o s e w h o are inferior to y o u c a n n e v e r
guess your i n t e n t i o n s . . . . ” ) , Lorenzo R i c c i affirmed to the G e n e r a l
C o n g r e g a t i o n that stormclouds were gathering on the horizon.
T h e C o n g r e g a t i o n summarily gave its understanding in o b e d i e n c e
to the “ h i d d e n design” of their n e w Superior G e n e r a l – w h o o c c u -
pied, after all, t h e p l a c e of Jesus. It issued a c a l l for esprit to t h e
brotherhood at large:

If, God permitting it because of his hidden designs which we


could do nothing else but adore, we are to become the butt of
adversity, the Lord will not abandon those who remain attached
and united to him; and as long as the Society is able to go to him
with an open soul and a sincere heart, no other source of
strength will be necessary for it. 5

T h e Prime Minister of Portugal, Sebastian the Marquis de


P o m b a l , had b e e n c o n d u c t i n g w h a t the N e w C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e -
dia calls “a l o n g c a m p a i g n of c a l u m n i e s , false rumors, distorted
m a n i p u l a t i o n of i n c i d e n t s , all i n t e n t on u n d e r m i n i n g the Jesuits’
reputation by ascribing to t h e m nefarious doctrines, purposes, and
practices.” A m o n g Pombal’s a l l e g a t i o n s were t h a t the Jesuits h a d
incited revolts in Paraguay (a Portuguese c o l o n y ) , had traded ille-
gally, h a d e v e n c o n s p i r e d t o murder t h e K i n g . P o m b a l supported
his c l a i m w i t h n u m e r o u s anti-Jesuit tracts and i n f l a m m a t o r y pas-

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toral letters, w h i c h h e s u b m i t t e d t o P a r l i a m e n t . I n t h e S o c i e t y ’ s
defense, a group of bishops s h o w e r e d Pope C l e m e n t XIII w i t h let-
ters c o m m e n d i n g t h e Jesuits for t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e w o r k . C l e m e n t ,
k n o w n by Jesuit historians as “a Jesuited p o p e , ” h a s t e n e d to send
6

c o p i e s o f these e n d o r s e m e n t s t o L o r e n z o R i c c i for p u b l i c a t i o n
u n d e r t h e title “ C a t h o l i c E c c l e s i a s t i c a l J u d g m e n t for t h e Present
Status of the S o c i e t y of Jesus.” P u b l i c a t i o n of these e n d o r s e m e n t s
w o u l d s h o w t h e w o r l d t h a t t h e S o c i e t y e n j o y e d t h e solid support
of t h e R o m a n h i e r a r c h y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Ricci declined to publish
them.
O n January 1 9 , 1 7 5 9 , the Marquis d e P o m b a l procured a royal
decree expelling t h e Jesuits from P o r t u g a l and its overseas
c o l o n i e s . M o r e t h a n a t h o u s a n d Jesuit fathers were c r a m m e d into
ships and d u m p e d on t h e shores of the Papal States ( t h e n an area
in central Italy only slightly more spacious t h a n Switzerland). T w o
hundred-fifty fathers were cast into dungeons, m a n y perishing from
maltreatment. T h e Portuguese C r o w n seized all the Society’s hous-
es, churches, and colleges, as well.

S T O N E S were t h e n n u d g e d i n F r a n c e . T h e S u p e r i o r o f a Jesuit
mission i n t h e C a r i b b e a n , Père L a V a l e t t e , h a d o b t a i n e d c o m -
mercial credit t o finance his mission i n M a r t i n i q u e . W h e n i t h a p -
p e n e d t h a t he c o u l d no l o n g e r pay his d e b t , a t r a d i n g firm in
Marseilles alleged d a m a g e s against h i m o f more t h a n t w o m i l l i o n
francs. L a V a l e t t e asked L o r e n z o R i c c i for h e l p . Ricci turned him
down. T h e firm sued the S o c i e t y in a F r e n c h court and w o n . R i c c i
t h e n appealed t h e case to the P a r l e m e n t in Paris, w h i c h was more
of a supreme court t h a n a legislative body. His lawyers argued that
t h e S o c i e t y could n o t be h e l d liable for personal debts of its m e m -
bers due to a p r o h i b i t i o n laid d o w n by S t . Ignatius h i m s e l f in t h e
Constitutions against any member’s d o i n g business as a principal or
partner. A l t h o u g h this c l a i m was easily dismissible as a flimsy legal
f i c t i o n , t h e court d e m a n d e d e v i d e n c e to support it. T h i s required
Lorenzo R i c c i to produce the Constitutions, w h i c h had n e v e r before
b e e n p u b l i c l y r e v e a l e d . W h e n t h e v o l u m e s were b r o u g h t t o court
and e x a m i n e d , the g o v e r n m e n t attorneys had a field day. A lawyer

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from B r i t t a n y n a m e d L a C h a t o l a i s c h a r g e d t h a t t h e Constitutions
was a h a n d b o o k of “ e v e r y k n o w n form of heresy, idolatry, and
superstition, [which] provides tutelage in suicide, legicide, blasphe-
my, and e v e r y k i n d of impurity, usury, sorcery, murder, cruelty,
hatred, v e n d e t t a , insurrection, and treason.” 7

A s t h e L a V a l e t t e case u n f o l d e d , d u r i n g 1 7 5 9 and 1 7 6 0 B e n -
j a m i n Franklin’s b e l o v e d Voltaire slammed the Jesuits in t w o satir-
ical plays m o u n t e d o n t h e Parisian stage. Educated in the
h u m a n i t i e s and t h e a t r i c a l arts by Jesuits at t h e C o l l è g e L o u i s - l e -
G r a n d , Voltaire served the S o c i e t y and the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h w i t h
d i s t i n c t i o n by b e c o m i n g their c h i e f critic and debunker, m u c h in
the way W i l l Rogers served Franklin Roosevelt’s administration by
lampooning N e w Deal politicians, or in the way Keystone C o p s
t i c k l e d a n A m e r i c a b e i n g transformed i n t o a p o l i c e state. A u d i -
e n c e s at Candide h o w l e d at Jesuit buffoons strutting a b o u t self-
i m p o r t a n t l y drilling t h e i r P a r a g u a y a n I n d i a n troops. In The
Account of the Sickness, Confession, Death and Apparition of the
Jesuit Berthier, t h e e d i t o r of a Jesuit literary r e v i e w w h o dies of
sheer b o r e d o m challenges the n o t i o n that the S o c i e t y is e v e n wor-
thy of existence. W i t h his predecessor Blaise Pascal (whose Provin-
cial Letters had alerted earlier generations to the e g o m a n i a of h i g h
Jesuitry), V o l t a i r e p r o v i d e d a spirit of ridicule w h i c h g a v e Jesuit-
bashing the feel of good sport.
Lorenzo Ricci’s h a n d l i n g of the L a V a l e t t e case resulted in a res-
o l u t i o n , passed b y P a r l e m e n t o n A u g u s t 6 , 1 7 6 2 , c o n d e m n i n g the
Jesuits as “endangering the C h r i s t i a n faith, disturbing the peace of
the C h u r c h , and in general building up far less t h a n they destroy.”
T h e resolution c o n t i n u e d :

T h e Society of Jesus by its very nature is inadmissible in any


properly ordered State as contrary to natural law, attacking all
temporal and spiritual authority, and tending to introduce into
C h u r c h and State, under the specious veil of a religious Insti-
tute, not an Order truly aspiring towards evangelical perfection,
but rather a political organization whose essence consists in a
continual activity, by all sorts of ways, direct and indirect, secret
and public, to gain absolute independence and then the usurpa-

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tion of all authority.... T h e y outrage the laws of nature and as


enemies of the laws of France should be irrevocably expelled.

Louis X V b e i n g a n a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h , p a r l i a m e n t a r y resolu-
tions were w o r t h l e s s w i t h o u t his signature. Louis b e i n g o b e d i e n t
to his Jesuits, it was highly unlikely that he would ever sign a reso-
l u t i o n c o n d e m n i n g t h e Jesuits. Yet sign it he did. A n d w h y he did
has remained a p o i n t of debate. S o m e say his mistress, M a d a m e de
Pompadour, c r a v e d v e n g e a n c e against court Jesuits for implacably
d e n y i n g her a mass. O t h e r s say the k i n g n e e d e d Parlement’s favor
to bail h i m out of debt. I submit that Louis signed because L o r e n -
zo R i c c i w a n t e d h i m to.
W h e n t h e r e s o l u t i o n b e c a m e law, R i c c i released t h e F r e n c h
Jesuits from t h e i r v o w s . T h e S o c i e t y a s a n i n s t i t u t i o n c e a s e d t o
exist on F r e n c h soil. Louis c o n s e n t e d to allow the Jesuits to remain
in F r a n c e , but as “regular clergy.” O t h e r s w e n t i n t o e x i l e . (Père
LaValette, whose financial problems had brought on the debacle,
was e x i l e d by R i c c i to live the rest of his life as a private citizen in
England. W h e n the war that had b e g u n i n the O h i o valley reached
M a r t i n i q u e , t h e E n g l i s h o c c u p i e d t h a t t i n y island and t o o k o v e r
t h e Jesuit p l a n t a t i o n s , selling t h e m , slaves and all, for m o r e t h a n
e n o u g h m o n e y to h a v e paid off LaValette’s debts.)
In t h e midst of t h e i r d e c o m p o s i n g glory, t h e Jesuits r e c e i v e d
from C l e m e n t XIII an awesome gift designed to m a k e w e l c o m e the
most h u m i l i a t i n g of circumstances. T h i s was the mass and office of
t h e S a c r e d H e a r t , w i t h its i c o n of a r e a l i s t i c a l l y b l o o d y h e a r t
p l u c k e d from C h r i s t ’ s ribcage a n d i g n i t e d by an e t e r n a l flame.
Based o n v i s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from t h e S p i r i t u a l Exercises m a d e b y
Ste. Margaret-Marie A l a c o q u e ( 1 6 4 7 - 9 0 ) as promoted by her
Jesuit spiritual director, C l a u d e de la C o l o m b i è r e , S a c r e d H e a r t is
a g n o s t i c Jesuit p r o d u c t i o n c e n t e r i n g on t h e S a v i o u r ’ s perfect
h u m a n i t y . “ B y d e v o t i o n t o m y H e a r t , ” Jesus supposedly r e v e a l e d
to A l a c o q u e , “tepid souls shall grow fervent, and fervent souls shall
q u i c k l y m o u n t t o h i g h p e r f e c t i o n . ” S a c r e d H e a r t s u m m o n s true
believers to pay a debt of “reparation” for the world’s sins. T h e debt
is payable only by prayers, p e n a n c e s , masses, and (significantly for

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this e p o c h in the Society’s history) social a c t i o n . J o h n C a r r o l l , so


indispensable for the o u t w o r k i n g of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , was
profoundly d e v o t e d to Sacred Heart.

L o u i s x v was t h e e f f e c t i v e h e a d o f t h e “ F a m i l y C o m p a c t , ” a n
agreement b e t w e e n reigning Bourbon monarchs to present a
united front before the rest of the world “ o n important measures.”
O n c e h e h a d d i s s o l v e d t h e Jesuits i n F r a n c e , h e a d v i s e d o t h e r
Bourbons to do likewise, a l t h o u g h he c o u l d n o t n a m e a n y t h i n g to
be gained politically, e c o n o m i c a l l y , or financially by the Society’s
d i s s o l u t i o n . T h e issue “still r e m a i n s puzzling a n d p r o b l e m a t i c ”
(Professor M a r t i n says ) unless c o n s i d e r e d (I s u b m i t ) in l i g h t of
8

Sun-tzuan ruse.
A t any rate, t h e B o u r b o n C h a r l e s III o f S p a i n f o l l o w e d Louis’
advisory. C h a r l e s c o n v e n e d a special commission to prepare a mas-
ter p l a n for ousting the Jesuits. No one could produce any hard evi-
dence against the Society. But there were plenty of rumors. A m o b
t h a t h a d risen up to protest a law C h a r l e s h a d passed f o r b i d d i n g
the w e a r i n g of wide sombreros was said to h a v e b e e n f o m e n t e d by
Jesuits. A rumor swept across S p a i n that the Jesuits were nursing a
p l o t t o assassinate C h a r l e s . T h e Jesuits supposedly h a d proof t h a t
the k i n g was t e c h n i c a l l y a bastard and should be deposed. N o n e of
these rumors w e r e e v e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d . M o r e o v e r , General Ricci
ordered the Jesuits to do nothing to dispel them. T h e result was t h a t
forty-six o f t h e sixty S p a n i s h b i s h o p s d e c i d e d t h a t S p a i n s h o u l d
follow the Marquis de P o m b a l and oust the Society.
A n d s o t h e c o m m i s s i o n drafted a n e x p u l s i o n order, w h i c h
C h a r l e s signed o n February 2 7 , 1 7 6 7 . T h e order was e x e c u t e d b y
ambush, reminiscent of Philip IV’s m o v e against the K n i g h t s T e m -
plar in 1 3 1 2 . C h a r l e s sent out sealed e n v e l o p e s marked “ N o t to be
o p e n e d before sunrise of A p r i l 2 on p a i n of d e a t h ” to all p r o v i n -
c i a l v i c e r o y s and military c o m m a n d e r s . W h e n sunrise c a m e and
the recipients o p e n e d their e n v e l o p e s , they discovered t w o letters
inside. T h e first ordered t h e m to place troops around the Jesuit res-
i d e n c e s and c o l l e g e s d u r i n g t h e n i g h t of A p r i l 2, to arrest all
Jesuits, and to arrange for t h e m to be p l a c e d aboard w a i t i n g ships

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at c e r t a i n d o c k s . “If a single Jesuit,” c o n c l u d e d t h e k i n g , “ e v e n


t h o u g h sick or d y i n g , is still to be f o u n d in t h e area u n d e r your
c o m m a n d after the e m b a r c a t i o n , prepare yourself to face summary
execution.”
T h e second letter was a copy of K i n g C h a r l e s ’ original order of
e x p u l s i o n , w h i c h b e g a n “ B e i n g swayed by just and l e g i t i m a t e rea-
sons w h i c h shall remain sealed w i t h i n my royal breast forever,” and
w e n t on to say t h a t “all m e m b e r s of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus are to
leave my k i n g d o m s [Castille, A r a g o n , N a v a r r e , and t h e o t h e r for-
merly i n d e p e n d e n t k i n g d o m s t h a t m a d e u p S p a i n ] a n d all t h e i r
goods are declared forfeit ... by virtue of the highest power, w h i c h
the L o r d G o d A l m i g h t y has c o n f i d e d i n t o m y h a n d s . ” T h e k i n g
made sure to discourage any investigation into causes: “It is n o t for
subjects to q u e s t i o n t h e w i s d o m or to seek to i n t e r p r e t t h e d e c i -
sions of their sovereign.”
O n l y days before A p r i l 2, the S p a n i s h ambassador to t h e H o l y
S e e presented a d o c u m e n t from C h a r l e s to Pope C l e m e n t XIII that
explained,

Your Holiness knows as well as anyone else that a sovereign’s


first duty is to ensure the peace of his dominions and the tran-
quillity of his subjects. In the fulfillment of this sovereign task, I
have found it necessary to expel all the Jesuits residing in my
kingdoms and to commit them directly to Your Holiness’ wise
stewardship in the States of the C h u r c h . . . . I beg Your Holiness
to consider that my decision is unalterable and has been made
as the result of mature reflection and all due consideration for
the consequences....

C l e m e n t , the likelihood of whose submission to the will of


Lorenzo R i c c i should not be underestimated, responded in a m e l o -
d r a m a t i c v e i n , a s t h o u g h p l a y i n g for a n a u d i e n c e : “ O f all t h e
shocks I h a v e had to endure in the n i n e unhappy years of my pon-
tificate, this o n e , of w h i c h Your M a j e s t y has i n f o r m e d m e , is t h e
worst.” T h e p o p e h a d little more to say, e x c e p t that the k i n g may
h a v e placed himself in danger of eternal damnation.
T h e order was e x e c u t e d during the n i g h t o f A p r i l s e c o n d and

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third. S o m e six t h o u s a n d Jesuits were r o u n d e d up t h r o u g h o u t


S p a i n . T h e y were c r a m m e d i n t o t h e l o w e r d e c k s o f t w e n t y - t w o
watships. I n M a y 1 7 6 7 the gruesome fleet appeared off C i v i t a v e c -
c h i a , t h e port of the Papal S t a t e s , and – amazingly, was fired upon
by shore artillery! T h e ships were d e n i e d p e r m i s s i o n to land t h e i r
h u m a n c a r g o by order of the pope himself, pursuant to a conference
with Lorenzo Ricci! Historians are at a loss to e x p l a i n why C l e m e n t ,
s o d e v o t e d t o t h e Jesuits, w o u l d i m p o s e s u c h c r u e l t y u p o n his
beloveds in their hour of need. T h e most plausible answer, I would
suggest, is t h a t his u n d e r s t a n d i n g was o b e d i e n t to the inscrutable
c o m m a n d o f his G e n e r a l , w h o s e e x c e e d i n g l y p r i v a t e o b j e c t i v e ,
after all, was to disqualify t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus and t h e R o m a n
C a t h o l i c C h u r c h as viable enemies of Protestantism, at least in the
N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s . N o longer enemies, they could d e v e l o p
personal alliances. T h e suffering priests, the guns of C i v i t a v e c c h i a ,
were all explained in A m i o t ’ s Sun-tzu:

Your army, accustomed to not knowing your plans, will he


equally unaware of the peril which threatens it. A good General
takes advantage of everything. But he can only do that because
he has operated in the greatest secrecy, because he knows how
to remain cool-headed & because he governs with uprightness.
At the same time, however, his men are constantly misled by
what they see & hear. He manages for his troops never to know
what they must do nor what orders they must receive.... If his
own people are unaware of his plans, how can the enemy discov-
er them?

O v e r t h e n e x t few m o n t h s , t h o u s a n d s m o r e Jesuits were


e x p e l l e d from t h e r e m a i n i n g B o u r b o n states o f N a p l e s , Parma,
M a l t a , and S p a n i s h A m e r i c a . Jesuits i n F r e n c h A m e r i c a ( Q u e b e c )
and N e w E n g l a n d were left undisturbed, as were those in A u s t r i a .
I n O c t o b e r 1 7 6 8 t h e A u s t r i a n Empress M a r i a - T h e r e s a , a H a b s -
burg, w r o t e h e r Jesuit confessor, F a t h e r Koffler: “ M y dear fathet,
there is no cause for c o n c e r n ; as long as I am alive you h a v e n o t h -
ing to fear.” But M a r i a - T h e r e s a h o p e d to marry her t w o daughters
t o B o u r b o n p r i n c e s , C a r o l i n e t o t h e son o f t h e S p a n i s h k i n g ,

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M a r i e - A n t o i n e t t e t o t h e s o n o f L o u i s X V . B o u r b o n ambassadors
advised her t h a t unless she e x p e l l e d the Jesuits, she w o u l d h a v e to
look elsewhere for sons-in-law. T h e Empress reneged on her prom-
ise to F a t h e r Koffler, e x p e l l e d t h e Jesuits, and t h e girls g o t t h e i r
m e n . ( M a r i e - A n t o i n e t t e ’ s marriage w o u l d e n d w i t h the e x e c u t i o n
o f h e r h u s b a n d , L o u i s X V I , i n January 1 7 9 3 . N i n e m o n t h s later,
she w o u l d die t h e same way, d e c a p i t a t e d b y t h e g u i l l o t i n e . T h i s
d e v i c e bears t h e n a m e o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n i s t w h o i n 1 7 9 2
first suggested its use in a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e d e a t h penalty, Dr. Josef
G u i l l o t i n . Dr. G u i l l o t i n was a disestablished Jesuit.)
In January 1 7 6 9 t h e ambassadors from France, S p a i n , and Por-
tugal visited C l e m e n t XIII to d e m a n d “ t h e c o m p l e t e and utter sup-
pression of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus.” C l e m e n t c a l l e d for a special
consistory o f t h e C o l l e g e o f C a r d i n a l s t o d e l i b e r a t e t h e q u e s t i o n .
But w h e n the cardinals c o n v e n e d February 3, it was n o t to discuss
B o u r b o n u l t i m a t u m s , but t o c h o o s e C l e m e n t ’ s successor. For t h e
7 6 - y e a r - o l d p o p e h a d died t h e n i g h t before “ o f a n a p o p l e c t i c
a t t a c k , ” said t h e official r e c o r d , a h e a r t a t t a c k a t t r i b u t e d to t h e
pressures applied by the B o u r b o n diplomats.
For n e a r l y t h r e e m o n t h s , o n e q u e s t i o n c h a r g e d t h e t u r b u l e n t
c o n c l a v e : S h o u l d the n e x t p o p e b e for o r against t h e Jesuits? T h e
cardinals’ c h o i c e of Lorenzo G a n g a n e l l i was a triumph for Lorenzo
R i c c i . A l t h o u g h G a n g a n e l l i was a F r a n c i s c a n , h e h a d c o l l e a g u e d
w i t h Jesuits as a special consultant to the Inquisition. His celebrat-
ed b o o k Diatriba theologica ( 1 7 4 3 ) h a d b e e n d e d i c a t e d to Ignatius
Loyola. M o r e o v e r , G a n g a n e l l i literally o w e d his papacy to Lorenzo
R i c c i , as it was R i c c i w h o had sponsored his n o m i n a t i o n for cardi-
nal i n 1 7 5 9 . A l m o s t immediately after r e c e i v i n g the red h a t G a n -
9

ganelli had shown evidence of cooperating w i t h G e n e r a l Ricci’s


strategy of g r a d u a l l y d i s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. Oxford
Book of Popes indicates a sudden and u n e x p l a i n a b l e h a b i t c h a n g e :
“ H i t h e r t o regarded as a friend of t h e Jesuits, C a r d i n a l G a n g a n e l l i
n o w d i s t a n c e d h i m s e l f from t h e m . ” A n d now, a d e c a d e later, call-
ing himself C l e m e n t XIV, G a n g a n e l l i presented w h a t the C a t h o l i c
E n c y c l o p e d i a calls “in appearance a h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e ” t o w a r d t h e
Jesuits, an apparent hostility, a t h e a t r i c a l h o s t i l i t y t h a t masked an

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CHAPTER 12 LORENZO RICCI’S W A R

i n v o l v e d loyalty toward the Society. C l e m e n t X I V would d o what-


ever was necessary t o h e l p t h e S o c i e t y w i n v i c t o r y w i t h o u t d o i n g
battle, e v e n if it m e a n t obliterating the Society.
T h e B o u r b o n s n e e d e d a p p e a s i n g . Hastily, C l e m e n t p r o m i s e d
C h a r l e s III o f S p a i n f o r t h c o m i n g d o c u m e n t s necessary t o “pro-
c l a i m to all t h e w o r l d t h e w i s d o m of Your Majesty’s d e c i s i o n to
e x p e l t h e Jesuits as unruly and r e b e l l i o u s subjects.” He assured
Louis XV of France also of a “ p l a n for the c o m p l e t e suppression of
this s o c i e t y . ” O n M a u n d y T h u r s d a y 1 7 7 0 , C l e m e n t o m i t t e d t h e
a n n u a l r e a d i n g of In coena Domini ( “ O n t h e Lord’s s u p p e r ” ) . T h e
omission was an a s t o n i s h i n g s t a t e m e n t . T h i s c e l e b r a t e d bull, first
proclaimed in 1 5 6 8 by Pope Pius V, arrogantly reminded kings that
t h e y w e r e but vassals o f t h e papacy. S u d d e n l y d i s c o n t i n u i n g this
assertion flattered t h e r o y a l s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e , i n v i t i n g c r o w n e d
heads to stay on the anti-Jesuit, a n t i - C h u r c h track so necessary for
t h e f u l f i l l m e n t of L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s secret designs in E n g l a n d and
A m e r i c a . It surely e v i d e n c e s C l e m e n t ’ s i n v o l v e m e n t in the strate-
gy of feigned weakness in order to c o n c e a l w h a t Sun-tzu called “ a n
order t h a t n o t h i n g c a n i n t e r r u p t . ” T h e n o n - r e a d i n g o f I n coena
Domini r a n g t h e d e a t h k n e l l of t h e s t r o n g - a r m e d w h i t e p a p a c y as
manifest by Ricci’s p o l i t i c a l theorist, “Justinius Febronius,” in his
1 7 6 3 masterpiece On the State of the Church & the Legitimate Power
of the Roman Pontiff – about w h i c h more presently.
For m o r e t h a n e i g h t y years, t h e p a p a c y h a d supported R o m e -
based m e m b e r s o f t h e S t u a r t m o n a r c h s e x i l e d from E n g l a n d for
b e i n g R o m a n C a t h o l i c s . N o t only did C l e m e n t X I V d i m i n i s h this
tradition t o almost n o t h i n g , i n 1 7 7 2 h e b e g a n e x t e n d i n g a h i g h l y
visible and most cordial hospitality to t h e Protestant K i n g G e o r g e
III and his family. T h i s t a b l e a u was e n o r m o u s l y d i s t u r b i n g to
A m e r i c a n Protestants, w h o at t h a t time were h a v i n g e x t r e m e dif-
ficulties w i t h G e o r g e . T h e p r o s p e c t o f E n g l a n d r e u n i t i n g w i t h
R o m e g a v e t h e m all t h e m o r e r e a s o n t o strive for w h a t L o r e n z o
R i c c i w a n t e d , their i n d e p e n d e n c e .
Finally, o n July 2 1 , 1 7 7 3 , C l e m e n t X I V delivered o n his prom-
ise by signing the brief Dominus ac Redemptor noster ( “ G o d and our
R e d e e m e r ” ) . T h e brief “dissolved, suppressed, disbanded, and abol-

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ished” the S o c i e t y of Jesus “for all eternity” so as “to establish a real


and e n d u r i n g p e a c e w i t h i n the C h u r c h . ” A l l t h e Jesuits’ “offices,
a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d f u n c t i o n s ” were d e c l a r e d “ n u l l and v o i d , and all
their houses, colleges, hospices, and any o t h e r places o c c u p i e d by
t h e m t o b e h e r e b y disestablished, n o m a t t e r i n w h a t p r o v i n c e ,
state, or k i n g d o m they might be found.”
C l e m e n t appointed five cardinals, an archbishop, a bishop, two
t h e o l o g i a n s , and o t h e r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i g n i t a r i e s t o supervise the
D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . N o n e o f t h e c o n f i s c a t e d Jesuit records, corre-
spondence, and accounts showed any incriminating e v i d e n c e .
A l t h o u g h L o r e n z o R i c c i l i v e d a short w a l k from t h e pope’s
palace at St. Peter’s, n o t i c e of the Disestablishment was n o t served
u p o n h i m until m i d - A u g u s t . Guards t o o k the G e n e r a l into custody
at his offices in N u m b e r 45 Piazza del G e s u . T h e y r e m o v e d h i m to
t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e a few b l o c k s away. He r e m a i n e d t h e r e five
weeks. T h i n g s were t h e n h a p p e n i n g i n England and A m e r i c a that
m a k e Ricci’s p r e s e n c e in t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y sig-
n i f i c a n t . W e shall c o n s i d e r those h a p p e n i n g s i n a f o r t h c o m i n g
chapter
T o w a r d t h e e n d o f S e p t e m b e r , L o r e n z o R i c c i was t a k e n from
the English C o l l e g e to C a s -
tel Sant’Angelo, a me-
d i e v a l fortress w h o s e d u n -
g e o n s suggest a prison. His
d e t e n t i o n was probably less
demeaning than we might
imagine, as Sant’Angelo
contained quite elegant
rooms. Popes often used
View of St. Peter’s Basilica from
Castel Sant’Angelo
t h e m as a c o n v e n i e n t re-
sort from administrative
stresses. In fact, a secret u n d e r g r o u n d t u n n e l c o n n e c t e d S a n t ’ A n -
gelo to the papal palace at the V a t i c a n . It would be consistent w i t h
L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s p o s i t i o n and strategy for h i m to stay in p e r s o n a l ,
secret c o n t a c t w i t h C l e m e n t X I V by means of this tunnel.
O n S e p t e m b e r 2 2 , 1 7 7 4 , the first anniversary o f Ricci’s d e t e n -

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CHAPTER 12 LORENZO R I C C I ’ S W A R

tion at S a n t ’ A n g e l o , C l e m e n t died. He was sixty-nine. He had suf-


fered the last year of his life in severe depression, it was said, w i t h
morbid paranoia o v e r assassination. His corpse d e c o m p o s e d rapid-
ly, feeding rumors of death by poison, rumors w h i c h his famous last
words tended to confirm: “ M e r c y ! M e r c y ! Compulsus feci!” (“I was
c o m p e l l e d to do it!”) For m a n y years afterward, historians w o u l d
w o n d e r just w h o m G a n g a n e l l i was addressing: G o d ? A v e n g e f u l
Jesuit assassin? R i c c i ? W h a t was t h e “it” he was c o m p e l l e d to do?
D i s e s t a b l i s h t h e Jesuits? C o m m i t suicide? T h e d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r
may n e v e r b e k n o w n , b e c a u s e t h e pope’s p e r s o n a l papers and
effects d e c o m p o s e d as rapidly as his flesh. W h a t is q u i t e k n o w n ,
t h o u g h , is t h a t t h e d e a t h of C l e m e n t XIV, in the words of Oxford
Book of Popes, “ b r o u g h t t h e prestige of t h e p a p a c y to its lowest
level in centuries.” W h i c h is precisely w h a t Lorenzo R i c c i n e e d e d
for his A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n to h a p p e n .

W E n o w p r o c e e d to e x a m i n e t h e structured darkness of t h e
m e n w h o led t h e a t t a c k against the S o c i e t y of Jesus. It was
t h e same darkness from w h e n c e c a m e n o t o n l y t h e E n g l i s h m e n
w h o t u r n e d t h e i r k i n g d o m i n t o a h a t e d tyranny, but also t h e
A m e r i c a n s w h o a d v o c a t e d r e b e l l i o n against t h a t tyranny. T h e
darkness is c a l l e d Freemasonry, a n d it is t h e subject of our n e x t
chapter.

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WASHINGTON IN MASONIC REGALIA


(From a Currier & Ives engraving, 1868.)
Chapter 13

THE SECRET BRIDGE

“The papal prohibition might even have encouraged Mason-


ry by identifying opposition to the group with Catholic
tyranny and superstition.”
— STEVEN C . BULLOCK,
REVOLUTIONARY BROTHERHOOD, 1996

T
HE New Catholic Encyclopedia identifies the men who
attacked the S o c i e t y of Jesus as “ t h e radical d e v o t e e s of the
r a t i o n a l i s t i c E n l i g h t e n m e n t – r i c h l y t a l e n t e d and influen-
tial writers, s u c h as V o l t a i r e , R o u s s e a u , a n d o t h e r ‘philosophes’
a m o n g the Encyclopedists, the followers of Freemasonry, and h i g h
p l a c e d g o v e r n m e n t officials.” A t t a c k i n g t h e Jesuits was for t h e m
“a step t o w a r d t h e i r u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e of a b o l i s h i n g all religious
orders, the papacy, and finally the C h u r c h itself.”
T h e masterpiece of the encyclopedists (most of w h o m hap-
p e n e d to be philosophes), was the m o n u m e n t a l Encyclopedia of Sci-
ences, Arts, and Trades ( 1 7 4 3 - 1 7 5 1 ) . T h e Encyclopedia was the
flame of t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t , t h e fulfillment of C a r d i n a l W o l s e y ’ s
dream of flooding the world w i t h print containing “learning
against l e a r n i n g . ” It b r o u g h t so m u c h l e a r n i n g (secular l e a r n i n g ,
as against S c r i p t u r a l l e a r n i n g ) t h a t it b e c a m e its o w n p a r a d i g m
d e m a n d i n g radical c h a n g e i n existing norms. T h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t

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c a l l e d for a “ n e w a g e ” t h a t p l a c e d R e a s o n a b o v e any C h u r c h ,
above e v e n the Bible. T h e n e w age issued in the elegant neo-gnos-
tic r e l i g i o n o f D e i s m , t h e t h i n k i n g man’s a l t e r n a t i v e t o R o m a n
C a t h o l i c i s m and its imperious h o l d on the h u m a n c o n s c i e n c e .
Nowhere was Deism more methodically practiced than
“ a r o u n d t h e altars of F r e e m a s o n r y , ” as t h e great M a s o n i c s c h o l a r
A l b e r t Pike put it. H e r e , w r o t e Pike in his i n f l u e n t i a l Morals and
Dogma ( 1 8 7 1 ) , “the C h r i s t i a n , the Hebrew, the M o s l e m , the Brah-
m i n , t h e f o l l o w e r s of C o n f u c i u s a n d Zoroaster, c a n assemble as
b r e t h r e n a n d u n i t e i n prayer t o t h e o n e G o d w h o i s a b o v e all
gods.” T h e b r e t h r e n prayerfully c l i m b t h e g n o s t i c pyramid o f suc-
cessive i l l u m i n a t i o n u n t i l , hopefully, a o n e n e s s w i t h t h e supreme
G o d i s a t t a i n e d . A s P i k e e x p l a i n e d , t h e Deists (like t h e p a p a c y )
looked u p o n the Bible as s o m e t h i n g of a stumbling block:

T h e Freemason does not pretend to dogmatic certainty, nor


vainly imagine such certainty attainable. He considers that if
there were no written revelation, he could safely rest the hopes
that animate him and the principles that guide him, on the
deductions of reason and the convictions of instinct and con-
sciousness.
He studies the wonders of the Heavens, the framework and
revolutions of the Earth, the mysterious beauties and adaptations
of animal existence, the moral and material constitution of the
human creature, so fearfully and wonderfully made; and is satis-
fied that God I S . . . .

M o s t of t h e philosophes, including Frederick the Great, the


P r o t e s t a n t K i n g of Prussia w h o subsidized the entire Encyclopedia
project, were D e i s t i c b r e t h r e n . A s were the “ h i g h p l a c e d g o v e r n -
m e n t officials” w h o pushed for the disestablishment of the Jesuits.
A l l the B o u r b o n m o n a r c h s e m p l o y e d a s t h e i r official advisors
“ a r d e n t members of the L o d g e , ” to use Professor Martin’s phrase. 1

T h e M a r q u i s d e P o m b a l o f P o r t u g a l was a M a s o n . C h a r l e s Ill’s
advisor t h e C o u n t d e A r a n d a , L o u i s X V ’ s M i n i s t e r d e T i l l o t and
the Duc de C h o i s e u l , as w e l l as M a r i a - T h e r e s a ’ s P r i n c e v o n K a u -
nitz and G e r a r d v o n S w i e t e n – all b e l o n g e d to the secret brother-
hood.

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C H A P T E R 13 T H E S E C R E T BRIDGE

S i n c e it was no secret that the E n l i g h t e n m e n t aimed to m a k e


R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m passée, P o p e C l e m e n t XII p r o m u l g a t e d i n
1 7 2 8 t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n I n eminenti, w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o c o n d e m n
Freemasonry thusly:

CONDEMNATIO SOCIETATIS DE CONVENTICULORUM DE


FREEMASONS, UNDER THE PENALTY IPSO FACTO INCURRED, OR
EXCOMMUNICATION; ABSOLUTION FROM IT BEING RESERVED TO
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS

Free Masons of whatever sect or religion, confederate


together in a close and inscrutable bond, according to secret laws
and orders agreed upon between them, and bind themselves as
well by strict oath taken on the Bible as by the imprecations of
heavy punishments to preserve their mysteries with inviolable
secrecy
T h e great mischiefs which generally accrue from secret bod-
ies are antagonist to civil and canonical laws.
Wherefore, by the advice of the cardinals and of our mere
motion, and from the plenitude of the apostolic power, we do
condemn and prohibit the meetings of the above-named society
of Free Masons.
We strictly command that no one, under any pretext or
color, dare to presume to promote, favor, admit, or conceal in
their houses members of assemblies of this abominable order, nor
in any way aid or assist in their meeting in any place, or to
administer medicine to them in their sickness, or in any manner,
directly or indirectly, by themselves or others, afford them coun-
sel or help in their hour of trial and affliction, or persuade others
to join said Order....

While Eminenti’s stern r h e t o r i c , w h i c h was r e n e w e d by B e n e -


dict X I V i n 1 7 5 1 , seems t o dig a wide o c e a n b e t w e e n C a t h o l i c i s m
and Freemasonry, its fruits tell a n o t h e r story. W h y , for e x a m p l e ,
were t h e B o u r b o n m o n a r c h s , all o f t h e m R o m a n C a t h o l i c , n e v e r
penalized or e x c o m m u n i c a t e d for admitting, promoting, and favor-
ing M a s o n i c advisors? A n d why, a d e c a d e after t h e M a r q u i s de
P o m b a l had shipped the Jesuits out of Portugal, did C l e m e n t X I V
send a n a p p e a s i n g n u n c i o t o t h e Portuguese court, e l e v a t e P o m -

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bal’s brother to Bishop, and confirm all Pombal’s n o m i n e e s in bish-


o p r i c s ? T h e answer, of course, is c o n t a i n e d in t h e bull’s title,
2

w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h a t a b s o l u t i o n from p e n a l t i e s o r e x c o m m u n i c a -
t i o n is “reserved to Pontifex Maximus.” T h a t is to say, a s s o c i a t i n g
w i t h the a b o m i n a t i o n of Freemasonry, if d o n e for a cause valuable
to t h e p a p a c y ( s u c h as w e a k e n i n g t h e Jesuits to t h e p o i n t every-
body assumes they’re no longer a threat to P r o t e s t a n t i s m ) , will be
a b s o l v e d b y t h e papacy. G i v e n t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , does any
other answer m a k e sense?
T h e l e a d i n g Jesuit-bashers w e r e n o t o n l y F r e e m a s o n s , t h e y
were also the product of Jesuit learning against learning. It was the
ratio studiorum – the M e d i c i Library’s g n o s t i c w i s d o m absorbed in
a n a m b i a n c e o f casuistry, e q u i v o c a t i o n , m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n , and
obedience of the understanding, c o m b i n e d w i t h smatterings of
H o l y S c r i p t u r e usually filtered t h r o u g h t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s o f
C h u r c h d o c t o r s – t h a t h a d t u r n e d t w o c e n t u r i e s of Jesuited stu-
dents into secular philosophes. T h e ratio studiorum dictated the form
and scope of the Encyclopedia, w h i c h in turn codified the E n l i g h t -
e n m e n t paradigm, w h o s e D e i s t i c litany was p r e a c h e d “around the
altars of Freemasonry.”
H o l d Freemasonry up to the light and you c a n n o t h e l p but see
t h e b l a c k papacy’s w a t e r m a r k . Isn’t i t r e a s o n a b l e , g i v e n t h e cir-
c u m s t a n c e s , t h a t t h e “ G ” i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e familiar M a s o n i c
e m b l e m represents the initial of “Gesu,” the residence of the black
popes at the Jesuits’ world headquarters at N u m b e r 5, Borgo S a n c -
to Spiritu, in R o m e ? Freemasons w o u l d n ’ t suspect this, n o r w o u l d
Jesuits. It would be information reserved uniquely to the u n k n o w n
superior, w h o shares w h a t h e k n o w s w i t h n o o n e . “Your e n e m i e s
will serve y o u w i t h o u t t h e i r wishes,” said S u n - t z u , “or e v e n their
knowledge.”
Freemasonry was t h e natural, t h e reasonable, t h e o n l y intelli-
gent way for the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h to c o n t r o l (a) the o n g o -
ing affront of P r o t e s t a n t i s m , (b) t h e increase in “ d i v i n e r i g h t ”
kings h e a d i n g t h e i r o w n n a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s i n d e p e n d e n t o f V a t i -
c a n control, and (c) the incredible explosion of international mer-
c a n t i l i s m . L i k e t h e a q u a t i c c r e a t u r e w h o s e m o u t h resembles a

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C H A P T E R 13 T H E S E C R E T BRIDGE

c o m f o r t a b l e resting p l a c e to its prey, t h e L o d g e s were a sagacious


r e c y c l i n g of the old T e m p l a r infrastructure i n t o a d y n a m i c spiritu-
a l and e c o n o m i c b r o t h e r h o o d t h a t g a v e P r o t e s t a n t s , Jews, Bud-
dhists, Muslims, agnostics, and a n y o n e else an opportunity to build
a b e t t e r life outside R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m , y e t still u n d e r t h e
C h u r c h ’ s s u p e r i n t e n d i n g eye. For Sun-tzu said, “ T h e G e n e r a l sees
all, hears all, does all, and in appearance is n o t i n v o l v e d w i t h any-
thing.” T h e Jesuit G e n e r a l is t h e d i s e m b o d i e d eye substituting for
the pyramid's missing capstone, the stone the builders rejected.
T h e Lodge’s secrecy and its c o n d e m n a t i o n by the C h u r c h were
essential t o s u s t a i n i n g t h e i n t e g r i t y o f b o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s . A n d s o
the deepest M a s o n i c secret, the secret that n o t e v e n their G r a n d -
est Masters c o u l d p e n e t r a t e , was that all their secrets were k n o w n
t o o n e m a n a l o n e , t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus.
T h i s should n o t surprise a n y o n e aware of h o w t h o r o u g h l y Freema-
sonry is suffused w i t h Jesuitic t e c h n i q u e . B o t h F r e e m a s o n r y and
the S o c i e t y of Jesus are (a) humanist religious orders, (b) secretive,
(c) fraternal, (d) socially c o n s c i e n t i o u s a n d p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e –
q u e s t i n g , like A e n e a s , t h e p r o t o t y p i c a l R o m a n , for t h e greatest
good for the greatest number. B o t h orders (e) h o l d Tradition, R e a -
son, and E x p e r i e n c e in equal if n o t greater e s t e e m t h a n t h e Bible,
(f) employ carefully structured programs of gnostic visualization to
a c h i e v e a n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d i v i n e , (g) c o n d o n e
“the e n d justifies t h e means,” and (h) require absolute o b e d i e n c e ,
secured by a blood o a t h , to a hierarchy of superiors c u l m i n a t i n g in
the Jesuit G e n e r a l , w h o s e orders are so wisely suited to t h e recipi-
ent that they are obeyed as t h o u g h willed by the recipient himself.

T H E first r e c o r d e d m e m b e r o f A m e r i c a n F r e e m a s o n r y was
D a n i e l C o x e , w h o was c o n s t i t u t e d P r o v i n c i a l G r a n d M a s t e r
o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f N e w Y o r k , N e w Jersey, a n d P e n n s y l v a n i a o n
June 5 , 1 7 3 0 , o n a d e p u t a t i o n g r a n t e d b y t h e D u k e o f N o r f o l k ,
G r a n d M a s t e r o f M a s o n s i n E n g l a n d . Evidently, C o x e was a n in-
5

dustrious recruiter. M i n u t e s of a m e e t i n g of t h e G r a n d L o d g e of
L o n d o n o n January 2 9 , 1 7 3 1 reflect t h a t “ C o x e ’ s h e a l t h was pro-
posed and drank [sic] as ‘Provincial G r a n d Master of N o r t h A m e r -
ica.’”

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D a n i e l C o x e was a c t u a l l y a junior, a c c o r d i n g t o S i d n e y H a y -
den’s Washington and His Compeers ( 1 8 6 8 ) . He was “ t h e son of Dr.
D a n i e l C o x e o f E n g l a n d , w h o was p h y s i c i a n t o t h e Q u e e n o f
C h a r l e s II.” Dr. C o x e must be presumed a R o m a n C a t h o l i c sympa-
thizer, as b o t h C h a r l e s and his Q u e e n were C a t h o l i c s . T h e Q u e e n ,
C a t h e r i n e of Braganza ( P o r t u g a l ) , flaunted a h u g e V a t i c a n e n -
t o u r a g e , for w h i c h she was c o n t i n u a l l y harassed by d e a t h p l o t s .
C h a r l e s c o n v e r t e d t o C a t h o l i c i s m i n e x c h a n g e for m o n e y from
Louis X I V of France under the terms of the Treaty of Dover.
T h e j u n i o r D a n i e l C o x e deserves w i d e r r e c o g n i t i o n a s a n
A m e r i c a n visionary, or at least t h e sole a p o l o g i s t of s o m e undis-
closed visionary. T h i r t e e n years before B e n j a m i n Franklin’s pro-
posal of a “ c o l o n i a l U n i o n ” to the A l b a n y congress in 1 7 5 4 , for
w h i c h Franklin is credited w i t h being the first to suggest a “united
S t a t e s , ” C o x e p u b l i s h e d in E n g l a n d a dissertation p r o m o t i n g a
s c h e m e t o settle “ a n e x t e n s i v e tract o f c o u n t r y l y i n g o n t h e G u l f
o f M e x i c o ” o w n e d b y his father, t h e Q u e e n ’ s p h y s i c i a n . T h e dis-
sertation, entitled A Description of the English Province of Carolina,
by the Spaniards called Florida, and by the French La Louisiane, pro-
m o t e d t h e elder C o x e ’ s tract a s a n E n g l i s h p r o v i n c e allied w i t h
N e w E n g l a n d against t h e S p a n i s h , F r e n c h , and Indians. I t c a l l e d
for “all the colonies appertaining to the c r o w n of G r e a t Britain, on
t h e n o r t h e r n c o n t i n e n t of A m e r i c a , [to] be u n i t e d u n d e r a legal,
regular, and firm e s t a b l i s h m e n t ; o v e r w h i c h a l i e u t e n a n t or
supreme g o v e r n o r may be constituted and appointed to preside on
the spot, t o w h o m t h e g o v e r n o r s o f e a c h c o l o n y shall b e subordi-
nate.” W i t h this u n i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t s under one president, C o x e
foresaw “a great c o u n c i l or general c o n v e n t i o n of the estates of the
c o l o n i e s ” to “meet together, consult and advise for the good of the
w h o l e . ” T h e s e “ u n i t e d states” w o u l d p r o v i d e “for t h e i r m u t u a l
defense and safety, as well as, if necessary, for offense and invasion
of their enemies” – independently of the protections of the British
C r o w n . Of course, these imaginings b e c a m e reality forty years later
w i t h t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s strategy for d i v i d i n g t h e
British Empire. C o n s i d e r i n g the elements i n v o l v e d – lands o w n e d
b y t h e C a t h o l i c Q u e e n ’ s p h y s i c i a n , lands m a n a g e d and p r o m o t e d

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by the physician’s son, w h o is a Freemason deputed to generate an


A m e r i c a n b r o t h e r h o o d b y the e i g h t h D u k e o f N o r f o l k , w h o h i m -
self was a m e m b e r of England’s premier R o m a n C a t h o l i c family –
C o x e ’ s dissertation appears to be t h e earliest f o r m a t t i n g of the
c o l o n i a l c o n s c i e n c e t o d i v i s i v e t h i n k i n g b y agents o f t h e b l a c k
papacy.
T h e Duke of Norfolk, “Grand Master of Masons in England,”
was also k n o w n as T h o m a s H o w a r d , Earl of A r u n d e l l . His nephew,
Henry, Lord A r u n d e l l , o c c u p i e d W a r d o u r C a s t l e n e a r Tisbury i n
W i l t s h i r e a t the time C l e m e n t X I V disestablished the Jesuits. W e
shall see how, in the a u t u m n of 1 7 7 3 , it was to Lord Arundell’s cas-
tle t h a t J o h n C a r r o l l repaired w h e n c i v i l authorities closeci d o w n
the Jesuit school in Liège, Belgium, where C a r r o l l had b e e n teach-
ing. For a year C a r r o l l stayed at Wardour, serving as t h e A r u n d e l l
family’s tutor a n d c h a p l a i n before sailing for A m e r i c a to p a r t i c i -
pate in the R e v o l u t i o n .

T H I R T Y - T H I R D degree M a s o n i c s c h o l a r M a n l y P. H a l l , in his
gnostic extravaganza Secret Teachings of All Ages: An Encyclo-
pedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Sym-
bolical Philosophy (1988), remarked that “not only were many
founders o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t M a s o n s , but t h e y re-
c e i v e d aid from a secret and A u g u s t b o d y e x i s t i n g in E u r o p e ,
w h i c h helped t h e m to establish this country for a peculiar and par-
ticular purpose k n o w n only to the initiated few.”
M o s t histories o f t h e A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t skim o v e r t h e
M a s o n i c presence. A m e r i c a n s like their history told in high-defi-
n i t i o n i c o n s o f g o o d and e v i l , liberty a n d tyranny, h e r o i s m and
treason, m i g h t a n d right. T h e y w o n ’ t b u y a h e r i t a g e p o l l u t e d by
dark spots of mystery. Yet the greater part of A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n -
tal heritage is almost wholly mysterious.
T h e m a n best qualified to b e c o m e our country’s greatest histo-
rian, c e r t a i n l y t h e m a n w i t h t h e most c o m p l e t e access to primary
sources i n t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y cause, was C h a r l e s T h o m s o n . A n
a u t h e n t i c classical scholar, a discreet Protestant steeped in M e d i c i
learning, T h o m s o n was k n o w n as “Perpetual Secretary of the C o n -

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tinental C o n g r e s s . ” He inscribed minutes of


every C o n g r e s s i o n a l session from 1 7 7 4 until
ratification of the C o n s t i t u t i o n in 1789.
W i t h William Barton, a Freemason, he
designed the Great Seal of the United
S t a t e s of A m e r i c a : t h e c h o i c e of its V i r -
g i l i a n m o t t o e s is c r e d i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to
Thomson.
Among his contemporaries, Charles
Thomson's name was synonymous with
Charles Thomson, T r u t h . S o a c c u r a t e w e r e his m i n u t e s o f
the man who talked Pennsylvania's negotiations with the
the truth.
D e l a w a r e Indians that the Delawares called
h i m Wegh-wu-law-mo-end, “ t h e m a n w h o talks the t r u t h . ” W h e n
he w o u l d take his daily reports of congressional proceedings to the
streets, eager m o b s w o u l d cry “ H e r e c o m e s C h a r l e s T h o m s o n !
Here comes the Truth!”
O n c e the C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified, C h a r l e s T h o m s o n retired
to Harriton, his country h o m e in Bryn Mawr. He destroyed his per-
sonal papers relative t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f the n e w republic. A n arti-
cle by K e n n e t h B o l i n g in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and
Biography ( 1 9 7 6 ) says that T h o m s o n actually wrote a l e n g t h y his-
tory of the R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h he also destroyed. T h o m s o n biogra-
pher J. E d w i n H e n d r i c k s of W a k e Forest suggests a fate other t h a n
d e s t r u c t i o n , a l l u d i n g t o “persistent rumors t h a t t h e T h o m s o n
papers are in the P e n n s y l v a n i a M a s o n i c records.” (Professor H e n -
dricks assured me p e r s o n a l l y t h a t n u m e r o u s inquiries h a v e failed
t o reflect T h o m s o n ' s m e m b e r s h i p i n P e n n s y l v a n i a M a s o n r y . )
W h e t h e r T h o m s o n destroyed his history o r surrendered i t t o t h e
c r y p t of secrecy, it is c l e a r t h a t he k n e w there w e r e c e r t a i n ele-
m e n t s in the f o r m a t i o n of A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t t h a t must, must
be i g n o r e d . “If t h e t r u t h w e r e k n o w n , ” he told friends darkly,
“ m a n y careers would be tarnished and the leadership of t h e n a t i o n
would be w e a k e n e d . ” 4

A n d s o C h a r l e s T h o m s o n o c c u p i e d t h e r e m a i n i n g forty years
o f his life t r a n s l a t i n g t h e S e p t u a g i n t , t h e G r e e k - l a n g u a g e B i b l e ,

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into English. Still, he was frequently requested to write the defini-


tive insider’s history of t h e R e v o l u t i o n . Dr. B e n j a m i n R u s h over-
heard T h o m s o n ’ s reply to o n e s u c h request and recorded it in his
diary:

“No,” said he, “I ought not, for I should contradict all the
histories of the great events of the Revolution, and shew by my
account of men, motives and measures, that we are wholly
indebted to the agency of Providence for its successful issue. Let
the world admire the supposed wisdom and valor of our great
men. Perhaps they may adopt the qualities that have been
ascribed to them, and thus good may be done. I shall not unde-
ceive future generations.” 5

W h a t I b e l i e v e T h o m s o n was m e a n i n g to say is simply that no


h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n c a n b e truthful
unless it discloses t h e role p l a y e d by “the agency of Providence.”
N o t i c e t h a t T h o m s o n does n o t use t h e w o r d “Providence” a l o n e ,
w h i c h was u n d e r s t o o d i n his day t o m e a n “ G o d ” o r “ C h r i s t . ” H e
does n o t say “we are wholly indebted to G o d , ” or “we are wholly
indebted to Christ,” but rather to the “agency” thereof.
If T h o m s o n k n e w t h e w o r d “ a g e n c y ” was a s y n o n y m for
“vicar,” and I c a n ’ t i m a g i n e t h a t a professional linguist w o u l d n ’ t ,
and i f h e k n e w t h a t t h e p o p e s h a d b e e n c a l l e d “ v i c a r s o f C h r i s t ”
since t h e fifth century, and I c a n ’ t i m a g i n e t h a t a b i b l i c a l scholar
of his quality w o u l d n ’ t , t h e n T h o m s o n was most likely saying “We
are wholly indebted to the Vicar of Christ, that is, the Roman papacy.”
B u t w h a t a r i d i c u l o u s s t a t e m e n t to t h e p o s t - R e v o l u t i o n a r y
A m e r i c a n mindset! W h o would h a v e b e l i e v e d such a n outrageous
n o t i o n , c o m i n g from e v e n t h e m a n w h o talks t h e truth? T h e e m -
battled, degenerate, dying papacy could n o t possibly h a v e effected
t h e R e v o l u t i o n ! A n y o n e foolish e n o u g h t o run w i t h this idea
w o u l d h a v e crashed h e a d l o n g i n t o a w a l l o f r i d i c u l e . For T h o m -
son, there was n o future i n t e l l i n g w h a t h e k n e w . S i n c e h e c h o s e
n o t t o u n d e c e i v e future g e n e r a t i o n s , t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e h a v e
lived according to histories that can be contradicted by truth.
T h e y h a v e b e e n served by careers and leaders that truth c o u l d tar-

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nish and w e a k e n . T h e y seem comfortable in their deception,


w h i c h i s generally t h e case a m o n g c o n s e n t i n g subjects t o R o m a n
rule.

Let’s m o v e n o w to the n e x t chapter, w h e r e i n we shall see h o w


the Jesuits, w h i c h we n o w recognize as the unsung architects of the
E n l i g h t e n m e n t , supplied t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i s t s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l
basis for rebelling against G r e a t Britain.

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CARDINAL ROBERT BELLARMINE ( I 5 4 2 - 1 6 4 1 )


(After Passerotti’s engraved portrait from life.)
Chapter 14

THE DOGMA OF
INDEPENDENCE

T
HE J E S U I T ratio studiorum i m b u e d w e s t e r n culture w i t h a
purely C a t h o l i c p o l i t i c a l theory. T h i s theory, as articulated
by Deist philosophes a n d p o l i t i c i a n s , u l t i m a t e l y b e c a m e t h e
rhetorical mainspring of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n . It so impacted
the world that its formulator and original apologist, a Jesuit priest
named R o b e r t Bellarmine, was created a S a i n t in 1930.
Prior to H e n r y VIII’s break w i t h the R o m a n papacy in the mid-
1530s a n d s u b s e q u e n t c r e a t i o n o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , k i n g s
regarded themselves, w i t h i n their respective realms, as the anoint-
ed vicars of G o d for secular purposes only. A f t e r H e n r y ’ s s c h i s m ,
Protestant kings assumed G o d ’ s a n o i n t m e n t c o v e r e d religious pur-
poses as w e l l . T h e y b e c a m e infallible popes of their o w n n a t i o n a l
c h u r c h e s . F o l l o w i n g t h e b i b l i c a l t e a c h i n g t h a t t h e ruler is “ G o d ’ s
m i n i s t e r to t h e e for g o o d , ” P r o t e s t a n t k i n g s c l a i m e d to rule by
D i v i n e R i g h t , h o l d i n g absolute sway o v e r t h e i r subjects. I n the
m a x i m of D i v i n e R i g h t ’ s greatest c h a m p i o n and James I’s private

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theologian, Sir R o b e r t Filmer, “ T h e K i n g c a n do no wrong.”


D i v i n e R i g h t ’ s s t a u n c h e s t o p p o n e n t was R o b e r t B e l l a r m i n e ,
p r i v a t e t h e o l o g i a n t o the p o p e , C l e m e n t V I I I ( 1 5 9 2 - 1 6 0 5 ) , w h o
made h i m Cardinal Bellarmine in 1599. Cardinal Bellarmine
a p p e a l e d t o t h e self-interest o f t h e c o m m o n m a n , s o m e t h i n g the
D i v i n e R i g h t system failed to do. He i n v e n t e d liberation theology.
D r a w i n g o n A r i s t o t l e and S t . T h o m a s A q u i n a s , B e l l a r m i n e main-
t a i n e d t h a t G o d a n o i n t e d n o k i n g s b u t instead g a v e s o v e r e i g n t y
directly and naturally to the p e o p l e . T h e p e o p l e were free to c o n -
fer t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y u p o n w h o m e v e r o r w h a t e v e r t h e y c h o s e .
S h o u l d t h e people’s c h o s e n s o v e r e i g n p r o v e h i m s e l f (or itself)
unworthy, the p e o p l e had the right to depose h i m (or it) and start
a n e w w i t h any form o f g o v e r n m e n t t h e y d e e m e d necessary,
w h e t h e r monarchy, aristocracy, or republic.
Understandably, the Protestant monarchs loathed Cardinal
Bellarmine. A Collegio Anti-Bellarminianum was established at H e i -
delberg to train L u t h e r a n s in h o w to c o p e w i t h Bellarmine’s dem-
ocratic egalitarianism. When Queen Elizabeth ordered that
B e l l a r m i n e b e l e c t u r e d against a t C a m b r i d g e , t h e lecturer, w h i l e
reading the C a r d i n a l t o refute h i m , c o n v e r t e d t o R o m a n C a t h o l i -
cism. T h e o d o r e Beza, w h o s u c c e e d e d J o h n C a l v i n a s h e a d o f t h e
P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h at G e n e v a , is said to h a v e d e c l a r e d of B e l -
larmine’s m a g n u m opus, Christian Controversy, “ T h i s b o o k has
ruined us!”
O f t h e process o f “ m a k i n g t h e e n e m y m o v e a s o n e wishes,”
Sun-tzu wrote: “ T h e great science is to m a k e h i m desire e v e r y t h i n g
y o u w i s h h i m t o d o & t o p r o v i d e h i m w i t h all t h e m e a n s t o h e l p
y o u i n this, w i t h o u t his realizing it.” T h u s , l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y
reached the A m e r i c a n revolutionaries through the v o i c e and ener-
gies of its p r i n c i p a l adversary, Sir R o b e r t Filmer. Sir R o b e r t spent
the first four pages of Patriarcha ( 1 6 8 0 ) , his illustrious defense of
D i v i n e R i g h t m o n a r c h y , refuting C a r d i n a l B e l l a r m i n e . B u t his
refutation c o n t a i n s so m u c h material from Bellarmine’s works that
Patriarcha a m o u n t s to n o t h i n g less t h a n a c o n c i s e introduction of
Bellarminian theory.
T h e t w o most c o n s p i c u o u s reviewers of Patriarcha were A l g e r -

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n o n Sidney, Puritanism’s greatest p o l i t i c a l philosopher, and J o h n


L o c k e , t h e v o i c e o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t i n E n g l a n d and A m e r i c a .
A l g e r n o n S i d n e y ’ s n a m e m e a n s little t o m o d e r n A m e r i c a n s , but
in his day, and for generations after, it was s y n o n y m o u s w i t h indi-
v i d u a l liberty. Babies and c o u n t r y estates were called “ S i d n e y ” in
his h o n o r , e v e n t h o u g h he was b e h e a d e d in 1683 for p l o t t i n g t h e
death of K i n g C h a r l e s II. Sidney’s philosophical admirers loved his
o p e n h o s t i l i t y t o R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . T h e y ignored his intrigues
w i t h the Jesuits of Louis XIV, and his long visits to R o m e . Discours-
es concerning Government, his most c e l e b r a t e d w o r k , was k n o w n
respectfully as “ t h e n o b l e b o o k . ” A f t e r its r e p u b l i c a t i o n in 1 7 6 3 ,
along w i t h an a c c o u n t of his preposterous trial ( n o i n d i c t m e n t , no
assistance of counsel, perjured testimony, tainted e v i d e n c e , packed
j u r y ) , it c o u l d be f o u n d in t h e library of e v e r y affluent h o m e in
America.
S i d n e y b e g a n Discourses w i t h the f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e : “ H a v i n g
lately seen a b o o k e n t i t l e d Patriarcha w r i t t e n by Sir R o b e r t Filmer
c o n c e r n i n g the u n i v e r s a l a n d u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d right of all kings, I
t h o u g h t a time of leisure m i g h t well be e m p l o y e d in e x a m i n i n g his
doctrine and the questions arising from it: w h i c h seem to c o n c e r n
all m a n k i n d . ” W h e r e u p o n , q u o t i n g Filmer’s q u o t a t i o n s from Bel-
larmine, S i d n e y goes on to a t t a c k Filmer and in the process defends
Bellarmine. H o w w o n d r o u s l y S u n - t z u a n t h a t a trusted P r o t e s t a n t
t h i n k e r w o u l d i n d o c t r i n a t e a n a t i o n of f e l l o w - C a t h o l i c - b a s h e r s
w i t h the teachings of a Jesuit C a r d i n a l !
J o h n L o c k e h e l d such influence o v e r revolutionary intellectu-
als that historians h a v e labeled h i m “ A m e r i c a ’ s Philosopher.” H e ,
too, endorsed Bellarmine by a t t a c k i n g Filmer. On the title page of
his Two Treatises on Government ( 1 6 9 0 ) , L o c k e advertises that he
will refute Patriarcha w i t h r e a s o n i n g w h e r e i n “ t h e false principles
and f o u n d a t i o n of Sir R o b e r t Filmer and his followers are detected
a n d o v e r t h r o w n . ” H e t h e n e x p o u n d s C a r d i n a l B e l l a r m i n e i n his
o w n words, words that will b e c o m e the rationale of the A m e r i c a n
R e v o l u t i o n : “ M e n b e i n g b y nature all free, e q u a l , a n d i n d e p e n d -
e n t , n o o n e c a n b e p u t o u t o f this e s t a t e , and s u b j e c t e d t o the
political power of another, w i t h o u t his c o n s e n t . . . . ”

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RULERS OF E V I L

T h e personal library o f t h e m a i n a u t h o r o f t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f
I n d e p e n d e n c e , T h o m a s Jefferson, c o n t a i n e d a c o p y of Patriarcha,
and also a h a n d s o m e folio of four h u n d r e d n i n e t y - s e v e n pages of
the discourses of A l g e r n o n Sidney. “If Jefferson read but the open-
ing pages of S i d n e y ’ s and Filmer’s b o o k s , ” B e l l a r m i n i a n s c h o l a r
John C l e m e n t Rager wrote in 1926,

he had the principles of democracy as propounded by Bel-


larmine, in a nutshell. It is more than likely, however, that the
curiosity of Jefferson ... prompted [him] to look more deeply into
the original writings of this Catholic Schoolman.
[He] had not far to go. In the library of Princeton Universi-
ty there was a copy of Cardinal Bellarmine’s works. James Madi-
son, a member of the committee which framed the Virginia
Declaration of Rights, was a graduate of Princeton. Probably he
read Bellarmine, for at this period of his life he read everything
he could lay his hands on and was deeply versed in religious con-
troversy.
It might be remarked that several members of the commit-
tee which drew up the [Virginia] Declaration of Rights had been
educated in England, where the writings of Bellarmine were not
unpopular even among those who were most inimical to his
faith.

T h e operative p h i l o s o p h y o f the D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e
is easily traceable to Bellarminian liberation theology:

Cardinal Bellarmine Declaration of Independence

“Political power emanates from “The people are endowed by their


God. Government was introduced Creator with certain inalienable
by divine law, but the divine law rights.”
has given this power to no particu-
lar man.”

“Society must have power to pro- “To secure these rights, govern-
tect and preserve itself.” ments are instituted among men.”

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CHAPTER 14 T H E D O G M A O F INDEPENDENCE

Cardinal Bellarmine Declaration of Independence

“The people themselves, immedi- “Governments are instituted


ately and directly, hold the politi- among men, deriving their just
cal power.” powers from the consent of the
governed.”

“All men are born naturally free “All men are created equal.”
and equal.”

“For legitimate reason the people “Whenever any form of govern-


can change the government to an ment becomes destructive of these
aristocracy or a democracy or vice ends, it is the Right of the People
versa.” to alter or abolish it, and to insti-
tute a new goverment.”

Interestingly, Patriarcha ( 1 6 8 0 ) was n o t published until t w e n -


t y - e i g h t years after its a u t h o r Sir R o b e r t Filmer’s d e a t h . It arrived
in an era of d w i n d l i n g hopes for D i v i n e R i g h t , the c o n c e p t h a v i n g
b e e n thoroughly discredited w h e n K i n g C h a r l e s I was b e h e a d e d in
1625.
C o u l d it be t h a t Patriarcha was e d i t e d or g h o s t - w r i t t e n by
Jesuits a t t h e c o m m a n d o f S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l J o h n Paul O l i v a
( 1 6 6 1 — 1 6 8 1 ) ? T h e purpose w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o i n d u c e t h e e n e -
mies o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m t o f o l l o w B e l l a r m i n e b y h a v i n g B e l -
l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n attacked by a loser, Filmer, t h e disgraced
c h a m p i o n of a lost P r o t e s t a n t cause. T h e idea is n o t far-fetched
w h e n o n e considers actual o u t c o m e . For Patriarcha did in fact pro-
duce the theory of r e v o l u t i o n that impelled the colonists to create
a n a t i o n subservient to the black papacy.
But for liberation t h e o l o g y to translate into the v i o l e n c e n e c -
essary to d i v i d e t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g world, E n g l a n d h a d to c o m -
m i t acts of tyranny. H o w this was a c c o m p l i s h e d , despite a dazed
and c o n f u s e d and rather i n n o c u o u s y o u n g k i n g , is t h e subject of
our n e x t chapter.

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RULERS OF E V I L

JOHN STUART, 3RD EARL OF BUTE


(From the portrait by Alan Ramsay.)
Chapter 15

THE MADNESS OF
KING GEORGE III

U
P O N T H E D E A T H in 1732 of Thomas Howard, Eighth Duke
of N o r f o l k and real Founder of A m e r i c a n Freemasonry, the
N o r f o l k title passed to T h o m a s ’ brother Edward. In a curi-
ous way, the N i n t h D u k e of N o r f o l k played a part in the f o u n d i n g
of the U n i t e d States as well, albeit a c a m e o role.
Sun-tzu wrote

Multiply your spies, put them everywhere, in the very Palace


of the enemy Prince; have a list of the principal Officers who are
at his service. Know their first & last names, the number of their
children, their relatives, their friends, their servants. Let noth-
ing happen to them that is not known to you.

Edward, N i n t h D u k e of N o r f o l k , was a regular in the c r o w d of


Frederick W i l l i a m , P r i n c e o f W a l e s , and his Princess, A u g u s t a o f
Saxony. T h e Waleses were party creatures, and an o n - g o i n g disap-

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RULERS OF E V I L

p o i n t m e n t t o the Prince’s father, K i n g G e o r g e I I . T h e k i n g resent-


ed that his son appeared n o t to h a v e inherited his craving for war –
G e o r g e II was t h e last British m o n a r c h to lead his army i n t o bat-
tle, w h i c h he did against t h e S p a n i s h in 1 7 3 9 . G e o r g e despised his
son’s Ignatian entourage. W h e n Frederick W i l l i a m ran up an exor-
b i t a n t tab e n t e r t a i n i n g foreign ambassadors at S t . James’s P a l a c e ,
t h e k i n g c u t his a l l o w a n c e , s h o o e d t h e ambassadors away, and
ordered t h e c o u p l e to m o v e o u t of S t . James’s a n d t a k e up a sim-
pler residency at Leicester House.
I n 1 7 3 8 , A u g u s t a g a v e birth t o a son, G e o r g e W i l l i a m . A t the
age of six t h e c h i l d was p l a c e d u n d e r t h e t u t e l a g e of a Dr.
A y s c o u g h . L i k e t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus, A y s c o u g h did n o t w i s h t h e
head of the C h u r c h of England well. “ H e is chiefly remarkable,”
says Brittanica, “as an adherent of the opposition.” Ayscough’s role
i n history was t o k e e p t h e future k i n g o f E n g l a n d , w h o suffered
e m o t i o n a l l y u n d e r t h e u n g a i n l y squabbles d i v i d i n g f a t h e r a n d
grandfather, virtually illiterate for more t h a n five years.
T h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s was fond o f h o r s e - r a c i n g . O n e a f t e r n o o n
in 1 7 4 7 , so t h e official story goes, a sudden d o w n p o u r of rain c o n -
fined h i m and a h a n d f u l of friends to his t e n t at t h e E g h a m races.
D e t e r m i n e d t o play cards, t h e P r i n c e sent Edward, N i n t h D u k e o f
N o r f o l k , out in t h e rain to find s o m e o n e to m a k e up a whist party.
T h e D u k e returned w i t h a strikingly h a n d s o m e S c o t , J o h n Stuart,
third Earl o f B u t e . “ B u t e i m m e d i a t e l y g a i n e d t h e f a v o u r o f t h e
prince and princess,” says Brittanica, “and b e c a m e the leading per-
s o n a g e a t t h e i r c o u r t . ” W h a t B r i t a n n i c a o m i t s saying, a l o n g w i t h
every other source I could find on this leading character in the for-
m a t i o n o f A n g l o - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s , i s t h a t B u t e , like N o r f o l k ,
was a secret brother of the Lodge. T h i s fact is ascertainable only from
t h e k e y s t o n e o f t h e a r c h o v e r Bute’s m a u s o l e u m i n S t . Mary’s
C e m e t e r y at R o t h e s a y , Isle of B u t e , in t h e F i r t h of C l y d e w e s t of
Glasgow. C a r v e d into that keystone is the familiar M a s o n i c disem-
bodied all-seeing eye.
B o r n i n 1 7 1 3 , e d u c a t e d a t E t o n , B u t e was e l e c t e d i n 1 7 3 7 t o
t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e e r a g e for S c o t l a n d . H e n e v e r o p e n e d his
m o u t h i n d e b a t e . W h e n his bid for r e - e l e c t i o n failed, h e returned

136
CHAPTER 15 T H E M A D N E S S O F K I N G G E O R G E III

to the family estate on the Isle of Bute, w h o s e remarkably temper-


ate c l i m a t e p r o d u c e s a lush foliage, e v e n p a l m trees. T h e r e he
indulged a passion for b o t a n y that c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d to this day
in the v e r d a n t grounds at M o u n t Rothesay. In 1 7 4 5 , Bute sudden-
ly left R o t h e s a y and t o o k up residence in L o n d o n . T h e year 1 7 4 5
is distinguished by the so-called Jacobite R e b e l l i o n , a n o t h e r w o n -
drous S u n - t z u a n ruse in w h i c h a p p a r e n t defeat for t h e S o c i e t y of
Jesus masked a h i d d e n victory.
T h e Jacobite R e b e l l i o n aimed t o restore R o m a n C a t h o l i c rule
o v e r E n g l a n d by deposing G e o r g e II and p l a c i n g James II’s grand-
son C h a r l e s Stuart, better k n o w n as B o n n i e Prince C h a r l i e , on the
throne. However, w h e n Charlie marched on L o n d o n with a band
o f S c o t t i s h d e v o t e e s , n o C a t h o l i c p o l i t i c i a n o f any p r o m i n e n c e
would desert G e o r g e II. T h e R e b e l l i o n was forced t o abort. C h a r -
lie escaped to France and the and the S c o t s were massacred. C l e a r -
ly, this was a C a t h o l i c disaster. Or was it? S u c h e x t e n s i v e C a t h o l i c
support for a P r o t e s t a n t k i n g assured E n g l a n d t h a t t h e m o n a r c h y
w o u l d b e f o r e v e r P r o t e s t a n t . A C a t h o l i c E n g l a n d was n o w a n
impossible d r e a m . T h e Jesuits c o u l d g i v e up. E n g l i s h m e n c o u l d
n o w r e l a x w i t h t h e m i n t h e i r midst, just a s Jesuits c o u l d n o w g o
about t h e i r business w i t h o u t c a u s i n g official alarm. T h e J a c o b i t e
R e b e l l i o n m a d e E n g l a n d a t l a s t . . . safe for t h e b l a c k papacy. T h e
Jesuits secured a n e w c o v e r by b l o w i n g their c o v e r – “ b l o w n c o v e r
as cover” in the parlance of C I A . T h e S u n - T z u a n G e n e r a l wins
w h a t e v e r the circumstances.

W H E N B u t e j o i n e d t h e c o u r t o f t h e P r i n c e and Princess o f
W a l e s , t h e i r son G e o r g e W i l l i a m was a n e m o t i o n a l basket
case. B u t e l a v i s h e d a t t e n t i o n o n t h e lad, w o n his trust and a d m i -
ration, b e c a m e his mentor. Indeed, Bute m a d e h i m s e l f so d e l i g h t -
fully indispensable around Leicester House that the Prince
appointed h i m , in 1 7 5 0 , to the most intimate position on his staff,
Lord of t h e B e d c h a m b e r . N o t h i n g h a p p e n e d in the life of t h e t w o
heirs to t h e t h r o n e of E n g l a n d t h a t was n o t privy to a m a n u n d e r
o b e d i e n c e to the U n k n o w n Superior.
But in the year f o l l o w i n g Bute’s a p p o i n t m e n t , t h e P r i n c e died

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RULERS OF E V I L

mysteriously at the age of forty-four. Rumors that Bute was respon-


sible c i r c u l a t e d for a w h i l e and e v a p o r a t e d . H o w e v e r , gossip link-
ing Bute r o m a n t i c a l l y t o Princess A u g u s t a n e v e r w e n t away, e v e n
t h o u g h he was husband to a d e v o t e d wife and happy family.
G e o r g e II, surprisingly d e s o l a t e o v e r t h e Prince’s u n t i m e l y
d e a t h , remained an absurdly stern grandfather to G e o r g e W i l l i a m .
U n t i l his o w n d e a t h in 1 7 6 0 , G e o r g e II grew increasingly m e l a n -
c h o l i c and d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n ruling. P a r l i a m e n t g a i n e d s t r e n g t h .
B u t e a c t e d the surrogate father to t h e future k i n g . C a r i n g for t h e
gardens at L e i c e s t e r H o u s e , he inspired t h e boy w i t h a lifelong
interest in botany. He e n c o u r a g e d h i m to patronize t h e arts – the
composer H a n d e l , t h o u g h blind, was still superintending perform-
ances of his works at t h e royal b e h e s t . H o w e v e r , Bute did little to
allay George’s t o r m e n t i n g fears of inadequacy. R e i n f o r c i n g himself
as the ideal of c o n d u c t , the S c o t n o u r i s h e d t h e boy’s self-distrust,
w h i c h would b e c o m e the most p r o m i n e n t feature of his maturity.
S u c h was t h e c o n t e x t o f E n g l i s h p o w e r w h e n L o r e n z o R i c c i
t i p p e d t h e stones i n t h e O h i o v a l l e y t h a t t u m b l e d i n t o a costly
w o r l d war b e t w e e n E n g l a n d and F r a n c e . S i x years i n t o t h e war,
G e o r g e II d i e d at t h e age of s e v e n t y - s e v e n . He left b e h i n d a dis-
united Parliament and a dysfunctional heir barely out of his teens.
G e o r g e W i l l i a m , n o w K i n g G e o r g e III, fearfully turned the British
Empire o v e r t o J o h n S t u a r t . B u t e a c t e d swiftly t o c o n f o r m t o t h e
wishes of his U n k n o w n Superior. He b e g a n by a p p o i n t i n g a more
c o m p l i a n t first lord of the Treasury, the office later to be k n o w n as
P r i m e M i n i s t e r . N e x t , w i t h s e c r e t l y - f u n d e d grants, h e p u r c h a s e d
votes from key members of Parliament widely k n o w n as “the King’s
Friends.” U n d e r t h e n o b l e p r e t e x t o f a c h i e v i n g “ a closer unity o f
t h e B r i t i s h Empire u n d e r P a r l i a m e n t , ” B u t e w h i p p e d t h e King’s
Friends into passing a law to enforce writs of assistance across the
A t l a n t i c . T h e s e w e r e r e v e n u e - r a i s i n g w a r r a n t s issued s u m m a r i l y
u n d e r t h e royal seal r e q u i r i n g a law officer to t a k e possession of
lands w i t h o u t trial, w i t h o u t jury.
O n e does n o t n e e d a d o c t o r a t e i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e t o k n o w
that summary e x p r o p r i a t i o n is a sure way to divide an empire, n o t
u n i t e it. W h e n t h e writs were e n f o r c e d i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s , James

138
C H A P T E R 15 T H E M A D N E S S OF K I N G G E O R G E III

O t i s resigned his A d v o c a t e - G e n e r a l ' s post i n t h e C o u r t o f A d m i -


ralty to p r e a c h against t h e m “ i n a style of oratory,” J o h n A d a m s
would later recall, “ t h a t I h a v e n e v e r heard equalled in this or any
o t h e r c o u n t r y . ” I n July 1 7 7 6 , A d a m s w o u l d d e c l a r e t h a t t h e
e n f o r c e m e n t o f Bute's writs o f assistance i n 1 7 6 1 was “ t h e c o m -
m e n c e m e n t o f this controversy b e t w e e n G r e a t Britain and A m e r i -
ca.” 1

L o r e n z o R i c c i ' s W a r , or t h e M a r i t i m e W a r , or t h e F r e n c h and
I n d i a n W a r s , c a m e t o a n e n d i n 1 7 6 3 . E n g l a n d was t h e a p p a r e n t
v i c t o r . B u t e was sent by his p r o t e g e , G e o r g e III, to n e g o t i a t e a
peace in Paris. Assisted by R o b e r t Petty, Lord S h e l b u r n e , the n o t o -
rious “Jesuit of B e r k e l e y S q u a r e , ” B u t e p e r f e c t e d t h e T r e a t y of
Paris. U n d e r its terms E n g l a n d w o n from F r a n c e all o f C a t h o l i c
Q u e b e c and the region east of the Mississippi, e x c e p t for the island
of N e w O r l e a n s . T h i s was s u c h a great territorial w i n d f a l l for t h e
colonists that N o r t h Carolinians created Bute C o u n t y in the
n o r t h e a s t e r n part o f t h e c o l o n y . 2
H o w e v e r , B u t e restricted t h e
w i n d f a l l b y o r d e r i n g t h e infamous R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 ,
w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d A m e r i c a n s from m o v i n g w e s t o f a line d r a w n
a l o n g t h e crest o f t h e A l l e g h e n y M o u n t a i n s . M o s t c o l o n i s t s
v i e w e d t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n as a s c h e m e to i m p r i s o n t h e m b e t w e e n
the A l l e g h e n i e s and t h e A t l a n t i c . T o purchasers o f w e s t e r n real
estate prior to t h e Treaty, it was legalized theft. T h e c h u r c h g o e r s
saw a papal a d v a n c e : “ W i t h R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m no longer active-
ly persecuted in England, many A m e r i c a n s concluded that the
mother country was about to return to R o m e . ” 3

Prior to Lorenzo Ricci's accession to the black papacy in 1 7 5 8 ,


the colonists had b e e n blissfully loyal to the m o t h e r country. Look-
ing b a c k o n t h e p r e - R i c c i a n years w h i l e testifying before t h e
House of C o m m o n s in 1 7 6 6 , B e n j a m i n Franklin recalled that “ t h e
colonists were g o v e r n e d by E n g l a n d at the e x p e n s e o n l y of a little
p e n , ink, and paper; t h e y were led by a thread.” Yet, w i t h t h e rise
of R i c c i , as if in preparation for the absurdities of Bute, radical pro-
pagandists began appearing t h r o u g h o u t the colonies - C h r i s t o p h e r
Gadsden in South Carolina, Cornelius Harnett in North Caroli-
na, Patrick Henry and T h o m a s Jefferson in Virginia, and, in P e n n -

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RULERS OF E V I L

s y l v a n i a , C h a r l e s T h o m s o n . T h e d e a n o f all these p r o p a g a n d i s t s
was S a m u e l A d a m s , the c e l e b r a t e d “Father o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e v -
o l u t i o n ” and Freemasonry’s “ d o m i n a n t figure in t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n
of the B o s t o n artisans and inland t o w n s . ” J o h n A d a m s , in a letter
4

dated February 9, 1 8 1 9 , framed his cousin Sam’s political activism


w i t h i n exactly the s e v e n t e e n years of Lorenzo Ricci’s generalate:

Samuel Adams, to my certain knowledge, from 1758 to


1775, that is, for seventeen years, made it his constant rule to
watch the rise of every brilliant genius, to seek his acquaintance,
to court his friendship, to cultivate his natural feelings in favor
of his native country, to warn him against the hostile designs of
Great Britain, and to fix his affections and reflections on the side
of his native country.

T h u s , w e l l before t h e a d v e n t o f m u c h t o rebel against – w e l l


before Bute’s writs of assistance a n d t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n – a
p r o p a g a n d a o f A m e r i c a n r e b e l l i o n was b e i n g o r g a n i z e d . A t the
same t i m e , Dr. F r a n k l i n p u t t o g e t h e r t h e m e a n s o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g
it. He streamlined the c o l o n i a l postal system to flow s m o o t h l y and
efficiently from southern Virginia through eastern N e w England.
On the d i p l o m a t i c front, England’s future war-making capabil-
ity was s t u n t e d by t h e Paris n e g o t i a t i o n s of B u t e a n d S h e l b u r n e ,
w h i c h isolated E n g l a n d from a n y possibility o f f o r m i n g helpful
European alliances. T h i s , in 1 7 6 3 , was of negligible i m p o r t a n c e to
a n y o n e but the f o r e k n o w i n g and o m n i s c i e n t Lorenzo R i c c i . W h e n
the hour c a m e for A m e r i c a to revolt for i n d e p e n d e n c e , and no one
but Ricci k n e w w h e n that hour would come, England had to be
friendlessly alone.
H a v i n g w e a k e n e d England and stimulated the production of
hostile, divisive rhetoric in A m e r i c a , Bute resigned from public life
a very unpopular m a n . But the king’s m e n t o r was n o t yet finished.
From the shadows, Bute h a n d p i c k e d a n e w Prime Minister, G e o r g e
G r e n v i l l e . G r e n v i l l e made a broad show of refusing to accept office
unless t h e k i n g p r o m i s e d n e v e r a g a i n to e m p l o y B u t e in office or
seek his c o u n s e l . T h e k i n g promised. P l e d g i n g t o g i v e the British
Empire a t h o r o u g h o v e r h a u l i n g , G r e n v i l l e t h e n p r o c e e d e d ( w i t h

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CHAPTER 15 T H E M A D N E S S O F K I N G G E O R G E III

Bute’s secret c o u n s e l and m o r e m o n e y grants from t h e King’s


Friends) to create d y n a m i c situations that accelerated Britain and
the colonies toward divorce.
D u t i e s w e r e i n c r e a s e d o n c o l o n i a l imports, justified b y t h e
n o t i o n t h a t t h e c o l o n i e s should c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r fair share to the
increased e x p e n s e s o f r u n n i n g a n E m p i r e m u c h e x p a n d e d b y t h e
Treaty o f Paris. H i g h e r duties h e i g h t e n e d s m u g g l i n g a c t i v i t i e s ,
w h i c h in turn increased the admiralty caseload. A m e r i c a n s b e g a n
sniffing tyranny in the breeze.
G r e n v i l l e ’ s n e w S u g a r and M o l a s s e s A c t e n f o r c e d ruinous
duties o n foreign staples necessary for r u m - m a k i n g . T h e A c t
reduced imports of sugar and molasses from t h e F r e n c h , S p a n i s h ,
and D u t c h W e s t Indies, w h i c h i n turn greatly r e d u c e d t h e m e a t ,
fish, flour, horses a n d l u m b e r w h i c h t h e c o l o n i e s c o u l d e x p o r t t o
the islands. T h i s c a u s e d a slump in c o l o n i a l p r o d u c t i o n . Large
debts w h i c h colonists o w e d to their British creditors for furniture,
c l o t h i n g , ironware, pottery, jewelry, and m a n y other articles, w e n t
unpaid. M e r c h a n t s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t P a r l i a m e n t was k i l l i n g t h e
goose t h a t laid t h e g o l d e n egg. Parliament’s strange response was
to prohibit the colonies from issuing paper currency to supply their
lack of gold and silver. G e o r g e G r e n v i l l e did, h o w e v e r , i n v i t e the
fuming colonists to propose suggestions for h o w they w o u l d like to
be taxed. W h e n the colonists refused to dignify the i n v i t a t i o n w i t h
a response, P a r l i a m e n t in M a r c h 1 7 6 5 passed, w i t h o u t d e b a t e or
opposition, an e v e n more infuriating measure.
T h e S t a m p A c t required t h e p u r c h a s i n g and f i x i n g o f stamps
to all c o l o n i a l deeds, leases, bills of sale, p a m p h l e t s , n e w s p a p e r s ,
advertisements, mortgages, wills, and c o n t r a c t s . If duties on sugar
and molasses could be considered part of the regulation of the Em-
pire’s trade, t h e S t a m p A c t was a t a x l e v i e d by a b o d y t h o u s a n d s
of miles away for t h e sole purpose of raising a r e v e n u e . It affected
all classes of c o l o n i s t . N e v e r before h a d P a r l i a m e n t dared to im-
pose s u c h a t a x . W h e r e a s t h e duty on f o r e i g n molasses or anti-
smuggling measures were felt o n l y by t h e great m e r c h a n t s in N e w
York, Boston, Philadelphia, or C h a r l e s t o n , the S t a m p A c t affected
a wider public. It added t h e price of a stamp to t h e lawyer’s bill of

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e v e r y c o l o n i s t s e l l i n g a h o r s e , m a k i n g a w i l l , or m o r t g a g i n g a
h o u s e . T h e price o f e v e r y n e w s p a p e r was i n c r e a s e d b y t h e stated
value of the stamp attached to it.
In Massachusetts, “Britannus Americanus,” one of Sam
A d a m s ’ more t h a n t w e n t y p s e u d o n y m s , c h a r g e d t h a t it was as
absurd for P a r l i a m e n t to t a x t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e as it w o u l d be
for an assembly of A m e r i c a n s to tax the people of England. In Vir-
ginia, Patrick Henry cried his slogan “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REP-
RESENTATION!” From the L o n d o n Coffee House in Philadelphia,
C h a r l e s T h o m s o n led a secret club of workers, teachers, merchants
a n d professionals in a d v o c a t i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n and sales of l o c a l
g o o d s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y a n i n t e r c o l o n i a l a g r e e m e n t n o t t o import
goods from Britain.
A m o n t h before the first stamps arrived, S a m A d a m s agitated
Massachusetts to hold a “Stamp A c t Congress,” w h i c h c o n v e n e d
a t N e w Y o r k i n O c t o b e r . T h e C o n g r e s s drew u p a D e c l a r a t i o n o f
Rights and G r i e v a n c e s protesting that the A c t threatened “ t h e lib-
erties of t h e c o l o n i e s . ” By t h e t i m e t h e stamps arrived from E n g -
land in N o v e m b e r , the colonists h a d forced most of the stamp-dis-
tributors t o resign. T h e m e r c h a n t s o f B o s t o n , N e w York, a n d
Philadelphia agreed n o t to import English goods, causing a decline
in trade w i t h G r e a t Britain of about t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t w i t h i n a
year. I n a n address before t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s , B e n j a m i n
Franklin issued his famous warning that if troops should be sent to
t h e c o l o n i e s t o e n f o r c e t h e A c t , t h e y “ w i l l n o t find a r e v o l u t i o n
there but m i g h t very well create one.”
G r e n v i l l e ’ s ministry s u d d e n l y fell t o W i l l i a m P i t t a n d L o r d
R o c k i n g h a m , w h o repealed the S t a m p A c t i n M a r c h . T h e colonies
r e j o i c e d a n d p l e d g e d l o y a l t y t o G e o r g e III. T h e y h a r d l y n o t i c e d
t h a t t h e K i n g ’ s Friends h a d a c c o m p a n i e d t h e r e p e a l w i t h a
D e c l a r a t o r y A c t c l a i m i n g “full p o w e r a n d a u t h o r i t y t o b i n d t h e
c o l o n i e s a n d p e o p l e o f A m e r i c a , subjects o f t h e C r o w n o f G r e a t
Britain, in all cases whatsoever.”
R e g a r d i n g Patrick Henry’s o b j e c t i o n s to unfair t a x a t i o n as “so
m u c h nonsense,” Charles Townshend, C h a n c e l l o r of the Exche-
quer, v o w e d t o get “ p l e n t y o f r e v e n u e from t h e c o l o n i e s . ” I n t h e

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C H A P T E R 15 T H E M A D N E S S OF K I N G G E O R G E III

summer of 1 7 6 7 , he and the King’s Friends passed acts laying duties


on glass, painters’ c o l o r s , red and w h i t e lead, paper, and tea
s h i p p e d t o A m e r i c a . B u t t h e acts p r o d u c e d little r e v e n u e . B y
T o w n s h e n d ’ s o w n e s t i m a t e , m a d e shortly before his p r e m a t u r e
death at forty-two, the British Treasury stood to gain no more than
£40,000. T h e real, c o v e r t , purpose o f t h e A c t s appears t o h a v e
b e e n n o t to get “plenty of revenue,” but to stimulate the rebellious
i n v e s t m e n t of c o l o n i a l capital in local manufacturing.
In M a r c h of 1 7 7 0 , a small c r o w d of jeering B o s t o n i a n s pelted
a few British redcoats w i t h snowballs. T h e angry redcoats fired into
the crowd, killing four m e n , w o u n d i n g several more. T h e t o w n and
s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e r e a c t e d i n rage t o t h e B o s t o n M a s s a c r e .
S a m u e l A d a m s led his disciples t o t h e m a n s i o n o f a c t i n g G o v e r -
n o r T h o m a s H u t c h i n s o n and d e m a n d e d t h e i m m e d i a t e d e p o r t a -
tion of the redcoats, w h o wisely retreated to C a s t l e W i l l i a m on the
harbor. W h e n n e w s o f t h e Massacre r e a c h e d E n g l a n d , t h e King’s
Friends scolded Hutchinson’s “cowardly surrender to S a m Adams’s
regiments.” T h e n c e f o r t h , e a c h anniversary of the B o s t o n Massacre
b e c a m e an occasion for A d a m s and others to make more blistering
orations against British tyranny in favor of i n d e p e n d e n c e .
In 1770, Lord N o r t h , the new Prime Minister, declared the
T o w n s h e n d A c t s were costing more to collect than the revenue
was r e t u r n i n g to t h e Treasury. N o r t h secured t h e repeal of all the
T o w n s h e n d d u t i e s , e x c e p t a t a x on t e a of t h r e e p e n c e a p o u n d to
prove P a r l i a m e n t had authority t o tax the c o l o n i e s . T h e colonists
w e r e n ’ t affected by this m i n i s c u l e tax, since most of their tea was
smuggled in from H o l l a n d anyway. Feelings toward England turned
amicable o n c e again, as c o l o n i a l m e r c h a n t s increased orders from
British firms from £ 1 , 3 3 6 , 1 2 2 in 1 7 6 9 to £4,200,000. S a m A d a m s ,
P a t r i c k Henry, C h a r l e s T h o m s o n and T h o m a s Jefferson t o o k
a d v a n t a g e of the lull to agitate. O b s e r v i n g the first anniversary of
the B o s t o n Massacre o n M a r c h 5 , 1 7 7 1 , A d a m s c a l l e d for a c t i o n
and solidarity:

It is high time for the people of this country explicitly to


declare whether they will be Freemen or Slaves. Let it be the

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topic of conversation in every social Club. Let every Town


assemble. Let Associations & Combinations be everywhere set
up to consult and recover our just Rights. 5

B e t w e e n 1 7 7 0 and 1 7 7 3 , a b o u t t h e o n l y t r o u b l e s o m e c o n -
frontations were those b e t w e e n British r e v e n u e vessels and smug-
glers. T h e c o l o n i e s b e g a n p r o d u c i n g more. Trade was so brisk that
m e r c h a n t s , formerly the c h i e f o p p o n e n t s of British rule, h a d little
to protest. T h e y turned their full a t t e n t i o n back to business.
A n d t h e n L o r e n z o R i c c i n u d g e d his w e i g h t i e s t boulders t o
date, the Religious R i g h t , the Protestant churchgoers. H o w he did
this is the subject of our n e x t chapter.

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JOHN CARROLL, BISHOP OF BALTIMORE


AND FOUNDER OF GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY.
(From the portrait by Gilbert Stuart)
Chapter 16

TWEAKING
THE RELIGIOUS RIGHT

A
s T H E F U R O R o v e r t h e S t a m p A c t was c o o l i n g d o w n , t h e
Jesuits of M a r y l a n d and P e n n s y l v a n i a d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the
director of C a t h o l i c operations in the British colonies,
B i s h o p R i c h a r d C h a l l o n e r , h a d asked R o m e t o ordain a n A m e r i -
c a n bishop.
T h e A m e r i c a n Jesuits disliked t h e idea. F a t h e r F e r d i n a n d
S t e i n m a y e r (alias Farmer) of N e w York cautioned Bishop C h a l l o n -
er, “It is i n c r e d i b l e h o w h a t e f u l to n o n - C a t h o l i c s in all parts of
A m e r i c a is the very n a m e of bishop.” Still, in C h a l l o n e r ’ s view, an
A m e r i c a n b i s h o p w o u l d establish b e t t e r order i n t h e c o l o n i e s ,
restore discipline, and m a k e it possible for c o l o n i a l C a t h o l i c s to be
c o n f i r m e d . S t e i n m a y e r a n d his A m e r i c a n b r e t h r e n strenuously
o p p o s e d t h e idea o n grounds t h a t i t w o u l d o n l y m a k e life a m o n g
Protestants more difficult for C a t h o l i c s . T h e y collected lay support
for their views and asked C h a l l o n e r himself to forward the protests
to R o m e , w h i c h he declined to do, l e a v i n g it to the Jesuits to state
their o w n case. 1

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R o m e n e v e r replied t o C h a l l o n e r ’ s p e t i t i o n for a n A m e r i c a n
b i s h o p . T h e b i s h o p later d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n , m a d e i n a
letter to C a r d i n a l S p i n e l l i and entered into the post in 1 7 6 4 , never
left England. In Bishop Challoner’s words, “it was opened, and stopt
on this side of the water.” 2

W h o e v e r o p e n e d C h a l l o n e r ’ s letter must h a v e passed its c o n -


tents o n t o t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . For n o s o o n e r h a d C h a l l o n e r
p o s t e d his letter t h a n t h e Anglican B i s h o p o f L o n d o n , w h o h a d
thus far b e e n c o n t e n t to rule his A m e r i c a n subjects from L o n d o n ,
asked the British c a b i n e t to permit the Church of England to create
a n A m e r i c a n b i s h o p t o “ a t t e n d t h e sheperdless f l o c k i n t h e
c o l o n i e s . ” W h e n word o f this request r e a c h e d the c o l o n i e s , w h i c h
were mostly Protestant but less t h a n fifteen percent A n g l i c a n , the 3

r e a c t i o n must h a v e elated L o r e n z o R i c c i . T h e sons and daughters


o f i m m i g r a n t s w h o h a d b r a v e d w i l d I n d i a n s and r a t t l e s n a k e s t o
escape religious prelates t o o k the Bishop’s p e t i t i o n to be the worst
act of t y r a n n y yet, t h e most pressing cause for alarm, t h e n u m b e r
one thing to revolt against.
T h e A m e r i c a n bishop scare was w h i p p e d up in the n o n - A n g l i -
c a n Protestant c h u r c h pulpit – the era’s most electrifying c o m m u -
n i c a t i o n s m e d i u m . Presbyterian and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t preachers,
representing nearly fifty percent of the c h u r c h e d colonists, charged
t h a t a n A m e r i c a n bishop w o u l d b e “ a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l S t a m p A c t ”
w h i c h w o u l d strip A m e r i c a n s of all t h e i r liberties, c i v i l as w e l l as
religious, and “if s u b m i t t e d to w i l l at l e n g t h grind us to p o w d e r . ” 4

T h e y w a r n e d t h a t a n A m e r i c a n bishop w o u l d d o m i n a t e the c o l o -
nial governors and councils, strengthen the position of the colo-
n i a l oligarchy, and d r i v e dissenters from p o l i t i c a l life w i t h a Test
A c t requiring officials t o state t h e i r religious p r e f e r e n c e . H a v i n g
b r o u g h t t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t s u n d e r his c o n t r o l , t h e A m e r i -
c a n b i s h o p w o u l d t h e n establish t h e C h u r c h o f R o m e i n all t h e
colonies and impose taxes for the support of its hierarchy. A letter
in t h e New York Gazette or Weekly Post Boy for M a r c h 1 4 , 1 7 6 8
c h a r g e d t h a t a n A m e r i c a n b i s h o p w o u l d “ i n t r o d u c e a system o f
e p i s c o p a l p a l a c e s , o f p o n t i f i c a l r e v e n u e s , o f spiritual courts and
all t h e p o m p , grandeur, luxury, and regalia o f a n A m e r i c a n L a m -
b e t h ” – L a m b e t h Palace b e i n g the residence of the A r c h b i s h o p of

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CHAPTER 16 T W E A K I N G T H E RELIGIOUS R I G H T

Canterbury, h e a d o f all E n g l a n d after the royal family. A n A m e r i -


c a n b i s h o p w o u l d transform A m e r i c a n s i n t o a p e o p l e “ c o m p e l l e d
to fall u p o n their k n e e s in the streets a n d adore the papal miter as
the A p o s t o l i c Tyrant rides by in his gilded equipage.”
Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, Dudleian Lecturer at Harvard,
i n v e i g h e d against “ P o p i s h I d o l a t r y ” in a famous ( a n d arguably
prophetic) sermon by that title, saying,

Let the bishops get their foot in the stirrup, and their beast,
the laity, will prance and flounce about to no purpose. Bishops
will prove to be the Trojan horse by which Popery will subjugate
North America.

T h e A m e r i c a n b i s h o p scare did more t o f o m e n t t h e c o l o n i s t s


to r e v o l t , a n d e v e n t u a l l y raised more soldiery, t h a n all t h e tyran-
n i c a l writs a n d t a x s c h e m e s c o m b i n e d . I m m e d i a t e l y , i t c r e a t e d
permanent Committees of Correspondence, an intercolonial
o r g a n i z a t i o n of c h u r c h e s , a n d a “ S o c i e t y of D i s s e n t e r s ” based in
N e w York. T h e s e organizations brought all opposed t o t h e C h u r c h
of England into correspondence with one another, whether in
A m e r i c a , G r e a t B r i t a i n , o r I r e l a n d . T h e specter o f a n A m e r i c a n
5

bishop g a v e t h e c o l o n i a l patriots an almost i n e x h a u s t i b l e fund of


p r o p a g a n d a to e m p l o y against any form of p e r c e i v e d t y r a n n y at
h o m e and abroad. It served, in J o n a t h a n Boucher’s words, “to keep
the p u b l i c m i n d in a state of f e r m e n t a n d e f f e r v e s c e n c e ; to m a k e
the p e o p l e jealous and suspicious of all measures n o t b r o u g h t for-
ward by [ p o p u l a r l y - a p p r o v e d leaders]; and a b o v e all, to train and
habituate the people to opposition.” 6

T h e fact t h a t A m e r i c a n s w e r e t r a i n e d and h a b i t u a t e d t o
oppose t h e British C r o w n a n d t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d n o t b y
R o m a n C a t h o l i c s but b y P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h m e n is, t o m y m i n d ,
proof of the S u n - T z u a n ingenuity of L o r e n z o R i c c i . S u n - T z u said:
“ T h e G e n e r a l will k n o w h o w t o s h a p e a t w i l l , n o t o n l y t h e army
he is c o m m a n d i n g but also that of his enemies.” W h i l e Ricci’s o w n
army was appearing in t h e world’s o p i n i o n markets to be a b a n d of
v i c i o u s dolts slipping d o w n i n t o t h e i r w e l l - d e s e r v e d o b l i v i o n , a
small elite corps of indispensibles, some n e i t h e r k n o w i n g nor car-

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ing w h o t h e i r true boss was, w e r e f a c i l i t a t i n g E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g


Protestant c h u r c h g o e r s i n systematically a n n i h i l a t i n g o n e a n o t h -
er! Lorenzo Ricci’s orchestration h a d reached such fullness that he
could n o w soliloquize Iago’s boast in Othello: “ N o w , w h e t h e r he kill
C a s s i o o r C a s s i o h i m , o r e a c h d o k i l l t h e other, e v e r y w a y m a k e s
my gain.”
B a c k i n the n i n e t e e n - s i x t i e s and seventies, C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n
Jesuits designed posters to m o t i v a t e c a m p e s i n o s to o v e r t h r o w cor-
rupt p o l i t i c i a n s . T h e posters for this B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n t h e -
ology depicted an angry Jesus C h r i s t in the image of C h e G u e v a r a ,
s w a t h e d in fatigues, draped in b u l l e t - b e l t s , h o l d i n g a s u b m a c h i n e
gun at the ready, a R a m b o Jesus, a Jesus whose Sacred Heart called
for social a c t i o n that included killing. T h e A m e r i c a n bishop scare
aroused the same d y n a m i c in t h e 1770’s. W h a t was c o n s i d e r e d by
m a n y t o b e t h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l s e r m o n o n t h e subject was
p r e a c h e d t o Boston’s A n c i e n t and H o n o r a b l e A r t i l l e r y C o m p a n y
b y R e v . J o n a t h a n M a y h e w ’ s successor a t H a r v a r d , R e v . S i m e o n
H o w a r d . S i m e o n H o w a r d r e c e i v e d his early p r e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e
in N o v a S c o t i a – or A c a d i a , as the F r e n c h settlers called it. He ex-
p e r i e n c e d first-hand t h e u p r o o t i n g and e x p u l s i o n , by B r i t i s h sol-
diers, o f s o m e t h r e e t h o u s a n d F r e n c h C a t h o l i c A c a d i a n s , a l o n g
w i t h t h e i r Jesuit priests. C r u e l l y , o f t e n v i o l e n t l y , t h e A c a d i a n s
w e r e forced t o e m i g r a t e t o v a r i o u s A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s , w i t h n o
c o m p e n s a t i o n for property or livestock. (Longfellow memorialized
the e v e n t in Evangeline).
W i t h a casuistry t h a t w o u l d h a v e d e l i g h t e d C a r d i n a l B e l -
larmine, Rev. Howard’s famous A r t i l l e r y C o m p a n y sermon o p e n l y
a d v o c a t e d the use of v i o l e n c e against a p o l i t i c a l tyrant. O u r duty
to d e f e n d p e r s o n a l liberty and property, he argued, is stated in
S c r i p t u r e at G a l a t i a n s 5:1 – “ S t a n d fast t h e r e f o r e in t h e liberty
w h e r e w i t h C h r i s t h a t h m a d e u s free.” True, R e v . H o w a r d a d m i t -
ted, C h r i s t requires us to “resist n o t e v i l – l o v e your e n e m i e s , do
good t o t h e m that h a t e you” ( M a t t h e w 5 ) , and “recompense t o n o
m a n e v i l for e v i l – a v e n g e n o t y o u r s e l v e s ” ( R o m a n s 1 2 , 1 7 , 1 9 ) .
B u t these precepts apply only to cases of “small injuries,” H o w a r d
said, n o t large ones, such as tyranny.

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N o r , said R e v . H o w a r d , s h o u l d w e fully a c c e p t C h r i s t ’ s c o m -
m a n d m e n t s o n property. “ L o v e n o t the world, nor the things that
are in the w o r l d ” (John 2:5), and “Lay n o t up for yourselves treas-
ure o n earth” ( M a t t h e w 6 : 1 9 ) , and “ G i v e t o h i m that asketh t h e e ,
and from h i m t h a t w o u l d b o r r o w o f t h e e , turn n o t t h o u a w a y ”
( M a t t h e w 5:42) – s u c h p r e c e p t s as t h e s e , R e v . H o w a r d said, are
“indefinite expressions” w h i c h “we h a v e a right to limit.”
N o w , t h e d e f e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of l e t h a l force is r e a s o n a b l e ,
and n o b l e , a n d p a t r i o t i c . B u t it is n o t r e c o m m e n d e d by Jesus
C h r i s t . T h e Jesus of the Scriptures c a u t i o n s t h a t life by the sword
m e a n s d e a t h by t h e sword. It is R o m e , n o t Jesus, t h a t c o m m a n d s
the use of lethal force – R o m e , whose natural-law society was built
on t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l to risk his o w n life in k i l l i n g
t o preserve t h e R e l i g i o u s S t a t e . A n d i t was R o m e t h a t S i m e o n
H o w a r d b e s e e c h e d his a u d i e n c e t o e m u l a t e : “ R o m e , w h o rose t o
be mistress of t h e w o r l d by an army c o m p o s e d of m e n of property
and worth.”
A d e c a d e after t h e A m e r i c a n b i s h o p scare h a d b r o k e n out,
thousands of A m e r i c a n Protestant and C a t h o l i c churchgoers
b e g a n k i l l i n g and b e i n g killed t o w i n T h e W a r T h a t W o u l d K e e p
A n g l i c a n Bishops O u t o f A m e r i c a . A n d they w o n this war. But the
utterly stupefying o u t c o m e o f t h e i r v i c t o r y was t h a t n o b i s h o p s
were kept out of A m e r i c a : t w o bishops were brought into A m e r i c a ,
an A n g l i c a n and a R o m a n C a t h o l i c !
T h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c , o f course, was J o h n C a r r o l l . T h i s Jesuit
son o f M a r y l a n d was c o n s e c r a t e d B i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e o n A u g u s t
15, 1 7 9 0 , in the c h a p e l of L u l w o r t h , a castle set h i g h on the Dorset
coast o f E n g l a n d o w n e d b y t h e W e l d s , a p r o m i n e n t R o m a n
C a t h o l i c family. L u l w o r t h ’ s upper “ R e d R o o m ” l o o k s t o t h e east
u p o n a c o m m a n d i n g v i e w o f t h e estate’s l o n g e n t r a n c e m e a d o w
and to the south u p o n a famous smugglers’ c o v e in the distance. A
frequent visitor to L u l w o r t h C a s t l e , and h o n o r e d guest in its R e d
R o o m , I am told, was K i n g G e o r g e III.
Bishop C a r r o l l b e c a m e the H o l y See’s direct representative not
just in B a l t i m o r e but t h r o u g h o u t t h e U . S . T h i s fact was v a l i d a t e d
i n 1 7 9 8 b y Judge A d d i s o n , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u r t o f C o m m o n

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Pleas of the Fifth C i r c u i t of P e n n s y l v a n i a in the case of Fromm vs.


C a r r o l l . F r o m m was a r e c a l c i t r a n t G e r m a n F r a n c i s c a n w h o w a n t -
e d t o establish his o w n G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g , l a i t y - o w n e d parish.
A d d i s o n ruled t h a t “ t h e B i s h o p o f B a l t i m o r e has sole e p i s c o p a l
a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and
w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y from h i m n o C a t h o l i c priest c a n e x e r c i s e any
pastoral f u n c t i o n o v e r any c o n g r e g a t i o n w i t h i n t h e United
S t a t e s . ” F r o m m was e x c o m m u n i c a t e d and h e l d up as an e x a m p l e
o f w h a t h a p p e n s t o rebels against w h o l e s o m e C h u r c h authority.
Addison’s use of the term “ C a t h o l i c C h u r c h of the U n i t e d States”
is an interesting judicial n o t i c e t h a t Carroll’s o r d i n a t i o n institut-
ed, for all p r a c t i c a l purposes, a secular c h u r c h ruled by t h e b l a c k
papacy. E m i n e n t C a t h o l i c historian T h o m a s O ’ G o r m a n concurred
in 1 8 9 5 , o b s e r v i n g t h a t A m e r i c a n C a t h o l i c i s m was, “ i n its i n c e p -
tion, wholly a Jesuit affair and [has] largely remained s o . ” 7

A m e r i c a ’ s first A n g l i c a n b i s h o p , o r d a i n e d i n 1 7 8 4 , was R e v .
S a m u e l S e a b u r y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . R e v . S e a b u r y was b o t h a H i g h
C h u r c h m a n and a Freemason. To a v o i d the political repercussions
8

of s w e a r i n g a l l e g i a n c e to t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d so s o o n after
1 7 7 6 , S e a b u r y was c o n s e c r a t e d i n N o v e m b e r 1 7 8 4 a t A b e r d e e n ,
S c o t l a n d . Of critical importance to R o m e was that the three bish-
ops c o n s e c r a t i n g S e a b u r y w e r e all “ n o n j u r i n g ” b i s h o p s . “ N o n j u r -
i n g ” d e s c r i b e d t h e class o f C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s t h a t s t o o d i n the
succession of “Jacobite” clergy w h o , remaining loyal to K i n g James
II after his a b d i c a t i o n in 1 6 8 9 , h a d refused to take a loyalty o a t h
to James’ successors – his daughter, M a r y S t u a r t , and son-in-law,
W i l l i a m o f O r a n g e , b o t h P r o t e s t a n t s . A m e r i c a ’ s first P r o t e s t a n t
9

b i s h o p , like his R o m a n C a t h o l i c c o u n t e r p a r t , o w e d a l l e g i a n c e t o
Rome.
T h i s obscure fact is c o m m e m o r a t e d in o n e of L o n d o n ’ s most
heavily-trafficked and world-famous locations. T h e spacious grassy
lawns on either side of the great stairway leading up to the N a t i o n -
al Portrait G a l l e r y facing Trafalgar Square are i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t for
their bronze statuary, o n e p i e c e a l o n e p l a c e d at the c e n t e r of e a c h
l a w n . O n t h e n o r t h l a w n stands James II, c r o w n e d w i t h imperial
laurel, w e a r i n g t h e armor of Julius Caesar. ( A n elderly British Je-

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suit w i t h a passion for offbeat historical detail confided to me t h a t


James l o v e d t o g o i n C a e s a r e a n drag.) O n t h e s o u t h l a w n stands
t h e c e l e b r a t e d H o u d o n figure of... George Washington, garbed in
period attire, l e a n i n g for support u p o n a h u g e b u n d l e of rods from
w h i c h projects the h e a d of an axe – the fasces, a n c i e n t e m b l e m of
R o m a n legal a u t h o r i t y ! W h e n B i s h o p S e a b u r y u n i t e d his episco-
pate w i t h t h e o t h e r t w o A n g l i c a n c o m m u n i o n s i n A m e r i c a i n
1 7 8 9 , t h e P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l C h u r c h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was
born. G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n was a m e m b e r of this C h u r c h . T h e L o n -
d o n statuary are e x p l a i n i n g t h e l i t t l e - k n o w n h i s t o r i c a l fact t h a t
James II’s R o m a n C a t h o l i c rulership of t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p e o -
ple was resumed in t h e First President of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l U n i t -
ed States of A m e r i c a . It is a tribute to the p h e n o m e n a l generalate
of Lorenzo R i c c i .
J o h n C a r r o l l spent his final years in Europe h e l p i n g to d e v e l o p
Lorenzo Ricci’s vision of rebellion in A m e r i c a . He m o v e d cau-
tiously, and o f t e n i n c o g n i t o . W h a t few traces h e left b e h i n d are
quite revealing.

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ARCHBISHOP NIKOLAUS VON HONTHEIM (JUSTINIUS FEBRONIUS)


(From a painting in Trier)
Chapter 17

A TIMELY GRAND TOUR

A
M O N G T H E M A N Y British visitors t o R o m e during C l e m e n t
X I V ’ s s w e e t e n i n g toward England in the early 1770’s was a
y o u n g m e m b e r o f a n a n c i e n t r u l i n g family o f D o r s e t and
Somerset counties named Charles Philippe Stourton. 1
Charles
P h i l i p p e was n e p h e w t o t h e D u k e s o f N o r f o l k . W e r e m e m b e r the
N o r f o l k s , T h o m a s and Edward H o w a r d , for t h e i r significant c o n -
tributions to A m e r i c a n independence – T h o m a s , originator of
c o l o n i a l Freemasonry; Edward, c o u p l e r of Lord Bute to t h e future
G e o r g e III.
A r r i v i n g i n R o m e w i t h C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e was h i s professor a t
the Jesuit c o l l e g e i n t h e m e d i e v a l F l e m i s h ( n o w B e l g i a n ) city o f
Bruges, J o h n C a r r o l l . T h e pair w e r e e n j o y i n g a G r a n d T o u r o f
Europe w h i c h had begun in the summer of 1 7 7 1 .
F r o m Bruges t h e y h a d p r o c e e d e d b y carriage d o w n t h r o u g h
A l s a c e - L o r r a i n e to Strasbourg, across t h e R h i n e to B a d e n - B a d e n ,
then upstream to Carlsruhe, Bruschal, Heidelberg, M a n n h e i m ,

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W o r m s , and M a i n z . F r o m M a i n z t h e y m a d e a curious detour o v e r


to Trier, b a c k to M a n n h e i m , t h r o u g h S w a b i a to A u g s b u r g , t h e n to
M u n i c h , I n n s b r u c h , across the I t a l i a n border t o T r e n t , a l o n g the
A d i g e R i v e r t o R o v e r e d o , V e r o n a , M a n t u a , M o d e n a , and Bologna.
T h e y reached R o m e i n the a u t u m n o f 1 7 7 2 .
In R o m e , Lorenzo Ricci appointed Carroll to the position of
Prefect of the Sodality. T h i s title designates, according to the N e w
C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , “ a c h i e f organizer o f l a y m e n for t h e pro-
m o t i o n of some form of social a c t i o n . ” For t h e p r o m o t i o n of w h a t
social a c t i o n , I w o n d e r , m i g h t R i c c i h a v e o r d a i n e d C a r r o l l to or-
ganize, if n o t the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n ?
W h i l e J o h n was i n R o m e w i t h L o r e n z o R i c c i , his c o u s i n
C h a r l e s C a r r o l l , n o w in his mid-thirties, pulled off a c l e v e r media
ruse i n M a r y l a n d . I t w o n h i m t r e m e n d o u s p o p u l a r i t y and estab-
lished h i m as an i m p o r t a n t c i v i c leader. In January 1 7 7 3 , a letter
in the M a r y l a n d Gazette a t t a c k e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of M a r y l a n d
G o v e r n o r R o b e r t Edens. T h e letter was signed “First C i t i z e n . ” In a
s u b s e q u e n t Gazette, t h e a t t a c k was d e m o l i s h e d by t h e e l o q u e n t
arguments of a “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n . ” B u t in February, “First C i t i z e n ”
d e m o l i s h e d “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n . ” A s t h e duel c o n t i n u e d o n i n t o t h e
summer, “First C i t i z e n ” was r e v e a l e d t o b e C h a r l e s C a r r o l l .
W h e r e u p o n “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n ” nastily slandered C a r r o l l , p u t t i n g
h i m d o w n a s a “ d i s f r a n c h i s e d C a t h o l i c . ” S u d d e n l y now, C a r r o l l
was an underdog – just like his fellow A m e r i c a n s in relation to the
British Crown. Although Charles was a super-rich lawyer-
l a n d o w n e r e d u c a t e d at t h e best Jesuit colleges in Europe, the peo-
ple l a v i s h e d h i m w i t h sympathy. T h e y despised “ S e c o n d C i t i z e n ”
for his bigotry. M a r y l a n d and A m e r i c a n o w had a n e w hero, a pre-
e m i n e n t c h a m p i o n o f religious liberties, a R o m a n C a t h o l i c First
C i t i z e n a d v o c a t i n g a n e w political order. L o a t h s o m e S e c o n d C i t i -
zen made the status q u o seem distasteful and undesirable – w h i c h ,
of course, was his a s s i g n m e n t in t h e ruse. S e c o n d C i t i z e n turned
out to be t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d h e a d of t h e A m e r i c a n bar, a Mr.
Dulany....

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C H A P T E R 17 A TIMELY G R A N D T O U R

M E A N W H I L E , w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f spring, C a r r o l l and S t o u r t o n
left R o m e for F l o r e n c e , G e n o a , L y o n s , Paris, L i è g e , arriving
b a c k in Bruges just a few w e e k s before G a n g a n e l l i , C l e m e n t XIV,
disestablished the Jesuits. C a r r o l l kept a journal of their tour. Part- 2

ly a study-guide for C h a r l e s Philippe, partly a travelog, it’s a “frag-


mentary and circumspect” d o c u m e n t , as one historian gingerly put
it. H e r e a n d t h e r e , o n e finds s n a t c h e s o f informal p o l i t i c a l o p i n -
i o n . A l t h o u g h C a r r o l l ’ s o p i n i o n s are i n t e r e s t i n g , it’s his c i r c u m -
s p e c t i o n t h a t intrigues us most, it’s w h a t his j o u r n a l doesn’t say.
T r a v e l i n g w i t h a s t u d e n t appears o r d i n a r y e n o u g h , but C h a r l e s
P h i l i p p e S t o u r t o n was no ordinary c o l l e g i a n . He was a s t u d e n t of
casuistry, e q u i v o c a t i o n , and B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y
t a u g h t b y professionals s w o r n t o e x p a n d R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m and
extirpate Protestantism. H e had b e e n i n d o c t r i n a t e d t o o b e d i e n c e
t h r o u g h t h e S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s , was a m e m b e r of England’s pre-
mier C a t h o l i c and M a s o n i c family, and was a b o u t t h e age of
A l e x a n d e r H a m i l t o n ( w h o by t h e n was already turning out anony-
mous r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a m p h l e t s a t King’s C o l l e g e i n N e w Y o r k ) .
N o r were C a r r o l l and S t o u r t o n merely sight-seeing. T h e y were up
to s o m e t h i n g big. Carroll’s journal alludes to m e e t i n g s w i t h h i g h -
r a n k i n g officials in c h u r c h and state, but gives no specific n a m e s .
W r i t i n g to an English Jesuit colleague, he confided “I k e e p a close
i n c o g n i t o during this t i m e . ” 3

D e s p i t e Carroll’s c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , his itinerary reveals c e r t a i n


clues. C o n s i d e r t h a t o d d d e t o u r t o Trier from t h e route b e t w e e n
M a i n z and M a n n h e i m . Trier is more t h a n t w o hundred kilometers
out of t h e way, q u i t e a l o n g day’s journey. W h a t m i g h t w a r r a n t
such a d e v i a t i o n ? T h e r e a p p e a r e d in 1 7 6 3 a h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l
book by an obviously pseudonymous person, “Justinius Febronius.”
T h e pseudonym belonged to Bishop Nikolaus v o n H o n t h e i m ,
C h a n c e l l o r of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Trier. In J o h n Carroll’s day, Trier
U n i v e r s i t y had b e e n run by Jesuits for m o r e t h a n a century. T h e
b o o k , of w h i c h t h e r e is a p p a r e n t l y no p u b l i s h e d E n g l i s h transla-
t i o n out of its original L a t i n , is e n t i t l e d On the State of the Church
and the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff.
T h e gist of State of the Church suggests w h y C a r r o l l had to visit

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Trier: “ F e b r o n i a n i s m , ” t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f v o n H o n t h e i m ’ s b o o k ,
c o n t a i n s t h e f o r m u l a for a d m i n i s t e r i n g P r o t e s t a n t A m e r i c a as a
B e l l a r m i n i a n c o m m o n w e a l t h ! F e b r o n i a n i s m calls for decentraliz-
ing the Roman Catholic Church into independent national
c h u r c h e s m o d e l e d o n t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . B e c a u s e t h e y are
ruled d i r e c t l y by k i n g s and p r i n c e s , these c h u r c h e s are more cor-
rectly called “ S t a t e s . ” T h e Pope may be successor to Peter, Prince
o f the A p o s t l e s , but u n d e r F e b r o n i a n i s m h e has n o legal jurisdic-
tion. He is merely a principle of unity, a spiritual unifier obligated
to abide by the decrees of general c o u n c i l s under the leadership of
bishops and their properly e n l i g h t e n e d laymen.
C r u c i a l to Febronianism’s a p p l i c a t i o n is “ t h o r o u g h popular ed-
u c a t i o n . ” O n c e l a y m e n , b i s h o p s , and c o u n c i l s are “properly e n -
l i g h t e n e d ” t h e y w i l l b e e m p o w e r e d t o resist any a t t e m p t s o f t h e
papacy to exert monarchial control over the C h u r c h . Febronius
emphasized that his system w o u l d succeed only in a milieu of pop-
ular e n l i g h t e n m e n t . H i s c o n t e x t presumes a n e n l i g h t e n m e n t

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w h e r e i n the public is indoctrinated w i t h the Jesuit ratio studiorum’s


full h u m a n i s t d i e t , of c o u r s e . It c a n n o t o p e r a t e w h e r e S c r i p t u r e
reigns supreme. O n c e t h e milieu’s understanding, its mentality, has
b e e n shaped by the Superior G e n e r a l of the S o c i e t y of Jesus, it will
respond w i t h u n q u e s t i o n i n g o b e d i e n c e t o t h e w i l l o f t h e m a n
w h o s e f u n d a m e n t a l duty i s t h e e x p a n s i o n o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m
and t h e e x t i r p a t i o n of P r o t e s t a n t i s m . T h u s w i l l u n f o l d a p e r f e c t
secular political state w i t h i n the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , a n au-
tocracy ruled by a m o n a r c h invisible to all but the few w h o , by the
grace of G o d , c a n n o t be d e c e i v e d . 4

F e b r o n i a n i s m was t h e secret f o r m u l a for r e t u r n i n g t h e n o n -


C a t h o l i c world to the b o s o m of the C h u r c h . To mask this fact, the
V a t i c a n dramatically c o n d e m n e d the b o o k . T h e jesuited C l e m e n t
XIII h a d b a n n e d it from c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . In a rather
quaint example of academic “blown cover as cover,” Bishop v o n
H o n t h e i m , w h o m few realized was Febronius, e v e n b a n n e d it from
his o w n classes at the U n i v e r s i t y !
On the State of the Church is arguably L o r e n z o Ricci’s “ A m e r i -
can Manifesto,” the social blueprint for h o w the G e n e r a l intended
to realize B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n in a P r o t e s t a n t m o n a r c h y . T h e
full title page of t h e first edition copy of the b o o k says it all:

On the State of the Church and the Legitimate Power of the


Roman Pontiff: A Singular Book On the Properly-Ordered Reunifi-
cation with Dissidents in the Christian Religion.

H e r e o n e b e h o l d s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e m o m e n t o u s s o c i a l
change that the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n would indeed produce –
neither m o n a r c h i a l overthrow, nor democracy, nor republicanism,
but a “properly-ordered reunification w i t h dissidents in the C h r i s t -
ian r e l i g i o n , ” t h a t is, t h e r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c s w i t h
P r o t e s t a n t s u n d e r a secularized r e l i g i o n w h o s e v a l u e s – l o n g on
h u m a n i s m , short on Scripture – are taught t h r o u g h public schools
f o l l o w i n g t h e Jesuit ratio studiorum. “ R e u n i f i c a t i o n ” m e a n s t h a t
Protestantism has b e e n reabsorbed into R o m e . T h i s , in the eyes of
the b l a c k papacy, t o the S u n - T z u a n m i n d , and t o c o m m o n sense,
equals the practical extirpation of Protestantism.

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A L T H O U G H Bishop v o n H o n t h e i m lived i n Trier, h e was A r c h -


bishop of M a i n z . His jurisdiction e x t e n d e d to the M a i n z prin-
c i p a l i t y o f H e s s e - H a n o v e r . V o n H o n t h e i m was thus t h e spiritual
counterpart of the ruler of H e s s e - H a n o v e r , Frederick II ( n o t to be
c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e K i n g o f Prussia, F r e d e r i c k t h e G r e a t , w h o was
also a Frederick II.) Frederick II of Hesse was married to t h e aunt
o f the K i n g o f E n g l a n d , w h i c h m a d e h i m G e o r g e III’s u n c l e . B o r n
a P r o t e s t a n t , F r e d e r i c k subscribed to t h e R o s i c r u c i a n style of
Freemasonry. A l t h o u g h Jesuits c o n v e r t e d h i m t o R o m a n C a t h o l i -
cism, he nevertheless remained a R o s i c r u c i a n secretly a c t i v e .
Frederick of Hesse was o n e of Europe’s richest rulers. M u c h of
his business was h a n d l e d by his son, P r i n c e W i l l i a m , also a R o s i -
c r u c i a n F r e e m a s o n . W i l l i a m ’ s s p e c i a l t y was f a c i l i t a t i n g war. H e
drafted a b l e - b o d i e d male Hessians, outfitted and trained t h e m for
battle, and t h e n sold t h e m to his English cousin G e o r g e , w h o used
t h e m to fight alongside his o w n redcoats. Every time a Hessian was
killed, W i l l i a m r e c e i v e d a reparation in the form of extra c o m p e n -
sation. As casualties m o u n t e d , so did his profits, w h i c h he l o a n e d
out at interest.
I n S e p t e m b e r 1 7 6 9 , Prince W i l l i a m appointed M e y e r A m s c h e l
R o t h s c h i l d of n e a r b y Frankfurt to t r a n s a c t s o m e of his f i n a n c i a l
affairs i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f C r o w n A g e n t . A w a r e t h a t t h e R o t h -
schilds are an i m p o r t a n t Jewish family, I l o o k e d t h e m up in Ency-
clopedia ]udaica and discovered that they bear the title “ G u a r d i a n s
o f t h e V a t i c a n Treasury.” T h e V a t i c a n Treasury, o f c o u r s e , h o l d s
the imperial w e a l t h of R o m e . Imperial w e a l t h grows in proportion
to its v i c t o r i e s in war – as t h e Jesuit e m p o w e r m e n t Regimini mili-
tantis ecclesiae implies, the C h u r c h - a t - W a r is more necessary t h a n
t h e C h u r c h - a t - P e a c e . A c c o r d i n g t o H . Russell R o b i n s o n ’ s illus-
trated Armour of Imperial Rome, C a e s a r e a n soldiers protected
themselves in battle w i t h shields painted red. S i n c e t h e soldiery is
the State’s most valuable resource (the C o u n c i l of T r e n t admitted
this in preferring t h e Jesuits to all o t h e r religious orders), it is easy
to understand w h y t h e red shield was identified w i t h t h e very life
of t h e C h u r c h . H e n c e , t h e appropriateness of the n a m e Rothschild,
G e r m a n for “red shield.” T h e a p p o i n t m e n t of R o t h s c h i l d gave the

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CHAPTER 17 A TIMELY G R A N D T O U R

b l a c k p a p a c y absolute f i n a n c i a l p r i v a c y a n d secrecy. W h o w o u l d
e v e r search a family of o r t h o d o x Jews for t h e k e y to the w e a l t h of
the R o m a n C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ? I b e l i e v e this a p p o i n t m e n t explains
w h y t h e H o u s e of R o t h s c h i l d is famous for h e l p i n g n a t i o n s go to
war. It is fascinating that, as M e y e r Rothschild’s sons grew into the
family business, the firm t o o k on the title Meyer Amschel Rothschild
und Söhne, w h i c h g i v e s us t h e n o t a r i q o n M A R S . Isn’t M a r s t h e
R o m a n G o d o f W a r , w h o s e h e a v e n l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s “ t h e red
planet”? T h e r e is powerful c a b a l a h here, and there’s hardly an acre
of inhabitable earth that hasn’t b e e n affected by it in some way.
It may never be k n o w n if John Carroll and Charles Philippe
S t o u r t o n paid a c a l l o n t h e offices o f M e y e r R o t h s c h i l d during
their G r a n d Tour. C a r r o l l was n o t permitted to k e e p a record, and
the R o t h s c h i l d n a m e is synonymous w i t h secrecy. But a call, keep-
ing a “close i n c o g n i t o , ” at t h e H o u s e of R o t h s c h i l d w o u l d n o t be
i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o u t c o m e . T h e n e w l y - d e s i g n e d Prefect o f t h e
Sodality, c h i e f organizer of l a y m e n for social a c t i o n , w o u l d h a v e a
l e g i t i m a t e n e e d t o talk f i n a n c e s w i t h t h e C h u r c h ’ s m o s t secret
trustee. A s t h i n g s w e r e d e v e l o p i n g , G e n e r a l R i c c i n e e d e d a n
A m e r i c a n f i n a n c i a l crisis t o p r o v o k e t h e c o l o n i s t s i n t o r e s o l v i n g
the utter necessity of war.
C a r r o l l ’ s j o u r n a l reflects t h a t h e and S t o u r t o n did e n t e r t h e
Frankfurt-Mainz area, w h i c h is R o t h s c h i l d country, in early spring
1 7 7 2 . I f w e suppose t h e y t a l k e d f i n a n c i a l crisis w i t h t h e R o t h -
schilds, t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e i r talks a c t u a l l y did o c c u r s e v e r a l
m o n t h s later. D u r i n g July, in fact, t h e B r i t i s h b a n k i n g system
u n d e r w e n t a severe c r e d i t r e d u c t i o n . T h i s c o n s e q u e n t l y t h r e w
A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s i n t o a n e x t r e m e f i n a n c i a l distress t h a t did
n o t e n d u n t i l t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W a r itself p r o d u c e d a business
b o o m in 1 7 7 6 . R o t h s c h i l d , w i t h his access to Hesse-Hanover’s vast
w e a l t h , a n d c o n c e i v a b l y t h a t of t h e Jesuits as w e l l , h a d p o w e r to
affect a credit reduction in British b a n k i n g . A n d Rothschild’s prof-
iting f r o m t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W a r is w e l l k n o w n . If, d u r i n g t h e
spring of 1 7 7 2 , the circumspect y o u n g Jesuit professor c o n v e y e d to
the powerful y o u n g Jewish banker Lorenzo Ricci’s need for a finan-
cial disturbance in England and A m e r i c a , didn’t John Carroll

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admirably serve his S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l , his C h u r c h , and his c o u n -


try? A n d didn’t R o t h s c h i l d do his client likewise?
E v e n a s C a r r o l l and S t o u r t o n w e r e n e t w o r k i n g ( a c c o r d i n g t o
m y surmise) w i t h R i c c i and t h e b a n k e r s o f war, A m i o t ’ s S u n - T z u
was published. Carroll’s c i r c u m s p e c t i o n bars us ever from k n o w i n g
w h e t h e r he and S t o u r t o n c a m e u p o n a copy and read it. Did R o t h -
schild k n o w t h e b o o k ? E v e n i f t h e y k n e w i t w e l l , t h e e x p e r i e n c e
c o u l d n o t possibly h a v e b e e n for t h e m the a d v e n t u r e in irony it is
for us now. We o p e n The Thirteen Articles and hear the gentle v o i c e
of t h e m a n in c h a r g e of t h e papacy’s most i m p o r t a n t business, the
m a n w h o d e c i d e d e v e r y t h i n g , w h o w a s i n t h e process o f g a i n i n g
a d v a n t a g e from d a n g e r o u s a n d c r i t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w h o s e in-
t e n t i o n s were unguessable, whose decisions were shaping b o t h his
o w n army and t h e armies of his E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g P r o t e s t a n t e n e -
mies, t h e m a n w h o t h r o u g h c l e v e r n e s s a n d ruse h a d already se-
cured t h e o b e d i e n c e o f his e n e m i e s i n L o n d o n a n d B o s t o n and
Paris and P h i l a d e l p h i a a l t h o u g h t h e y b e l i e v e d h i m a n d his army
to be far away and slumped in rest from sustained losses, t h e m a n
w h o w o u l d w i n the most important W a r i n m o d e r n times w i t h o u t
g i v i n g battle or d r a w i n g a sword, w h o u n i q u e l y k n e w the day, the
hour, the m o m e n t of battle-less, sword-less c o m b a t . Lorenzo Ricci’s
v o i c e whispers to us across the centuries b e t w e e n the lines in pas-
sages such as these: 5

A State’s most important business is its army. It is the G e n -


eral who decides everything. If he is clever, he will gain an
advantage from even the most dangerous & critical circum-
stances. He will know how to shape at will, not only the army
he is commanding but also that of his enemies.
Try to be victorious without giving battle. Without giving
battle, without spilling a drop of blood, without even drawing a
sword, the clever General succeeds in capturing cities. Without
setting foot in a foreign Kingdom, he finds the means to conquer
them. He acts in such a way that those who are inferior to him
can never guess his intentions. He has them change location,
even taking them to rather difficult places where they must work
& suffer.
Do not disdain the use of artifice. Begin by learning every-

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thing there is to know about your enemies. Know exactly what


relationships they have, their reciprocal liaisons & interests. Do
not spare large amounts of money. Have spies everywhere, be
informed of everything.
Overlook nothing to corrupt what is best on the enemy’s
side: offers, presents, caresses, let nothing be omitted. Maintain
secret liaisons with those amongst the enemy who are the most
depraved. Use them for your own ends, along with other
depraved individuals. Cross through their government, sowing
dissension amongst their Chiefs. Ceaselessly give them false
alarms & bad advice. Engage the Governors of their Provinces
in your interests. That is approximately what you must do, if you
wish to fool them by cleverness & ruse.
W h e n a clever General goes into action, the enemy is
already defeated. W h e n he fights, he alone must do more than
his entire army, not through the strength of his arm but through
his prudence, his manner of commanding, & above all his ruses.
T h e great secret of solving all problems consists of the art of
knowing how to create division when necessary.
W h a t is far must be brought near, advantage must be drawn
even from losses, and slowness must be turned into diligence.
You must be near when the enemy believes you to be far, have a
real advantage when the enemy believes you have sustained
some losses, be occupied by useful work when he believes you are
slumped in rest, and use all sorts of diligence when he only per-
ceives you to be moving slowly. Thus, by throwing him off track,
you will lull him to sleep in order to attack him when he expects
it the least & without him having the time to prepare for it.
As it is essential for you to be completely familiar with the
place where you must fight, it is no less important for you to
know the day, the hour, even the moment of combat. T h a t is a
calculation which you must not neglect.
You, therefore, who are at the head of an army must over-
look nothing to render yourself worthy of the position you hold.
Throw your gaze upon the measurements of quantities & the
measurements of dimensions. Remember the rules of calculus.
Consider the effects of balance. Examine what victory really is.
T h i n k about all of this deeply & you will have everything you
need in order to never be defeated by your enemies.
They who possess the true art of governing troops well are

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those who have known & who know how to make their power
formidable, who have acquired unlimited authority, who are not
brought low by any event no matter how vexing, who do noth-
ing with precipitation, who conduct themselves as calmly when
they are surprised as they do when their actions have been
planned long in advance, and who always act in everything they
do with that promptness which is in fact the fruit of cleverness
combined with great experience.
T h e strength of this sort of warrior is like that of those great
bows which can only be stretched with the help of some
machine. Their authority has the effect of those terrible weapons
which are shot from bows which are thus stretched. Everything
succumbs to their blows, everything is laid low....
If you do exactly as I have indicated, success will accompa-
ny all your steps. Everywhere you will be a conqueror, you will
spare the lives of your soldiers, you will affirm your country in its
former possessions and procure new ones, you will augment the
splendor & glory of the State, and the Prince as well as his sub-
jects will be indebted to you for the sweet tranquility in which
they will henceforth live their lives. W h a t objects can be more
worthy of your attention & all your efforts?

C H A R L E S Philippe Stourton and John Carroll departed R o m e


for Flanders i n M a r c h 1 7 7 3 . T h e j o u r n e y t o o k t h e m four
m o n t h s . T h e y passed t h r o u g h F l o r e n c e , G e n o a , Lyons, and Paris,
arriving at L i è g e in early July. J o h n returned C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e to
his father, Lord S t o u r t o n , and p r o c e e d e d a l o n e t o t h e Jesuit C o l -
lege at Bruges.
M e a n w h i l e , in L o n d o n , during the m o n t h of A p r i l , the British
East India C o m p a n y presented the King’s Friends a s c h e m e w h i c h ,
i f m e a s u r e d b y t h e w a y i t w o u l d a n g e r A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s and
p o i n t t h e m i n e x o r a b l y t o w a r d r e b e l l i o n , c o u l d o n l y h a v e sprung
from the S u n - T z u a n i n t e l l e c t of L o r e n z o R i c c i – “I demand the art
of making enemies move as one wishes.” T h a t s c h e m e , a p l a n to glut
N e w England w i t h c h e a p tea, is the subject of our n e x t chapter.

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KING GEORGE III


Chapter 18

THE STIMULATING
EFFECTS OF TEA

T
H E E A S T I N D I A C O M P A N Y was a major subsidizer o f t h e Je-
suit m i s s i o n t o B e i j i n g . 1
T h e Jesuits, i n t u r n , i n t e r c e d e d
w i t h o r i e n t a l m o n a r c h s t o secure l u c r a t i v e c o m m e r c i a l fa-
vors for t h e C o m p a n y , i n c l u d i n g m o n o p o l i e s on tea, spices, salt-
peter (for e x p l o s i v e s ) , silks, and the world’s o p i u m trade. I n d e e d ,
according to Reid’s Commerce and Conquest: The Story of the Hon-
ourable East India Company, the C o m p a n y appears to o w e its very
e x i s t e n c e to t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. H o w this c a m e to be is w o r t h a
digression.
Briefly, in 1583, four young c o m m e r c i a l travelers – Fitch, N e w -
bery, Leeds, and Storey – set out from L o n d o n w i t h letters of intro-
duction from Queen Elizabeth to the Emperor of China.
S o m e w h e r e east of the Persian Gulf, they were arrested by the Por-
tuguese for illegally crossing t h e “ l i n e of d e m a r c a t i o n . ” P o p e
Alessandro VI (whose mistress, we recall, was G i u l i a Farnese, Paul
Ill’s b e a u t i f u l sister) h a d d r a w n t h e line i n 1493 from t h e N o r t h

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P o l e t h r o u g h t h e A z o r e s t o t h e S o u t h P o l e . A l l lands west o f the


line he granted to S p a i n and those east to Portugal.
T h e four violators were sent in chains to the Portuguese c o l o n y
of G o a on the western coast of India. In G o a , they were rescued by
a fellow c o u n t r y m a n , T h o m a s S t e v e n s . S t e v e n s had influence. He
was R e c t o r of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of G o a , and he was a Jesuit priest.
Father S t e v e n s arranged their release, but apparently n o t w i t h o u t
c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . S t o r e y j o i n e d t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus. N e w b e r y
and L e e d e s a c c e p t e d posts i n t h e G o a n c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t .
R a l p h F i t c h p r o c e e d e d o n t o C h i n a , e v i d e n t l y under a n I g n a t i a n
o a t h , otherwise the Portuguese V i c e r o y w o u l d n o t h a v e permitted
h i m to carry on.
In 1 5 9 1 , Fitch returned to England and, like M a r c o P o l o before
h i m , tantalized adventurers w i t h the lucrative possibilities of trans-
p o r t i n g to the w e s t e r n h e m i s p h e r e all t h e o r i e n t a l splendors h e ’ d
seen. Eight years later, on S e p t e m b e r 24, 1 5 9 9 , w i t h a subscription
of a little more t h a n £30, F i t c h and several others formed the East
India C o m p a n y .
A n d now, i n 1 7 7 3 , t h e East India C o m p a n y was g o v e r n e d b y
F r e e m a s o n s , w h o s e G r a n d M a s t e r since 1 7 7 2 was t h e n i n t h Lord
Petre (his mastery w o u l d c o n t i n u e u n t i l 1 7 7 7 ) . R e l a t e d t o the
S t o u r t o n s , N o r f o l k s , and A r u n d e l l s , the Petre family ( p r o n o u n c e d
“ P e t e r ” ) was h i g h l y e s t e e m e d by t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. It was t h e
Petres w h o , b a c k in t h e s i x t e e n t h century, bankrolled the original
Jesuit missions to England.
T h e East India C o m p a n y ’ s most powerful political a t t a c h é was
R o b e r t Petty, Lord S h e l b u r n e . We recall S h e l b u r n e as “ T h e Jesuit
o f B e r k e l e y S q u a r e ” w h o w o r k e d i n 1 7 6 3 w i t h Lord B u t e t o c o n -
clude the F r e n c h and Indian W a r s w i t h the Treaty of Paris, w h i c h
isolated England from European alliances and angered the A m e r i -
c a n s o v e r t h e w e s t e r n lands. A c t i n g o n East India C o m p a n y ’ s
behalf, S h e l b u r n e c o l l u d e d w i t h t h e K i n g ’ s Friends on a s c h e m e
designed t o disturb the relative p e a c e w h i c h had e x i s t e d b e t w e e n
A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s and E n g l a n d s i n c e t h e repeal o f the T o w n -
shend A c t s in 1 7 7 0 . It w e n t like this.
S t o r e d i n t h e C o m p a n y ’ s d o c k s i d e British w a r e h o u s e s were

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C H A P T E R 18 T H E S T I M U L A T I N G EFFECTS O F T E A

s e v e n t e e n m i l l i o n p o u n d s o f surplus tea. T h i s tea c o u l d n o t b e


released for sale until a duty of o n e shilling per p o u n d was paid to
t h e C r o w n . I f t h e K i n g w o u l d e x e m p t t h e C o m p a n y from p a y i n g
the shilling duty, the C o m p a n y w o u l d sell the tea t h r o u g h special
c o n s i g n e e s t o A m e r i c a n s a t prices l o w e r t h a n t h e c o l o n i s t s were
paying for either the dutied English tea or the smuggled D u t c h tea.
E v e r y o n e w o u l d w i n . T h e A m e r i c a n t e a - d r i n k e r s , still suffering
from t h e depressive effects of t h e British b a n k i n g crisis of July
1 7 7 2 , w o u l d w i n . East India C o m p a n y w o u l d w i n . A n d w i t h a
w i n d f a l l duty of n o t o n e b u t three s h i l l i n g s a p o u n d , t h e C r o w n
w o u l d w i n . T h e o n l y loser w o u l d b e t h e c o l o n i a l tea m e r c h a n t s ,
w h o h a d b e e n e n j o y i n g n i c e profits o n b o t h d u t i e d and smuggled
tea. T h e King’s Friends directed Parliament to put the scheme into
law, and on M a y 10, 1 7 7 3 , the “Tea A c t ” w e n t into effect.
Predictably, t h e t e a m e r c h a n t s reacted i n fury. O v e r t h e n e x t
six m o n t h s , t h e y pressed t h e i n t e r c o l o n i a l n e t w o r k o f dissident
propagandists t o h e l p t h e m m o u n t a protest. W h a t b e g a n a s a n
injustice against tea m e r c h a n t s was amplified by the propagandists
into a widely-felt injustice against the colonies g e n e r a l l y . . . .

T H E N , o n July 2 1 , 1 7 7 3 , G a n g a n e l l i , C l e m e n t XIV, a b o l i s h e d
t h e Jesuits “for all e t e r n i t y . ” His brief of d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t is
e n t i t l e d Dominus ac Redemptor noster, w h i c h is usually translated
“ G o d a n d O u r R e d e e m e r . ” W e should n o t e t h a t “redemptor” also
m e a n s “ r e v e n u e a g e n t . ” C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the brief’s real effect in
the l o n g t e r m was a d r a m a t i c increase in p a p a l r e v e n u e s from a
n e w F e b r o n i a n A m e r i c a , perhaps “ G o d and O u r R e v e n u e A g e n t ”
would be a more appropriate translation, if n o t the intended one.
A l t h o u g h C a t h o l i c history calls the Disestablishment “a
supreme tragedy,” J o h n C a r r o l l more accurately appraised it as the
“secularisation” of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus. T h o u s a n d s of Jesuits n o w
rose to secular p r o m i n e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d , in t h e
arts, sciences, and g o v e r n m e n t . R a i m o n d o X i m e n e s b e c a m e a rad-
ical F r e e m a s o n . A l e s s a n d r o Zorzi from V e n i c e j o i n e d t h e editors
of t h e I t a l i a n Encyclopedia. Dr. B o s c o v i c h arrived in Paris w h e r e
his scientific reputation secured h i m the post of Director of O p t i c s

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o f t h e F r e n c h N a v y . E s t e b a n A r t e a g a b e c a m e a m u s i c c r i t i c and
p u b l i s h e d a b o o k in Paris e n t i t l e d The Revolution in the Italian
Musical Theatre. W e ’ v e already seen h o w Professor Joseph-Ignace
G u i l l o t i n of the Bordeaux C o l l e g e became the physician who
g a v e F r a n c e t h e b e h e a d i n g m a c h i n e n a m e d after h i m . A d a m
W e i s h a u p t , dismissed from the Jesuit college at Ingolstadt, attract-
ed the fiercer e l e m e n t s of European R o s i c r u c i a n Freemasonry into
a n e w secret c u l t in B a v a r i a . H i s “ I l l u m i n a t i , ” w h o s e c o v e r was
e v e n t u a l l y b l o w n i n order t o c o n v i n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h a t evil
secret societies were b e i n g diligently u n m a s k e d w h e n in fact they
were n o t – was a n o t h e r instance of “ b l o w n c o v e r as cover.” C o u n t -
less o t h e r members of the greatest c l a n d e s t i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e agency
t h e w o r l d has e v e r k n o w n , n o w secularized w i t h t h e j e e r i n g
approval of its e n e m i e s , crossed the A t l a n t i c to h e l p guide A m e r i -
cans t h r o u g h t h e pains o f b e c o m i n g t h e first n a t i o n expressly
d e s i g n e d to be a F e b r o n i a n , B e l l a r m i n i a n d e m o c r a t i c r e p u b l i c a n
C h u r c h - S t a t e . W h a t a n amazing p r o d u c t i o n , all t h e more impres-
sive for the c o m p l e t e invisibility of its means!
W e ’ v e seen h o w the Brief of Disestablishment was served u p o n
L o r e n z o R i c c i i n m i d - A u g u s t , and h o w t h e G e n e r a l was r e m o v e d
to t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e a few b l o c k s away, w h e r e he r e m a i n e d for
five w e e k s , u n t i l late S e p t e m b e r . Interestingly, t h e D e a n o f t h e
E n g l i s h C o l l e g e at t h a t t i m e was a t h i r t y - t w o - y e a r - o l d Jesuit pro-
fessor of c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h e o l o g y n a m e d J o h n Mattingly. M a t t i n g l y
was a n A m e r i c a n , said t o b e t h e l o n e A m e r i c a n Jesuit i n R o m e .
He was a n a t i v e of M a r y l a n d , a graduate of St. O m e r ’ s , and a dear
friend of J o h n C a r r o l l , w h o (as we k n o w ) had departed R o m e five
m o n t h s before R i c c i ’ s arrest. W i t h i n fifteen years, C a r r o l l w o u l d
invite M a t t i n g l y to b e c o m e the first president of G e o r g e t o w n U n i -
versity, an offer M a t t i n g l y would decline.
W h a t m i g h t L o r e n z o R i c c i b e l i k e l y t o discuss for five w e e k s
(a) u n d e r a B r i t i s h roof, (b) in t h e c u s t o d y of a y o u n g A m e r i c a n
Jesuit, (c) at a t i m e w h e n A m e r i c a n m e r c h a n t s w e r e i n c e n s e d at
b e i n g c h e a t e d o u t of t h e i r tea profits by a n e w law (d) sponsored
b y British F r e e m a s o n s , (e) w h o s e G r a n d M a s t e r h a p p e n e d t o b e
Ricci’s secret servant?

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M i g h t the G e n e r a l h a v e b e e n conferring w i t h members o f the


B r i t i s h East India C o m p a n y , o n e o f t h e E n g l i s h C o l l e g e ’ s major
patrons? M i g h t t h e i r discussions h a v e i n v o l v e d t o w h i c h A m e r i -
c a n ports t h e i r tea m i g h t b e most a d v a n t a g e o u s l y s h i p p e d , and
w h e n ? A p p a r e n t l y so, for w h i l e R i c c i was residing at t h e E n g l i s h
C o l l e g e , P a r l i a m e n t a u t h o r i z e d t h e East India C o m p a n y t o ship
h a l f a m i l l i o n p o u n d s o f tea t o B o s t o n , N e w York, P h i l a d e l p h i a ,
a n d C h a r l e s t o n , c o n s i g n e d to a group of s p e c i a l l y - c h o s e n mer-
chants.
M i g h t R i c c i h a v e b e e n formulating w i t h Carroll’s friend M a t -
tingly plans for a d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n t e n d e d to c l i m a x the agitations
that h a d b e e n f o m e n t e d in the c o l o n i e s since the b e g i n n i n g of his
g e n e r a l a t e , in 1758? M i g h t he h a v e suggested a spectacular e v e n t
to o c c u r in, say, B o s t o n Harbor, symbolizing t h e colonists’ frustra-
tions w i t h E n g l a n d ? A n d m i g h t n o t P a r l i a m e n t respond t o this
e v e n t w i t h v e n g e f u l measures designed to push the colonists over
t h e brink of r e b e l l i o n ? A r e n ’ t five w e e k s sufficient t i m e to script
s u c h a “ B o s t o n T e a Party,” a l o n g w i t h t h e h a r s h legal measures
with w h i c h it might be punished? As well as how the colonists’
violent reaction to the punishment might be coordinated? O u t -
c o m e suggests t h a t R i c c i did more in his five w e e k s at the English
C o l l e g e t h a n languish in custody.
W e h a v e s e e n h o w t h e G e n e r a l was t a k e n from t h e E n g l i s h
C o l l e g e to C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o , w i t h its secret t u n n e l to the papal
apartments in the V a t i c a n . For m a n y m o n t h s after his “imprison-
m e n t , ” Lorenzo R i c c i was “questioned by the Inquisition,” accord-
ing t o t r a d i t i o n a l C h u r c h history. B u t t h e I n q u i s i t i o n h a d b e e n
a d m i n i s t e r e d b y Jesuits s i n c e 1 5 4 2 . N o t surprisingly, t h e inquisi-
tors pried absolutely no useful information out of Lorenzo R i c c i . . . .

I N O c t o b e r o f 1 7 7 3 , A u s t r i a n officials w i t h d r a w n b a y o n e t s
d e s c e n d e d u p o n the Jesuit C o l l e g e in Bruges – the officials were
A u s t r i a n because Bruges was under t h e jurisdiction of t h e A u s t r i -
an g o v e r n m e n t . T h e y arrested John C a r r o l l and the rest of the col-
lege faculty and s t u d e n t s . S t r i p p e d of his possessions and papers,
C a r r o l l was spared further h u m i l i a t i o n by the timely intercession

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o f his erstwhile t r a v e l i n g c o m p a n i o n C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e S t o u r t o n ’ s
cousin, H e n r y H o w a r d , Lord A r u n d e l l o f W i l t s h i r e . T h e C a t h o l i c
n o b l e m a n e s c o r t e d C a r r o l l across t h e E n g l i s h C h a n n e l t o W i l t -
shire’s lushly r o l l i n g h i l l s . O n his family estate n e a r Tisbury,
Howard had been constructing a Palladian mansion, N e w War-
dour C a s t l e . O n e of Carroll’s duties was to write his version of the
c l o s i n g o f Bruges C o l l e g e i n order t o h e l p H e n r y H o w a r d and
o t h e r English sponsors o f t h e c o l l e g e w i n d a m a g e s from the A u s -
trian g o v e r n m e n t . His principal chore, h o w e v e r , was to administer
t h e C h a p e l o c c u p y i n g N e w W a r d o u r C a s t l e ’ s w e s t w i n g . I n this
w a y C a r r o l l e s t a b l i s h e d a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H e n r y H o w a r d ’ s art
a g e n t in R o m e , a Jesuit n a m e d Francis T h o r p e . T h o r p e was a2

r e n o w n e d i n t e l l i g e n c e - b r o k e r , a m a n w h o s e k n o w l e d g e of R o m e ,
its h a p p e n i n g s and resources, was legendary. His a p a r t m e n t was a
favorite m e e t i n g place for visiting English nobility, and his favorite
E n g l i s h n o b l e m a n was H e n r y H o w a r d . 3
Howard had put Father
T h o r p e in charge of “every detail, every aspect of the Chapel’s
design.” Father T h o r p e and J o h n C a r r o l l n e e d e d n o i n t r o d u c t i o n
to o n e another. From the editor’s notes to Carroll’s letters, we learn
that T h o r p e t a u g h t at St. O m e r ’ s during the years J o h n was a stu-
dent there. Moreover, he was Carroll’s favorite instructor.
T h e s e remarkable facts suggest interesting probabilities. From
Tisbury, in less t h a n a day, C a r r o l l could reach B e n j a m i n Franklin’s
r e s i d e n c e i n L o n d o n b y s t a g e c o a c h . F r a n k l i n , for h i s s c i e n t i f i c
a c h i e v e m e n t s and e n l i g h t e n e d e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , h a d l o n g b e e n the
toast of Europe, a darling of Jesuit intellectuals. He was the e x c l u -
sive c o l o n i a l a g e n t now, representing t h e c o m m e r c i a l interests of
all t h i r t e e n c o l o n i e s before the C r o w n . Franklin k n e w more about
A m e r i c a t h a n a n y o n e else living in England, and more about Eng-
land t h a n any o t h e r A m e r i c a n . Francis T h o r p e k n e w more about
E n g l a n d t h a n a n y o n e else l i v i n g i n R o m e , and more a b o u t R o m e
t h a n any other Englishman.
A n d b o t h m e n k n e w John C a r r o l l well.
A n d there C a r r o l l was, for the six m o n t h s during w h i c h time
t h e Tea A c t erupted i n t o t h e most e x p l o s i v e scandal o f t h e r e v o -
lutionary epoch, poised i n Tisbury to facilitate information

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b e t w e e n these t w o personal friends of his, geniuses, institutions. But


where is the evidence that anything bearing on the A m e r i c a n
R e v o l u t i o n transpired b e t w e e n R i c c i and T h o r p e and C a r r o l l and
F r a n k l i n a n d H o w a r d and t h e e n t i r e A n g l o - A m e r i c a n M a s o n i c
system? W e are left w i t h n o t h i n g but clues and o u t c o m e , w h i c h
nonetheless emphatically point to a fruitful collaboration.

D u r i n g t h e n i g h t o f D e c e m b e r 1 6 , 1 7 7 3 , a g a n g o f Indians
c l i m b e d aboard certain ships in B o s t o n Harbor, ripped o p e n three
h u n d r e d f o r t y - t w o o f t h e East India C o m p a n y ’ s t e a - c h e s t s a n d
t h r e w o v e r b o a r d t h e i r c o n t e n t s , v a l u e d a t $90,000. W e l l , t h e y
looked like I n d i a n s , a n d witnesses thought t h e y w e r e I n d i a n s , but
the big o p e n secret was that they were Freemasons in disguise. Per-
haps t h e most s u c c i n c t s t a t e m e n t o n t h e subject appears i n
respected M a s o n i c historian A r t h u r Edward Waite’s New Encyclo-
pedia of Freemasonry: “ T h e Boston Tea Party was entirely M a s o n i c ,
carried o u t by m e m b e r s of t h e S t . John’s L o d g e d u r i n g an
adjourned meeting.”
P a r l i a m e n t reacted to the B o s t o n T e a Party in a way c a l c u l a t -
ed to increase dozens of r o l l i n g boulders i n t o a d e v a s t a t i n g land-
slide. W i t h o u t seriously i n q u i r i n g i n t o w h o was r e s p o n s i b l e , and
w h o l l y disregarding t h e offer of more t h a n a hundred B o s t o n mer-
c h a n t s to m a k e r e s t i t u t i o n , P a r l i a m e n t rushed i n t o law a mass of
u n r e a s o n a b l y p u n i t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n – c l o s i n g t h e port of B o s t o n to
trade, forbidding t o w n meetings w i t h o u t the c o n s e n t of the gover-
nor, d e n y i n g the Massachusetts legislature the right to c h o o s e the
governor’s c o u n c i l , providing for the quartering of British and Hes-
sian troops in t h e c o l o n y , and ordering t h a t any officer or soldier
of t h e C r o w n accused of an a c t of v i o l e n c e in t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of
his duty should be sent to a n o t h e r c o l o n y or to E n g l a n d for w h a t
would surely be a sweetheart trial.

T o c o m p l e t e t h e o v e r k i l l , P a r l i a m e n t passed t h e Q u e b e c A c t ,
w h i c h c u t off the claims of Massachusetts, C o n n e c t i c u t , V i r g i n i a ,
and N e w Y o r k t o t h e i r w e s t e r n lands, a n d p l a c e d these lands, t o
add insult to injury, u n d e r t h e F r e n c h C a t h o l i c j u r i s d i c t i o n of
Quebec.

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S o e x a g g e r a t e d l y o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e offense t h e y were
framed to punish, these notorious “Intolerable A c t s ” caused every
class o f A m e r i c a n t o sympathize w i t h t h e T e a Partyers. Suddenly,
i n d e p e n d e n c e was n o l o n g e r a radical a l t e r n a t i v e . T h e I n t o l e r a -
bles r e n d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n c e t h e s u b j e c t o f sensible, serious c o n -
versation as n e v e r before.
G o v e r n o r H u t c h i n s o n was recalled to England a n d was
r e p l a c e d b y G e n e r a l T h o m a s G a g e , w h o b r o u g h t a n army o f four
thousand m e n to quarter in Boston. G a g e v o w e d severe discipline.
T h e c o l o n i s t s v o w e d severe r e s i s t a n c e . “ T h e die i s c a s t , ” G e o r g e
III wrote to Lord N o r t h . “ T h e colonies must either triumph or sub-
mit.”

J O H N C a r r o l l left W a r d o u r C a s t l e i n M a y 1 7 7 4 a n d sailed for


M a r y l a n d to reunite w i t h his aged and w i d o w e d mother, the for-
mer E l e a n o r D a r n a l l , w h o m h e h a d n o t s e e n i n t w e n t y - f i v e years.
T h e history o f E l e a n o r D a r n a l l i s t h e history o f M a r y l a n d , w h i c h
bears some reflection here.
I n 1 6 2 5 , a t a b o u t t h e t i m e y o u n g C h a r l e s S t u a r t was i n h e r i t -
ing the throne of England from his father, K i n g James I, the Jesuits
c o n v e r t e d a h i g h g o v e r n m e n t official to R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m . T h a t
official was Secretary of State G e o r g e C a l v e r t , t h e first Lord Balti-
m o r e . For t h e sake of a p p e a r a n c e s – it was d e e m e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e
for a C a t h o l i c to serve a C a l v i n i s t m o n a r c h – B a l t i m o r e resigned
his post. M e a n w h i l e , b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s t h e Jesuits p e r f e c t e d a n
a u d a c i o u s marriage a r r a n g e m e n t b e t w e e n C h a r l e s , n o w K i n g
C h a r l e s I, and a R o m a n C a t h o l i c princess, H e n r i e t t e - M a r i e , sister
of Louis XIII of F r a n c e . T h e marriage p u r p o r t e d to be g o o d for
C h a r l e s ’ e c o n o m i c interests. He w e n t out of his way to a c c o m m o -
date t h e Jesuits. A l t h o u g h a S c o t t i s h C a l v i n i s t , C h a r l e s c o n d u c t -
ed his m o n a r c h y in m a n y respects as t h o u g h it w e r e R o m a n
C a t h o l i c . H e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w e a k e n e d England’s f o r e i g n p o l i c y
t o w a r d C a t h o l i c F r a n c e , t h e c o u n t r y o f his Q u e e n . H e p r o m o t e d
to the highest levels in the C h u r c h of England members of the
H i g h C h u r c h Party, c l e r g y m e n sympathetic w i t h R o m a n C a t h o l i c
ritual and traditions. A n d he squandered England’s resources in a
pointless, Jesuit-engineered war w i t h Spain.

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S e v e n years i n t o his marriage w i t h H e n r i e t t e - M a r i e , C h a r l e s


f o u n d h i m s e l f stuck b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l i n d e b t e d n e s s t o I g n a t i a n
creditors and a stingy P a r l i a m e n t . In h o p e s of g e n e r a t i n g tax rev-
enues abroad, he c a r v e d a feudal b a r o n y o u t of n o r t h e r n V i r g i n i a
and granted it to Lord Baltimore. But Baltimore died before devel-
o p i n g t h e grant. T h e c h a r t e r passed d o w n t o his son, C e c i l i u s
Calvert.
C a l v e r t , the n e w Lord B a l t i m o r e , called persecuted emigrants
desiring religious and t a x f r e e d o m to p a r t i c i p a t e in a v o y a g e to a
p l a c e b e a r i n g a n a m e dear to C a t h o l i c s “ M a r y l a n d , ” after t h e
Blessed V i r g i n . B a l t i m o r e did n o t n e g l e c t a p p e a l i n g to t h e irreli-
gious n i c h e as w e l l . A n u m b e r of his a d v e r t i s e m e n t s spoke of the
limitless opportunities from settling in “Merrie Land.”
On N o v e m b e r 22, 1 6 3 3 , t w o ships, t h e Ark and t h e Dove, set
sail from L o n d o n . T h e passenger list included three Jesuits, sixteen
t o t w e n t y R o m a n C a t h o l i c g e n t l e m e n , several h u n d r e d predomi-
nantly Protestant slaves and laborers, and C e c i l i u s Calvert’s broth-
er L e o n a r d . L e o n a r d C a l v e r t had b e e n a p p o i n t e d Maryland’s first
g o v e r n o r . T h e v o y a g e of t h e Ark a n d t h e Dove was spiritually
directed by a Jesuit priest n a m e d A n d r e w W h i t e . Educated at b o t h
S t . O m e r ’ s and D o u a i , a professor for t w e n t y years in P o r t u g a l ,
S p a i n , and Flanders, A n d r e w W h i t e is remembered by the C h u r c h
as “ t h e A p o s t l e to Maryland.”
C h o o s i n g an Andrew for t h e task was g o o d l i t u r g i c a l c a b a l a h
o n t h e part o f t h e G e s u . A n d r e w was t h e b r o t h e r o f t h e apostle
Peter, t h e first P o p e , t h e R o c k u p o n w h o m R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m
claims to be established. A n d r e w is t h e P a t r o n S a i n t of S c o t l a n d ;
K i n g C h a r l e s I was a S c o t . A personal representative of the king’s
brotherly attitude toward R o m e could not be more eloquently
identified t h a n b y the simple n a m e “ A n d r e w . ” A n d r e w W h i t e c o n -
secrated t h e M a r y l a n d v o y a g e t o t w o C a t h o l i c saints: t h e V i r g i n
Mary, Protectress of the Jesuits, and Ignatius L o y o l a , only recently
decreed Patron S a i n t of Maryland by U r b a n V I I I , the second pupil
of Jesuits to be elected Pope.
T h e ships were at sea nearly four m o n t h s . Finally, one hundred
t w e n t y - t h r e e days from E n g l a n d , o n M a r c h 2 5 , 1 6 3 4 , t h e parties
r e a c h e d S t . C l e m e n t s Island i n t h e m o u t h o f t h e P o t o m a c River.

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It was an auspicious day. N o t o n l y was M a r c h 25 t h e first day of


spring, but also it was the first day of t h e Julian calendar. (In 1 7 5 2
the colonies would adopt the G r e g o r i a n calendar, w h i c h we follow
today.) O n M a r c h 2 5 , A n d r e w W h i t e read t h e first R o m a n Mass
ever h e l d in any of the original thirteen colonies. T h e n he formal-
ly t o o k possession of t h e land “for our S a v i o u r and for our S o v e r -
eign Lord K i n g of England.”
M a r y l a n d h i s t o r i a n s trace t h e j u r i d i c a l origins o f t h e R o m a n
C a t h o l i c C h u r c h in the U n i t e d States to a P a t u x e n t Indian chief-
tain’s w i g w a m , w h i c h A n d r e w W h i t e d e n o t e d in his diary “the first
c h a p e l o f Maryland.” W h i t e introduced R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m t o the
P a t u x e n t s , A n a c o s t i c s , and P i s c a t a w a y s o n real estate t h a t today
c o m p r i s e s t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a . It’s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e
D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a ’ s e x e c u t i v e m a n s i o n was t e r m e d “ W h i t e
H o u s e ” less because of a c o l o r of e x t e r i o r p a i n t t h a n out of rever-
e n c e for t h e A p o s t l e t o M a r y l a n d . E v e r y u t t e r a n c e o f “ W h i t e
H o u s e ” should fill t h e historically k n o w l e d g e a b l e Jesuit w i t h pride
in his Society’s a c h i e v e m e n t s .
C o n v e r s i o n s a m o n g t h e I n d i a n s r a n h i g h , but t h e S o c i e t y
e n j o y e d greater profits e v a n g e l i z i n g Protestants. For every Protes-
t a n t settler c o n v e r t e d , t h e Jesuits w o n a land grant from C e c i l i u s
C a l v e r t . O t h e r lands C a l v e r t retained and passed on to his descen-
dants. O v e r t h e g e n e r a t i o n s , R o c k C r e e k Farm w i t h its “ R o m e , ”
o n w h i c h t h e U . S . C a p i t o l was e r e c t e d , d e v o l v e d t o t h e C a l v e r t
heiress E l e a n o r D a r n a l l and h e r h u s b a n d , a n Irish i m m i g r a n t
w h o s e marriage and abilities h a d e a r n e d e n o u g h m o n e y t o m a k e
h i m a prosperous m e r c h a n t - p l a n t e r . It was to this c o u p l e , and on
this land, that the first A m e r i c a n bishop was born in 1 7 3 5 .
L i k e his older b r o t h e r D a n i e l , Jacky C a r r o l l did his earliest
s c h o o l i n g at B o h e m i a M a n o r , a secret Jesuit a c a d e m y just d o w n
t h e road. B o h e m i a M a n o r h a d t o b e r u n secretly b e c a u s e o f anti-
C a t h o l i c laws resulting from t h e a b d i c a t i o n of C a t h o l i c James II
and the succession of Protestants W i l l i a m and Mary to t h e British
t h r o n e i n 1 6 8 9 . T h e P e n a l Period i n M a r y l a n d , w h i c h w o u l d e x -
tend up to the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , served the black papacy well
by inclining affluent C a t h o l i c families to send their sons across the

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A t l a n t i c to t a k e t h e Jesuit ratio studiorum at S t . O m e r ’ s . I n d e e d ,


more A m e r i c a n s w e n t t o S t . O m e r ’ s C o l l e g e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h
century t h a n to O x f o r d and C a m b r i d g e c o m b i n e d . 4

A t t h e t e n d e r age o f t h i r t e e n , Jacky sailed t o Europe w i t h his


e v e n younger cousin, C h a r l e s C a r r o l l , for s c h o o l i n g at St. Omer’s.
D a n i e l returned h o m e from there to h e l p manage the family inter-
ests he stood to inherit. In 1 7 5 3 , Jacky entered the n o v i t i a t e of the
Jesuits a t W a t t e n i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s . C h a r l e s w e n t o n t o study
pre-law a t Voltaire’s a l m a mater, t h e C o l l è g e L o u i s - l e - G r a n d i n
Paris. I n 1 7 5 8 , Jacky r e t u r n e d t o S t . O m e r ’ s t o t e a c h , w h i l e
C h a r l e s crossed t h e C h a n n e l t o E n g l a n d , e n r o l l i n g i n L o n d o n ’ s
p r e m i e r s c h o o l for barristers, t h e I n n e r T e m p l e , f o u n d e d in the
fourteenth century by the K n i g h t s Templar. 5

Jacky was ordained to the Jesuit priesthood in 1 7 6 1 . W h e n he


learned t h a t St. O m e r ’ s was about to be seized by t h e F r e n c h gov-
e r n m e n t in p r e p a r a t i o n for t h e royal e d i c t suppressing t h e Jesuits
i n F r a n c e , h e w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r pupils m o v e d t o
Bruges. I n 1 7 6 9 , h e r e n o u n c e d his C a l v e r t i n h e r i t a n c e , s l o u g h e d
off his n i c k n a m e , t o o k the e x t r e m e Jesuit v o w of papal o b e d i e n c e ,
and b e g a n t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y and t h e o l o g y a t t h e E n g l i s h c o l -
lege i n L i è g e . I t was h e r e t h a t h e b e f r i e n d e d C h a r l e s P h i l i p p e
S t o u r t o n , his G r a n d Tour c o m p a n i o n .

J
the
O H N Carroll’s arrival a t his mother’s h o m e i n M a r y l a n d c o i n c i d -
ed w i t h Paul R e v e r e ’ s ride to P h i l a d e l p h i a b e a r i n g letters from
Boston Committee of Correspondence s e e k i n g aid from
C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s group in protesting the closing of B o s t o n Har-
bor. From his mother’s estate at R o c k C r e e k , C a r r o l l dealt w i t h the
a f t e r m a t h o f t h e T e a A c t b y e x e r c i s i n g h i s “ s e c u l a r i s e d ” priestly
authority as Prefect of the Sodality. He integrated the C a t h o l i c s of
M a r y l a n d , P e n n s y l v a n i a , and n o r t h e r n V i r g i n i a i n t o t h e m o v e -
m e n t for i n d e p e n d e n c e .
C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s P h i l a d e l p h i a c o m m i t t e e sent B o s t o n a let-
ter of support. T h e c o m m i t t e e additionally proposed a congress of
deputies from the c o l o n i e s to (a) consider measures to restore har-
m o n y w i t h G r e a t Britain and (b) p r e v e n t the dispute from advanc-

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ing t o “ a n u n d e s i r a b l e e n d . ” T h o m s o n t h e n n o t i f i e d all t h e
c o l o n i e s s o u t h of P e n n s y l v a n i a of his c o m m i t t e e ’ s a c t i o n . He sug-
gested t h e n e c e s s i t y of c a l l i n g a g e n e r a l congress to c o n s i d e r t h e
problem. C o m b i n e d w i t h a similar call from the V i r g i n i a House of
Burgesses, his s u g g e s t i o n was a p p r o v e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o l o n i e s .
Plans were laid for t h e First C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s to m e e t at
Philadelphia in September.
O n June 1 , 1 7 7 4 , t h e bill c l o s i n g B o s t o n H a r b o r w e n t i n t o
effect. T h o m s o n ’ s radicals led P h i l a d e l p h i a in o b s e r v i n g a day of
mourning. Shops closed, churches held services, the people
r e m a i n e d quietly i n t h e i r h o m e s . O n June 8 , T h o m s o n and more
t h a n n i n e hundred freeholders petitioned G o v e r n o r R i c h a r d P e n n
to c o n v e n e the Pennsylvania Assembly so that it might consider
s e n d i n g d e l e g a t e s t o a n a l l - c o l o n y congress t o e x p l o r e w a y s o f
restoring h a r m o n y and peace to the British Empire. T h e G o v e r n o r
refused their request, w h i c h justified T h o m s o n ’ s taking a c t i o n out-
side the established order.
T h o m s o n c a l l e d for a t o w n m e e t i n g t o b e h e l d o n June 18.
N e a r l y 8,000 P h i l a d e l p h i a n s attended. Boisterously, they resolved
that the closing of B o s t o n Harbor was tyrannical, and that a C o n -
t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s to secure the rights and liberties of the colonies
must be c o n v e n e d in Philadelphia.
In July, the P e n n s y l v a n i a A s s e m b l y yielded to T h o m s o n ’ s pop-
ular pressure and agreed to n a m e a d e l e g a t i o n to this First C o n t i -
n e n t a l Congress. T h o m s o n , h o w e v e r , was n o t n a m e d .
T h a n k s t o t h e p u b l i c i t y from his “First C i t i z e n / S e c o n d C i t i -
zen” m e d i a p r o d u c t i o n during t h e first h a l f o f 1 7 7 3 , C h a r l e s C a r -
roll was n a m e d b y t h e A n n a p o l i s C o m m i t t e e o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e
to be a delegate to the First C o n t i n e n t a l Congress. But he declined
the n o m i n a t i o n . He said that his usefulness m i g h t be restricted by
anti-Catholic sentiment engendered by the Quebec A c t (with
w h i c h Parliament had a v e n g e d the B o s t o n Tea Party by g i v i n g the
w e s t e r n lands o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , C o n n e c t i c u t , V i r g i n i a , and N e w
York t o C a t h o l i c Q u e b e c ) . H e a t t e n d e d t h e C o n g r e s s , h o w e v e r ,
but as an “ u n o f f i c i a l c o n s u l t a n t ” to t h e M a r y l a n d e r s . C h a r l e s
T h o m s o n a c c o m p a n i e d the Pennsylvanians in the same capacity.

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C H A P T E R 18 T H E S T I M U L A T I N G EFFECTS O F T E A

T o prepare for t h e S e p t e m b e r 5 t h o p e n i n g session, d e l e g a t e s


b e g a n arriving i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n late A u g u s t . T h e y c o n g r e g a t e d
at a w e l l - k n o w n radical m e e t i n g - p l a c e , t h e e l e g a n t m a n s i o n of
T h o m a s Mifflin. Mifflin h a d studied classics under C h a r l e s T h o m -
son a t B e n j a m i n Franklin’s A c a d e m y (later t o b e c o m e U n i v e r s i t y
of P e n n s y l v a n i a ) . T h e y were close friends. As Mifflin’s houseguest,
T h o m s o n was o n h a n d r o u n d t h e c l o c k t o greet and c o n f e r w i t h
t h e a r r i v i n g leaders, m o s t o f w h o m already k n e w h i m b y n a m e .
J o h n A d a m s ’ diary entry for A u g u s t 3 0 t h speaks of “ m u c h c o n v e r -
sation” he and his fellow delegates h a d w i t h the learned T h o m s o n .
He called T h o m s o n “the Sam A d a m s of Philadelphia,” and “the
life of the cause of liberty.”
T h o m s o n and the Carrolls – C h a r l e s , Daniel, and John – spent
these critical preliminary days lobbying for the inevitability of war.
T h o m s o n was already h e a v i l y invested in N e w Jersey’s Batso Fur-
n a c e . B a t s o w o u l d furnish c a n n o n balls, shot, k e t t l e s , spikes and
nails t o the army t h r o u g h the W a r C o m m i s s i o n e r , w h o c o n t r o l l e d
all the e x e c u t i v e duties of the military department. T h e W a r C o m -
missioner was just t h e m a n L o r e n z o R i c c i n e e d e d for t h e j o b :
Charles Carroll.
T h o m s o n was elected Secretary of the First C o n t i n e n t a l C o n -
gress, an office he h e l d u n d e r t h e title “Perpetual S e c r e t a r y ” until
the U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n was ratified i n 1 7 8 9 . H e led t h e
delegates t h r o u g h a n itemized s t a t e m e n t o f the A m e r i c a n theory
o f r e b e l l i o n t h a t c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e c r i t i c a l D e c l a r a t i o n and
Resolves of O c t o b e r 14, 1 7 7 4 .

I T was w h i l e t h e First C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s was d e l i b e r a t i n g


A m e r i c a ’ s future u n d e r B r i t i s h t y r a n n y t h a t G a n g a n e l l i , P o p e
C l e m e n t XIV, died his a g o n i z i n g d e a t h ( S e p t e m b e r 22, 1 7 7 4 ) .
W h e n t h e p a p a c y is v a c a n t , says New Catholic Encyclopedia, the
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e H o l y See’s t e m p o r a l
rights – that is, its business affairs – are routinely t a k e n over by the
Treasurer o f the A p o s t o l i c C h a m b e r . T h e A p o s t o l i c Treasurer o n
the day of G a n g a n e l l i ’ s passing was C a r d i n a l G i o v a n n i Braschi. A
fifty-seven-year-old aristocrat of impoverished parentage, C a r d i n a l

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Braschi was a sterling p r o d u c t of the Jesuit colleges. T h e ratio stu~


diorum h a d m a d e of h i m a distinguished lawyer and d i p l o m a t . He
had b e e n A p o s t o l i c Treasurer w h e n R o t h s c h i l d b e g a n serving the
C a t h o l i c principality o f H e s s e - H a n o v e r i n 1 7 6 9 . T h i s interesting
fact awakens the possibility that the C a r d i n a l and R o t h s c h i l d had
b e e n i n v o l v e d in R i c c i ’ s A m e r i c a n p r o j e c t for years. B u t t h a t is
only conjecture. W h a t is b e y o n d conjecture, h o w e v e r , is that until
a n e w pope could be elected, the w h o l e fiscal w e a l t h of the R o m a n
C a t h o l i c C h u r c h b e l o n g e d t o B r a s c h i a n d t o n o o n e else. A l -
t h o u g h lacking formal e n t i t l e m e n t , C a r d i n a l Braschi would rule as
a k i n d of “virtual” Pontifex Maximus for o n e of the longest periods
of papal v a c a n c y on record.
D a y after day after day, t h e c o n c l a v e h a g g l e d o v e r a single
issue – W h a t w o u l d t h e c a n d i d a t e s do a b o u t t h e Jesuits? S h o u l d
G a n g a n e l l i ’ s brief of D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o n t i n u e to be enforced or
not?
A l t h o u g h L o r e n z o R i c c i was i n d e t e n t i o n a t C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n -
gelo, we k n o w he could easily h o p a t u n n e l carriage to the V a t i c a n
for c o v e r t m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e V i r t u a l P o p e . In a v e r y real way,
Braschi was a c r e a t i o n of Ricci’s. Braschi h a d b e e n m a d e a C a r d i -
n a l u n d e r t h e sponsorship o f G a n g a n e l l i , w h o s e o w n c a r d i n a l a t e
was sponsored, as we r e c a l l , by R i c c i . T h e s e t w o most powerful
m e n on earth, R i c c i and Braschi, had b e e n secretly allied for years.
A n d n o w t h e turn o f e v e n t s h a d m a d e t h e m invisible and inaudi-
ble. T h e s e last p r e c i o u s days in t h e final b u r s t i n g - f o r t h of R i c c i ’ s
grand strategy afforded ideal c o n d i t i o n s for B r a s c h i a n d R i c c i to
determine face-to-face w i t h the R o t h s c h i l d emissaries, out of pub-
lic sight and mind, h o w the Vatican’s immense resources – money,
m e n , supplies – w o u l d be d e p l o y e d in t h e c o m i n g m o n t h s and
years. (In O c t o b e r 1 7 7 4 , for e x a m p l e , c o l o n i a l a g e n t B e n j a m i n
F r a n k l i n sent England’s most e n l i g h t e n e d copywriter, T o m Paine,
to beef up the pamphleteers in Philadelphia.)
T h e days of papal v a c a n c y w o r e on – thirty, fifty, sixty, s e v e n -
ty-five, a hundred days, a hundred and ten. Finally, after nearly five
m o n t h s of confusion, on February 1 5 , 1 7 7 5 , the o n e hundred thir-
ty-fourth day, it was a n n o u n c e d t h a t R o m e h a d a n e w P o p e . T h e

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n e w p o p e was a m a n a c c e p t a b l e to b o t h sides of t h e Jesuit ques-


t i o n . He h a d tacitly assured the anti-Jesuits that he w o u l d c o n t i n -
ue to enforce Disestablishment, yet the pro-Jesuits k n e w he would
e n f o r c e it tenderly b e c a u s e of t h e great i n t e l l e c t u a l , p o l i t i c a l , and
spiritual debts he o w e d the Society. T h e n e w pope was best quali-
fied for t h e p a p a c y b e c a u s e h e ’ d b e e n r u n n i n g t h e H o l y S e e w i t h
L o r e n z o R i c c i for t h e past h u n d r e d t h i r t y - f o u r days – Giovanni
Braschi! Braschi t o o k the papal n a m e Pius V I .
A n d n o w p l u m m e t e d the great a v a l a n c h e .

O N February 9, 1 7 7 5 the British Parliament declared Massachu-


setts to be “in a state of rebellion.”
O n M a r c h 23, P a t r i c k H e n r y d e l i v e r e d his famous “ G I V E M E
LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH” oration.
O n A p r i l 1 9 , a t a tense daybreak c o n f r o n t a t i o n o n L e x i n g t o n
G r e e n b e t w e e n a group of angry colonists and some eight hundred
redcoats, an unseen and unidentified shootist fired on the redcoats
from b e h i n d a n e a r b y m e e t i n g - h o u s e . T h i s was t h e “ s h o t h e a r d
’round t h e w o r l d ” – a l t h o u g h R a l p h W a l d o E m e r s o n c o i n e d t h a t
phrase in his Concord Hymn ( 1 8 3 6 ) to describe a skirmish at C o n -
c o r d B r i d g e , s e v e n miles away a n d a few h o u r s later. T h e air on
L e x i n g t o n G r e e n c r a c k l e d w i t h e x p l o d i n g g u n p o w d e r , and w h e n
the smoke cleared, eight colonists lay dead. 6

A s t h e redcoats r e t u r n e d t o B o s t o n , t h e y w e r e a t t a c k e d b y
ever-increasing colonial militiamen. T h e Massachusetts Provin-
cial C o n g r e s s mobilized 13,600 c o l o n i a l soldiers and placed Boston
under a siege that lasted for almost a year.
T o p r e v e n t t h e spread o f t h e B o s t o n c a r n a g e t o t h e Q u a k e r
province, the Pennsylvania Assembly named Charles T h o m s o n
and t w e l v e o t h e r s to a c o m m i t t e e to p u r c h a s e e x p l o s i v e s and
m u n i t i o n s – t h e l e a d i n g m a n u f a c t u r e r s of w h i c h h a p p e n e d to be
T h o m s o n and C h a r l e s Carroll.
O n May 10, the S e c o n d C o n t i n e n t a l Congress c o n v e n e d i n
Philadelphia and n a m e d G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f
of the C o n t i n e n t a l A r m y .
On June 22, C o n g r e s s v o t e d to issue a c o n t i n e n t a l c u r r e n c y –

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t w o m i l l i o n dollars in unsecured bills of credit – to be used in pay-


ing the costs of war.
O n July 3 , G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n formally assumed c o m m a n d o f
the C o n t i n e n t a l A r m y , a b o u t s e v e n t e e n t h o u s a n d m e n g a t h e r e d
in C a m b r i d g e , Massachusetts.
On July 5, Congress adopted its last h u m b l e plea for peace w i t h
E n g l a n d , the “ O l i v e B r a n c h P e t i t i o n , ” w r i t t e n b y C h a r l e s T h o m -
son and J o h n D i c k i n s o n . G o v e r n o r P e n n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a person-
ally d e l i v e r e d t h e P e t i t i o n t o L o n d o n , but t h e King’s Friends
prevented G e o r g e III from seeing P e n n or e v e n a c k n o w l e d g i n g the
Petition.
On July 6, Congress adopted the D e c l a r a t i o n of the Causes and
N e c e s s i t i e s o f T a k i n g U p A r m s , w h i c h fell short o f asserting inde-
p e n d e n c e , but v o w e d a h o l y war of liberation from slavery.
On A u g u s t 23, G e o r g e III issued a p r o c l a m a t i o n declaring that
all t h i r t e e n A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s w e r e in a state of o p e n r e b e l l i o n .
T w o m o n t h s later, i n O c t o b e r , British forces b u r n e d F a l m o u t h ,
w h a t is presently Portland, M a i n e .
T h e war was o n . B u t from L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s v a n t a g e p o i n t , t h e
war was won. T h e r e remained only opportunities n o w for his e n e -
mies, the British C r o w n and the A m e r i c a n colonials, to engage in
blood-letting hostilities that would eventually separate and
e x h a u s t t h e m b o t h . Divide et impera, d i v i d e and conquer. W h a t to
t h e British was “ t h e W a r o f A m e r i c a n R e b e l l i o n , ” and t o the
A m e r i c a n s “the W a r for I n d e p e n d e n c e , ” was to G e n e r a l R i c c i “the
W a r o f R e u n i f i c a t i o n w i t h P r o t e s t a n t Dissidents.” From i t w o u l d
rise t h e first F e b r o n i a n g o v e r n m e n t on e a r t h , a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of
secular c h u r c h e s called states led by an e l e c t o r a t e of l a y m e n prop-
erly e n l i g h t e n e d by t h e ratio studiorum and united under the spiri-
tual guidance of Pontifex Maximus, and paying tribute to R o m e for
the privilege. United ... States.
T h e real war over, there b e g a n n o w the u n r a v e l i n g , w h i c h was
the historical war, t h e theatrical war. T h i s w o u l d consist of a series
of bloody battles m o u n t e d by Congress and C r o w n for the people’s
participation, observation, and c o m m e m o r a t i o n . T h e s e events
would produce C a e s a r e a n Rome’s essential e m o t i o n a l cornerstone.

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CHAPTER 18 T H E S T I M U L A T I N G EFFECTS OF T E A

L i k e Virgil’s Aeneid, e p i c n a t i o n a l h e r o e s w o u l d forge a fictitious


n a t i o n a l legacy. W e must n o t forget C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s c a n d i d
assessment t h a t t h e R e v o l u t i o n ’ s leaders were largely d e c e p t i o n s ,
m e n of “supposed w i s d o m and valor” w h o were far inferior to “the
qualities that h a v e b e e n ascribed to t h e m . ”
A n d there is e v i d e n c e – a d m i t t e d l y t h e faintest h i n t of e v i -
d e n c e (as is so often t h e case w i t h c l a n d e s t i n e warriors) – t h a t
L o r e n z o R i c c i c o m m u n e d w i t h these A m e r i c a n h e r o e s , and g a v e
t h e m instruction, on their o w n soil. T h i s e v i d e n c e is presented in
our n e x t chapter.

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THE GENERALATE OF LORENZO RICCI — 1750-1775


A Brief Summary of Events

EUR0W0RLD ENGLAND AMERICA

1758
LORENZO RICCI elected Black Pope, BENJ. FRANKLIN in LONDON seeking Colonies happy, seeking greater
CLEMENT X I I I elected Pope. JOHN CAR- greater British presence in P e n n - British presence, yet SAM ADAMS
ROLL begins teaching at ST. OMER’S. sylvania. KING GEORGE II obliges by begins organizing against Great
POMBAL denounces Jesuits in PORTU- plunging England into the French Britain. Gadsen in S . C . , Harnett in
GAL. & Indian Wars. CHAS. CARROLL gradu- N.C., Patrick Henry and Jefferson
ates in civil law from Jesuit college in Virginia, and Chas. T h o m s o n in
in PARIS, arrives in London for more Phila. follow suit.
legal studies at the MIDDLE TEMPLE.

1759
Jesuits expelled from PORTUGAL, GEORGE II’S g r a n d s o n , the PRINCE OF CHAS. THOMSON formalizes “ Y O U N G
VOLTAIRE bashes Jesuits in two hit WALES, matures under the spiritual J U N T O , ” a secret c l u b for young men
plays in Pans, GANGANELLI becomes d i r e c t i o n of LORD BUTE. interested in useful arts and s c i -
cardinal, under RICCI’S sponsorship. ences cloned from FRANKLIN’S
“ J U N T O , ” and akin to SAM ADAMS’
“ C A U C U S C L U B ” in Boston.

1760 Jesuits under attack in SPAIN. GEORGE I I I takes throne upon G r a n d -


father’s death, BUTE runs Parlia-
Happy to be English subjects,
COLONISTS are peacefully “ruled by a
ment through “KING’S FRIENDS.” little pen, ink, and paper-led by a
thread.”

1761
Jesuits c o n d e m n e d in SPAIN. BUTE, virtual head of British g o v e r n - WRITS OF ASSISTANCE imposed on
ment, chooses mate for GEORGE I I I , colonists by KING’S FRIENDS. JOHN
Queen CHARLOTTE of Mecklenburg. ADAMS considers this the “COMMENCE-
MENT OF THE CONTROVERSY.”

1762
Jesuits c o n d e m n e d by FRENCH par- BENJ. FRANKLIN returns to install
lement. JOHN CARROLL transfers to POSTAL SYSTEM connecting southern
BRUGES. Virginia with eastern New England

1763
FEBRONIUS publishes STATE OF THE-’. ENGLAND wins FRENCH & INDIAN WARS, Colonists resent ENGLAND’S grant of
CHURCH, calling for reunification of but under terms of the PEACE OF lands to FRANCE under the PEACE OF
Protestants with Catholics in PARIS, negotiated by LORD BUTE, is c u t PARIS. The secret c l u b s agitate
s t a t e s u n d e r t h e papacy’s s p i r i t u a l off from any European alliances against E n g l a n d .
direction. and made object of colonial resent-
ment. BUTE forced to resign.

1764
Pope CLEMENT X I I I bans FEBRONIUS 1
BUTE picks GRENVILLE new Prime Min- FRANKLIN returns to England to lobby
book. LOUIS X V suppresses Jesuits ister. GRENVILLE increases duties on for Pennsylvania’s becoming a
by royal edict in FRANCE. colonial imports. CHAS. CARROLL royal colony. Colonists resent
leaves England for MARYLAND. GRENVILLE’S measures, smuggling
increases, GRENVILLE brings ADMIRALTY
COURTS inland

1765
CLEMENT X I I I authorizes office of GRENVILLE passes STAMP ACT. ANGLICAN CHAS. CARROLL arrives in MARYLAND.
SACRED HEART, a Jesuit c u l t w h i c h CHURCH requests British cabinet to T h e AMERICAN BISHOP SCARE “trains a n d
holds believers responsible for establish an AMERICAN BISHOP. habituates the colonists to o p p o s i -
reparations for the sins of the t i o n . ” PATRICK HENRY, furious at STAMP
w o r l d , payable t h r o u g h prayers, A C T , cries “ N o taxation without rep-
penances, masses and SOCIAL ACTION. resentation!” S A M ADAMS convenes
STAMP ACT CONGRESS in NEW YORK.

1766
CLEMENT X I I I a p p o i n t s jesuited GIOV. GRENVILLE falls. STAMP ACT repealed, Colonies exuberant over STAMP ACT
BRASCHI Treasurer of the Apostolic with rider that PARLIAMENT has “full repeal.
Chamber. power” to bind colonies, CHAS.
TOWNSHEND takes over as Prime M i n -
ister.

1767
KING CHARLES III expels Jesuits from TOWNSHEND ACTS place high duties on TOWNSHEND ACTS stimulate colonial
SPAIN. goods received in A m e r i c a . productivity.

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CHAPTER 18 T H E S T I M U L A T I N G EFFECTS O F T E A

EUROWORLD ENGLAND AMERICA

1768
Jesuits expelled from other First ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITTANICA p u b - Productivity and self-support help
Catholic countries. lished. raise comfort level of SEPARATION and
INDEPENDENCE among colonists.

1768
Day before meeting with European TOWNSHEND ACTS costing more to CHAS. THOMSON opens a rum distillery
powers to discuss DISSOLUTION OF enforce than revenue returns. BENJ. near PHILADELPHIA.
JESUITS, Pope CLEMENT X I I I dies s u d - FRANKLIN now representing PENNSYLVA-
denly. GANGANELLI elected CLEMENT NIA, GEORGIA, and NEW JERSEY in LON-
X I V . ROTHSCHILD appointed guardian DON.
of Vatican treasury. JOHN CARROLL
ordained a Jesuit.

1770
FRANKLIN adds MASSACHUSETTS to list, REDCOATS fire into an angry Boston
making him chief spokesmen for crowd. BOSTON MASSACRE becomes
American interests in E n g l a n d . the symbol of British tyranny.
TOWNSHEND ACTS repealed

1771
JOHN CARROLL begins tour of Europe O n anniversary of BOSTON MASSACRE,
with CHARLES STOURTON. S A M ADAMS calls for ACTION AND SOLIDAR-
ITY against E n g l a n d .

1772
RICCI causes AMIOT’S SUN-TZU to be
published in PARIS, disclosing his
strategy for bringing America
under Rome’s d o m i n i o n .

1773
After making GIOV. BRASCHI cardinal, In May, PARLIAMENT passes the TEA CHAS. CARROLL r u n s his “FIRST CITI-
CLEMENT X I V dissolves Jesuits o n ACT, proposed by EAST INDIA COMPANY. ZEN” o p i n i o n shaper. CHAS. T H O M -
J u l y 2 1 . On August 17, LORENZO JOHN CARROLL arrives at WARDOUR C A S - SON’S group turns back Tea A c t
RICCI is taken to ENGLISH COLLEGE for TLE in Wiltshire, E n g l a n d , to serve product meant for Philadelphia.
meetings with JOHN MATTINGLY of as Chaplain to the ARUNDELLS. DISGUISED FREEMASONS stage t h e BOSTON
MARYLAND, BRASCHI, and others, per- T E A PARTY, Dec. 16
haps i n c l u d i n g EAST INDIA COMPANY.
Sept. 2 2 , RICCI taken to CASTEL S A N -
T’ANGELO, as Tea Act product heads
for Boston.

1774
Pope CLEMENT X I V dies. C h u r c h PARLIAMENT enacts the INTOLERABLE Efforts of CHAS. THOMSON result in
gives appearance of serious dis- ACTS, ostensibly to punish the FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS at
ability. RICCI accesses VATICAN via colonies for TEA PARTY offense, but Philadelphia in Sept., with THOMSON
tunnel from SANT’ANGELO for meet- meant to drive them to SEPARATION. serving as “PERPETUAL SECRETARY”
ings with CARDINAL BRASCHI, who runs GEORGE I I I writes LORD NORTH: “ T h e die for the next fifteen years. CHAS. CAR-
Holy See during long conclave to is cast; the colonies must either ROLL attends first CONGRESS as “unof-
elect successor. triumph or s u b m i t . ” TOM PAINE ficial c o n s u l t a n t ” to Maryland
boards ship for America with letter delegation. THOS. MIFFLIN’S house
of introduction from BENJ. FRANKLIN. scene of secret meetings between
JOHN CARROLL also departs for America CARROLLS and patriot leaders. CHAS.
CARROLL and CHAS. THOMSON manufac-
ture explosives and weaponry.

1775
Long conclave ( 1 4 3 days) elects On Apr. 19, REDCOATS fire on A m e r i -
GIOV. BRASCHI pope, who takes name GEORGE I I I ignores “OLIVE BRANCH cans in response to an unseen
PIUS V I . LORENZO RICCI “ d i e s ” in C A S - PETITION” offered by Congress. shootist at LEXINGTON GREEN, near
TEL SANT’ANGELO Nov 2 4 . C o n c o r d Bridge

1776
JOHN AND CHAS. CARROLL join C o n g r e s - PAINE’S COMMON SENSE p u b l i s h e d .
sional MISSION TO CANADA and secure DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE resolved
QUEBEC’S NEUTRALITY in the c o m i n g JULY 2 , M D C C L X X V I .
War

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RULERS OF E V I L

THE NEW REPUBLIC’S FIRST FLAG: THE FLAG OF


THE EAST INDIA COMPANY
Chapter 19

THE DEATH
& RESURRECTION
OF LORENZO RICCI

O
N N O V E M B E R 19, 1 7 7 5 officials at C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o were
presented the f o l l o w i n g d e p o s i t i o n , g i v e n under o a t h and
signed by L o r e n z o R i c c i : “ T h e S o c i e t y of Jesus t h a t is dis-
solved offered no reason or pretext whatsoever for its dissolution.”
T h i s , Ricci’s last official s t a t e m e n t , is a masterpiece of m e n t a l
reservation, for indeed the S o c i e t y had n o t offered a pretext or rea-
son for its dissolution, and indeed Lorenzo R i c c i had n o t furnished
a p r e t e x t or reason for his incarceration. T h e Jesuits had b e e n dis-
solved and R i c c i imprisoned for no offered reasons whatsoever; ergo,
their dissolution for all eternity was null and void. O u t c o m e would
prove this fact: the S o c i e t y of Jesus w o u l d be officially restored in
1 8 1 4 . S i n c e t h e D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t was a n u l l i t y from t h e b e g i n -
n i n g , it must follow t h a t the Jesuits were still t e c h n i c a l l y alive as
the world’s largest c l a n d e s t i n e milice du Christ. Legally, thousands
of Jesuits were still b o u n d to their o a t h of o b e d i e n c e to t h e b l a c k
papacy. T h e y were free n o w t o e x p a n d R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m w i t h

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RULERS OF E V I L

perfect invisibility, e n d justifying means, dedicating their e n c y c l o -


p e d i c skills in t h e useful arts, law, religion, m e d i c i n e , philosophy,
the h u m a n i t i e s , f i n a n c e , c o m m e r c e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , diplomacy,
b a n k i n g , f i n a n c e , espionage, and intrigue – d e d i c a t i n g all to b o t h
sides of the self-extirpating Protestant belligerents. “Now, whether
he kill Cassio or Cassio him, or each do kill the other, every way makes
my gain!”
If t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus c o u l d c o n q u e r t h o u g h b e l i e v e d dead,
could n o t its Superior G e n e r a l d o the same? W h e n L o r e n z o R i c c i
“ d i e d ” i n his c e l l a t C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o o n N o v e m b e r 24, 1 7 7 5 ,
w h a t if his “ d e a t h ” was no more p h y s i c a l t h a n the supposed dises-
t a b l i s h m e n t o f his army? Lesser m y s t i c s t h a n R i c c i , w h o secretly
c o m m a n d e d the R o s i c r u c i a n s , were k n o w n to die and resurrect at
the threshold of important endeavors:

According to material available, the supreme council of the


Fraternity of the Rose Croix [Rosicrucians] was composed of a
certain number of individuals who had died what is known as
the “philosophic death.” W h e n the time came for an initiate to
enter upon his labors for the Order, he conveniently “died”
under somewhat mysterious circumstances. In reality he changed
his name and place of residence, and a box of rocks or a body
secured for the purpose was buried in his stead. It is believed that
this happened in the case of Sir Francis Bacon who, like all ser-
vants of the Mysteries, renounced all personal credit and permit-
ted others to be considered as the authors of the documents
which he wrote or inspired. 1

W a s it really Ricci’s b o d y lying in state at the cathedral of S a n


G i o v a n n i d’Fiorentini during the elaborate funeral mass that Pius
V I arranged for h i m ? W a s i t really L o r e n z o R i c c i w h o was e n -
t o m b e d b e n e a t h the C h u r c h of the G e s u a w e e k later, in the vault
reserved for G e n e r a l s of the S o c i e t y ? Or was it a w a x effigy sculpt-
ed by artisans u p o n a corpse of Ricci’s dimensions under the direc-
tion of John Carroll’s collaborator, m a n - a b o u t - R o m e and art agent
extraordinaire Francis T h o r p e ?
Of course, Lorenzo R i c c i would h a v e covered his tracks in sub-

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CHAPTER 19 T H E D E A T H & RESURRECTION O F L O R E N Z O R I C C I

l i m e l y S u n - T z u a n f a s h i o n , so we c a n n e v e r be sure. B u t is it n o t
c o n s i s t e n t w i t h his authority, resources, m o t i v e s , and m o d u s
operandi, as w e l l as t h e verifiable o u t c o m e of A m e r i c a n I n d e p e n -
d e n c e , that the G e n e r a l would feign d e a t h at precisely this oppor-
tunity and sail to A m e r i c a in order to c o n d u c t his o r c h e s t r a t i o n s
personally? Reflect on his c o u n s e l in The Thirteen Articles of S u n -
Tzu, particularly –

T h e great art of a General is to arrange for the enemy never to


know the place where he will have to fight & to carefully with-
hold from him knowledge of which posts he must guard. If he
manages that & can also hide the slightest of his movements,
then he is not only a clever General, he is an extraordinary man,
a prodigy. Without being seen, he sees. He hears without being
heard.
Go to places where the enemy would never suspect that you
intended to go.... Do not think of gathering the fruits of your
victory until his entire defeat has put you in a position where
you can yourself reconnoitre surely, tranquilly & with leisure.

If t h e G e n e r a l did sail to A m e r i c a r a t h e r t h a n lie in state, he


w o u l d arrive n o t as a c o n q u e r i n g h e r o b u t as a g e n t l e , h a r m l e s s ,
n a m e l e s s , s c h o l a r l y o l d m a n w h o s p e n t most o f his t i m e reading.
A n d during t h e course o f his stay, inevitably, s o m e o n e w o u l d o b -
serve his subtle p o w e r o v e r great patriots a n d w r i t e a b o u t it. Just
such a person was observed and written about.

D U R I N G t h e fall o f 1 7 7 5 , C o n g r e s s authorized a c o m m i t t e e
made up of Benjamin Franklin, T h o m a s Lynch, Benjamin
H a r r i s o n a n d G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n t o c o n s i d e r and r e c o m m e n d a
design for the first u n i t e d c o l o n i a l flag. T h e so-called “Flag C o m -
mittee” traveled to Cambridge, Massachusetts. T h e r e , according
t o t h e o n l y k n o w n a c c o u n t o f its p r o c e e d i n g s , g i v e n i n R o b e r t
A l l e n C a m p b e l l ’ s b o o k , Our Flag ( C h i c a g o , 1 8 9 0 ) , t h e C o m m i t -
tee mysteriously shared its a u t h o r i t y w i t h a t o t a l stranger. T h i s
stranger was an elderly E u r o p e a n t r a n s i e n t k n o w n o n l y as “ t h e
Professor.”

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RULERS OF E V I L

H e h a d arrived from parts u n k n o w n a t summer’s e n d . ( T h e


prisoner o f C a s t e l S a n t ’ A n g e l o had n o t b e e n publicly seen i n t w o
years – a m p l e t i m e to m a n a g e Braschi’s e l e c t i o n to t h e papacy,
relax, pack important things, die the philosopher’s death, and take
a t h r e e - m o n t h v o y a g e t o B o s t o n H a r b o r ) . S i n c e his arrival, t h e
Professor had o c c u p i e d a guestroom in a private C a m b r i d g e h o m e
w h o s e hostess, “ o n e of his earnest and intelligent disciples,” would
r e m e m b e r h i m in her diary (cited in C a m p b e l l ’ s b o o k ) as “a quiet
and very interesting m e m b e r of the family.”
W h a t the hostess records about the Professor m a t c h e s remark-
ably w h a t i s k n o w n a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f L o r e n z o R i c c i . For
e x a m p l e , t h e Professor is p e r c e i v e d to be “ m o r e t h a n three-score
and t e n ” years of age; Lorenzo R i c c i was s e v e n t y - t w o . T h e Profes-
sor spoke m a n y l a n g u a g e s fluently, displayed an e n c y c l o p e d i c
k n o w l e d g e of history, and was “ s e e m i n g l y at h o m e u p o n any and
every topic c o m i n g up in conversation.” We might e x p e c t the very
same of Lorenzo R i c c i , a distinguished professor of literature, phi-
losophy and theology at the R o m a n C o l l e g e and a well-established
c o n f i d a n t of Europe’s l e a d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s , philosophes, a n d mys-
tics. T h e Professor k e p t “ l o c k e d a w a y in a large, old f a s h i o n e d ,
cubically shaped, iron bound, heavy, o a k e n chest, a n u m b e r of very
rare old books and a n c i e n t manuscripts,” w h i c h he spent m u c h of
his time “deciphering, translating, or rewriting.” We m i g h t e x p e c t
as m u c h of L o r e n z o R i c c i , t h e v o r a c i o u s s c h o l a r and p u b l i s h e r of
oriental masterworks.
On the morning of December 13, 1 7 7 5 , the c o m m i t t e e m e n
arrived in C a m b r i d g e for a m i d d a y feast. T h e Professor g r e e t e d
t h e m as we m i g h t e x p e c t Lorenzo R i c c i would, “ w i t h an ease, grace
and d i g n i t y [ e v i d e n c i n g ] his superior ability, e x p e r i e n c e a n d at-
t a i n m e n t s , and ... w i t h a c o u r t l y b o w t h a t left no r o o m to d o u b t
t h a t h e had h a b i t u a l l y associated w i t h those i n a c k n o w l e d g e d
a u t h o r i t y . ” W h e n B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n was p r e s e n t e d t o h i m , the
hostess w a t c h e d t h e patriarchal D o c t o r lock hands w i t h t h e patri-
archal Professor, “and as fingers closed u p o n fingers, their eyes also
met, and there was an instantaneous, a very apparent and a mutu-
ally gratified r e c o g n i t i o n . ” W h a t h a d t h e w o m a n witnessed? T h e

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CHAPTER 19 T H E D E A T H & RESURRECTION O F LORENZO R I C C I

U l t i m a t e S u m m i t ? U n k n o w n Superior revealing himself t o A m e r -


ica’s G r a n d e s t Freemason?
T h e table talk s o o n focused o n subjects t h a t h a d o c c u p i e d
L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s a t t e n t i o n since t h e b e g i n n i n g o f his g e n e r a l a t e .
T h e hostess witnessed t h e m discussing “the relation o f the
C o l o n i e s to e a c h other and to the M o t h e r C o u n t r y . ” S h e saw t h e m
discuss “ t h e related q u e s t i o n of one’s duty to the C o l o n y , as relat-
ed to his a l l e g i a n c e to G r e a t B r i t a i n . ” S h e saw t h e Professor take
“a n o t i c e a b l e , t h o u g h n o t at all an obtrusive, part in the conversa-
tion, himself possessed of a wonderful fund of varied and accurate
i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e C o l o n i e s , a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f their
progress, c o n d i t i o n a n d n e e d s , a n d a familiarity w i t h t h e p r i n c i -
ples and o p e r a t i o n s of British and E u r o p e a n s t a t e s m a n s h i p . ”
W o u l d n ’ t w e e x p e c t a s m u c h from t h e S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l o f t h e
world’s best intelligence agency?
A f t e r l u n c h , G e n e r a l W a s h i n g t o n and the c o m m i t t e e m e n h e l d
a “brief, undertone conversation.” T h e n Dr. Franklin rose and stat-
ed: “ A s t h e c h a i r m a n of this c o m m i t t e e , s p e a k i n g for my associ-
ates, w i t h t h e i r c o n s e n t , a n d w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f G e n e r a l
W a s h i n g t o n , I respectfully i n v i t e t h e Professor to m e e t w i t h t h e
C o m m i t t e e a s o n e o f its m e m b e r s ; and w e , e a c h o n e , p e r s o n a l l y
and urgently, request h i m to a c c e p t the responsibility, and to give
us, and the A m e r i c a n C o l o n i e s , the benefit of his counsel.”
T a k i n g t h e floor, t h e Professor a c c e p t e d t h e responsibility.
T h e n , startlingly, h e p r o p o s e d t h a t his d i s c i p l e , t h e hostess, b e
p l a c e d on t h e c o m m i t t e e “because she is our hostess, because she
is a w o m a n , and above all, because she is a superior w o m a n . ” ( T h e
c o m m i t t e e considered this an i n n o v a t i o n ; yet the Jesuits had b e e n
e m p l o y i n g female coadjutors for centuries.) T h e proposal was “im-
m e d i a t e l y and u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d . ” L u n c h e o n was a d j o u r n e d .
T h e c o m m i t t e e would r e c o n v e n e a t s e v e n i n the e v e n i n g , “ i n the
guest c h a m b e r usually occupied by the Professor.”
F r a n k l i n and the Professor spent the afternoon t o g e t h e r walk-
ing about C a m b r i d g e . W h e n they returned, the hostess n o t e d that
“ b o t h of t h e m wore the relieved and confident look of earnest and
d e t e r m i n e d m e n w h o h a d , in a satisfactory way, solved a perplex-

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ing p r o b l e m , and of victors w h o h a d successfully mastered a diffi-


cult and dangerous situation.”
A t t h e e v e n i n g session, F r a n k l i n t u r n e d t h e m e e t i n g o v e r t o
“his n e w - f o u n d and a b u n d a n t l y h o n o r e d friend.” T h e subject was
a flag. A d d r e s s i n g t h e c o m m i t t e e as “ C o m r a d e A m e r i c a n s , ” the
Professor e x p l a i n e d t h a t , since t h e c o l o n i e s w e r e still d e p e n d e n t
u p o n G r e a t Britain, “we are n o t e x p e c t e d to design or r e c o m m e n d
a flag w h i c h w i l l represent a n e w g o v e r n m e n t or an i n d e p e n d e n t
n a t i o n , ” b u t instead o n e “ t h a t w i l l testify our p r e s e n t l o y a l t y as
English S u b j e c t s , ” a flag t h a t was “already in use,” a flag t h a t h a d
b e e n recognized by t h e British g o v e r n m e n t for “ h a l f a century,” a
flag h a v i n g a field of alternate horizontal red and w h i t e stripes w i t h
the G r a n d U n i o n Flag of G r e a t Britain in the upper left corner.
“I refer,” he said, “to the flag of the East India Company.”
T o h i d e t h e fact t h a t A m e r i c a n s w o u l d b e f i g h t i n g u n d e r t h e
private flag of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e r c a n t i l e c o r p o r a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d
by Jesuits, the Professor provided a plausible c o v e r whereby the flag
could be “ e x p l a i n e d to the masses:”

“The U n i o n Flag of the Mother Country is retained as the


union [upper left corner] of our new flag to announce that the
Colonies are loyal to the just and legitimate sovereignty of the
British Government. T h e thirteen stripes will at once be under-
stood to represent the thirteen Colonies; their equal width will
type the equal rank, rights and responsibilities of the Colonies.
The union of the stripes in the field of our flag will announce the
unity of interests and the cooperative union of efforts, which the
Colonies recognize and put forth in their common cause. T h e
white stripes will signify that we consider our demands just and
reasonable; and that we will seek to secure our rights through
peaceable, intelligent and statesmanlike means – if they prove
at all possible; and the red stripes at the top and bottom of our
flag will declare that first and last – and always – we have the
determination, the enthusiasm, and the power to use force –
whenever we deem force necessary. T h e alternation of the red
and white stripes will suggest that our reasons for all demands
will be intelligent and forcible, and that our force in securing our
rights will be just and reasonable.”

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T h e Professor reminded the c o m m i t t e e that “the masses of the


people, and a large majority of the leaders of public o p i n i o n , desire
a r e m o v a l of g r i e v a n c e s , and a r e c t i f i c a t i o n of w r o n g s , t h r o u g h a
fuller r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r rights as B r i t i s h S u b j e c t s ; a n d few of
t h e m desire and very few of t h e m e x p e c t – at this time – any c o m -
plete s e v e r a n c e of their present p o l i t i c a l and d e p e n d e n t relations
with the English G o v e r n m e n t . ” T h a t severance would occur
“before the sun in its n e x t summer’s strength” – indicating that the
Professor foreknew, as Lorenzo R i c c i would h a v e f o r e k n o w n , a July
declaration o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . A t that time, the East India C o m p a -
ny flag could be “easily modified” by replacing the U n i o n Jack w i t h
stars against a blue b a c k g r o u n d , “to m a k e it a n n o u n c e and repre-
sent the n e w and i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n . ”
W a s h i n g t o n and F r a n k l i n l a v i s h e d t h e Professor’s idea w i t h
“especial approval and unstinted praise.” T h e c o m m i t t e e formally
a n d u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d t h e East India C o m p a n y ’ s b a n n e r ,
k n o w n as “ T h e T h i r t e e n Stripes,” as t h e “ g e n e r a l flag and r e c o g -
nized standard of t h e C o l o n i a l A r m y a n d N a v y . ” Just before mid-
night, they adjourned.
On January 2, 1 7 7 6 , at a formal c e r e m o n y attended by the Flag
C o m m i t t e e , G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n personally hoisted the East India
C o m p a n y flag “ u p o n a t o w e r i n g and specially raised pine tree lib-
erty p o l e , ” unfurling it to the breeze and displaying it for t h e first
time “to his army, the citizens of the vicinity, and the British forces
in B o s t o n . ” T h e British officers at C h a r l e s t o w n H e i g h t s p e r c e i v e d
the e v e n t

to mean that General Washington had thus announced his sur-


render to them. At once, they saluted “ T h e Thirteen Stripes”
with thirteen hearty cheers. They immediately followed this
spontaneous outburst of British Enthusiasm with the grander
and more dignified official salute of thirteen guns, the thirteen-
gun salute being the highest compliment in gunpowder, the mil-
itary “God speed you.”

By so colorfully e q u i v o c a t i n g b o t h his e n e m i e s , t h e Professor


had m a d e h i m s e l f G o d o f C o n f u s i o n . T h e redcoats were t o a s t i n g

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RULERS OF E V I L

t h e g o o d h e a l t h o f t h e rebels, w h o i n turn w e r e f i g h t i n g for t h e


East India C o m p a n y . O n e o f t h e few p l a c e s i n t h e w o r l d w h e r e
such ludicrous p h e n o m e n a are considered standard and routine is
in t h e pages of L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s Thirteen Articles: “ T h e G e n e r a l
d e c i d e s e v e r y t h i n g ; h e k n o w s h o w t o shape, a t w i l l , n o t o n l y t h e
army he is c o m m a n d i n g but also that of his enemies.”

L O R E N Z O Ricci’s p o s t - m o r t e m a t t e n d a n c e in A m e r i c a is strong-
ly suggested in yet a n o t h e r p i v o t a l e p i s o d e , t h e famous “mis-
sion to C a n a d a . ” T h i s strange e x e r c i s e is n o r m a l l y regarded by
h i s t o r i a n s as a colossal failure. It b e g a n on February 1 5 , 1 7 7 6 ,
w h e n t h e S e c o n d C o n t i n e n t a l C o n g r e s s r e s o l v e d t o send B e n -
jamin Franklin, Samuel C h a s e , and Charles Carroll to Montreal
w i t h full a u t h o r i t y “ t o p r o m o t e o r form a u n i o n ” w i t h C a n a d a
against England.
Just before the c o m m i t t e e left P h i l a d e l p h i a , J o h n A d a m s pro-
posed a curious last-minute resolution. On the record, he request-
ed “ t h a t C h a r l e s C a r r o l l prevail on Mr. John Carroll to accompany
the committee to Canada, to assist t h e m in such matters as they shall
think useful.” C o n g r e s s adopted the resolution.
H o w m i g h t a priest h a v e assisted the c o m m i t t e e in p r o m o t i n g
or f o r m i n g a u n i o n w i t h C a n a d a ? T h e answer lies in d e m o g r a p h -
ics. C a n a d a t h e n was largely Q u e b e c , a n d Q u e b e c , t h o u g h ruled
despotically by the British since 1763, was mostly Roman
C a t h o l i c . A Jesuit priest, armed w i t h the right V a t i c a n paperwork
o r password, c o u l d e x e r t powerful i n f l u e n c e o n C a n a d i a n foreign
policy. T h e same priest, if a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e c o m b i n e d h e a d of
t h e black papacy and i n t e r n a t i o n a l Freemasonry, c o u l d make that
policy.
T h e mission arrived i n M o n t r e a l o n l y t o learn t h a t B i s h o p
B r i a n d o f Q u e b e c h a d ordered Pierre F l o q u e t , t h e Jesuit superior
in M o n t r e a l , to c o n s i d e r J o h n C a r r o l l persona non grata. F l o q u e t ,
h o w e v e r , defied his bishop and i n v i t e d C a r r o l l to say a mass in his
h o m e anyway, for w h i c h Floquet was immediately suspended from
his priestly f u n c t i o n s . T h e i n c i d e n t c o l o r e d the mission w i t h dis-
aster ( a l t h o u g h Floquet was restored, a c c o r d i n g to Walsh’s Ameri-

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CHAPTER 19 T H E D E A T H & RESURRECTION O F L O R E N Z O R I C C I

can Jesuits, after a simple a p o l o g y ) . Disaster was verified w h e n the


c o m m i t t e e returned t o P h i l a d e l p h i a w i t h n o p r o s p e c t for any
union whatsoever with C a n a d a . Congress lamented that A m e r i -
ca’s first diplomatic legation had failed.
B u t A m e r i c a ’ s first d i p l o m a t i c l e g a t i o n was S u n - T z u a n and
Jesuitic, and Jesuit d i p l o m a c y c a n be e x p e c t e d to c o n c e a l v i c t o r y
b e h i n d m i s h a p . As t h e Thirteen Articles p u t it, “ Y o u must h a v e a
real a d v a n t a g e w h e n the e n e m y believes y o u h a v e sustained some
losses.” So we e x a m i n e the C a n a d i a n m i s h a p for a real a d v a n t a g e
and d i s c o v e r s o m e t h i n g far m o r e v a l u a b l e t h a n t h e originally-
s o u g h t u n i o n . W h i l e B i s h o p B r i a n d was o u t w a r d l y d e m e a n i n g
John Carroll, the mission was o b t a i n i n g from C a n a d a a position of
neutrality. T h i s was a significant a c h i e v e m e n t , c o n s i d e r i n g C a n a -
da’s g o o d relationship w i t h G r e a t Britain on the o n e h a n d and t w o
centuries of hostilities toward N e w E n g l a n d on the other. For the
colonists, C a n a d i a n neutrality removed the threat of a powerful
northwestern e n e m y and cleared the way for a declaration of inde-
p e n d e n c e . At M o n t r e a l , as at C a m b r i d g e , I sense t h e p r e s e n c e of
s o m e o n e infinitely more c o m m a n d i n g t h a n mere c o m m i t t e e m e n
a p p o i n t e d by C o n g r e s s . I sense t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e “ h o n o r a r y ”
c o m m i t t e e m a n unlisted in any record – the Professor, the fugitive
Vicar of C h r i s t .
R e t u r n i n g from C a n a d a , B e n j a m i n Franklin fell ill. It was John
C a r r o l l w h o e s c o r t e d h i m t o P h i l a d e l p h i a . A t Franklin’s i n v i t a -
t i o n , C a r r o l l m o v e d i n t o his h o m e . F r a n k l i n a c k n o w l e d g e d the
fact in a letter dated M a y 27, 1 7 7 6 , m e n t i o n i n g “Mr. C a r r o l l ’ s
friendly assistance and t e n d e r care of m e . ” T h e s e were c r i t i c a l
w e e k s of c o u n t d o w n to t h e D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e . I w o n -
der w h o else m i g h t h a v e b e e n found under the Franklin roof? Per-
haps the Professor, w i t h his d y n a m i c o a k e n chest?
P h i l a d e l p h i a was c r a w l i n g just n o w w i t h social activists from
all over, t h e very p e o p l e L o r e n z o R i c c i h a d a p p o i n t e d J o h n C a r -
roll, as Prefect of the Sodality, to organize. T h e h o m e of A m e r i c a ’ s
pre-eminent Freemason, w i t h Carroll and perhaps e v e n R i c c i in
r e s i d e n c e , w o u l d h a v e b e c o m e t h e m a i n c l e a r i n g - h o u s e for sub
rosa congressional business.

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O N July 3, 1 7 7 6 , J o h n A d a m s t o o k p e n in h a n d and dashed off


a letter to his wife A b i g a i l . A d a m s was a writer of M o z a r t e a n
facility, c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and c o n f i d e n c e . E v e r y t h i n g h e e v e r wrote
was first-draft a n d g o o d . H e n e v e r struck t h r o u g h w o r d s , n e v e r
edited. His m o v i n g h a n d , h a v i n g writ, just m o v e d on. “Yesterday,”
he scribbled,

the greatest question was decided which ever was debated in


America, and a greater, perhaps, never was nor will be decided
among men. A resolution was passed without one dissenting
colony, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to
have, full power to make war, conclude peace, establish com-
merce, and to do all other acts and things which other States
may rightfully do. T h e second day of July 1776 will be the most
memorable date in the history of America. I am apt to believe
that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great
anniversary festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of
deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to G o d Almighty. It
ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows,
games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one
end of this continent to the other, from this time forward,
forevermore.

If the black papacy truly had orchestrated A m e r i c a ’ s breakaway


from England, we would e x p e c t to find the second day of July to be
rich in c a b a l a h and in R o m a n C a t h o l i c liturgical color. T h e Litur-
g i c a l C a l e n d a r is a process, a u t h o r i z e d n o w h e r e in t h e B i b l e ,
t h r o u g h w h i c h faithful C a t h o l i c s m a y plead w i t h A l m i g h t y G o d
for favors t h r o u g h t h e merits of a s c e n d e d saints on s p e c i a l feast
days. Supposedly, the prayerful performance of an act on a date the
C h u r c h has c o n s e c r a t e d t o a saint e n d o w s t h e act w i t h t h e mys-
tique of the saint as w e l l as the saint’s intercessory prayers to G o d
for success.
M a r y l a n d history, for e x a m p l e , is g r o u n d e d in t h e L i t u r g i c a l
C a l e n d a r . W e r e c a l l h o w t h e o r i g i n a l settlers o f M a r y l a n d , m a n y
of w h o m were R o m a n C a t h o l i c s , set sail from E n g l a n d , under t h e
spiritual d i r e c t i o n o f Jesuit f a t h e r A n d r e w W h i t e , o n N o v e m b e r
22, 1 6 3 3 . N o v e m b e r 22 is the Feast Day of St. C e c i l i a , a third cen-

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CHAPTER 19 T H E DEATH & RESURRECTION OF LORENZO RICCI

tury R o m a n martyr a n d t r a d i t i o n a l p a t r o n e s s o f m u s i c i a n s . D i d
Cecilia’s spirit bless the v o y a g e w i t h musicality to cheer up an oth-
erwise oppressive boredom? T h e voyagers r e a c h e d landfall the fol-
l o w i n g year o n M a r c h 2 5 , A n n u n c i a t i o n Day, feast o f t h e a n g e l
G a b r i e l ’ s a n n o u n c e m e n t to t h e V i r g i n M a r y t h a t she is p r e g n a n t
w i t h the S o n o f G o d . A n n u n c i a t i o n D a y c o n t a i n s the joyful mys-
tery of an angel’s a n n o u n c i n g the p l a n t i n g of the d i v i n e seed w i t h -
in a v i r g i n m a t r i x . D i d t h e settlers i m a g i n e t h e m s e l v e s p l a n t i n g
t h e seed of a n e w s o c i a l order in a strange w i l d e r n e s s , t h e w h o l e
enterprise blessed by G o d t h r o u g h the merits of the V i r g i n Mary’s
u n i q u e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o H i m ? T h e n , e x a c t l y o n e year later, o n
A n n u n c i a t i o n D a y 1 6 3 4 , Father W h i t e c o n s e c r a t e d t h e c o l o n y o f
Maryland to the V i r g i n Mary.
T h e s e c o n d day o f July i n t h e year 1 7 7 6 was V i s i t a t i o n Day,
c o m m e m o r a t i n g t h e e v e n t r e c o r d e d i n t h e first c h a p t e r o f L u k e
w h e r e i n t h e V i r g i n , p r e g n a n t w i t h t h e M e s s i a h , visits h e r c o u s i n
Elizabeth, w h o is p r e g n a n t w i t h John the Baptist. ( N o w a d a y s Visi-
tation D a y is celebrated on M a y 3 1 , but in the year 1 7 7 6 it was cel-
ebrated on July second, as it had b e e n celebrated, according to the
New Catholic Encyclopedia’s article e n t i t l e d “ V i s i t a t i o n of M a r y , ”
every year since the C o u n c i l of Basel in 1 4 4 1 . )
No day in the Liturgical C a l e n d a r is more suited to Bellarmin-
ian l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y t h a n V i s i t a t i o n Day. S t e . M a r g a r e t - M a r i e
A l a c o q u e , w h o s e v i s i o n s inspired t h e Jesuit s o c i a l - a c t i o n c u l t o f
Sacred H e a r t , was a m e m b e r of the V i s i t a n d i n e s , an order of nuns
d e v o t e d to t h e V i s i t a t i o n . V i s i t a t i o n Day’s scriptural basis is t h e
V i r g i n Mary’s e c s t a t i c s e r m o n t o E l i z a b e t h a t L u k e 1 : 4 6 - 5 5 . T h i s
famous e j a c u l a t i o n , k n o w n as t h e Magnificat ( t h e o p e n i n g w o r d
in t h e L a t i n Vulgate’s r e n d e r i n g of t h e passage, m e a n i n g “it mag-
nifies”), literally defines the social a c t i o n called for by Sacred Heart
in Philadelphia on the second day of July, 1 7 7 6 :

My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced


in G o d my Saviour. For he hath regarded the low estate of his
handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall
call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath done to me great
things; and holy is his name. A n d his mercy is on them that fear

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h i m from g e n e r a t i o n to generation. He h a t h shewed strength


w i t h his arm; h e h a t h s c a t t e r e d t h e p r o u d i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f
their h e a r t s . H e h a t h p u t d o w n t h e m i g h t y from t h e i r seats, a n d
e x a l t e d t h e m o f l o w degree. H e h a t h f i l l e d t h e h u n g r y w i t h g o o d
things; and t h e r i c h h e h a t h sent e m p t y a w a y . . . .

Scattered the proud, put down the mighty, exalted them of low
degree, filled the hungry, emptied the rich.... T h i s is t h e r h e t o r i c of
C h r i s t i a n r e d e m p t i o n , yes, but i n t h e c o n t e x t o f L o r e n z o R i c c i ’ s
a g e n d a it’s t h e r h e t o r i c of r e b e l l i o n - t o - t y r a n n y , t h e v e r y point of
t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , and it’s s p o k e n b y t h e V i r g i n
Mary, P a t r o n e s s of t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus, Patroness of M a r y l a n d ,
i n d e e d , Patroness o f R o m a n C a t h o l i c C o n q u e s t , o n t h e day par-
ticular to her.
E v e n the year of I n d e p e n d e n c e seems divinely validated by the
perfect design of sixes and sevens c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n its expression
i n R o m a n numerals, M D C C L X X V I :

M D C = 1600 = (1+6) = 7
CLX = 160 = (1+6) = 7
XVI =16 = (1+6) = 7

Particularly fascinating is the way the Latin e q u i v a l e n t of 1 7 7 6


is structured u p o n 666 and 7 7 7 . Swiss t h e o l o g i a n E. W. Bullinger,
in his scholarly guide to b i b l i c a l arithmography, Number In Scrip-
ture, says that 6 in t h e Bible is always associated w i t h h u m a n i t y , 7
w i t h d i v i n i t y . T h e t w o n u m b e r s t o t a l 1 3 , w h i c h B u l l i n g e r says i s
biblically associated w i t h rebellion.
M D C C L X X V I , 1 7 7 6 , really does s e e m to be a u n i q u e c o n v e r -
g e n c e of time and h u m a n rebellion in the service of a d i v i n e ordi-
n a t i o n . T h i s is eerily c o r r o b o r a t e d by J o h n A d a m s ’ letter to
A b i g a i l o n July third. H e confides t o his wife t h a t i n d e p e n d e n c e
should have been declared in December of 1775:

H a d a D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c y b e e n m a d e seven months
ago, i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a t t e n d e d w i t h m a n y g r e a t a n d g l o r i o u s
effects. If I c o u l d w r i t e w i t h f r e e d o m , I c o u l d easily c o n v i n c e y o u
that it w o u l d , and e x p l a i n it to y o u t h e m a n n e r how.

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A d a m s never fully explained h o w the earlier declaration would


h a v e p r o d u c e d great and glorious effects. H o w e v e r , t h e n u m b e r s
suggest it would h a v e rather fizzled. R o m a n numerals for 1 7 7 5 fall
into the following groups:

M D C = 1600 = (1+6) = 7
CLX = 160 = (1+6) = 7
X V = 15 = (1 + 5) = 6

P l a i n to see, D e c e m b e r 1 7 7 5 fails as c a b a l a h . It gives no indi-


c a t i o n of d i v i n e a p p r o v a l to r e b e l l i o u s h u m a n i t y . T h i s is why, I
believe, Lorenzo R i c c i held out for 1 7 7 6 .
O f course, a sufficiently g n o s t i c Jesuit w o u l d see i n M D C -
C L X X V I more t h a n good numbers. He would see an encapsulation
o f t h e very origins o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus. M D C w o u l d g i v e h i m
milice du Christ ( “ C h r i s t i a n m i l i t i a ” ) , t h e official classification of
the K n i g h t s Templar and the S o c i e t y of Jesus. M D C also produces
M e d i c i , t h e family n a m e o f P o p e L e o X , w h o s e d e g e n e r a c y pro-
voked Martin Luther to create the Protestant m o v e m e n t , w h i c h
in turn created t h e n e e d for t h e Society. C L X specifies t h e Ignat-
ian era, w h i c h h i s t o r i a n s h a v e e v e r s i n c e c a l l e d t h e “ C e n t u r y o f
L e o X . ” A n d the last three numerals n a m e the C e n t u r y o f L e o X ,
the s i x t e e n t h century, X V I .

W H E N it c a m e time to sign the D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e ,


h o w could Lorenzo R i c c i n o t be present? H o w could he w h o
had labored more t h a n s e v e n t e e n years for this superbly Bellarmin-
ian a m b i a n c e not participate in the e x c i t e m e n t ?
T h e r e is a story, usually told in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Professor
and t h e Flag C o m m i t t e e , i n v o l v i n g a n o t h e r mysterious stranger,
one w h o suddenly appeared i n the legislative c h a m b e r o f t h e old
State House in Philadelphia on the n i g h t of July fourth.
T h e m o m e n t was tense. I n d e p e n d e n c e h a d b e e n r e s o l v e d ,
but t h e d o c u m e n t l a c k e d signatures. S o m e w e r e h a v i n g s e c o n d
thoughts about the risks. M a s o n i c historian M a n l y P. Hall writes:

It was a g r a v e m o m e n t a n d n o t a few of t h o s e p r e s e n t feared


t h a t t h e i r l i v e s w o u l d b e t h e forfeit for t h e i r a u d a c i t y . I n t h e

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midst of t h e d e b a t e a fierce v o i c e r a n g out. T h e debaters stopped


a n d t u r n e d t o l o o k u p o n t h e stranger. W h o w a s t h i s m a n w h o
had suddenly appeared in their midst and transfixed t h e m w i t h
his o r a t o r y ? T h e y h a d n e v e r s e e n h i m b e f o r e , n o n e k n e w w h e n
h e h a d e n t e r e d , b u t h i s tall f o r m a n d p a l e f a c e filled t h e m w i t h
a w e . His v o i c e r i n g i n g w i t h a h o l y zeal, t h e stranger stirred t h e m
t o t h e i r very souls. H i s c l o s i n g words r a n g t h r o u g h t h e b u i l d i n g :
“ G o d has g i v e n A m e r i c a t o b e free!” A s t h e stranger sank i n t o a
c h a i r e x h a u s t e d , a wild e n t h u s i a s m burst forth. N a m e after n a m e
was placed u p o n t h e p a r c h m e n t : t h e D e c l a r a t i o n of Indepen-
d e n c e was s i g n e d . B u t w h e r e was t h e m a n w h o h a d p r e c i p i t a t e d
t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of this i m m o r t a l task – w h o h a d lifted for a
m o m e n t the veil from the eyes of the assemblage and revealed
t o t h e m a p a r t a t l e a s t o f t h e g r e a t p u r p o s e for w h i c h t h e n e w
n a t i o n was c o n c e i v e d ? H e had disappeared, nor was h e e v e r seen
again or his i d e n t i t y established. 2

Be warned. T h i s is only a story, unsupported by primary source


material. J o h n A d a m s , the most t a l k a t i v e of t h e framers, said n o t
a w o r d a b o u t it. B u t w e k n o w from A d a m s ’ o w n p e n t h a t some
k i n d of gag order h a d b e e n imposed u p o n t h e signers – “if I could
write with freedom” he h a d t o l d A b i g a i l in t h a t l e t t e r d a t e d the
third o f July. C o u l d M a n l y H a l l h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e story t h r o u g h
Freemasory’s w e l l - i n s u l a t e d oral tradition? C o u l d t h e stranger
w h o s e v o i c e rang “ w i t h a h o l y zeal” h a v e b e e n t h e Professor,
Lorenzo R i c c i ? C o u l d the “wild enthusiasm” w i t h w h i c h the legis-
lators signed t h e d e c l a r a t i o n h a v e resulted n o t from Ricci’s inspir-
ing p e p - t a l k but u p o n his disclosure of d o c u m e n t s t a k e n from the
o a k e n chest, d o c u m e n t s easy for the V i c a r of C h r i s t in his capaci-
ty as Freemasonry’s U n k n o w n Superior to o b t a i n , guaranteeing that
the international monetary network would indemnify the signers for
their action? My m i n d , informed by an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e
o f h o w t h e greatest c l a n d e s t i n e warriors fight, h a s n o p r o b l e m
w h a t s o e v e r b e l i e v i n g this to be t h e case. It is e x q u i s i t e l y consis-
t e n t w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n of a F e b r o n i a n u n i o n of t h i r t e e n Protes-
t a n t c o l o n i e s , o r d a i n e d to be ruled from a federal city n a m e d
“ R o m e , ” a city situated w i t h i n the S e e of Baltimore, under the pro-
t e c t i o n of the Patroness of the S o c i e t y of Jesus.

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O n e o f t h e more i n t r i g u i n g clues t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f
A m e r i c a was e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r Regimini militantis ecclesiae is the
n e w republic’s G r e a t Seal. As we shall see in the n e x t chapter, the
Seal is legal proof that A m e r i c a ’ s true founding fathers were indeed
priests of R o m e .

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Chapter 20

AMERICAN GRAFFITI

T
H E R E IS A U N I V E R S A L legal t r a d i t i o n t h a t requires acts of
a g o v e r n m e n t a l authority to be marked by a seal – otherwise
t h e acts are n o t a u t h e n t i c . T y p i c a l l y , a seal discloses t h e
c h a r a c t e r of t h e a u t h o r i t y it represents by m e a n s of an image
w h i c h c a n be, and usually is, amplified by some s e n t e n c e , phrase,
or word.
T h e first seal o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , d e s i g n e d t o
a u t h e n t i c a t e all g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i o n s u n d e r t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f
I n d e p e n d e n c e , was presented t o C o n g r e s s i n A u g u s t 1 7 7 6 . C r e a t -
ed by an official c o m m i t t e e consisting of B e n j a m i n Franklin, J o h n
A d a m s , and T h o m a s Jefferson, t h e seal illustrates a n e v e n t based
on E x o d u s 1 4 : 1 9 - 2 7 . It is a c a m e o of M o s e s leading the Israelites
t h r o u g h the parted waters w h i l e a c h a r i o t - b o u n d P h a r a o h , wield-
ing a sword and w e a r i n g t h e c r o w n of tyranny, perishes in t h e
m a e l s t r o m . F r a m i n g t h e picture are t h e words “REBELLION TO
TYRANTS IS OBEDIENCE TO GOD.”

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W h e n I first b e c a m e aware of
this seal m a n y years ago, I t h o u g h t
it demonstrated h o w intensely bibli-
cal was the faith of the f o u n d i n g fa-
thers. B u t o n c e I b e g a n d i s c e r n i n g
the h i d d e n makers of A m e r i c a n na-
tionalism, my thinking changed
radically. I n o w see this seal, despite
the biblical glow of the committee
that designed it, as the profession of
an i n t e n s e l y Roman Catholic faith.
THE MOSAIC SEAL For t h e r e is a great disparity be-
of August, 1776
tween biblical faith and Roman
C a t h o l i c faith. I n d e e d , this disparity was t h e c r u x o f t h e Protes-
tantism w h i c h Pope Paul III c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e S o c i e t y of Jesus to
extirpate.
Biblical faith regards the Bible a l o n e , sola scriptura, apart from
any other source, to be a sufficient and infallible rule of life. In the
Bible’s o w n words: “ A l l scripture is G o d - b r e a t h e d , and is profitable
for t e a c h i n g , for c o u n s e l i n g , for c o r r e c t i o n , a n d for t r a i n i n g in
righteousness: t h a t t h e m a n o f G o d may b e p e r f e c t , c o m p l e t e l y
outfitted to perform good works” (2 T i m o t h y 3 : 1 6 ) .
R o m a n C a t h o l i c faith, o n the o t h e r h a n d , w h i l e agreeing that
t h e B i b l e is G o d - b r e a t h e d , c o n s i d e r s scripture n e i t h e r infallible
n o r sufficient in itself as a rule of life, unless so interpreted by the
M a g i s t e r i u m (the t e a c h i n g authority of t h e C h u r c h ) , and t h e n so
p r o n o u n c e d by the infallible pope.
A t Paul Ill’s C o u n c i l o f T r e n t ( 1 5 4 5 - 6 3 ) , w h i c h w e h a v e
learned was closely supervised o v e r its e i g h t e e n years of e x i s t e n c e
by t h e Jesuits, it was d e c r e e d t h a t t h e M a g i s t e r i u m “ r e c e i v e s and
venerates, w i t h a feeling of piety and reverence all the books of the
O l d and N e w Testaments, also the traditions [italics m i n e ] , w h e t h e r
they relate to faith or morals, as h a v i n g b e e n dictated either orally
b y C h r i s t o r b y t h e H o l y G h o s t , and p r e s e r v e d i n t h e C a t h o l i c
C h u r c h in unbroken succession.” 1
O v e r the centuries, R o m a n
C a t h o l i c faith in S c r i p t u r e , as m o d i f i e d by t r a d i t i o n , as pro-

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n o u n c e d by the Magisterium and pope, has b o u n d millions of c o n -


sciences to a thousand doctrines n o t found in scripture and either
u n k n o w n or rejected by the apostles and early C h r i s t i a n fathers. 2

T h e 1 7 7 6 seal agrees w i t h R o m a n C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g a s m u c h
as it disagrees w i t h t h e B i b l e . W h e r e a s t h e c a p t i o n “ R e b e l l i o n to
tyrants is o b e d i e n c e to G o d ” is f o u n d n o w h e r e in S c r i p t u r e , it is
the c o r n e r s t o n e o f B e l l a r m i n i a n l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y . T h e B i b l e
never c o n d o n e s rebellion, n o t e v e n rebellion to those tyrants under
w h o m G o d ’ s o w n people, the Israelites, were obliged to suffer c o n -
tinuously. W h e n Scripture m e n t i o n s r e b e l l i o n , it is almost always
referring t o t h e d i s o b e d i e n c e o f t h e Israelites t o w a r d t h e i r G o d
Y a h w e h . T h e s e v e n t e e n t h chapter of Proverbs teaches that “the
e v i l m a n seeks r e b e l l i o n , ” and 1 S a m u e l 1 5 : 2 3 a d m o n i s h e s t h a t
“ r e b e l l i o n is as t h e sin of w i t c h c r a f t . ” T h e G o d of S c r i p t u r e c a n -
not be obeyed by evil-doing and witchcraft. He will not be h o n -
ored in the breach. H o w e v e r , sacred tradition authorizes anything in
t h e s e r v i c e of R o m e – Cum finis est licitus, etiam media sunt licita,
the e n d justifies the means.
D e p i c t i n g r e b e l l i o n as a s a l v a t i o n a l act, t h e 1 7 7 6 seal further
harmonizes w i t h the Magisterium on h o w the sinful soul of m a n is
saved from eternal p u n i s h m e n t . T h e Magisterium concurs w i t h the
B i b l e t h a t s a l v a t i o n is t h e free gift of G o d ’ s grace, but adds t h e
nonscriptutal t e a c h i n g that s a l v a t i o n c a n be lost if g o o d works are
n o t performed t h r o u g h t h e “sacred c h a n n e l s ” of Baptism, C o n f e s -
sion, a n d t h e M a s s . S c r i p t u r e ( E p h e s i a n s 2 : 8 - 1 0 ) says t h a t Jesus
C h r i s t does n o t shate his saviorhood w i t h anyone or anything (“You
h a v e b e e n saved by grace through faith; and that n o t of yourselves,
it is the gift of G o d ; n o t as a result of works, so that no o n e should
b o a s t ” ) , yet t h e M a g i s t e r i u m says t h a t C h r i s t is no savior w i t h o u t
the sinner’s c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the C h u r c h and its traditions.
In fact, Scripture’s a c c o u n t of the Exodus shows the departure
from Egypt n o t to be a r e b e l l i o n at all. W h e n called by Y a h w e h to
represent Israel before P h a r a o h , M o s e s p l e d h i m s e l f i n c a p a b l e
(Exodus 3 : 1 1 ) , uninformed ( 3 : 1 3 ) , unauthorized ( 4 : 1 ) , i n e l o q u e n t
( 4 : 1 0 ) , u n a d a p t e d ( 4 : 1 3 ) , u n p r o v e n ( 5 : 2 3 ) , and u n c r e d e n t i a l e d
(6:12) – hardly the audacious mindset of a great rebel leader. W h a t

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M o s e s led was no r e b e l l i o n but a s o c i o l o g i c a l d e l i v e r a n c e for


w h i c h Y a h w e h a l o n e c l a i m e d responsibility: “ C o m e n o w , t h e r e -
fore, and I will send you to P h a r a o h so that you c a n bring my peo-
ple, t h e c h i l d r e n o f Israel, o u t o f E g y p t . . . . A n d I w i l l s t r e t c h o u t
my h a n d , and smite Egypt w i t h all my w o n d e r s w h i c h I will do in
the midst thereof: and after that he w i l l let y o u g o ” (Exodus 3:10,
20). If A d a m s , Franklin, and Jefferson h a d wished the 1 7 7 6 seal to
express t h e true t e a c h i n g o f S c r i p t u r e , t h e y m i g h t h a v e w r i t t e n
“YAHWEH REMOVES TYRANTS FOR HIS FAITHFUL.”

B u t e v e n w i t h a biblically c o r r e c t m o t t o the seal fails the bib-


lical standard. For it is after all a seal, a u t h o r i t y r e p r e s e n t e d by a
g r a v e n i m a g e . A l t h o u g h t h e use of seals and images is o n e of
R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m ’ s proudest sacred t r a d i t i o n s , S c r i p t u r e pro-
hibits it. T h e only Israelite s h o w n to rule w i t h a seal is k i n g A h a b ,
w h o “did e v i l i n t h e sight o f t h e L o r d a b o v e all t h a t w e r e before
h i m ” ( 1 K i n g s 1 6 : 3 0 ) . A h a b ’ s seal, a p p a r e n t l y a p p r o p r i a t e d from
a n c i e n t pagan tradition, was e m p l o y e d by his wife, the quintessen-
tially w i c k e d Jezebel, t o c o m m i t fraud a n d murder ( 2 1 : 8 - 1 6 ) .
S c r i p t u r e w a r n s o f a n u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l for e v i l i n h e r e n t i n
g r a v e n - i m a g e seals. T h e apostles of C h r i s t understood this princi-
ple w e l l . T h e y saw t h e pharisees d e m a n d Jesus show t h e m a t o k e n
o f H i s authority, and w h a t Jesus s h o w e d t h e m was n o t a n image
but Scripture – t h e b o o k of Jonah ( M a t t h e w 1 2 : 3 9 ) . Paul the apos-
tle had no seal e x c e p t t h e people he’d evangelized: “for the seal of
my apostleship are those of y o u in t h e L o r d ” (1 C o r i n t h i a n s 9:2).
I n d e e d , t h e seal of t h e B o d y of C h r i s t is represented in S c r i p t u r e
n o t b y t h e m i t e r a n d crossed keys o f t h e H o l y S e e , o r t h e d o v e s ,
flames, Bibles, bare crosses, and sunbursts of the Protestant d e n o m -
i n a t i o n s , but by Scripture alone: “ T h e f o u n d a t i o n of G o d stands
sure, h a v i n g this seal: THE L O R D KNOWS HIS OWN; AND LET
CHRIST’S FAITHFUL DEPART FROM INIQUITY” (2 Timothy 2:19).
T h e early C h r i s t i a n leaders, w h o s e faith is historically regard-
ed as the best-informed of any generation’s, rigorously opposed the
m a k i n g of images or likenesses of any k i n d . S c r i p t u r e h a d t a u g h t
t h e m w e l l t h a t Y a h w e h ’ s p e o p l e always suffered terrible c a l a m i t y
w h e n e v e r they v i o l a t e d t h e c o m m a n d m e n t n o t t o identify t h e m -

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selves or their G o d w i t h “any graven images or any likeness of any


t h i n g ” (Exodus 20:4). E d w y n Bevan’s Holy Images: An Inquiry into
Idolatry and Image Worship in Ancient Paganism and in Christianity
cites t h r e e i m p o r t a n t early c h u r c h m e n w h o forbade images.
C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a t a u g h t t h a t images were “ n o t true,” and
were f o r b i d d e n b y Y a h w e h “in order t h a t w e m i g h t n o t direct our
a t t e n t i o n to sensible objects, but m i g h t p r o c e e d to the intelligen-
tial.” O r i g e n h e l d t h a t images “drag t h e soul d o w n instead o f di-
recting the mind to a divine invisible reality.” Tertullian instructed
t h e s e r v a n t s o f G o d t o a v o i d e v e r y form o f imagery, e v e n secular
art. Indeed, as B e v a n points out, C h r i s t i a n s of t h e first and second
c e n t u r i e s p l a c e d v i s u a l artists in a class w i t h h a r l o t s , drunkards,
brothel-keepers, and actors.
B u t for t h o u s a n d s of years M e d i t e r r a n e a n cultures h a d b e e n
r e c e i v i n g their religious and political information from myths nar-
rated by visual art. Paulinus, B i s h o p of N o l a , said of his c o n g r e g a -
tions, “ T h e y are n o t d e v o i d of religion, but n o t able to read.” T h i s
was Paulinus’ excuse for b e s e e c h i n g the Bishop of R o m e to permit
h i m t o t e a c h w i t h g r a v e n images. P a u l i n u s h a d f o r g o t t e n , o r per-
haps h a d n e v e r learned, that t h e basis of t h e G o s p e l of C h r i s t was
above all literary – else w h y had its A u t h o r prohibited graphic like-
nesses? K n o w i n g this, t h e apostles d e v o t e d a large part of the e v a n -
g e l i c a l process to spreading literacy – “blessed is he w h o reads”
( R e v e l a t i o n 1:3). E v e n so, t h e apostle P e t e r foresaw t h e t i m e o f
Paulinus, B i s h o p of N o l a , a time w h e n “false teachers a m o n g you
shall bring in d a m n a b l e heresies d e n y i n g t h e L o r d ” (2 Peter 2 : 1 ) .
W h a t more d a m n a b l e heresy c o u l d there be t h a n d e p i c t i n g a G o d
w h o c o n d e m n s i m a g e s . . . with an image? C o u l d such a G o d e v e n be
depictable by an image? W o u l d n ’ t an image purporting to be H i m
h a v e to be in reality, by sheer force of l o g i c , t h e image of another
God? T h e apostle Paul, aware of the c o m p e l l i n g nature of images,
and t h e i r d e f i n i t i v e i n c a p a c i t y t o t e a c h Jesus and t h e G o s p e l ,
warned the C o r i n t h i a n s h o w easily a false teacher could lead t h e m
to “ a n o t h e r Jesus, a n o t h e r gospel” (2 C o r i n t h i a n s 1 1 : 4 ) . T h e time
was very close, Paul knew, w h e n Christians “will n o t endure sound
doctrine, but will heap to themselves teachers w h o will switch

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t h e m from t r u t h t o m y t h s ” ( 2 T i m o t h y 4 : 3 , 4 ) . A n d w h a t are
g r a v e n images but the very grammar of myths?
T h e s w i t c h b e g a n n o t i c e a b l y h a p p e n i n g i n t h e third century,
w h e n t e a c h e r s like P a u l i n u s o f N o l a b e g a n i n s t r u c t i n g from pic-
tures (for w h i c h P a u l i n u s was c a n o n i z e d b y t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c
C h u r c h ) . W i t h C o n s t a n t i n e a c e n t u r y later, as w e ’ v e seen, a pow-
erful n e w “ C h r i s t i a n ” visual language developed. O l d m y t h i c icons
w e r e r e n a m e d to fit B i b l e stories, a n d an i c o n i c C h r i s t i a n i t y was
spread t h r o u g h p a g a n images processed by missionary a d a p t a t i o n .
W h a t the n e w c o n v e r t s were not t a u g h t is that Scripture categori-
cally rejects s u c h attempts to iconize its c o n t e n t s , and that there-
fore (again, by sheer force of logic) the likenesses u p o n w h o m they
r e v e r e n t l y gazed were no more t h a n the gods and goddesses origi-
nally pictured, other gods of other gospels. A r c h a e o l o g y traces these
gods and their gospels b a c k to the very earliest B a b y l o n i a n c a t h e -
drals. It was in these cathedrals, erected nearly four thousand years
before t h e C h r i s t i a n era, t h a t t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c sacred i c o n o -
graphic t r a d i t i o n was born. We shall e x p l o r e this subject in some
detail in a f o r t h c o m i n g chapter.

C O N G R E S S refused t o adopt t h e 1 7 7 6 seal. W e may n e v e r k n o w


why. T h e r e is no record of any debate, only the n o t a t i o n that
t h e seal was ordered to lay “ o n t h e t a b l e . ” F i v e years later, in t h e
s u m m e r of 1 7 8 1 , a fleet of t w e n t y - f i v e F r e n c h war vessels arrived
i n C h e s a p e a k e Bay w i t h more t h a n t w e n t y t h o u s a n d soldiers ac-
companied by ninety R o m a n C a t h o l i c chaplains and G o d only
k n o w s h o w m a n y secularized Jesuits. A m o n t h later, the B r i t i s h
army surrendered t o G e n e r a l W a s h i n g t o n a t Y o r k t o w n . T h e leg-
end-spinning visible war was over at last.
In June 1 7 8 2 , B e n j a m i n Franklin and J o h n A d a m s were meet-
ing in Paris to p e r f e c t a treaty w i t h e n v o y s of t h e n e w l y - e l e c t e d
British Prime M i n i s t e r – R o b e r t Petty. We recall Petty, Lord S h e l -
burne, the ubiquitous “Jesuit of Berkeley Square” w h o teamed w i t h
Lord B u t e to c o n c l u d e t h e F r e n c h a n d I n d i a n W a r s in terms t h a t
h a d m a d e t h e R e v o l u t i o n i n e v i t a b l e . F r a n k l i n and A d a m s found
t h e m s e l v e s a p p r o a c h i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i n g table w i t h o u t a n a t i o n a l
seal. N o t h i n g they m i g h t d o o n b e h a l f o f the U n i t e d States c o u l d

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b e v a l i d w i t h o u t a seal. T h i s was t h e e x i g e n c y t h a t m o v e d C o n -
gress to adopt, on June 28, the seal designed by C h a r l e s T h o m s o n
and W i l l i a m Barton.
T h e G r e a t S e a l is “written” in cabalah, that style of allegorical
c o m m u n i c a t i o n composed of seemingly unrelated symbols, numer-
als, and phrases. A piece in Le Charivari N o . 18 (Paris, 1 9 7 3 ) , dis-
cussing c e r t a i n s y m b o l i c motifs used b y t h e e n l i g h t e n e d F r e n c h
artist N i c o l a s Poussin, explains the practical a d v a n t a g e of cabalis-
tic works:

A s i n g l e w o r d suffices t o i l l u m i n e c o n n e c t i o n s w h i c h t h e
m u l t i t u d e c a n n o t g r a s p . S u c h w o r k s are a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e ,
but their s i g n i f i c a n c e addresses itself to an elite. A b o v e and
b e y o n d t h e masses, sender and r e c e i v e r u n d e r s t a n d e a c h other.

C a b a l a h goes b e y o n d mere secret c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Supposedly,


i t thrusts t h e sender “ i n t o d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e l i v i n g powers
and forces o f t h e U n i v e r s e , and t h r o u g h t h e m w i t h t h e e t e r n a l
source o f all m a n i f e s t a t i o n , ” e x p l a i n s H e n r i e t t a B e r n s t e i n i n h e r
Cabalah Primer. “In o t h e r words, y o u m a k e c o n t a c t w i t h G o d . ” To
a cabalist gnostic illuminatus whose special k n o w l e d g e has liberat-
ed h i m from the c l u t c h of m a t t e r and is speeding h i m t o w a r d the
pure l i g h t of godliness, c a b a l a h is “ t h e royal art, a closed b o d y of
k n o w l e d g e sacred to the elect.”
S i n c e t h e G r e a t S e a l is w r i t t e n in t h e l a n g u a g e of c a b a l a h , it
appears to be a v e r i t a b l e G n o s t i c C o n s t i t u t i o n . In terms w e l l
k n o w n t o initiates a n d G o d A l m i g h t y , i t sets f o r t h t h e o r i g i n ,
nature, purpose, and p l a n of A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t . Of course, as
Charles T h o m s o n and M a n l y Hall h a v e intimated, the initiates
will n e v e r disclose to outsiders the m e a n i n g of the Seal’s elements.
But G o d A l m i g h t y is n o t so aloof. He does n o t resist inquiries. N o r
is He a respecter of persons. C o n t r a r y to the cabalist’s boast of priv-
ileged access, Scripture promises more light to any mind that seeks
i t from G o d i n person. S h i n i n g t h a t light o n c o m m o n l y available
histories of rulers and r e l i g i o n s , a n y o n e c a n trace t h e Seal’s ele-
m e n t s b a c k to their a n c i e n t origins and in t h e e n d k n o w as m u c h
as, if n o t more t h a n , the gnostics.

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On the front or obverse side of the S e a l we find an eagle c l u t c h -


ing an o l i v e b r a n c h and thirteen arrows, w i t h a banner in his beak
inscribed w i t h the m o t t o “ E P L U R I B U S U N U M . ” T h e earliest images
of sacred eagles h a v e b e e n found in that region of present-day Iraq
o n c e k n o w n a s B a b y l o n . T h e eagle was identified w i t h the Baby-
lonian sky-god A n n u . W h e n A n n u entered sacred R o m a n iconog-
raphy as Jupiter, t h e eagle was still his m a s c o t . For the more t h a n
t w o t h o u s a n d years since the d e a t h of R o m e ’ s first emperor, Julius
Caesar, Jupiter’s eagle has signified Rome’s imperial power – “impe-
rial” m e a n i n g t h e r i g h t o f t h e C a e s a r s t o m a k e laws and e n f o r c e
t h e m . I n m a n y a c h u r c h , R o m a n C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t a l i k e ,
the Bible from w h i c h lessons are publicly read rests on a h a r d w o o d
lectern carved in the shape of a magnificent eagle. Yet in the pages
o f this very B i b l e , G o d forbids c a r v e d images o f e a g l e s . W h a t ,
t h e n , does the eagle signify, if n o t a power indifferent to Scripture?
T h e brilliant cloud h o v e r i n g over the eagle’s h e a d in the G r e a t
S e a l is t h e aegis. T h e aegis is a g o a t s k i n . ( W e h a v e already e x a m -
ined h o w Scripture equates the goat w i t h worldly p o w e r and sepa-
r a t i o n from G o d . ) W h e n Jupiter was a baby he was nursed by a
s h e - g o a t n a m e d A m a l t h e i a . ( T h e priestly artists o f t e n p o r t r a y e d
t h e adult Jupiter as a satyr, h a v i n g a man’s b o d y w i t h t h e h o r n s ,
hair, and legs of a goat.) W h e n A m a l t h e i a died, Jupiter m a d e the
aegis out of her hide.
T h e aegis of t h e G r e a t S e a l glorifies t h i r t e e n five-pointed stars,
o r p e n t a g r a m s . E a c h p e n t a g r a m represents a n o r i g i n a l S t a t e . I n
gnostic symbology, t h e p e n t a g r a m is identified w i t h Jupiter’s wife,
V e n u s . T h e r e is a n a t u r a l r e a s o n for this. A d e d i c a t e d observer,
from a fixed l o c a t i o n o v e r an e i g h t - y e a r p e r i o d , w i l l d i s c e r n t h a t
t h e p l a n e t V e n u s travels a u n i q u e c e l e s t i a l p a t h w a y t h a t e x a c t l y
describes a p e n t a g r a m . C a r l L j u n g m a n , in Dictionary of Symbols,
has written:

As the orbit of V e n u s is closer to the sun t h a n the earth’s


position, she is n e v e r seen more t h a n 48 degrees from the sun.
D u r i n g a p e r i o d of 247 days, V e n u s is v i s i b l e as t h e E v e n i n g star
t h a t is, w i t h i n 48 d e g r e e s or less of t h e sun after t h e s u n h a s set.
T h e n V e n u s c o m e s t o o c l o s e t o t h e s u n for u s t o see her. S h e

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r e m a i n s i n v i s i b l e for 14 days, t h e n reappears as t h e M o r n i n g star


(or Eastern star) i m m e d i a t e l y before t h e sun rises in t h e east. For
245 d a y s w e c a n see V e n u s e a c h m o r n i n g a t d a w n b e f o r e s h e
a g a i n d i s a p p e a r s i n t o t h e sun’s l i g h t b y g e t t i n g t o o c l o s e t o t h e
sun. V e n u s is n o w i n v i s i b l e for 78 days. On t h e 79th e v e n i n g , she
appears a g a i n i n t h e west i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e s e t t i n g sun. N o w
she is t h e E v e n i n g star o n c e m o r e .
I f o n e k n o w s t h e e c l i p t i c [ t h a t is, t h e g r e a t c i r c l e o f t h e
celestial sphere that is the apparent path of the sun a m o n g the
stars] a n d c a n p i n p o i n t t h e p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e p l a n e t s i n
r e l a t i o n to t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of fixed stars in t h e zodiac, o n e c a n
mark the e x a c t place in the 360 degrees of the zodiac where the
M o r n i n g star first appears shortly before sunrise after a p e r i o d of
i n v i s i b i l i t y . I f w e d o t h i s , w a i t for t h e M o r n i n g star t o a p p e a r
a g a i n 5 8 4 days later [the s y n o d i c orbital t i m e of V e n u s ] a n d m a r k
its p o s i t i o n i n t h e z o d i a c , a n d t h e n r e p e a t t h i s p r o c e s s u n t i l w e
h a v e f i v e p o s i t i o n s o f V e n u s a s t h e M o r n i n g star, w e w i l l f i n d
t h a t e x a c t l y e i g h t years p l u s o n e d a y h a v e p a s s e d . I f w e t h e n
d r a w a l i n e f r o m t h e first p o i n t m a r k e d t o t h e s e c o n d p o i n t
marked, t h e n to the third, and so on, we end up w i t h a penta-
gram.
O n l y V e n u s possesses t h e f i v e - p o i n t e d star s i g n . N o t o n e o f
t h e i n n u m e r a b l e stars a b o v e u s c a n r e c r e a t e t h i s b y its o w n
orbit. 3

C h a r l e s T h o m s o n , t h e G r e a t Seal’s c o - d e s i g n e r , led a group o f


d e d i c a t e d o b s e r v e r s o f V e n u s . T h e first c o o r d i n a t e d s c i e n t i f i c e x -
periment of the A m e r i c a n Philosophical Society, the club T h o m -
son f o u n d e d for p o l i t i c a l l y radical y o u n g professionals, focused o n
V e n u s ’ c e l e s t i a l p a t h w a y . O n t h e e v e n i n g o f June 3 , 1 7 6 9 , w i t h
c o l l e a g u e s s t a t i o n e d a t t h r e e sites i n P e n n s y l v a n i a a n d D e l a w a r e ,
T h o m s o n and five others w a t c h e d , from t h e Public O b s e r v a t o r y
on State House Square in Philadelphia, an eclipse caused by “the
transit o f V e n u s across t h e S u n . ” 4

T h e goddess V e n u s , a s w e ’ v e seen, was absorbed b y missionary


a d a p t a t i o n i n t o t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c sacred t r a d i t i o n a s t h e V i r g i n
Mary. T h e a d a p t e r s e v e n a s c r i b e d t o M a r y t h e V e n u s i a n e p i t h e t
“ Q u e e n of H e a v e n , ” a title never ascribed to Mary in the Bible.

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“ Q u e e n o f H e a v e n ” i n S c r i p t u r e n a m e s o n l y o n e p e r s o n a g e , and
that is Ishtar, the B a b y l o n i a n V e n u s . M o s t faithful C a t h o l i c s , his-
t o r i c a l l y i n s u l a t e d from S c r i p t u r e by t h e M a g i s t e r i u m a n d t h e
I n q u i s i t i o n , h a v e n o t k n o w n this. J e r e m i a h 4 4 e x p l a i n s h o w t h e
Israelites v i o l a t e d t h e i r c o v e n a n t w i t h Y a h w e h b y praising t h e
Q u e e n of H e a v e n , and in turn lost their dignity, property, freedom,
everything to t h e B a b y l o n i a n s . S c r i p t u r e t e a c h e s , also, t h a t t h e
B a b y l o n i a n interests h a v e m u c h t o g a i n from i n d u c i n g souls t o
praise the Q u e e n o f H e a v e n . A n d a s w e shall later see, their gain
is divinely approved.
T h e term “ Q u e e n o f H e a v e n ” appears n o w h e r e else i n the O l d
a n d N e w T e s t a m e n t s b u t a t J e r e m i a h 4 4 , a n d t h e r e e x a c t l y five
times. Did Jeremiah k n o w that Venus’ celestial trail delineated five
points? A n d did the other thirty-five writers of the Bible’s sixty-six
books k n o w as well? Did all these m e n , w h o wrote in different lan-
guages o v e r a p e r i o d of more t h a n a t h o u s a n d years, c o n s p i r e not
to m e n t i o n “ Q u e e n of H e a v e n ” in order to preserve Jeremiah’s five
m e n t i o n s , so that the link b e t w e e n (a) the Q u e e n of H e a v e n , (b)
t h e f i v e - p o i n t e d p a t h o f V e n u s , and (c) t h e curse resulting from
praising her w o u l d stand as a d i v i n e lesson for the rest of eternity?
Or did it just h a p p e n that way by accident? Or, as the Bible t e a c h -
es, were Jeremiah and his co-authors inspired by the A u t h o r of all
c r e a t i o n to say (and n o t say) things for reasons b e y o n d their indi-
vidual understanding?

T H E G r e a t Seal’s eagle h o l d s a b a n n e r i n its b e a k inscribed “ E


P L U R I B U S UNUM.” T h i s phrase, w h i c h appears o n A m e r i c a n
c o i n a g e as w e l l , is p o p u l a r l y u n d e r s t o o d to signify t h e m e l t i n g of
m a n y p e o p l e i n t o o n e n a t i o n , “of many, o n e . ” O r t o identify t h e
c o i n as one of m a n y identical coins. T h e gnostic understanding of
this phrase, h o w e v e r , borders o n t h e p s y c h e d e l i c . A c c o r d i n g t o
M a n l y H a l l , e pluribus unum refers to t h e a n c i e n t B a c c h i c R i t e s ,
w h i c h he says was “a forerunner to Freemasonry.” Mysterious and
fantastic, the B a c c h i c Rites are built u p o n the following story line:
In a t i m e before t h e c r e a t i o n of m a n k i n d , t h e t w e l v e T i t a n s
cause B a c c h u s , Jupiter’s beautiful son, to b e c o m e fascinated by his

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o w n image in a mirror. Enthralled by himself, B a c c h u s is seized by


t h e T i t a n s . T h e y k i l l h i m , tear h i m t o p i e c e s , b o i l t h e p i e c e s i n
water, and afterwards roast and eat t h e m . T h i s grieves all his loved
o n e s , h e n c e his n a m e , from bakhah, “ t o w e e p ” o r “ l a m e n t . ” T h e
strewn body parts of B a c c h u s b e c o m e the four elements of matter.
O n e of B a c c h u s ’ sisters, the virgin M i n e r v a , rescues his sacred
heart from the four e l e m e n t s and places it before Jupiter in H e a v -
en. From H e a v e n , Jupiter hurls thunderbolts at his son’s murderers
and reduces the Titans to ashes. T h e rains further reduce the ashes,
m i n g l i n g w i t h t h e four e l e m e n t s , t o s l i m e . F r o m this e v i l slime
Jupiter forms m a n k i n d , a “ T i t a n i c e m b o d i m e n t ” from w h i c h t h e
“ B a c c h i c idea,” o r r a t i o n a l soul, must b e released. T h e B a c c h i c
idea is released by evil slime’s sexual energy, especially w h e n facili-
tated by a l c o h o l i c drink – h e n c e B a c c h u s is associated w i t h grape-
vines, wild dancing, phallic symbols, and fornication.
W h e n d e a t h and sex h a v e rescued t h e r a t i o n a l soul from t h e
four slimy corners of t h e e a r t h , a transfigured, e t e r n a l B a c c h u s is
resurrected as the flaming S u n . He is E PLURIBUS UNUM, O n e from
Many, a resurrection symbolized by t h e p e n t a g r a m , the o n e rising
out of the four to m a k e five. T h i s , says M a n l y H a l l , is “the magical
formula of man,”

t h e h u m a n soul r i s i n g f r o m t h e b o n d a g e o f t h e a n i m a l n a t u r e .
T h e p e n t a g r a m i s t h e true l i g h t , t h e S t a r o f t h e M o r n i n g , mark-
ing t h e l o c a t i o n o f five m y s t e r i o u s c e n t e r s o f force, t h e a w a k e n -
ing of w h i c h is t h e supreme secret of w h i t e m a g i c .

W i t h “E PLURIBUS UNUM” f l o w i n g from his b e a k , Jupiter’s


eagle p r e a c h e s t h e B a c c h i c G o s p e l . It is a gospel of s a l v a t i o n that
antedates t h a t o f Jesus C h r i s t b y many, m a n y centuries. T h e Bac-
c h i c G o s p e l w a s p r e a c h e d and p l a y e d o u t in t h e p a g a n c u l t s . A
H o l y V i r g i n w o u l d ritually rescue t h e S o n o f G o d ’ s S a c r e d H e a r t
from the slime of h u m a n i t y i m p r i s o n i n g t h e Son’s soul. E a c h c u l t
i n i t i a t e – a f r a c t i o n a l part of t h e S o n ’ s soul – supposedly g a i n e d
increasing a m o u n t s o f k n o w l e d g e from m i n d - a l t e r i n g substances
and sexual ecstasy administered for money, of course, by t h e t e m -
ple priests a n d priestesses. T h e i n i t i a t e l o o k e d forward t o b e i n g

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released from his slimy h u m a n i t y b y e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e .


He yearned to be reunited ultimately with the Sacred Heart in
H e a v e n , resurrected and transfigured for all eternity.
T h i s s a l v a t i o n a l p l a n , or some v a r i a t i o n of it, c a n be found at
t h e core of all t h e secret or mystery religions – cults of empire. It
persists from t h e earliest B a b y l o n i a n p r o t o t y p e r i g h t o n d o w n
t h r o u g h t h e G r e a t S e a l . It has s u c c e e d e d n o t b e c a u s e it calls for
r e p e n t a n c e from sin, but because it makes sin an asset in a process
o f self-deification. T h e B a c c h i c G o s p e l serves a n e c o n o m y o f sin
m a n a g e m e n t , i n w h i c h sins are f o r g i v e n u p o n t h e p a y m e n t o f
m o n e y or performance of some act of c o n t r i t i o n valuable to socie-
ty. It is about p e o p l e c o n t r o l . Because it prospers on the a d d i c t i v e
n a t u r e of f o r n i c a t i o n and m i n d - a l t e r i n g substances, it n a t u r a l l y
facilitates sex and booze and drugs and all their destructive fallout
in order to h a v e a c o n t e x t in w h i c h to m a k e itself useful. U n l i k e
t h e C h r i s t i a n G o s p e l , w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s f o r g i v e n e s s o f sins u p o n
repentance – “ a n d if he r e p e n t s , f o r g i v e h i m ” ( L u k e 1 7 : 3 ) – the
B a c c h i c G o s p e l forgives u p o n t h e t e n d e r i n g o f appropriate sacri-
fices to the priest of the appropriate deity. T h e c o n g e n i a l i t y of this
gospel t o secular g o v e r n m e n t and R o m a n C a t h o l i c i s m speaks for
itself.

T HE reverse side of the G r e a t S e a l contains four elements. First,


the m o t t o “ANNUIT COEPTIS;” second, a thirteen-coursed top-
less p y r a m i d w i t h M D C C L X X V I e n g r a v e d i n t h e f o u n d a t i o n ;
third, a d i s e m b o d i e d eye f o r m i n g t h e pyramid’s c a p s t o n e , and
fourth, the m o t t o “NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM.” These elements
define exactly the “ d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e ” u p o n whose p r o t e c t i o n the
signers of the D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e firmly relied.
T h e land of the Pyramid, Egypt, is w h e r e C a e s a r e a n R o m e was
inaugurated. By “ C a e s a r e a n ” I m e a n t h e empire w h o s e h e a d c o m -
m a n d s n o t o n l y affairs of state but t h o s e of r e l i g i o n as w e l l . C a e -
sarean R o m e officially b e g a n i n A l e x a n d r i a , Egypt, a t t h e temple
of Jupiter, on t h e w i n t e r solstice – D e c e m b e r 25 – in t h e year 48
B C , w h e n a f i f t y - t w o - y e a r - o l d priest of Jupiter was d e c l a r e d to be
Jupiter’s i n c a r n a t i o n , thus “ S o n o f G o d . ” H i s n a m e was C a i u s o f

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the family of Marius, C a i u s Maria. A f t e r deification, and occasion-


ally before, C a i u s M a r i a was referred to as “ C a e s a r , ” a c a b a l i s m
formed by the letter “ C ” (for C a i u s ) a t t a c h e d to “Aesar,” the Etr-
uscan word for “ G o d . ” T h e G o d C a i u s . ( S u e t o n i u s , t h e first-cen-
tury b i o g r a p h e r of t h e C a e s a r s , suggests t h a t t h e title was formed
from p r e f i x i n g A e s a r w i t h t h e n u m e r a l “ C , ” m e a n i n g “ h u n d r e d . ”
G o d of the Hundred, or Hundreds.)
According to Scottish theologian Alexander Hislop, Caesar
c o n s e n t e d to d e i f i c a t i o n in order to i n h e r i t t h e h u g e k i n g d o m of
Pergamum. 5
C o n s i s t i n g o f most of A s i a Minor (present-day
T u r k e y ) , P e r g a m u m was b e q u e a t h e d t o t h e R o m a n p e o p l e i n 133
BC by its k i n g , A t t a l u s III. B u t t h e r e was a c a t c h : t h e p e o p l e of
R o m e had to regard their leader as G o d .
T h e Pergamenian kings had begun ruling as G o d w h e n the
title of Pontifex Maximus fled the fall of B a b y l o n in 539 B C . In that
e v e n t f u l year, Persian i n v a d e r s assassinated t h e B a b y l o n i a n k i n g
Belshazzar. Just m o m e n t s prior, Belshazzar h a d s e e n his assassina-
t i o n p r o p h e s i e d b y t h e f a m o u s h a n d w r i t i n g o n t h e w a l l : “Mene
Mene Tekel Upharsin,” ( “ t h e N u m b e r e r is numbered”). R u l i n g as
6

G o d b y d i v i n e a p p o i n t m e n t , Belshazzar h a d p r o f a n e d t h e sacred
vessels o f t h e Israelite t e m p l e . T h i s was t h e u n p a r d o n a b l e sin o f
blasphemy, for w h i c h G o d sent the Persians to destroy h i m .
Belshazzar’s priests were e v i d e n t l y spared. R a t h e r t h a n submit
to the Persian conquerors, they furtively gathered together all their
p o r t a b l e treasures, e n t i t l e m e n t s , c o d e s , i n s c r i p t i o n s , astrology,
sacred formulae, and insignia and fled w i t h t h e m northwesterly to
P e r g a m u m . S i n c e t h e rulers of P e r g a m u m were already p r a c t i c i n g
Babylonian religion, they were honored to receive the fugitive
B a b y l o n i a n C o l l e g e and their great e n d o w m e n t .
P e r g a m u m , t h e n e w r e s i d e n c e of Pontifex Maximus, b e c a m e a
showplace for despotism. T h e n e i g h b o r i n g G r e e k s reflected its sud-
den transformation w i t h the m y t h of Midas, the k i n g w h o s e t o u c h
turned e v e r y t h i n g to gold. B a b y l o n i a n rule graced P e r g a m u m w i t h
the world’s greatest m e d i c a l c o m p l e x , the A s k l e p i o n , dedicated to
the god of p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l h e a l i n g , A s k l e p i o s . Pergamum b e c a m e
the m o s t i m p o r t a n t h u m a n i s t l e a r n i n g c e n t e r , its library h o u s i n g

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more t h a n t w o h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d scrolls. ( M a r c A n t o n y w o u l d
later m o v e these assets to A l e x a n d r i a as a gift to C l e o p a t r a . M a n y
of t h e m e v e n t u a l l y found their way from A l e x a n d r i a to the M e d i c i
Library in Florence.)
W h e n A t t a l u s III died i n 1 3 3 B C , h e b e q u e a t h e d all his k i n g -
dom’s B a b y l o n i a n grandeur to the R o m a n s . But no R o m a n emper-
or was d e e m e d fit to r e c e i v e it b e c a u s e t h e R o m a n c o n s t i t u t i o n
had n e v e r suffered a m a n to be deified. T h e bequest lay u n c l a i m e d
until 4 8 B C , w h e n C a i u s Maria C a e s a r was declared G o d A l m i g h t y
in the Serapion, A l e x a n d r i a ’ s temple of Jupiter.
D e i f i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d C a e s a r n o w to assume t h e t i t l e Pontifex
Maximus. To indicate his infinitely holier status, he t o o k the n a m e
“Julius.” T h e n a m e was a c l a i m of d e s c e n t from Julius A s c a n i u s ,
7

the legendary son of legendary A e n e a s , Virgil’s maritime hero w h o


sailed westward w i t h a band of his Trojan f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m e n flee-
ing t h e sack o f T r o y b y G r e e k marauders. A s s i s t e d b y t h e w h o l e
h e a v e n l y n e t w o r k o f m y t h i c d e i t i e s , A e n e a s led his f o l l o w e r s t o
sacrifice their individuality for a glorious c o l l e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e that
w o u l d o n e day be called “ R o m e . ”
A e n e a s was c o n s i d e r e d t h e offspring of a u n i o n b e t w e e n a
h u m a n being, A n c h i s e s , and Jupiter’s wife V e n u s . ( W h e n A n c h i s -
es boasted of his intercourse w i t h t h e goddess, Jupiter struck h i m
blind w i t h a t h u n d e r b o l t . T h e Aeneid opens w i t h A e n e a s carrying
b l i n d o l d A n c h i s e s o u t o f T r o y o n his shoulders.) B y t a k i n g t h e
n a m e of A e n e a s ’ son Julius and claiming descent from h i m as well,
C a e s a r was able to trace his lineage b a c k to the Q u e e n of H e a v e n .
T h e d i v i n e l i n e a g e supposedly f l o w e d t h r o u g h his m o t h e r , M a i a ,
w h o was purported t o h a v e c o n c e i v e d h i m w i t h o u t losing her vir-
ginity. M a i a also c l a i m e d to h a v e r e m a i n e d a virgin e v e n in child-
b i r t h by h a v i n g h e r s o n d e l i v e r e d from t h e side in a surgical
operation that still bears Caesar’s n a m e .
A l l o f this “fable and endless g e n e a l o g y , ” w h i c h P a u l t a u g h t
the c h u r c h n o t to h e e d , is f o u n d a t i o n a l to A m e r i c a n secular gov-
e r n m e n t . For it is Julius A s c a n i u s , grandson of V e n u s and c l a i m e d
ancestor of the original Caesar, w h o inspired “ANNUIT COEPTIS,”
the upper m o t t o o n t h e f l i p side o f t h e G r e a t S e a l o f t h e U n i t e d

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States. T h e phrase, w h i c h the U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f State interprets


t o m e a n “ G o d h a t h f a v o r e d this u n d e r t a k i n g , ” was s p o k e n b y
y o u n g Julius A s c a n i u s in the N i n t h B o o k of Virgil’s Aeneid.
T h e scene is a battleground. T h e Trojans are outnumbered and
fearful. Y o u n g Julius A s c a n i u s takes a p o s i t i o n in front of his
shrinking c o u n t r y m e n . He looks up at an evil giant n a m e d R e m u -
lus, K i n g of the Rutulus. R e m u l u s m o c k s the Trojans for sending a
boy t o fight h i m . W h i l e t h e g i a n t q u a k e s w i t h derisive laughter,
Julius slips an arrow o n t o his bowstring and cries toward the h e a v -
ens:

Almighty Jupiter, favor this rebellious undertaking


(AUDACIBUS ADNUE COEPTIS)! E a c h year, I s h a l l b r i n g to t h y
t e m p l e gifts i n m y o w n h a n d s , a n d p l a c e a w h i t e b u l l o c k a t t h y
altar!

Jupiter t h e n hisses an arrow from t h e sky that strikes R e m u l u s


in t h e h e a d w i t h s u c h force t h a t it passes c l e a n t h r o u g h his t e m -
ples. T h e Trojans “raise a c h e e r and laugh aloud; their hearts rise
t o w a r d t h e stars.” A p o l l o , from his t h r o n e o f c l o u d , shouts the
gnostic credo: “By striving so, m e n reach the stars, dear son of gods
and sire of gods to c o m e ! ”
A thrilling story. A n d o n e that leaves no doubt as to the iden-
tity of the god w h o favored t h e u n d e r t a k i n g of the U n i t e d States.
It was a p a g a n deity, t h e god of Julius A s c a n i u s , and n o t t h e G o d
of the Bible. Surely, if C o n g r e s s had w a n t e d to show that the n e w
n a t i o n was u n d e r w r i t t e n b y Y a h w e h , G o d o f t h e B i b l e , i t c o u l d
h a v e referred to the b o y - d o w n s - g i a n t story told in t h e O l d Testa-
m e n t . W h o doesn’t k n o w D a v i d and G o l i a t h ? C h a r l e s T h o m s o n ’ s
biblical scholarship could easily h a v e produced a m o t t o based on I
S a m u e l 17:47, w h e r e D a v i d says to G o l i a t h :

“ T h e L o r d saves n o t w i t h sword a n d spear: for t h e b a t t l e is t h e Lord’s,


and H e w i l l g i v e y o u i n t o our h a n d s ! ”

R e d u c e d to an original-language m o t t o at least as c o m p r e h e n -

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sible as “ANNUIT COEPTIS,” t h e passage m i g h t h a v e a p p e a r e d in


the S e a l as the H e b r e w

ENEMN EFEF
or e v e n in translation, “THE BATTLE IS THE LORD’S.”
But establishing a national g o v e r n m e n t directly on biblical
scripture was n o t the intent, I b e l i e v e , of the founding fathers. Far
more useful to t h e m , and a c c e p t a b l e to t h e souls they k n e w would
be populating A m e r i c a in good time, were the fabulous vanities of
R o m a n religion. T h e s e souls required the sacred icons of burgeon-
ing h u m a n i t y and u n i n h i b i t e d sexual energy, legends that inspired
h o t b l o o d e d h e r o i s m and p a t r i o t i s m . C o n s e n t t o images o f this
character presumed obedience to the o m n i p o t e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e h o v -
e r i n g inscrutably a b o v e t h e E S T A B L I S H M E N T o f a n c i e n t , s t o n e -
heavy, well-ordered pyramidic hierarchy.

L ESS t h a n four years after his deification, Julius C a e s a r was assas-


sinated by an e x e c u t i v e conspiracy. For another four years, civil
war raged as t w o of t h e assassins, Brutus and Cassius, struggled for
c o n t r o l against Caesar’s i m m e d i a t e successor, a T r i u m v i r a t e c o m -
prised of Lepidus, M a r c A n t o n y , and Caesar’s adopted son (his bio-
logical g r a n d - n e p h e w ) , C a i u s O c t a v i a n C a p i a s .
T h e T r i u m v i r a t e d e f e a t e d t h e assassins o n l y t o war against
e a c h other. Poets l a m e n t e d t h a t R o m e , against w h o m n o foreign
e n e m y h a d e v e r p r e v a i l e d , was b e i n g destroyed by t h e s t r e n g t h of
h e r o w n sons. O b l i g a t i o n s o f e v e r y k i n d d i s s o l v e d . C l a s s f o u g h t
against class. A fog of guilt and despair settled in. T h e poets
y e a r n e d for escape b e y o n d the world’s borders, to a p l a c e of i n n o -
c e n c e and p e a c e , p e r h a p s to a n e w order of t h i n g s . In his b o o k
a b o u t R o m e ’ s r e v o l u t i o n from r e p u b l i c t o B a b y l o n i a n autocracy,
O x f o r d historian R o n a l d S y m e writes:

T h e darker the clouds, the more certain was the dawn of


redemption. On several theories of cosmic economy it was firm-
ly believed that one world-epoch was passing, another was com-
ing into being. T h e lore of the Etruscans, the calculations of

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CHAPTER 20 AMERICAN GRAFFITI

astrologers and the speculations of philosophers might conspire


with some plausibility and discover in the comet that appeared
after Caesar’s assassination the sign and herald of a new age.
Vague aspirations and magical science were quickly adopted for
purposes of propaganda by the rulers of the world. Already coins
of the year 43 BC bear symbols of power, fertility and the Golden
Age. s

T h e most influential and enduring c e l e b r a t i o n o f G o l d e n A g e


o p t i m i s m was Virgil’s p r o p h e t i c - s o u n d i n g Fourth Eclogue. This
w o r k was addressed t o o n e o f Virgil’s c h i e f b e n e f a c t o r s , C a i u s
A s i n i u s P o l l i o , w h o was C o n s u l (roughly e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e office
of President) w h e n C a i u s O c t a v i a n , A n t o n y , and Lepidus were
reconciled in 40 BC by the Peace of Brindisi. Pollio, w h o represent-
e d O c t a v i a n a t t h e Brindisi n e g o t i a t i o n s , i n t r o d u c e d V i r g i l t o
C a i u s M a e c e n a s , the media mogul of his day. He had risked his for-
tune s u p p o r t i n g Julius Caesar’s rise to absolute d i c t a t o r s h i p , a n d
he w o u l d risk no less to put Caesar’s adopted son, C a i u s O c t a v i a n ,
in t h e same p l a c e . He scouted and subsidized the most h i g h l y tal-
e n t e d artists, sculptors, and p o e t s to c r e a t e a t o t a l l y n e w k i n d of
c o m m u n i c a t i o n . V i r g i l g a v e h i m t h e m o s t for his m o n e y . V i r g i l
d e v e l o p e d a n e w “ c i v i c ” literature w h o s e pious r h e t o r i c a l style
gently guided public o p i n i o n toward a c c e p t i n g the rule of a deified
B a b y l o n i a n a u t o c r a t . In w r i t i n g t h e Fourth Eclogue, V i r g i l bor-
rowed h e a v i l y from t h e messianic verses of Isaiah, w h o s e writings
were freely accessible t h r o u g h the Jewish rabbis of R o m e :

Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and call his
name ‘God With U s ’ . . . . [Isaiah 7:14] For unto us a child is born,
unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his
shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor,
T h e mighty God, T h e everlasting Father, T h e Prince of Peace.
[9:6]

S i x h u n d r e d years after Isaiah, V i r g i l s o l e m n l y a n n o u n c e d i n


the Fourth Eclogue t h a t the Prince of P e a c e w o u l d be p r o d u c e d by
the unrolling of a N e w W o r l d Order (“NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM”):

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RULERS OF E V I L

Now returns the G o l d e n A g e of Saturn, now appears the


Immaculate Virgin. Now descends from heaven a divine Nativi-
ty. O! Chaste Lucina [Goddess of Maternity], speed the Moth-
er’s pains, haste the glorious Birth, and usher in the reign of thy
A p o l l o . T h y consulship, O Pollio, shall lead this glorious
Advent, and the new world order [NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM] shall
then begin to roll. Thenceforth whatever vestige of Original Sin
remains, shall be swept away from earth forever, and the Son of
God shall be the Prince of Peace!

T h e b i l l i o n a i r e M a e c e n a s e x p l o i t e d the Fourth Eclogue in t h e


media as t h o u g h it were a divine summons for Caesar’s adopted son
O c t a v i a n to take t h e t h r o n e and b e g i n s w e e p i n g the w o r l d free of
S i n . A fabulous resume of O c t a v i a n was already g o i n g a r o u n d –
a b o u t h o w a t h u n d e r b o l t h a d blasted t h e city w a l l of his b i r t h -
place, Velitre, just prior to his birth. A n d h o w the priests interpret-
ed this to be Jupiter’s w a y of s a y i n g t h e future ruler of t h e w o r l d
w o u l d arise from the spot. A n d about h o w the S e n a t e , u p o n hear-
ing this, had decreed that all male babies should be e x e c u t e d . A n d
h o w O c t a v i a n was s a v e d b y h i s m o t h e r , w h o pilfered t h e s t o n e
tablet on w h i c h the decree was engraved.
O c t a v i a n ’ s m o t h e r was A t i a o f t h e family o f M a r i u s , A t i a
Maria, a vestal virgin, niece of Caius Maria, the m a n w h o would
b e c o m e Julius Caesar. W h e n O c t a v i a n r e a c h e d the age o f t w e l v e ,
great-uncle C a i u s b e c a m e his legal father through adoption. T h r e e
years later, in O c t a v i a n ’ s fifteenth year, his adoptive father was dei-
fied as Julius Caesar, Pontifex Maximus. T h a t ’ s w h e n the propagan-
dists of M a e c e n a s got busy p r o m o t i n g t h e S o n ’ s d i v i n e origins –
about h o w the c h i l d was born S e p t e m b e r 28, 63 BC in h u m b l e cir-
c u m s t a n c e s : t h e butler’s p a n t r y at his grandfather’s m a n s i o n at
Velitre. A b o u t how he had been conceived on December 25 by
A p o l l o , w h o c a m e i n serpent form a n d i m p r e g n a t e d t h e v i r g i n
A t i a Maria as she lay sleeping on the floor of the A p o l l o n i a n tem-
p l e . A b o u t how, just prior t o t h e child’s a d v e n t , t h e v i r g i n M a r i a
h a d d r e a m e d t h a t h e r body was scattered to t h e stars and e n c o m -
passed t h e u n i v e r s e . A b o u t h o w h e r h u s b a n d , t o o , h a d d r e a m e d
t h a t from w i t h i n h e r s h o n e t h e b r i g h t b e a m s o f t h e sun, w h i c h

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t h e n “rose from b e t w e e n her thighs.” A b o u t h o w the toddler O c t a -


vian’s h e a d was often seen b e i n g licked by g o l d e n solar flames.
T h e p r o p a g a n d a c i r c u l a t e d t h e story o f h o w t h e great as-
trologer T h e o g e n e s , w h e n told O c t a v i a n ’ s birth sign ( C a p r i c o r n ) ,
rose and flung himself at the lad’s feet. T h e o g e n e s k n e w the astro-
logical ruler o f C a p r i c o r n was S a t u r n , w h o s e s e c o n d G o l d e n A g e
was at h a n d – S a t u r n , t h e c e l e s t i o - m y t h i c a l F a t h e r - G o d of R o m e
and father of Jupiter. O c t a v i a n , as the incarnation of Jupiter, would
be ruled by Saturn, t h e most dictatorial house in the zodiac, terri-
ble for his restriction, l i m i t a t i o n , c o n t r o l , e v e n to t h e excesses of
f o r n i c a t i o n and c a n n i b a l i z i n g o f h i s o w n c h i l d r e n . N o w o n d e r
T h e o g e n e s flung himself at O c t a v i a n ’ s feet!
In 28 B C , t w e l v e years after t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Fourth
Eclogue, O c t a v i a n e n t e r e d R o m e t r i u m p h a n t l y as t h e P r i n c e of
P e a c e . Like Julius h a d d o n e , the n e w Pontifex Maximus r e c e i v e d a
n e w and h o l i e r n a m e , C a e s a r Augustus (“since sanctuaries and all
places c o n s e c r a t e d by t h e augurs are k n o w n as ‘August,’” a c c o r d -
ing to S u e t o n i u s ) . A n d like Julius, he was h a i l e d as “ S o n of G o d . ”
H i s t o r i a n A l e x a n d e r D e l M a r describes t h e u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e
of the d i v i n e O c t a v i a n in these excerpts from his l a n d m a r k e x p o -
sition of R o m a n political deification, The Worship of Augustus Cae-
sar ( 1 8 9 9 ) :

In the firm establishment of the Messianic religion and ritu-


al, Augustus ascended the sacred throne of his martyred sire and
was in turn addressed as the Son of God (Divi filius), whilst Julius
was worshiped as the Father.... This claim and assumption
appears in the literature of his age, was engraved upon his mon-
uments and stamped upon his coins.... It was universally admit-
ted and accepted throughout the Roman empire as valid and
legitimate, according to chronology, astrology, prophecy, and tra-
dition.... His actual worship as the Son of G o d was enjoined and
enforced by the laws of the empire, accepted by the priesthood
and practised by the people.... Both de jure and de facto it con-
stituted the fundamental article of the Roman imperial and
ecclesiastical constitution.
As supreme pontiff of the Roman empire, Augustus lawfully

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acquired and exercised authority over all cardinals, priests,


curates, monks, nuns, flamens, augurs, vestal virgins, temples,
altars, shrines, sanctuaries and monasteries, and over all religious
rites, ceremonies, festivals, holidays, dedications, canonizations,
marriages, divorces, adoptions, benefices, wills, burying grounds,
fairs, and other ecclesiastical subjects and matters.... T h e com-
mon people wore little images of Augustus suspended from their
necks. Great images and shrines of the same god were erected in
the highways and resorted to for sanctuary. There were a thou-
sand such shrines in Rome alone.
Augustus wore on his head a pontifical mitre surmounted by
a Latin cross, an engraving of which, taken from a coin of the
Colonia Julia Gemella, appears in Harduini, de Numiis Antiquis
[1689], plate I.... T h e images of Augustus upon the coins of his
own mintage, or that of his vassals, are surrounded with the halo
of light which indicates divinity, and on the reverse of the coins
are displayed the various emblems of religion, such as the mitre,
cross, crook, fishes, labarum, and the Buddhic or Bacchic or
Dionysian monogram of PX [the Greek chi-rho, “Cairo,” site of
the great pyramid].
The Augustan writers furnished materials showing that [Au-
gustus’] Incarnation was the issue of a divine father and mortal
mother, that the mother was a wife-virgin, that the birth oc-
curred in an obscure place, that it was foretold by prophecy or
sacred oracle, that it was presaged or accompanied by prodigies
of Nature, that the divinity of the child was recognized by sages,
that the Holy O n e exhibited extraordinary signs of precocity
and wisdom, that his destruction was sought by the ruling pow-
ers, that his miraculous touch was sufficient to cure deformity or
disease, that he exhibited a profound humility, that his deifica-
tion would bring peace on earth, and that he would finally as-
cend to heaven, there to join the Father.
So universally were his divine origin and attributes conced-
ed, that many people, in dying, left their entire fortunes to his
sacred personal fisc, in gratitude, as they themselves expressed
it, for having been permitted to live during the incarnation and
earthly sojourn of this Son of God. In the course of twenty years
he thus inherited no less than 35,000,000 gold aurei [nearly $1
billion at 1996 values].... Many potentates bequeathed him not

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CHAPTER 20 AMERICAN GRAFFITI

only their private fortunes, but also their kingdoms and people
in vassalage.... T h e marble and bronze monuments to Augustus
still extant contain nearly one hundred sacred titles. A m o n g
them are Jupiter Optimus Maximus, A p o l l o , Janus, Quirinus,
Dionysus, Mercurius, Volcanus, Neptunus, Liber Pater, Savus
[Saviour], and Hesus.
At his death, Senator Numericus Atticus saw his spirit
ascend to Heaven. T h e Ascension of Augustus is engraved upon
the great cameo, from the spoils of Constantinople, presented by
Baldwin II to Louis IX, and now in the Cabinet of France. A fac-
simile of it is published in Duruy’s History of Rome....

A m e r i c a ’ s G r e a t S e a l , w i t h its obsessive fidelity t o C a e s a r e a n


R o m e , c a n n o t represent a n a t i o n more moral t h a n the source of its
scripture. T h e icons and mysterious cabalistic language of this S e a l
i n t r o d u c e a preposterous B a b y l o n i a n gospel. T a k e n seriously (and
s h o u l d n ’ t a g o v e r n m e n t ’ s s o l e m n s t a t e m e n t s be t a k e n seriously?),
the Seal’s gospel t e a c h e s t h a t A m e r i c a ’ s h i g h spiritual purpose is
to assist in t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n of t h e S o n of G o d ’ s m u t i l a t e d parts
from the evil slime of h u m a n flesh. It tells us that already the H o l y
V i r g i n has rescued t h e S o n ’ s S a c r e d H e a r t from t h e slime – E
PLURIBUS UNUM, “ o n e from m a n y ” – and has placed it h i g h in the
vault of H e a v e n , as her five-pointed celestial p a t h describes for all
to see. It calls for A m e r i c a to e x e r t f e r v e n t sexual e n e r g y so t h a t
the S o n ’ s m a n y parts o n e a r t h m i g h t b e r e u n i t e d w i t h t h e U N U M
in H e a v e n . It promises that A m e r i c a will rise toward the pure light
of sinlessness and G o d l i n e s s , i n t o e t e r n a l life as part of t h e solar
b o d y of t h e S o n – t h e S u n – of G o d . It signifies t h a t this c o s m i c
resurrective process is administered by a pyramidic hierarchy c o n -
ceived in ancient Babylon, exported to A s i a Minor, and be-
q u e a t h e d t o R o m e . A t t h e top o f t h e h i e r a r c h y sits a n u n s e e n
c h i e f t a i n , a n u n k n o w n superior, a G o d o f t h e S e a l w h o possesses
universal intelligence and authority o v e r every soul w h o confeder-
ates w i t h , or subscribes to, the Seal.
T h e G o d of the S e a l wields the fasces to sweep the earth c l e a n
of t h e last traces of O r i g i n a l S i n . He is assisted by a n e w priestly
order, a “ n e w w o r l d order” c h a r g e d w i t h destroying all i n d i v i d u a l

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RULERS OF E V I L

identity deemed inconsistent with the resurrection to godliness.


U n c o o p e r a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t s and dissident citizens alike are cut
d o w n by arts of war so frugal that the liquidation increases popular
faith in the fasces. B e c a u s e they f u n c t i o n in a G o l d e n Era of S a t -
urn, t h e c h i e f and his h i e r a r c h y c a n b e d e p e n d e d u p o n t o m i m i c
Saturn’s strictness, cruelty, licentiousness, e v e n c a n n a b i l i s m as the
situation requires. To the charge that such is impossible in A m e r i -
ca, o n e c o m p a r i s o n should b e sufficient. N o sooner was A u g u s t u s
C a e s a r deified t h a n he sacrificially murdered three h u n d r e d S e n a -
tors in Perugia to atone for the assassination of his adoptive father
Julius. Likewise, no sooner was an A m e r i c a n president inaugurat-
9

ed t h a n h e , as C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f of t h e armed forces, author-


ized the sacrificial murder of n e a r l y a hundred misguided
C h r i s t i a n s near W a c o , Texas, to a t o n e for what? A growing popu-
lar d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h federal g o v e r n m e n t ?
W h a t t h e S e a l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a represents, t o
a n y o n e w h o takes it seriously, is a Ministry of Sin. A s p e e c h by Je-
suit political scientist M i c h a e l N o v a k , published in the January 28,
1989 issue of America, t h e w e e k l y m a g a z i n e of A m e r i c a n Jesuits,
sums it up eloquently e n o u g h :

T h e framers wanted to build a “novus ordo” that would


secure “liberty and justice for all”.... T h e underlying principle of
this new order is the fact of human sin. To build a republic
designed for sinners, then, is the indispensable task.... There is
no use building a social system for saints. There are too few of
them. A n d those there are are impossible to live w i t h ! . . . A n y
effective social system must therefore be designed for the only
moral majority there is: sinners.

I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , w e shall e x a m i n e h o w faithfully t h e
f o u n d i n g fathers r e c o n s t r u c t e d B a b y l o n i a n R o m e o n t h e b a n k s o f
the Potomac.

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RULERS OF E V I L

L’Enfant’s celebrated plan of Washington, D . C . , conforming to the


cabalistic Baphomet, arranged so that the Goat’s mouth
(see below) is the W h i t e House.
Chapter 21

JUPITER’S EARTHLY
ABODE

R
O M E ’ S G O D O F G O D S , Jupiter, was served i n t e m p l e s c a l l e d
capitolia, from t h e L a t i n w o r d m e a n i n g “ h e a d . ” A s w e ’ v e
seen, A m e r i c a ’ s t e m p l e o f Jupiter was erected o n land t h a t
had b e e n k n o w n as “ R o m e ” for more t h a n a h u n d r e d years before
it was s e l e c t e d by D a n i e l C a r r o l l ’ s “federal c i t y ” c o m m i t t e e from
properties o w n e d by C a r r o l l himself.
S u b d i v i d i n g the federal city, or District of C o l u m b i a , into plats
was the task of an artistic Parisian e n g i n e e r n a m e d P i e r r e - C h a r l e s
L’Enfant. A c c o r d i n g to Dr. James W a l s h in his b o o k American
Jesuits, L’Enfant got t h e j o b t h r o u g h t h e intercession of his priest,
John Carroll.
L’Enfant was a F r e e m a s o n . He s u b d i v i d e d the city i n t o a bril-
liant array of c a b a l i s t i c s y m b o l s and n u m e r i c s . P e r h a p s his best-
k n o w n d e v i c e is the p a t t e r n that is discerned w h e n a straight line
i s d r a w n from t h e W h i t e H o u s e a l o n g C o n n e c t i c u t A v e n u e t o
D u p o n t C i r c l e , t h e n a l o n g Massachusetts A v e n u e t o M o u n t Ver-

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RULERS OF E V I L

n o n Square, t h e n b a c k across K Street to W a s h i n g t o n C i r c l e , t h e n


u p R h o d e Island A v e n u e t o L o g a n C i r c l e , t h e n a l o n g V e r m o n t
A v e n u e back to the W h i t e House.
W h a t results is a perfect p e n t a g r a m ,
the Q u e e n of Heaven’s eight-year-
and-one-day celestial journey.
B u t L’Enfant’s p e n t a g r a m p o i n t s
downward, forming the shape of
Baphomet, the gnostic “absorption-
into-wisdom” goat’s-head i c o n of the
Knights Templar. G n o s t i c historian
M a n l y H a l l says t h e u p s i d e - d o w n
p e n t a g r a m “is used e x t e n s i v e l y in
b l a c k m a g i c ” a n d “ a l w a y s signifies a
perverted power.” The Baphomet
i m p o s e d u p o n t h e federal c i t y b y
Pierre-Charles L’Enfant puts the
m o u t h of this “ p e r v e r t e d p o w e r ” ex-
actly at the W h i t e House.
T h e Congressional Medal of
Honor, depicting Aeneas with- T h e presence o f perverted p o w e r
in a Baphomet, rewards Amer- is underscored in L’Enfant’s n u m b e r -
icans who have sacrificed most ing of W a s h i n g t o n ’ s city blocks. T h e
1

for the Roman ideal. 600 series of b l o c k s runs in a s w a t h


from Q S t r e e t N o r t h t h r o u g h t h e
C a p i t o l grounds d o w n t o t h e m o u t h o f James C r e e k b e l o w V
S t r e e t S o u t h . A l l t h e n u m b e r s b e t w e e n 600 and 699 are assigned
to blocks w i t h i n this swath, e x c e p t for the n u m b e r 666. T h a t n u m -
ber is missing from t h e m a p . It must h a v e b e e n secretly affixed to
the only u n n u m b e r e d section of blocks in the 600 series. T h a t sec-
t i o n , w e find, includes the C a p i t o l grounds t h a t o n c e w e r e called
“ R o m e . ” Of course, 666 is t h e “ n u m b e r of t h e n a m e of t h e Beast”
mentioned in the thirteenth chapter of Revelation. If America’s
t e m p l e of Jupiter sits u p o n the Beast n a m e d 666, c o u l d it be t h a t
the true founding fathers soberly recognized Congress as “the great
w h o r e ” of R e v e l a t i o n 17:1?
T h e L a t i n historians O v i d , Pliny, and A u r e l i u s V i c t o r all tell

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C H A P T E R 21 JUPITER’S EARTHLY A B O D E

us t h a t t h e prehistoric n a m e for R o m e was Saturnia, “ c i t y of S a t -


urn.” Saturnia’s original settlers came from the east, from Babylon.
I n the B a b y l o n i a n (or C h a l d e a n ) language, a c c o r d i n g t o A l e x a n -
der H i s l o p , S a t u r n i a was p r o n o u n c e d “ S a t r ” but spelled w i t h o n l y
four characters, Stur. N o w , C h a l d e a n , like Hebrew, G r e e k , and to
a l i m i t e d e x t e n t L a t i n , h a d n o separate n u m b e r i n g system. T h e i r
numbers were represented by certain characters of their a l p h a b e t .
T h e c a b a l a h d e r i v e s its p o w e r from m a t h e m a t i c a l e n e r g i e s c o n -
v e y e d from these languages. H i s l o p r e p o r t e d a p h e n o m e n o n that
he said “every C h a l d e e scholar k n o w s , ” w h i c h is that the letters of
Stur, Rome’s earliest n a m e , total 666:

S = 60; T = 400; U = 6; R = 200 := 666

H i s l o p further r e p o r t e d t h a t R o m a n n u m e r a l s consist o f o n l y
six letters, D (500), C ( 1 0 0 ) , L ( 5 0 ) , X ( 1 0 ) , V ( 5 ) , and I ( 1 ) – we
ignore the letter M, signifying 1,000, because it’s a latecomer, h a v -
ing e v o l v e d as s h o r t h a n d for t w o D’s. W h e n we total these six let-
ters, we d i s c o v e r a s t a r t l i n g l i n k w i t h t h e Beast of R e v e l a t i o n
e m b e d d e d in the very alphanumeric c o m m u n i c a t i o n system of the
Romans:

D = 500; C = 100; L = 50; X = 10; V = 5; I = 1 := 666

Demonism, black magic, and perverted power formatted into the


streets of the federal city? W e l l , as M i c h a e l N o v a k o b s e r v e d , t h e
indispensable task of t h e f o u n d i n g fathers was to build a republic
designed for sinners. N o t all sinners c a n be governed w i t h a l o v i n g
call to repentance, w i t h reason, logic, patience, understanding,
and f o r g i v e n e s s . S i n d e v e l o p s c u n n i n g v i l l a i n s w h o steal, rape,
destroy, torture, and kill. A republic d e s i g n e d for sinners must be
up to the villainy of its meanest subject. T h i s is w h y the great rev-
olutionary p a m p h l e t e e r T o m Paine candidly characterized h u m a n
g o v e r n m e n t as “a necessary evil.” A g o v e r n m e n t must necessarily
be as e v i l as the evildoers it’s c h a r g e d w i t h regulating or it c a n n o t
p r o t e c t t h e i n n o c e n t . T h i s just stands t o reason. S c r i p t u r e shows
t h e p r i n c i p l e a s d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d . Yes, G o d o r d a i n e d t h e e v i l t o
rule t h e g o o d . B u t t h e details o f this gracious o r d i n a t i o n , w h i c h

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RULERS OF E V I L

w e ’ l l be e x a m i n i n g presently, are so embarrassing to t h e flaunted


piety of rulers that they must be c o n c e a l e d in cabalah.
S o o n after c o m p l e t i n g his master p l a n for t h e federal city,
P i e r r e - C h a r l e s L’Enfant b e c a m e e m b r o i l e d in a flagrant dispute
with Bishop Carroll’s high-ranking brother Daniel. T h e young
engineer wanted an avenue to go where Daniel Carroll intended
to build his n e w m a n o r house. W h e n C a r r o l l refused to build else-
w h e r e , L’Enfant ordered t h e w o r k c r e w t o tear t h e n e w h o u s e
d o w n . Before any significant damage could be d o n e , h o w e v e r , Pres-
i d e n t W a s h i n g t o n dismissed L’Enfant. T h e w h o l e affair d i v e r t e d
a t t e n t i o n away from t h e d e m o n i c symbolism in L’Enfant’s designs
w h i l e c o n v e n i e n t l y r e m o v i n g h i m from p u b l i c scrutiny. A g a i n ,
b l o w n c o v e r as cover. T h e designs were e x e c u t e d by his successor,
A n d r e w Ellicott, w i t h o u t significant alteration.

T h e formal c r e a t i o n o f Jupiter’s A m e r i c a n A b o d e o n W e d n e s -
day, S e p t e m b e r 1 8 , 1 7 9 3 was a j u b i l a n t affair. P r e s i d e n t
George W a s h i n g t o n and C a p i t o l Commissioner Daniel Carroll
departed from the W h i t e House, m a r c h i n g side by side. T h e y led a
magnificent parade “ w i t h music playing, drums beating, and spec-
tators rejoicing in o n e of the grandest M a s o n i c processions w h i c h
perhaps ever was e x h i b i t e d on the like important o c c a s i o n . ” 2

A r r i v i n g a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n site o n L o t 6 6 6 , C o m m i s s i o n e r
C a r r o l l p r e s e n t e d “ W o r s h i p f u l M a s t e r W a s h i n g t o n ” a large silver
plaque engraved w i t h the following words:

This South East corner stone, of the Capitol of the United


States of America in the city of Washington, was laid on the
1 8 t h day of September, in the thirteenth year of American Inde-
pendence, in the first year of the second term of the Presidency
of George Washington, whose virtues in the civil administration
of his country have been as conspicuous and beneficial, as his
military valor and prudence have been useful in establishing her
liberties, and in the year of Masonry, 5 7 9 3 , by the President of
the United States, in concert with the Grand Lodge of Mary-
land, several lodges under its jurisdiction, and Lodge N o . 22
from Alexandria, Virginia.

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CHAPTER 21 JUPITER’S EARTHLY A B O D E

President W a s h i n g t o n t h e n d e s c e n d e d i n t o a builder’s t r e n c h
prepared for t h e C a p i t o l ’ s f o u n d a t i o n s , laid t h e p l a q u e o n t h e
ground, and c o v e r e d it o v e r w i t h the cornerstone. T h e cornerstone
was a m a s s i v e r o c k c u t from Eagle Quarry, a p r o p e r t y in A c q u i a
C r e e k , V i r g i n i a , o w n e d b y t h e family o f D a n i e l Carroll’s n e p h e w ,
R o b e r t Brent.
T h e n , just a s t h e priests o f Jupiter m i g h t h a v e blessed t h e i r
capitolia t w o m i l l e n n i a ago three W o r s h i p f u l Masters c o n s e c r a t e d
the stone w i t h corn, w i n e , and oil. W a s h i n g t o n and the other M a s -
ters stepped out of t h e t r e n c h , and j o i n e d the assembled t h r o n g to
listen to a patriotic speech. Afterward, said the Gazette,

the congregation joined in reverential prayer, which was suc-


ceeded by Masonic chanting honors, and a 1 5 - v o l l e y from the
artillery. T h e n the participants retired to a barbecue, at which a
five-hundred-pound ox was roasted, and those in attendance
generally partook, with every abundance of other recreation....

R e a d i n g of the b a r b e q u e , I was r e m i n d e d of the passage in the


Aeneid w h e r e Julius A s c a n i u s p r o m i s e d a sacrifice to Jupiter for
favoring his rebellious u n d e r t a k i n g : “I shall bring to thy temple gifts
in my o w n h a n d s , and p l a c e a w h i t e bullock at thy altar...” C o u l d
it be t h a t the silver plaque, the corn, the w i n e , the oil, the c h a n t i -
ng, the roasted o x , and the reverential prayer were the fulfillment
of t h a t p r o m i s e – a b u r n t sacrifice to Jupiter, on t h e altar of his
capitolium, u p o n l a n d c a l l e d R o m e , l a n d f o r m a l l y c o n s e c r a t e d by
Pontifex Maximus to the p r o t e c t i o n of the goddess Venus? Histori-
ans w h o b e l i e v e the g o v e r n m e n t of the U n i t e d States was founded
by C h r i s t i a n s will c e r t a i n l y disagree. But the c e r e m o n y , as report-
ed in t h e press, was a n y t h i n g but C h r i s t i a n . M o r e o v e r , the plaque
itself r e c k o n e d t i m e a c c o r d i n g t o t h r e e systems: ( 1 ) t h e years o f
i n d e p e n d e n c e of the U n i t e d States, (2) the years of G e o r g e W a s h -
ington’s administration, and (3) the years of Freemasonry. It c o m -
p l e t e l y ignored t h e system t h a t r e c k o n s t i m e in t h e years of Jesus
Christ. 3

Eight years after t h e sacrifice, C o n g r e s s m e t in the C a p i t o l for


the first t i m e . W a s h i n g t o n g a v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a R o m a n

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RULERS OF E V I L

C a t h o l i c s e t t l e m e n t . T h e most i m p o s i n g houses i n t h e city


b e l o n g e d t o D a n i e l C a r r o l l a n d his b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , secularized
Jesuit priest N o t l e y Y o u n g . T h e city’s mayor was Carroll’s nephew,
R o b e r t Brent, w h o was also purveying stone for most of the federal
b u i l d i n g s . O v e r o n t h e west side o f t o w n stood G e o r g e t o w n C o l -
lege, established by Bishop John Carroll in 1789. G e o r g e t o w n
q u i c k l y b e c a m e t h e f o r e m o s t i n c u b a t o r o f federal policy, f o r e i g n
and domestic. It is still administered by the S o c i e t y of Jesus.

Seal of the Black Papacy’s Georgetown


University, as it appears today on a campus
security vehicle. T h e Roman eagle grasps
both the world and the cross, State and
Roman Catholic C h u r c h , the banner in its
beak declaring “UTRAQUE U N U M , ” – “Both
together.”

W h e n P o p e Pius V I I restored t h e S o c i e t y o f Jesus i n A u g u s t


1 8 1 4 , former presidents J o h n A d a m s a n d T h o m a s Jefferson ex-
c h a n g e d c o m m e n t s . “I do n o t like t h e resurrection of the Jesuits,”
wrote A d a m s .

They have a general now in Russia [Tadeusz Brzozowski], in


correspondence with the Jesuits in the United States, who are
more numerous than everybody knows. Shall we not have
swarms of them here, in the shape of printers, editors, writers,
schoolmasters, & c ? I have lately read Pascal’s letters over again
[Blaise Pascal’s Provincial Letters helped bring about the suppres-
sion of the Society], and four volumes of the History of the
Jesuits. If ever any congregation of men could merit eternal
perdition on earth and in hell it is this company of Loyola. Our
system, however, of religious liberty must afford them an asylum;
but if they do not put the purity of our elections to a severe trial,
it will be a wonder.

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C H A P T E R 21 JUPITER’S EARTHLY A B O D E

Jefferson’s reply i n d i c a t e s (or p r e t e n d s ) t h a t h e , t o o , was


u n a w a r e t h a t A m e r i c a ’ s destiny h a d b e e n shaped b y t h e h a n d s o f
R o m e : “ L i k e y o u , I d i s a p p r o v e of t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e Jesuits,
w h i c h seems to portend a backward step from light into darkness.”
During the next seventy years, Superior Generals John
R o o t h a a n ( 1 8 2 9 - 1 8 5 3 ) and Pieter Jean B e c k x ( 1 8 5 3 - 1 8 8 3 ) would
p u m p t h e S o c i e t y up to its o r i g i n a l greatness, s w e l l i n g t h e m e m -
bership from a few h u n d r e d to m o r e t h a n t h i r t e e n t h o u s a n d . In
t h o s e same s e v e n t y years, t h e P r o t e s t a n t s w h o h a d f o u g h t for
A m e r i c a ’ s i n d e p e n d e n c e w o u l d vastly d i m i n i s h i n p r o p o r t i o n t o
the influx of fresh R o m a n C a t h o l i c refugees from E u r o p e a n tyran-
nies. ( T h e r e is e v i d e n c e t h e s e t y r a n n i e s w e r e Jesuit-fed, for t h e
express purpose of p o p u l a t i n g A m e r i c a . Perhaps a n e w scholarship
w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e more t h o r o u g h l y t h a n I h a v e time or i n c l i n a t i o n
for.)
As America’s public became increasingly C a t h o l i c , Generals
R o o t h a a n and B e c k x were able to signify W a s h i n g t o n ’ s debt to the
black papacy with m u c h bolder iconographic and architectural
s y m b o l s . T h i s l i t t l e - e x p l o r e d m a t e r i a l is t h e subject of our n e x t
chapter.

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Persephone, Goddess of the U.S. Capitol Dome.


Said by her priests to have been immaculately conceived, she was renamed “Free-
dom” for American consumption. Abducted by Hades, son of Saturn, she ruled the
dead and all else that is within the earth, namely metals and precious stones.
At daybreak of May 9, 1993, helicopters lowered the Queen of the dead to ground
level for her first cleaning in more than a century. T h e author attended this his-
toric event and snapped the above photograph. Significantly, May 9, 1993 was...
Mother’s Day.
Chapter 22

THE IMMACULATE
CONCEPTION

A
s IF IT W E R E N ’ T enough that Christopher C o l u m b u s had
dedicated the N e w W o r l d t o her, and that A n d r e w W h i t e
h a d d e d i c a t e d M a r y l a n d t o her, a n d t h a t B i s h o p C a r r o l l
had dedicated his S e e of Baltimore to her, the 1846 c o n v e n t i o n of
A m e r i c a n R o m a n C a t h o l i c bishops declared the Virgin Mary to
be “Patroness of the U n i t e d States.”
T h e first t w o years under her patronage e n r i c h e d the n a t i o n a l
g o v e r n m e n t considerably. T h e O r e g o n territory and the S o u t h w e s t
j o i n e d t h e U n i o n . A s did C a l i f o r n i a , w i t h its bursting v e i n s o f
gold. T h e blessings had their downside, h o w e v e r . T h e y precipitat-
ed a corresponding increase in intersectional tensions that erupted
in a devastating interstate b l o o d b a t h some historians call the C i v i l
War. In that war, the Patroness of the U n i t e d States dealt as cruel-
ly w i t h t h e e n e m i e s of h e r p r o t e c t o r a t e as t h e v e n g e f u l goddess
Ishtar did w i t h the enemies of a n c i e n t Babylon.
In February 1849, “Pio N o n o ” (the popular n a m e for Pope Pius

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IX; there’s a boulevard n a m e d after h i m in M a c o n , G e o r g i a ) issued


a n e n c y c l i c a l t h a t c o l o r e d A m e r i c a ’ s Patroness w i t h t h e fearsome
aspects of Ishtar. T h e e n c y c l i c a l , e n t i t l e d Ubi primum (“By w h o m
at first”), celebrated Mary’s divinity, saying:

T h e resplendent glory of her merits, far exceeding all the


choirs of angel, elevates her to the very steps of the throne of
God. Her foot has crushed the head of Satan. Set up between
Christ and his C h u r c h , Mary, ever lovable, and full of grace,
always has delivered the Christian people from their greatest
calamities and from the snares and assaults of all their enemies,
ever rescuing them from ruin.

H o l y as she m a y s o u n d , a S a t a n - b a s h i n g , l i f e - s a v i n g V i r g i n
M a r y is a f a b r i c a t i o n of sacred p a g a n t r a d i t i o n . T h e B i b l e does
prophesy that Satan’s serpentine h e a d will be v i o l a t e d . But n o t by
Mary. A t G e n e s i s 3 : 1 5 , w e read G o d ’ s v o w t h a t S a t a n ’ s seed w i l l
be bruised by the seed of E v e . It may be argued that Eve’s seed was
Mary. But a c c o r d i n g to the inspired understanding of the apostles,
it was Jesus. At R o m a n s 16:20 P a u l promises a R o m a n c o n g r e g a -
tion that “the God of peace shall bruise S a t a n under your feet.” N o r
was M a r y g i v e n p o w e r t o d e l i v e r p e o p l e from their e n e m i e s . O n l y
t h e “ o n e m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n G o d and m e n , t h e m a n C h r i s t Jesus”
(1 T i m o t h y 2:5), “a n a m e w h i c h is a b o v e e v e r y o t h e r n a m e ”
(Philippians 2:9), is a divinely-authorized deliverer.
N o , the Mary of Ubi Primum will n o t be found anywhere in the
Bible. But t h e n Pio N o n o , the first p o p e ever to be declared Infal-
lible, carried about a rather famous t h e o l o g i c a l ignorance. His pri-
v a t e secretary, M o n s i g n o r T a l b o t , d e f e n d e d Pio’s i n e p t i t u d e in a
letter cited by Jesuit author Peter de Rosa in his Vicars of Christ:

As the Pope is no great theologian, I feel convinced that


when he writes his encyclicals he is inspired by God. Ignorance
is no bar to infallibility, since G o d can point out the tight road
even by the mouth of a talking ass.

T h e t r u t h o f t h e matter, a c c o r d i n g t o J . C . H . A v e l i n g , i s t h a t

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C H A P T E R 22 T H E IMMACULATE C O N C E P T I O N

t h r o u g h o u t Pius IX’s long reign ( 1 8 4 6 - 1 8 7 8 ) , most of his theology


was w r i t t e n b y Jesuits. O n D e c e m b e r 8 , 1 8 5 4 , S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l
B e c k x brought three h u n d r e d years of M a r i a n d e v o t i o n to a glori-
ous c l i m a x w i t h Ineffabilis Deus ( “ G o d indescribable”), the encycli-
cal d e f i n i n g t h e I m m a c u l a t e C o n c e p t i o n , t h e e x t r a s c r i p t u r a l
d o c t r i n e that Mary, like Jesus, was c o n c e i v e d and remained free of
sin:

T h e doctrine which holds that the most blessed Virgin Mary,


in the first instant of her conception, by a singular grace and
privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus
Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved free from
all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by G o d and there-
fore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful.

Ineffabilis Deus m o b i l i z e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s to pass


extraordinary legislation. Congress b e c a m e suddenly obsessed w i t h
e x p a n d i n g t h e C a p i t o l ’ s d o m e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e official p u b l i c a -
t i o n The Dome of the United States Capitol: An Architectural History
( 1 9 9 2 ) , “ N e v e r before (or s i n c e ) has a n a d d i t i o n t o t h e C a p i t o l
b e e n so eagerly embraced by Congress.” W i t h i n days of Pio N o n o ’ s
d e f i n i t i o n o f the d o c t r i n e o f I m m a c u l a t e C o n c e p t i o n , l e g i s l a t i o n
was rushed t h r o u g h C o n g r e s s that effectively incorporated the n e w
V a t i c a n d o c t r i n e i n t o t h e C a p i t o l dome’s c r o w n i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l
platform, its cupola.
A week following Ineffabilis Deus Philadelphia architect
T h o m a s U s t i c k W a l t e r , a F r e e m a s o n , c o m p l e t e d his d r a w i n g s for
t h e p r o p o s e d d o m e . It w o u l d be s u r m o u n t e d by a b r o n z e M a r i a n
image w h i c h w o u l d c o m e to be recognized as “ t h e only authorized
Symbol of A m e r i c a n Heritage.” 1
H e r c l a s s i c a l n a m e was Perse-
phone, G r a e c o - R o m a n goddess of t h e p s y c h e , or soul, and leading
deity i n t h e E l e u s i n i a n M y s t e r i e s o f a n c i e n t G r e e c e . P e r s e p h o n e
was a b d u c t e d by Saturn’s son, H a d e s , and m a d e q u e e n - c o n s o r t of
his d o m i n i o n , t h e u n d e r w o r l d . P e r s e p h o n e was d i s t i n g u i s h e d for
her Immaculate Conception – described by Proclus, h e a d of the Pla-
t o n i c A c a d e m y i n A t h e n s during t h e fifth c e n t u r y o f t h e C h r i s t -
ian era, as “ h e r u n d e f i l e d t r a n s c e n d e n c y in h e r g e n e r a t i o n s . ” In

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fact, most of the statues of Persephone in the Christianized R o m a n


E m p i r e h a d b e e n simply r e - i d e n t i f i e d and r e - c o n s e c r a t e d as t h e
V i r g i n Mary by missionary adaptation.
C o n g r e s s appropriated $3,000 for a statue of Persephone. Pres-
ident F r a n k l i n Pierce’s Secretary of W a r , Jefferson D a v i s , awarded
t h e c o m m i s s i o n t o a famous y o u n g A m e r i c a n s c u l p t o r n a m e d
T h o m a s Crawford. Crawford lived and worked in R o m e . His repu-
tation had b e e n established w i t h a statue of O r p h e u s w h i c h , w h e n
e x h i b i t e d in B o s t o n in 1843, was the first sculptured male nude to
b e s e e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S i n c e a n o t h e r o f P e r s e p h o n e ’ s an-
c i e n t n a m e s was Libera ( “ L i b e r t y ” ) , C r a w f o r d n a m e d h i s Perse-
p h o n e “Freedom.” His work has w o r n this title ever since.
A f t e r t w o years o f labor i n t h e s h a d o w o f the G e s u , C r a w f o r d
c o m p l e t e d a plaster m o d e l of Freedom. H e r right h a n d rested on a
sword p o i n t i n g downward. Her left h a n d , against w h i c h leaned the
shield of the U n i t e d States, h e l d a laurel wreath. S h e was c r o w n e d
w i t h an eagle’s h e a d and feathers m o u n t e d on a tiara of p e n t a -
grams, some i n v e r t e d , some n o t . W h e n u l t i m a t e l y cast i n bronze,
F r e e d o m w o u l d r e a c h t h e h e i g h t of n i n e t e e n feet, six i n c h e s – a
sum p e r h a p s d e l i b e r a t e l y c a l c u l a t e d to pay h o m a g e to t h e work’s
final destination, the Beast of R e v e l a t i o n at L o t 666, for n i n e t e e n
feet, six inches works out to 6 + 6 + 6 feet, 6 + 6 + 6 inches.
F r e e d o m w o u l d s t a n d u p o n a t w e l v e - f o o t iron p e d e s t a l also
designed by T h o m a s C r a w f o r d . T h e upper part of the pedestal was
a globe ringed w i t h t h e m o t t o of t h e B a c c h i c G o s p e l , E PLURIBUS
UNUM, w h i l e the lower part was flanked w i t h twelve wreathes (the
t w e l v e Caesars?) a n d as m a n y fascia, t h o s e b u n d l e s of rods
wrapped around axe-blades symbolizing R o m a n totalitarianism.
C r a w f o r d w a n t e d his sculpture to be cast at the R o y a l Bavari-
a n F o u n d r y i n M u n i c h ( w h e r e R a n d o l p h R o g e r s ’ great t e n - t o n
b r o n z e doors l e a d i n g t o t h e C a p i t o l r o t u n d a w e r e c a s t ) , w h i l e
a r c h i t e c t T h o m a s U . W a l t e r preferred C l a r k M i l l s ’ foundry, near
W a s h i n g t o n . T h e i r t r a n s a t l a n t i c a r g u m e n t e n d e d abruptly w h e n
C r a w f o r d died i n L o n d o n o n S e p t e m b e r 10, 1 8 5 7 , o f a t u m o r
b e h i n d his left eye.
I n t h a t same year, 1 8 5 7 , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S u p r e m e C o u r t

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CHAPTER 22 T H E IMMACULATE C O N C E P T I O N

h a n d e d d o w n Dred Scott vs. Sanford, a d e c i s i o n w h i c h most histo-


rians agree i g n i t e d t h e G r e a t A m e r i c a n C i v i l W a r . T h e o p i n i o n
was w r i t t e n by the Roger Brooke Taney, w h o succeeded J o h n Mar-
shall as C h i e f Justice. A d e v o u t R o m a n C a t h o l i c “under the influ-
e n c e of t h e Jesuits most of his l o n g life” a c c o r d i n g Dr. W a l s h ’ s
American Jesuits, T a n e y h e l d t h a t N e g r o slaves and t h e i r d e s c e n -
dants c o u l d n e v e r b e S t a t e c i t i z e n s a n d thus c o u l d n e v e r h a v e
standing in court to sue or be sued. N o r could they ever h o p e to be
U n i t e d States citizens since the C o n s t i t u t i o n did not create such a
thing as “ U n i t e d States citizenship.”
Taney’s o p i n i o n was widely suspected of being part of a plot to
prepare the way for a s e c o n d S u p r e m e C o u r t d e c i s i o n t h a t w o u l d
prohibit any state from abolishing slavery. A m e r i c a n slavery would
b e c o m e a p e r m a n e n t i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s is e x a c t l y w h a t h a p p e n e d ,
a l t h o u g h n o t q u i t e as e v e r y o n e supposed it w o u l d . First, slavery
was a b o l i s h e d b y t h e T h i r t e e n t h A m e n d m e n t ( 1 8 6 5 ) . T h e n , t h e
Fourteenth A m e n d m e n t (1868) created a new national citizen-
ship. U n l i k e S t a t e c i t i z e n s h i p , w h i c h was d e n i e d t o N e g r o e s ,
n a t i o n a l c i t i z e n s h i p was a v a i l a b l e to anyone as l o n g as t h e y sub-
jected themselves to the jurisdiction of the U n i t e d States – that
is, to t h e federal g o v e r n m e n t , whose seat is the District of C o l u m -
bia, “ R o m e . ” W h a t is so remarkably Jesuitic about the scheme that
p r o c e e d e d o u t of R o g e r Taney’s o p i n i o n is t h a t slavery was sus-
tained by the very a m e n d m e n t that supposedly abolished it. A m e n d -
m e n t T h i r t e e n provides for the abolition of “involuntary servitude,
e x c e p t as p u n i s h m e n t for crime w h e r e o f t h e party shall h a v e b e e n
duly c o n v i c t e d . ” In our time t h e federally r e g u l a t e d c o m m u n i c a -
tions m e d i a , w i t h t h e i r c o n t i n u a l l y e x c i t i n g c e l e b r a t i o n o f v i o -
l e n c e and drug-use, h a v e subtly but v i g o r o u s l y i n d u c e d y o u t h f u l
a u d i e n c e s to play on a m i n e f i e l d of c o m p l e m e n t a r y c r i m i n a l
statutes. T h e fruit of this c o l l a b o r a t i o n is a b u r g e o n i n g n a t i o n a l
prison p o p u l a t i o n o f m e n and w o m e n e n s l a v e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y .
A m e r i c a n slavery has b e c o m e a p e r m a n e n t institution.

R e a c t i o n to Taney’s decision animated A b r a h a m L i n c o l n to


immerse himself in abolitionist rhetoric and c h a l l e n g e S t e p h e n A.
Douglas for the S e n a t e in 1 8 5 8 . . . .

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RULERS OF E V I L

M E A N W H I L E i n R o m e , Freedom’s plaster m a t r i x was p a c k e d


i n t o five h u g e crates a n d c r a m m e d , w i t h bales o f rags and
cases of l e m o n s , i n t o t h e h o l d of a tired old ship b o u n d for N e w
York, t h e Emily Taylor. Early o n , t h e Emily sprang a leak a n d h a d
t o p u t i n t o G i b r a l t a r for repairs. O n c e t h e v o y a g e was r e s u m e d ,
stormy w e a t h e r caused n e w leaks. D e s p i t e attempts to l i g h t e n her
load by j e t t i s o n i n g t h e rags a n d t h e c i t r o n , t h i n g s got so bad she
put in to Bermuda on July 27, 1858. T h e crates were placed in stor-
age, and the Emily was c o n d e m n e d and sold.
In N o v e m b e r , L i n c o l n lost his bid for Douglas’ seat in the S e n -
ate, and in D e c e m b e r , a n o t h e r ship, t h e G.W. Norton, arrived in
N e w York harbor from B e r m u d a w i t h s o m e o f t h e statuary crates.
B y M a r c h 30, 1 8 5 9 all five crates h a d b e e n d e l i v e r e d t o t h e
f o u n d r y o f C l a r k M i l l s o n B l a d e n s b u r g R o a d , o n t h e outskirts o f
the District of C o l u m b i a , w h e r e the process of casting t h e Immac-
ulate V i r g i n into bronze and iron was begun.
L i n c o l n opposed S t e p h e n D o u g l a s again in 1860, this time for
t h e Presidency, a n d this t i m e v i c t o r i o u s l y . T h e n o r t h e r n states
rejoiced. T h e s o u t h e r n states, fearing L i n c o l n w o u l d abolish slav-
ery, prepared t o s e c e d e . “ T h e tea h a s b e e n t h r o w n o v e r b o a r d ! ”
s h o u t e d t h e Mercury, of C h a r l e s t o n , S o u t h C a r o l i n a , c a p i t a l of
A m e r i c a n S c o t t i s h R i t e Freemasonry. “ T h e r e v o l u t i o n of 1860 has
b e e n initiated!”
By Lincoln’s inauguration in M a r c h 1 8 6 1 , six states h a d seced-
ed from the U n i o n . In A p r i l , G e n e r a l Pierre Beauregard, a R o m a n
C a t h o l i c w h o resigned his S u p e r i n t e n d e n c y o f W e s t P o i n t t o j o i n
t h e C o n f e d e r a c y , fired o n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s m i l i t a r y e n c l a v e a t
Fort S u m t e r a n d b r o t h e r l y b l o o d b e g a n f l o w i n g . Jefferson D a v i s ,
w h o five years earlier h a d c o m m i s s i o n e d C r a w f o r d t o sculpt t h e
Immaculate V i r g i n , served as President of the rebellious C o n f e d e r -
ate States of A m e r i c a . In historian Eli N. Evans’ b o o k on Judah P.
B e n j a m i n , I h a p p e n e d u p o n a strange and interesting link b e t w e e n
Davis and the V a t i c a n .
W h i l e a young Protestant student at the R o m a n C a t h o l i c
monastery of St. T h o m a s C o l l e g e in Bardstown, D a v i s h a d pled to
be received into the C a t h o l i c faith, but was “not permitted to c o n -

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vert.” He remained “a hazy Protestant” until his confirmation into


the E p i s c o p a l C h u r c h at t h e age of fifty. D e s p i t e o u t w a r d appear-
ances of rejection, the C o n f e d e r a t e President maintained a vibrant
c o m m u n i o n w i t h R o m e . N o o n e was m o r e aware o f this t h a n
A b r a h a m Lincoln. At an interview in the W h i t e House during
A u g u s t 1 8 6 1 , L i n c o l n confided the following to a former law client
o f h i s , a R o m a n C a t h o l i c priest n a m e d C h a r l e s C h i n i q u y , w h o
p u b l i s h e d t h e President’s words in his o w n a u t o b i o g r a p h y , Fifty
Years In The Church of Rome:

“I feel more and more every day,” [stated the President] “that
it is not against the Americans of the South, alone, I am fight-
ing. It is more against the Pope of Rome, his Jesuits and their
slaves. Very few Southern leaders are not under the influence of
the Jesuits, through their wives, family relations, and their
friends.
“Several members of the family of Jeff Davis belong to the
C h u r c h of Rome. Even the Protestant ministers are under the
influence of the Jesuits without suspecting it. To keep her as-
cendency in the North, as she does in the South, Rome is doing
here what she has done in Mexico, and in all the South Ameri-
can Republics; she is paralyzing, by civil war, the arms of the sol-
diers of liberty. She divides our nation in order to weaken,
subdue and rule it....
“Neither Jeff Davis not any one of the Confederacy would
have dared to attack the North had they not relied on the prom-
ises of the Jesuits that, under the mask of democracy, the money
and the aims of the Roman Catholics, even the arms of France,
were at their disposal if they would attack us. I pity the priests,
the bishops, and monks of Rome in the United States when the
people realize that they are in great part responsible for the tears
and the blood shed in this war. I conceal what I know, for if the
people knew the whole truth, this war would turn into a religious war,
and at once, take a tenfold more savage and bloody character.... 2

T h e G r e a t C i v i l W a r rampaged for a n o t h e r year. I n a u t u m n o f


1862, the Confederacy’s invasion of the U n i o n was defeated at the
Battle o f A n t i e t a m i n Sharpsburg, M a r y l a n d . A s i f i n c e l e b r a t i o n ,

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the I m m a c u l a t e V i r g i n was m o v e d from t h e foundry and b r o u g h t


to the grounds of the C a p i t o l c o n s t r u c t i o n site. T h e lower floors of
the building were teeming w i t h the traffic of a U n i o n barracks and
m a k e s h i f t h o s p i t a l . A b o v e all this l o o m e d T h o m a s U . W a l t e r ’ s
majestic cast-iron d o m e , p a t t e r n e d after t h a t of S t . Isaac’s C a t h e -
dral in St. Petersburg, Russia.
In M a r c h 1 8 6 3 , F r e e d o m was m o u n t e d on a t e m p o r a r y ped-
estal, “in order that the public may h a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y to e x a m -
ine it before it is raised to its destined position,” as stated in W a l -
ter’s A n n u a l R e p o r t dated N o v e m b e r 1 , 1 8 6 2 . O n e w o u l d e x p e c t
photographers to be c l i m b i n g all over themselves to make portraits
o f “ t h e o n l y authorized S y m b o l o f A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e ” w h i l e she
was a v a i l a b l e for g r o u n d - l e v e l e x a m i n a t i o n . A m e r i c a ’ s p i o n e e r
p h o t o g r a p h e r , M a t t h e w Brady, h a d s h o t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e record
o f t h e C a p i t o l u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g portraits o f b o t h
C a p i t o l a r c h i t e c t T h o m a s U . W a l t e r and C o m m i s s i o n e r o f Public
Buildings B e n j a m i n B. F r e n c h . B u t n e i t h e r Brady nor a n y o n e else
photographed Freedom w h i l e she was available for closeups. W h y ? 3

W a s t h e r e a fear t h a t p e r h a p s s o m e P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i a n m i g h t
raise a h u e a n d cry a b o u t t h e p a g a n i c o n a b o u t to d o m i n a t e t h e
C a p i t o l building?
A p p a r e n t l y , n o t too m a n y Protestants ever e x a m i n e d Freedom
at g r o u n d - l e v e l . T h e D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a was still v i r t u a l l y a
R o m a n C a t h o l i c e n c l a v e . M o r e o v e r , the n a t i o n i n 1863 had b e e n
drastically reduced in size. T h e secession of the southern states had
left o n l y t w e n t y - t w o n o r t h e r n states, a n d these t w e n t y - t w o were
h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d b y C a t h o l i c i m m i g r a n t s from Europe and Ire-
l a n d . “ S o i n c r e d i b l y large,” w e r e c a l l f r o m S y d n e y E . A h l s t r o m ’ s
Religious History of the American People, “was the flow of immigrants
t h a t by 1850 R o m a n C a t h o l i c s , o n c e a tiny and ignored minority,
h a d b e c o m e t h e c o u n t r y ’ s largest religious c o m m u n i o n . ” T h u s ,
C r a w f o r d ’ s t o w e r i n g goddess was b e i n g e x a m i n e d m o s t l y b y
R o m a n C a t h o l i c eyes, eyes that c o u l d n o t h e l p but see i n her the
dreadnaught Mary described by Pius IX in Ubi Primum: “ e v e r lov-
able, a n d full of grace, set up b e t w e e n C h r i s t a n d his C h u r c h ,
always d e l i v e r i n g the C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e from their greatest calami-

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CHAPTER 22 T H E IMMACULATE C O N C E P T I O N

ties and assaults of all their enemies, ever rescuing t h e m from ruin.”
T h e war rapidly a d v a n c e d t o c o n c l u s i o n w h i l e F r e e d o m h e l d
forth o n the east grounds o f the C a p i t o l . T h e U n i o n forces under
Burnside lost to Lee at Fredericksburg, but Rosecrans defeated the
C o n f e d e r a t e s at Murfreesboro, and G r a n t t o o k Vicksburg. In sum-
mer, Lee’s s e c o n d a t t e m p t to invade the N o r t h failed at C h a n c e l -
lorsville and G e t t y s b u r g . B y fall, G r a n t w o n t h e Battles o f C h a t -
t a n o o g a and Missionary R i d g e w i t h S h e r m a n and T h o m a s . By the
end o f N o v e m b e r 1 8 6 3 , the U n i o n h a d t a k e n K n o x v i l l e , and the
C o n f e d e r a c y found its resources exhausted and its cause hopelessly
lost.
O n N o v e m b e r 24, a s t e a m - o p e r a t e d h o i s t i n g apparatus lifted
the I m m a c u l a t e V i r g i n M o t h e r of G o d ’ s first s e c t i o n to t h e top of
the C a p i t o l d o m e and secured it. T h e second section followed the
n e x t day. T h r e e days later, in a d r i v i n g t h u n d e r s t o r m , t h e third
s e c t i o n was secured. T h e fourth s e c t i o n was installed o n N o v e m -
ber 3 1 .
A t quarter past n o o n D e c e m b e r 2 , 1 8 6 3 , before a n e n o r m o u s
crowd, the Immaculate Virgin’s fifth and final section was put into
place. T h e ritual procedure for her installation is preserved in Spe-
cial O r d e r N o . 248 o f t h e W a r D e p a r t m e n t . H e r h e a d and shoul-
ders rose from t h e g r o u n d . T h e t h r e e - h u n d r e d - f o o t trip t o o k
twenty minutes. At the m o m e n t the fifth section was affixed, a flag
unfurled a b o v e it. T h e u n f u r l i n g was a c c o m p a n i e d by a n a t i o n a l
salute o f f o r t y - s e v e n g u n s h o t s fired i n t o t h e W a s h i n g t o n a t m o s -
phere. Thirty-five shots issued from a field battery on C a p i t o l Hill.
T w e l v e w e r e d i s c h a r g e d from t h e forts s u r r o u n d i n g t h e city. R e -
p o r t i n g t h e e v e n t in t h e D e c e m b e r 10 issue of t h e New York Tri-
bune, an a n o n y m o u s j o u r n a l i s t e c h o e d t h e qualities t h a t Pius IX
had g i v e n Mary:

During more than two years of our struggle, while the


national cause seemed weak, she has patiently waited and
watched below: now that victory crowns our advances and the
conspirators are being hedged in, and vanquished everywhere,
and the bonds are being freed, she comes forward, the cynosure
of thousands of eyes, her face turned rebukingly toward Virginia

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RULERS OF E V I L

and her hand outstretched as if in guaranty of National Unity


and Personal Freedom.

If Tribune readers felt m o r e n a t i o n a l l y u n i t e d a n d p e r s o n a l l y


free b e c a u s e F r e e d o m was g l a r i n g at r e b e l l i o u s V i r g i n i a a n d out-
s t r e t c h i n g her h a n d t o h e r b e l o v e d A m e r i c a , they w e r e d e c e i v e d .
For t h e goddess f a c e d in precisely the opposite direction! S h e faced
east, as she does to this day, faced east across M a r y l a n d , t h e “land
o f M a r y , ” across t h e A t l a n t i c , t o w a r d h e r b e l o v e d R o m e . I n fact,
n e i t h e r h a n d o u t s t r e t c h e s i n any d i r e c t i o n . B o t h are a t rest, o n e
on her sword, the other h o l d i n g the laurel wreath.
A n d her forty-seven Jupiterean thunderbolt-gunshots? T h e y
w e r e a tribute to the Jesuit b i s h o p w h o h a d p l a c e d t h e D i s t r i c t of
C o l u m b i a under h e r p r o t e c t i o n . For D e c e m b e r 2, 1863 tolled the
forty-seventh year from John Carroll’s last full day alive, December 2,
1815!

O N C E the pressures o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n were over, a n e x h a u s t e d


but r e l i e v e d C a p i t o l A r c h i t e c t T h o m a s U . W a l t e r w r o t e his
wife, A m a n d a , a t t h e i r P h i l a d e l p h i a h o m e , t o say t h a t “ h e r lady-
ship looks placid and beautiful – m u c h better t h a n I e x p e c t e d , and
I h a v e h a d thousands of congratulations on this great e v e n t , and a
general regret was expressed that you were prevented from witness-
ing this t r i u m p h . ” S o m e o n e else h a d missed t h e t r i u m p h , t o o ,
s o m e o n e w h o b y all t h e rules o f p r o t o c o l s h o u l d h a v e b e e n there
no matter what: the C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f of the U n i t e d States
A r m e d Forces, w h o s e W a r D e p a r t m e n t h a d e n g i n e e r e d t h e w h o l e
C a p i t o l p r o j e c t f r o m t o p to b o t t o m – President Abraham Lincoln.
A t n o o n o n t h e day t h e t e m p l e o f federal l e g i s l a t i o n was p l a c e d
under the patronage of Persephone, Freedom, Wife of Hades,
Q u e e n of the Dead, Immaculate V i r g i n of R o m e , Protectress of the
Jesuits, Protectress o f M a r y l a n d , a n d P a t r o n e s s o f t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , t h e r e c o r d s h o w s t h a t L i n c o l n sequestered h i m s e l f inside
the W h i t e House, t o u c h e d w i t h “a fever.” A telling detail.
But t h e sacred i c o n o g r a p h y was still n o t c o m p l e t e . T h e e n g i -
neers began n o w preparing the interior of the d o m e , its canopy, for
a m a s s i v e p a i n t i n g C o n g r e s s h a d a p p r o v e d b a c k in t h e spring of

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C H A P T E R 22 T H E IMMACULATE C O N C E P T I O N

1863. T h i s painting w o u l d depict G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n undergoing


the secular v e r s i o n of t h e c a n o n i z a t i o n of Ignatius L o y o l a . It c o n -
tains e v e n more data useful to our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c h a r a c t e r
and p r o v e n a n c e o f A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t . W e e x a m i n e this mas-
terpiece in our n e x t chapter.

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RULERS OF E V I L

APOTHEOSIS OF WASHINGTON.
(Photograph: Architect of the Capitol)
Chapter 23

THE DOME OF
THE GREAT SKY

“”It’s like St. Peter’s!“”


— Tourists describing the rotunda fresco,
as quoted in the official Capitol guidebook
W E , THE PEOPLE

A
R C H B I S H O P J O H N H U G H E S o f N e w York sailed for R o m e i n
the a u t u m n o f 1 8 5 1 , just after C o n g r e s s h a d a p p r o v e d
funds to enlarge t h e C a p i t o l . H u g h e s h a d laid the corner-
stone for St. Patrick’s C a t h e d r a l in M a n h a t t a n , and had h e l p e d the
Jesuits establish F o r d h a m U n i v e r s i t y in W e s t c h e s t e r . N o w he was
helping t h e m decorate the Capitol’s interior.
In R o m e , Superior G e n e r a l John R o o t h a a n introduced the
A r c h b i s h o p to C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi, an artist boasting an impres-
sive list of credits. B r u m i d i h a d p a i n t e d an a c c l a i m e d p o r t r a i t of
Pio N o n o ( w h i c h the V a t i c a n still e x h i b i t s ) , a n Immaculate C o n -
c e p t i o n i n t h e little S a n c t u a r y o f t h e M a d o n n a d e l l ’ A r c h e t t o i n
V i a S a n M a r c e l l o , and t h e restoration o f three s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y
frescoes in the V a t i c a n Palace. B r u m i d i was g o o d . G e n e r a l
R o o t h a a n had determined t o m a k e h i m A m e r i c a ’ s M i c h a e l a n g e l o .
A r c h b i s h o p H u g h e s let i t b e k n o w n t h a t B r u m i d i w o u l d b e w e l -
c o m e t o p a i n t s o m e frescoes i n c h u r c h e s o f t h e N e w Y o r k bish-

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RULERS OF E V I L

opric. General Roothaan then went


about m a k i n g the Vatican’s artist accept-
able to A m e r i c a n egalitarianism.
S o o n after t h e A r c h b i s h o p left R o m e
for N e w York, t h e V a t i c a n accused C o n -
s t a n t i n o B r u m i d i o f c r i m i n a l acts. S u p -
posedly, B r u m i d i h a d c o m m i t t e d c r i m e s
during his membership in the R e p u b l i c a n
C i v i l G u a r d under G i u s e p p e Mazzini, the
I t a l i a n F r e e m a s o n w h o h a d r e c e n t l y led
ill-fated n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n s against
t h e papacy. T h e s e c r i m e s w e r e said t o
h a v e i n c l u d e d (a) refusing to fire on his
Constantino Brumidi R e p u b l i c a n friends, (b) l o o t i n g several
c o n v e n t s , and (c) p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a p l o t
to destroy t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h – acts r e a s o n a b l y sure to m e r i t a
hero’s w e l c o m e i n Protestant A m e r i c a . T h e A r c h i t e c t o f t h e C a p i -
tol’s unpublished dossier on Brumidi, w h i c h I was permitted to ex-
a m i n e during 1 9 9 3 , notes that “several w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t a c c o u n t s
suggest that C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi h i m s e l f was probably the source
of at least some of the legends.”
V a t i c a n j u s t i c e f o u n d t h e artist guilty i n D e c e m b e r 1 8 5 1 a n d
s e n t e n c e d h i m to e i g h t e e n years in prison. S e v e r a l w e e k s later the
s e n t e n c e was r e d u c e d t o six years. A n d w i t h i n t w o m o n t h s , o n
M a r c h 20, Pio N o n o himself quietly granted Brumidi a n u n c o n d i -
t i o n a l p a r d o n . G e n e r a l R o o t h a a n t h e n p l a c e d his n e w l y - c r e a t e d
republican freedom fighter on a ship b o u n d for A m e r i c a .
Brumidi arrived in N e w York harbor on September 18. On
N o v e m b e r 2 9 h e filed for state c i t i z e n s h i p w i t h t h e N e w Y o r k
C o u r t o f C o m m o n Pleas. A l t h o u g h t h e i n v i t e h a d c o m e t o p a i n t
N e w Y o r k c h u r c h e s , t h e r e was n o s u c h w o r k t o b e d o n e t h e r e .
Instead, t h e A r c h b i s h o p sent h i m t o M e x i c o C i t y – b y w a y o f
W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . I n W a s h i n g t o n , B r u m i d i was r e c e i v e d b y his
M a s o n i c brother T h o m a s U s t i c k Walter. For t w o years W a l t e r had
b e e n serving President Millard Fillmore as A r c h i t e c t of t h e C a p i -
tol. W h e n the cornerstone for Walter’s C a p i t o l e x p a n s i o n plan was

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C H A P T E R 23 T H E D O M E O F T H E G R E A T SKY

laid o n t h e F o u r t h o f July o f 1 8 5 1 , P r e s i d e n t F i l l m o r e a n d C o m -
missioner o f P u b l i c Buildings B e n j a m i n B . F r e n c h , w h o also h a p -
p e n e d to be “ G r a n d M a s t e r of t h e M a s o n i c fraternity,” led a
colorful ceremony. Washington’s p o p u l a r National Intelligencer
reported the occasion was “ w e l c o m e d by a display of N a t i o n a l flags
a n d t h e r i n g i n g o f bells from t h e v a r i o u s c h u r c h e s a n d e n g i n e
houses.” 1

T h o m a s W a l t e r n e e d e d C o n s t a n t i n o B r u m i d i . A n edifice a s
i m p o r t a n t as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C a p i t o l – like t h e p a l a c e s of
A u g u s t u s and N e r o , t h e B a t h s o f T i t u s and L i v i a , t h e L o g g i a o f
R a p h a e l at the V a t i c a n – required the most n o b l e and p e r m a n e n t
interior d e c o r a t i o n possible. O n l y fresco p a i n t i n g , i n w h i c h pig-
m e n t s are m i x e d w i t h w e t mortar i m m e d i a t e l y before a p p l i c a t i o n
to the surface, would suffice. A n d only C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi, of all
t h e artists l i v i n g i n A m e r i c a , k n e w h o w t o p a i n t fresco. B u t t h e
d o m e was n o t yet ready to be frescoed. So t h e artist was routed to
the sunny, Italianate c l i m a t e of M e x i c o C i t y to enjoy life, to p o n -
der his subject matter at a casual pace, to w a i t for t h e call.
T w o years later, o n D e c e m b e r 28, 1 8 5 4 , less t h a n three w e e k s
f o l l o w i n g Pio N o n o ’ s d e c r e e o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f I m m a c u l a t e C o n -
c e p t i o n , C o n s t a n t i n o B r u m i d i a p p e a r e d i n t h e office o f M o n t -
gomery C. Meigs, Supervising Engineer of the C a p i t o l extension
project. T h e Capitol’s unpublished dossier on Brumidi relates that
as t h e t w o m e n conversed in b r o k e n French, Brumidi struck Meigs
as “a lively old m a n w i t h a very red nose, either from M e x i c a n suns
o r F r e n c h brandies.” T h e i m m e d i a t e upshot o f their c o n v e r s a t i o n
was a c o m m i s s i o n to p a i n t a fresco c o v e r i n g an e l l i p t i c a l a r c h at
o n e e n d of Meigs’ office in the C a p i t o l . It was t h e first fresco ever
painted in the U n i t e d States, as w e l l as Brumidi’s first in five years.
T h e fresco c e l e b r a t e d t h e c o m i n g C i v i l W a r i n terms o f R o m a n
history. A c c o r d i n g to t h e commission’s report it d e p i c t e d “a sena-
tor, w h o p o i n t s t o R o m e a n d appeals t o C i n c i n n a t u s t o c o m e t o
the h e l p o f his country.” C i n c i n n a t u s , the fifth-century B C R o m a n
d i c t a t o r , was c a l l e d t o d e f e n d R o m e t w i c e , first from foreign
invaders, t h e n from his o w n c o m m o n people. Likewise, A m e r i c a n
heroes first defended their R o m e against foreign British invaders,

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and were n o w about to be called to defend the same R o m e against


her o w n seceding states.
Brumidi completed the C i n c i n n a t u s in M a r c h 1855. Meigs
i n v i t e d various C o n g r e s s m e n t o b e h o l d it. T h e y were impressed.
T h o m a s U . W a l t e r was “ m u c h delighted.” O n M a r c h 20, Jefferson
D a v i s approved of the C i n c i n n a t u s and authorized M e i g s to nego-
tiate a salaried c o n t r a c t w i t h Brumidi. C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi’s life-
time career spent decorating the C a p i t o l began on a salary of $8.00
a day. H i s c o n t r a c t a l l o w e d h i m to a c c e p t o t h e r artistic projects
but n o t to l e a v e W a s h i n g t o n . In N o v e m b e r 1855 he b e g a n a c a n -
vas p a i n t i n g of the Blessed V i r g i n for St. Ignatius’ Jesuit c h u r c h in
B a l t i m o r e , but was n o t present for its D e c e m b e r 4 t h i n s t a l l a t i o n ,
on the occasion of the Feast of the Immaculate C o n c e p t i o n .

N t h e s u m m e r of 1 8 6 2 , e v e n as T h o m a s C r a w f o r d ’ s statue was
Ibeing cast at the M i l l s foundry, T h o m a s U. W a l t e r wrote to Bru-
midi asking h i m t o p a i n t s o m e t h i n g m o n u m e n t a l “ i n real fresco”
to c o v e r the 4,664-square-foot inner surface of the Capitol’s d o m e .
T h r e e w e e k s later, B r u m i d i s u b m i t t e d s k e t c h e s o f s o m e t h i n g h e
e n t i t l e d “ A p o t h e o s i s of W a s h i n g t o n . ” T h e w o r d “apotheosis” was
t h e n c o m m o n l y u n d e r s t o o d b y its d e f i n i t i o n i n W e b s t e r ’ s 1 8 2 9
Dictionary:

Apotheosis – the act of placing a prince or other distinguished


person among the heathen deities. This honor was often
bestowed on illustrious men of Rome, and followed by the
erection of temples, and the institution of sacrifices to the
new deity.

W a l t e r responded ecstatically to the “ A p o t h e o s i s , ” writing the


artist that “ n o picture in the world will at all compare w i t h this in
m a g n i t u d e . ” H e praised t h e design before W o r s h i p f u l M a s t e r and
C o m m i s s i o n e r of Buildings Benjamin French as “probably the
grandest, and t h e most i m p o s i n g t h a t h a s e v e r b e e n e x e c u t e d i n
the world.” F r e n c h enthusiastically agreed, adding that the S e c r e -
tary of I n t e r i o r was also greatly impressed. F i n a l a p p r o v a l of
“ A p o t h e o s i s ” at a price of $40,000 c a m e on M a r c h 1 1 , 1 8 6 3 , just

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C H A P T E R 23 T H E D O M E O F THE G R E A T SKY

as the I m m a c u l a t e V i r g i n was being placed on her temporary ped-


estal on the Capitol’s east grounds. “Frustrating delays in manpow-
er,” a c c o r d i n g to official histories, w o u l d h o l d t h e fresco in
abeyance until D e c e m b e r 1864.
O n A p r i l 9 , 1865, R i c h m o n d fell and the C o n f e d e r a c y surren-
dered t o Ulysses S . G r a n t . Less t h a n a w e e k later, o n t h e e v e n i n g
of A p r i l 14 at Ford’s T h e a t r e , during an instant of hilarious laugh-
ter, o n e of the country’s l e a d i n g actors, J o h n W i l k e s B o o t h , cried
out an oath summarizing the liberation theology of Cardinal
Robert Bellarmine: “Sic Semper Tyrannis” ( “ A l w a y s this [i.e., death]
to t y r a n n y ” ) , and fired a shot into t h e head of President A b r a h a m
L i n c o l n . Sic Semper Tyrannis is also t h e m o t t o of V i r g i n i a , t h e n
c o n s i d e r e d a S t a t e i n r e b e l l i o n . M i g h t B o o t h ’ s cry h a v e b e e n
i n t e n d e d to give the assassination the look of an official act of the
C o n f e d e r a c y , m u c h i n the way Lee H a r v e y Oswald’s m u c h - t o u t e d
s y m p a t h y for C u b a i n i t i a l l y g a v e t h e K e n n e d y assassination t h e
l o o k o f c o m m u n i s t r e v e n g e ? A n illusion o f official C o n f e d e r a t e
responsibility for a b e l o v e d president’s assassination justified t h e
elaborately cruel r e v e n g e w h i c h the federal g o v e r n m e n t inflicted
u p o n t h e s o u t h e r n states in order to bring all the states under the
j u r i s d i c t i o n o f W a s h i n g t o n D . C . ( T h e inferiority o f states t o t h e
federal “ R o m e ” is expressed in the law of flag. W h e r e v e r state and
n a t i o n a l flags are flown together, the n a t i o n a l is always higher.)
B o o t h h a d associated w i t h s e v e n p e o p l e w h o were b r o u g h t t o
trial less t h a n a m o n t h f o l l o w i n g t h e assassination. It was n o t a
c i v i l i a n trial but a special e l e v e n - m a n military tribunal a p p o i n t e d
b y President A n d r e w Johnson called “ T h e H u n t e r C o m m i s s i o n . ”
C o u n s e l for t h e defendants objected to the C o m m i s s i o n , argu-
ing that the military h a d no jurisdiction o v e r civilians, and there-
fore t h e p r o c e e d i n g was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . T h e o b j e c t i o n was
o v e r r u l e d a n d t h e trial m o v e d forward. W i t h i n s e v e n w e e k s , t h e
C o m m i s s i o n (a two-thirds majority, n o t the u n a n i m i t y required of
a c i v i l i a n jury) f o u n d four of t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s guilty. On July 7,
1865 they were hanged.
“ T h e great fatal m i s t a k e o f t h e A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e
p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e assassins o f A b r a h a m L i n c o l n , ” w r o t e R e v .

251
RULERS OF E V I L

C h a r l e s C h i n i q u y , t h e e x c o m m u n i c a t e d priest w h o m L i n c o l n had
successfully d e f e n d e d in his early law career (see n o t e 2, C h a p t e r
22),

was to cover up the religious element of that terrible drama. But


this was carefully avoided throughout the trial. 2

T h e religious e l e m e n t – the fact that all s e v e n of the conspira-


tors w e r e d e v o t e d R o m a n C a t h o l i c s – was carefully a v o i d e d
b e c a u s e o f w h o c o n t r o l l e d t h e trial. A s C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f o f
the armed forces, it was Johnson himself w h o quite constitutional-
ly reigned supreme o v e r the H u n t e r C o m m i s -
sion. B u t J o h n s o n was also a F r e e m a s o n ,
w h i c h m e a n t t h a t h e f o l l o w e d the wise direc-
tives of the U n k n o w n Superior. T h u s , the real
p o w e r b e h i n d t h e H u n t e r C o m m i s s i o n was
S u p e r i o r G e n e r a l P i e t e r Jean B e c k x , a rela-
tively y o u n g B e l g i a n w h o was a great favorite
o f P i o N o n o , P o p e Pius IX, t h e o n l y h e a d o f
state i n t h e w o r l d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e S o u t h e r n
Charles Chiniquy C o n f e d e r a c y as a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n . O b e d i e n t
t o t h e will o f G e n e r a l B e c k x , President John-
son issued an e x e c u t i v e order c l o s i n g t h e c o u r t r o o m to t h e work-
ing press. At the end of e a c h day, officials would ration to selected
reporters from t h e A s s o c i a t e d Press n e w s carefully e v a l u a t e d t o
k e e p “the religious e l e m e n t ” out of the public consciousness.

C h a r l e s C h i n i q u y tirelessly i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e assassination.
A f t e r the conspirators were e x e c u t e d , h e w e n t i n c o g n i t o t o W a s h -
ington and found that

not a single one of the government men would discuss it with me


except after I had given my word of honor that I would never
mention their names. I saw, with a profound distress, that the
influence of Rome was almost supreme in Washington. I could
not find a single statesman who would dare to face that nefari-
ous influence and fight it down. 3

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C H A P T E R 23 T H E D O M E O F THE G R E A T SKY

O n e official told h i m : “ T h i s was n o t t h r o u g h c o w a r d i c e , as you


m i g h t t h i n k , but t h r o u g h a w i s d o m y o u o u g h t to a p p r o v e , if y o u
c a n n o t a d m i r e it.” H a d t h e r e n o t b e e n c e n s o r s h i p , h a d t h e w i t -
nesses b e e n pressed a little further, “ m a n y priests w o u l d h a v e b e e n
compromised, for Mary Surratt’s [one of the four e x e c u t e d conspir-
ators] house was their c o m m o n rendezvous; it is more t h a n proba-
ble that several of t h e m m i g h t h a v e b e e n h a n g e d . ”
T h i r t y years after t h e assassination, a m e m b e r of t h e H u n t e r
C o m m i s s i o n , Brigadier G e n e r a l T h o m a s M . Harris, p u b l i s h e d a
small b o o k revealing that Lincoln’s assassination had actually b e e n
a Jesuit murder plot to extirpate a Protestant ruler. Harris stated:

It is fact well established that the headquarters of the con-


spiracy was the house of a Roman Catholic family, of which Mrs.
Mary E. Surratt was the head; and that all of its inmates, includ-
ing a number of boarders, were devoted members of the Roman
Catholic Church. This house was the meeting place, the coun-
cil chamber, of Booth and his co-conspirators, including Mrs.
Mary E. Surratt, and her son, John H. Surratt, who, next to
Booth, were the most active members of the conspiracy. 4

C o m m i s s i o n e r Harris w e n t on to relate that Mary Surratt’s son


J o h n h a d b e e n a C o n f e d e r a t e spy for three years, “passing b a c k and
forth b e t w e e n W a s h i n g t o n and R i c h m o n d , and from R i c h m o n d to
C a n a d a and back, as a bearer of dispatches.” John’s m e n t o r during
this p e r i o d was a Jesuit, F a t h e r B.F. W i g e t , p r e s i d e n t of G o n z a g a
C o l l e g e and a priest n o t e d for his sympathies for the C o n f e d e r a c y .
John introduced Father W i g e t to his m o t h e r and the priest b e c a m e
M a r y Surratt’s confessor and spiritual director. A s w e l l , F a t h e r
W i g e t g a v e spiritual d i r e c t i o n t o t h e f a m o u s J o h n W i l k e s B o o t h
w h o , t h o u g h “a d r u n k a r d , a l i b e r t i n e , a n d utterly indifferent to
m a t t e r s o f r e l i g i o n , ” was spiritually a t t r a c t e d t o h i m . “ T h e w i l y
Jesuit, s y m p a t h i z i n g w i t h B o o t h in his p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , and in the
h o p e o f destroying our g o v e r n m e n t , and establishing t h e C o n f e d -
eracy ... was able t o c o n v e r t h i m t o C a t h o l i c i s m . ” Hard e v i d e n c e
o f t h a t c o n v e r s i o n was found o n the assassin’s corpse: “ O n e x a m i -
n a t i o n of B o o t h ’ s person after his d e a t h , it was found t h a t he was
wearing a C a t h o l i c medal under his vest, and over his heart.”

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RULERS OF E V I L

A t t h e c o n s p i r a c y trial, Father W i g e t testified t o M a r y Eliza-


b e t h Surratt’s “good C h r i s t i a n character.” E v e n assuming her c o m -
p l i c i t y in t h e assassination, W i g e t as a Jesuit c o u l d truthfully say
Surratt was a g o o d C h r i s t i a n simply by reserving m e n t a l l y (a) that
b y “ C h r i s t i a n ” h e m e a n t “ R o m a n C a t h o l i c ; ” (b) t h a t under t h e
terms of the Directorium Inquisitorum (see C h a p t e r 8), “Every indi-
vidual may kill a heretic;” and (c) that President L i n c o l n was twice
a h e r e t i c : for his P r o t e s t a n t i s m a n d for his h a v i n g successfully
defended an e x c o m m u n i c a t e d priest.
But Mary after all “kept the nest that h a t c h e d the egg,” as Pres-
i d e n t J o h n s o n put it, and was h a n g e d . C o n d i t i o n a l t o h e r d e a t h
s e n t e n c e was a p r o v i s i o n t h a t a p e t i t i o n for m e r c y w o u l d be at-
t a c h e d and sent to J o h n s o n . By e x e c u t i o n day, July 7, 1 8 6 5 , Sur-
ratt’s d a u g h t e r A n n a h a d h e a r d n o t h i n g from t h e P r e s i d e n t .
D i s t r a u g h t , she a p p e a r e d a t t h e W h i t e H o u s e t o b e g h i m for
c l e m e n c y . T w o g o v e r n m e n t m e n s t o o d i n h e r way. P r e s t o n K i n g
and S e n a t o r James H e n r y L a n e denied her access to the President,
w h o later d e c l a r e d h e h a d n e v e r r e c e i v e d any p e t i t i o n for mercy.
T h e f o l l o w i n g N o v e m b e r , P r e s t o n K i n g d r o w n e d , his b o d y laden
w i t h w e i g h t s . I n M a r c h , S e n a t o r L a n e shot himself. (In t h e judg-
m e n t o f o n e m o d e r n i n v e s t i g a t o r , “ S o m e p e r s o n o r persons w e r e
apparently determined that Mary Surratt should n o t live.” ) Short- 5

ly thereafter, t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t r e n d e r e d a l a n d m a r k d e c i s i o n
that w o u l d h a v e w o n all the conspirators a jury trial. Ex parte Mil-
ligan h e l d t h a t military courts h a v e no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r c i v i l i a n s .
Milligan l e n t M a r y Surratt’s d e a t h at t h e h a n d s of P r o t e s t a n t s an
aura of tragedy and C a t h o l i c martyrdom.

Charles C h i n i q u y obtained important testimony supporting


the w i d e l y h e l d suspicion of Jesuit responsibility for the assassina-
t i o n . H e r e c e i v e d from Rev. Francis A . C o n w e l l , C h a p l a i n o f t h e
first M i n n e s o t a R e g i m e n t , a s w o r n affidavit saying t h a t on A p r i l
1 4 , 1 8 6 5 , he was v i s i t i n g S t . Joseph, M i n n e s o t a , l o c a t i o n of a
R o m a n C a t h o l i c seminary. R e v . C o n w e l l swore t h a t a t a b o u t six
o ’ c l o c k t h a t e v e n i n g t h e m a n in c h a r g e of t h e seminary, a store-
k e e p e r b y the n a m e o f J.H. L i n n e m a n , told h i m and a n o t h e r visi-
tor, Mr. H.P. B e n n e t t , t h a t P r e s i d e n t L i n c o l n h a d “just b e e n
killed.”

254
C H A P T E R 23 T H E D O M E O F THE G R E A T SKY

T h e n e x t day, R e v . C o n w e l l j o u r n e y e d t e n miles t o t h e t o w n
o f S t . C l o u d . A s s o o n a s h e arrived, h e asked t h e h o t e l i e r , Mr.
H a w o r t h , if he h a d heard any n e w s of a presidential assassination.
Mr. H a w o r t h had heard n o t h i n g , as St. C l o u d had neither railroad
nor t e l e g r a p h . O n t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g , A p r i l 1 6 t h , o n his way
to p r e a c h a sermon in c h u r c h , Rev. C o n w e l l was h a n d e d a copy of
a telegram brought up by stagecoach from A n o k a , M i n n e s o t a . T h e
telegram a n n o u n c e d that President L i n c o l n had b e e n assassinated
on Friday e v e n i n g at about n i n e o’clock.
O n the m o r n i n g o f M o n d a y the 1 7 t h , Rev. C o n w e l l hurried t o
St. Paul and reported t o t h e n e w s p a p e r t h a t i n S t . Joseph h e h a d
b e e n i n f o r m e d o f P r e s i d e n t L i n c o l n ’ s assassination t h r e e hours
before the e v e n t t o o k place. T h e paper published his report.
“ W e h a v e n o w before us,” wrote C o m m i s s i o n e r Harris,

positive evidence that these Jesuit Fathers, priests of Rome,


engaged in preparing young men for the priesthood away out in
the village of St. Joseph, in far off Minnesota, were in correspon-
dence with their brethren in Washington City, and had been
informed that the plan to assassinate the President had been
matured, the agents for its accomplishment had been found, the
time for its execution had been set, and so sure were they of its
accomplishment, that they could announce it as already done,
three or four hours before it had been consummated. T h e antic-
ipation of its accomplishment so elated them that they could not
refrain from passing it around ... as a piece of glorious news.

M E A N W H I L E , t h r o u g h t h e L i n c o l n assassination a n d its after-


m a t h , t h e Vatican’s artist, C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi, along w i t h
some s e v e n t y F r e n c h a n d I t a l i a n assistants, applied p i g m e n t e d
mortar to the interior c a n o p y of the C a p i t o l d o m e . T h e y were still
w o r k i n g w h e n t h e first session o f the T h i r t y - n i n t h C o n g r e s s m e t
on D e c e m b e r 4, 1865. N o t until the following January did the scaf-
folding c o m e d o w n . W h e n it did, viewers were awestruck by w h a t
they beheld. Brumidi had c r o w n e d the ceiling of A m e r i c a ’ s legisla-
tive c e n t e r w i t h a glorious, p a n o r a m i c visualization from B o o k VI
of Virgil’s Aeneid, w h e r e A e n e a s ’ b l i n d father, A n c h i s e s , e x p l a i n s
NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM:

255
RULERS OF E V I L

“Here is Caesar, and all the line of Julius, all who shall one
day pass under the dome of the great sky. This is the man, this
one, of whom so often you have heard the promise, Caesar
Augustus, son of the deified, who shall bring once again an Age
of Gold to Latium, the land where Saturn reigned in early times.
He will extend his power beyond the Garamants [Africans] and
Indians, over far territories north and south of the zodiacal stars,
the solar way....”

T h e e p i c e n t e r of “ A p o t h e o s i s of W a s h i n g t o n ” is a solar o r b ,
t h e S u n - G o d i n t o w h i c h A u g u s t u s C a e s a r was said t o h a v e b e e n
absorbed w h e n his b o d y died. F r o m t h e C a p i t o l ’ s h i g h e s t interior
point Augustus radiates his golden light outward and d o w n w a r d to
t h e n e x t i n t h e “ l i n e o f Julius,” t h e deified G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n .
T h e god W a s h i n g t o n occupies the j u d g m e n t seat of h e a v e n , sword
of Justice firmly c l a s p e d in his left h a n d . B a s k i n g in t h e l i g h t of
A u g u s t u s – Pontifex Maximus – he rules “ o v e r far territories n o r t h
and s o u t h of t h e zodiacal stars, the solar way.” L i k e his C a e s a r e a n
forebears, W a s h i n g t o n is G o d , Caesar, Father of his C o u n t r y .
O n t h e r i g h t h a n d o f t h e F a t h e r sits M i n e r v a , h o l d i n g t h e
e m b l e m o f R o m a n totalitarianism, t h e fasces. M i n e r v a , w e recall,
was t h e v i r g i n goddess of t h e S a c r e d H e a r t – it was she w h o res-
c u e d t h e h e a r t o f t h e S o n o f G o d , a n d p l a c e d i t w i t h Jupiter i n
h e a v e n . S h e was called “ M i n e r v a ” w h e n praised for her justice and
w i s d o m . W h e n praised for h e r b e a u t y a n d l o v e , M i n e r v a was
k n o w n as V e n u s , the Q u e e n of H e a v e n . S h e and V e n u s were often
identified w i t h e a c h other, just as statues of b o t h were reconsecrat-
e d “ M a r y ” t h r o u g h R o m a n C a t h o l i c missionary a d a p t a t i o n . M i n -
erva’s most persistent role in a n c i e n t p a g a n i s m was Dea Benigna,
“ T h e M e d i a t r i x . ” S h e h e a r d t h e prayers o f sinful mortals a n d
passed t h e m on to Jupiter, in t h e same w a y t h e R o m a n M a r y is
believed to pass C a t h o l i c prayers on to C h r i s t .
C o m p l e t i n g the circular c o m p o s i t i o n around the solarized A u -
gustus are t h i r t e e n nubile goddesses. T h e s e are the original States.
T h e y d a n c e w e i g h t l e s s l y i n space, s u p p o r t i n g a w h i t e b a n n e r in-
scribed w i t h the soul of the B a c c h i c G o s p e l , “E PLURIBUS UNUM.”
A b o v e t h e h e a d of e a c h State-goddess floats a magical w h i t e pen-
tagram.

256
C H A P T E R 23 T H E D O M E O F THE G R E A T SKY

B e n e a t h all this celestial revel-


ry, B r u m i d i p a i n t e d m o r e R o m a n
gods mingling with American
mortals. Here is V u l c a n , the god of
fire a n d c r a f t s m a n s h i p , p l a n t i n g
his f o o t on a c a n n o n , w h i l e his
T h e States
workers prepare munitions and
w e a p o n s o f d e a t h a n d d e s t r u c t i o n . A n d o v e r h e r e N e p t u n e rises
w i t h his trident from the sea in a h o r s e - d r a w n scallop-shell chari-
ot. A n d h e r e t h e wise M e d i a t r i x c o m m u n i c a t e s w i t h A m e r i c a n
scientists B e n j a m i n Franklin, S a m u e l F. B. M o r s e , i n v e n t o r of the
C o d e , and R o b e r t Fulton, i n v e n t o r of the steamship.
A n d here, the Goddess Immaculately C o n c e i v e d , the Dread-
n a u g h t Mary. W e a r i n g t h e p e n t a g r a m s a n d eagle headdress o f
T h o m a s Crawford’s statue atop the dome’s exterior, she mobilizes
h e r sword a n d shield against a
p a c k o f f l e e i n g sinners l a b e l e d
“ T y r a n n y ” and “ K i n g l y Power.”
Jupiter’s mascot, the Roman
eagle, glides just b e h i n d h e r
c l u t c h i n g a b u n c h of t h u n d e r -
bolts in his t a l o n s . I n n o c e n t in
h e r f l o w i n g scarlet c a p e , the
Goddess is situated exactly
T h e Virgin pursues evildoers
beneath the deified George
W a s h i n g t o n , coming b e t w e e n him and the embattled viewing
public gazing up from ground level. It is t h e graphic realization of
P i o N o n o ’ s Ubi primum, w h i c h d e c r e e d t h e V i r g i n M a r y was “set
u p b e t w e e n C h r i s t and his C h u r c h , always d e l i v e r i n g t h e C h r i s t -
ian p e o p l e from their greatest c a l a m i t i e s and from the snares and
assaults of all their enemies.”
The eagle gliding behind Mary explains the otherwise
i n s c r u t a b l e seal o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Justice D e p a r t m e n t , w h i c h
c o n t a i n s a w i n g s p r e a d eagle s u r r o u n d e d by t h e m o t t o “ Q U I PRO
DOMINA JUSTITIA SEQUITUR” ( “ H e w h o f o l l o w s t h e G o d d e s s Jus-
tice”). Persephone, or M i n e r v a the Mediatrix, w h e n judging the

257
RULERS OF E V I L

sinfully dead in Hades was called Justitia, or Jus


tice. T h e “HE” of t h e Justice D e p a r t m e n t ’ s
m o t t o identifies the eagle, symbol of R o m e .
R o m e follows the G o d d e s s Justice – that is,
the Immaculately C o n c e i v e d M o t h e r of
G o d in her judicial capacity.

A r a i n b o w sweeps across the l o w e r quadrant


of t h e D o m e of t h e S k y from B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n to a y o u n g
b o y w e a r i n g a S m u r f - c a p and a t o g a . T h e b o y a t t e n d s a goddess
w h o r e c l i n e s on a large h o r s e - d r a w n reaper. S h e is P e r s e p h o n e ’ s
m o t h e r C e r e s , w h o was r e c o n s e c r a t e d by early missionary adapta-
t i o n as A n n a , m o t h e r of t h e V i r g i n Mary. T h e g o l d e n boy is offi-
cially designated “Young A m e r i c a . ” A l t h o u g h
B r u m i d i has h i d d e n t h e boy’s face from us, he
deserves our careful scrutiny for one very impor-
t a n t reason. B e a r i n g the n a m e “ A m e r i c a , ” he is
the o n l y e l e m e n t in t h e sacred n a t i o n a l i c o n o g -
raphy that defines the character of the American
YOUNG AMERICA person as perceived by government.
Y o u n g A m e r i c a ’ s Smurf-cap is a style of headgear k n o w n as the
“ P h r y g i a n c a p . ” P h r y g i a was a district in t h e K i n g d o m of Per
g a m u m . We r e m e m b e r P e r g a m u m . It was the m i d d l e p o i n t in the
transfer of B a b y l o n i a n r e l i g i o n w e s t w a r d to R o m e . Phrygia is a
G r e e k w o r d m e a n i n g “ f r e e m e n ” (our E n g l i s h w o r d “free” c o m e s
from the first syllable, “phry-”). P h r y g i a n caps were g i v e n to freed
R o m a n slaves t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r n e w l i b e r a t e d status. R o m a n law
regards liberty as a c o n d i t i o n a l status. O n c e granted by a patron, it
c o u l d be revoked at any t i m e for cause. P h r y g i a n - c a p f r e e d o m ,
t h e n , m e a n s liberty (freed R o m a n slaves, b y t h e way, were c a l l e d
“liberti”) to please C a e s a r . We r e m e m b e r from C h a p t e r 8 h o w
Ignatius described s u c h freedom in S e c t i o n 3 5 3 . 1 of his Exercises:
“ W e must p u t aside all j u d g m e n t o f our o w n , and k e e p t h e m i n d
e v e r ready and p r o m p t t o o b e y i n all t h i n g s t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l
C h u r c h . ” Of course, those liberti bold e n o u g h to protest w h a t their
superiors c o m m a n d e d lost their freedom, no matter h o w lucid and

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C H A P T E R 23 T H E D O M E OF T H E G R E A T SKY

reasonable their o w n judgment might h a v e been. T h e y were


r e v e r t e d t o slavery. S i n c e t h e a d v e n t o f t h e F e b r o n i a n S t a t e
C h u r c h , the reversion of protestant liberti, or Protestants, to slav-
ery has b e e n so m e t h o d i c a l l y insidious t h a t it’s hardly n o t i c e a b l e .
T h e shackles are psychological, h u m a n e l y fitted by increasing vari-
eties of spiritual exercise. L i k e A e n e a s , A n c h i s e s , Julius A s c a n i u s
and their Trojan followers, most A m e r i c a n s are indeed P h r y g i a n -
cap freemen, free to sacrifice their individuality to the greater glory
of R o m e .
T h e B l a c k O b e l i s k o f C a l a h , w h i c h stands i n the B a b y l o n i a n -
A s s y r i a n W i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m , records t h e great a c c o m -
plishments of the n i n t h - c e n t u r y BC g o d - k i n g S h a l m a n e s e r II. In a
scene depicting various m o n a r c h s paying obeisance to B a b y l o n , we

THE FREEDOM C A P
Jehu submitting to Shalmaneser

see o n e m o n a r c h k n e e l i n g before S h a l m a n e s e r , w o r s h i p i n g h i m .
S h a l m a n e s e r in turn offers a sacrifice to an e i g h t - p o i n t e d star set
w i t h i n a bird’s w i n g s and tail-feathers. I n s c r i p t i o n s identify this
k n e e l i n g m o n a r c h as K i n g Jehu of Israel. R e m a r k a b l y , a c c o r d i n g
to the N e w C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , Jehu’s likeness here is the only
k n o w n c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y - r e n d e r e d portrait of a biblical person-
age. M o r e remarkably, Jehu is wearing the Phrygian cap. Like Bru-
midi’s Y o u n g A m e r i c a , Jehu’s liberty is subject to the m o o d of his
god-king.
T h e Bible confirms t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e B l a c k O b e l i s k . A t I I
Kings 10:31 we read: “Jehu t o o k no h e e d to w a l k in the law of the
Lord G o d of Israel w i t h all his heart.” Scripture further tells us that

259
RULERS OF E V I L

J e h u w o r s h i p e d t h e g o l d e n calf, a sacred B a b y l o n i a n i c o n m a d e
f a s h i o n a b l e in t e n t h - c e n t u r y - B C Israel by Jehu’s predecessor, Jer-
o b o a m . J e r o b o a m r e n o u n c e d “ t h e law o f t h e Lord G o d o f Israel”
and instituted... democracy. D e m o c r a c y o p e n e d the Israelite priest-
h o o d , originally a p p o i n t e d by Y a h w e h e x c l u s i v e l y to t h e family of
L e v i , t o all a p p l i c a n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , Y a h w e h ’ s p r i e s t h o o d was
infiltrated b y n o n - b e l i e v e r s and f o r e i g n s y m p a t h i z e r s . T h e y pre-
pared t h e w a y for J e h u to m a k e of h i m s e l f a P h r y g i a n f r e e m a n ,
o b l i g a t e d t o c o n c u r w i t h o b e d i e n c e o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n all
t h i n g s w h i c h his superior, S h a l m a n e s e r II, c o m m a n d e d – e x a c t l y
as t h e B l a c k O b e l i s k e x p l a i n s in l u c i d visual t e r m s . As a d i r e c t
result of Jehu’s d e p a r t u r e from t h e G o d of Israel, t h e Israelite
n a t i o n b e g a n falling apart. It was ultimately destroyed by C a e s a r e -
an R o m e , the legitimate heir to Shalmaneser’s B a b y l o n i a n author-
ity as it passed d o w n t h r o u g h Pergamum.
R u n n i n g t h r o u g h o u t this c o s m i c Battle of the Faiths is a h i g h -
l y refined c a b a l a h i n v o l v i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f “ g o l d e n c a l f . ” T h e
word “ c a l f ” in Hebrew, the language of Jehu and Jeroboam, is MCS,
p r o n o u n c e d “eagle.” W h e r e a s Jehu g a v e his p e o p l e Shalmaneser’s
golden MCSi to worship, the C h u r c h M i l i t a n t has trained the A m e r -
i c a n p u b l i c t o w o r s h i p R o m e ’ s g o l d e n eagle, w h i c h s u r m o u n t s
e v e r y f l a g p o l e . C o u l d it be t h a t if we s h o w r e s p e c t , a f f e c t i o n , or
loyalty toward the national eagle we create the presumption of
worshiping the g o l d e n calf, and so alienate ourselves from the G o d
of the Bible and in the v a c u u m find ourselves under the rule of the
C h u r c h Militant?

A C C O R D I N G to J . C . Judson, in his Biography of the Signers of the


Declaration of Independence, as G e n e r a l W a s h i n g t o n was plan-
n i n g his famous e x p e d i t i o n against C o r n w a l l i s a t Y o r k t o w n , “ t h e
army was destitute, the g o v e r n m e n t treasury was empty, her credit
s h i v e r i n g in t h e w i n d . ” S u d d e n l y , a m i r a c l e in t h e a n n a l s of p h i -
lanthropy occurred. Robert Morris, Superintendent of Finance,
the highest officer in the U n i t e d States under the A r t i c l e s of C o n -
federation ( 1 7 8 1 ) , personally raised eighty c a n n o n and a h u n d r e d
p i e c e s of field artillery. In a d d i t i o n , he raised “all o t h e r necessary

260
C H A P T E R 23 T H E D O M E O F T H E G R E A T SKY

supplies n o t furnished from other sources” and b e c a m e personally

responsible to the amount of $ 1 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 upon his own notes,


which were promptly paid at maturity. This enabled the Ameri-
can army to give the finishing stroke to the revolution, and tri-
umph, in victory complete, over a proud and merciless foe.

S o goes a h i s t o r i a n ’ s v e r s i o n o f h o w R o b e r t M o r r i s s a v e d
A m e r i c a . T h e official v e r s i o n is revealed in C o n s t a n t i n o Brumidi’s
“ A p o t h e o s i s of W a s h i n g t o n . ” H e r e we see S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Morris
gazing up from his a c c o u n t s ledger at yet a n o t h e r R o m a n deity. We
r e c o g n i z e t h e d e i t y from t h e familiar caduceus in his r i g h t h a n d ,
from t h e w i n g e d s a n d a l he’s thrust t o w i t h i n kissing d i s t a n c e o f
M o r r i s ’ lips, a n d from t h e
shadowy bag of gold he
tantalizingly dangles in
M o r r i s ’ f a c e . T h e d e i t y is
Mercury, the P s y c h o p o m p ,
t h e Trickster, t h e p a t r o n
deity of commerce, de-
c e i v e r s , and t h i e v e s . M e r -
cury, t h e b r i l l i a n t , l o v a b l e
P i e d - P i p e r d e i t y w h o de-
c e i v e s t h e souls of sinful
humanity into following
him exuberantly down
into the oblivion of
Mercury & Robert Morris H a d e s . Just as S e b a s t i a n o
R i c c i ’ s p a i n t i n g subtly es-
tablished Mercury as the guiding spirit of m o d e r n R o m a n C a t h o l i -
cism, Brumidi’s p a i n t i n g a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e same deity’s a s c e n d a n -
cy o v e r the fulfillment of the A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n .

A m a z i n g stuff, t h e s e p i c t u r e s . A n d l i k e s o m a n y o f t h e testi-
monies presented in this b o o k – the supremacy of the C h u r c h M i l -
itant, the p u b l i c a t i o n of S u n - T z u a n strategies in a w e s t e r n
language, the n a m e s , the numbers, the dates, the locus and layout
of the federal city, the a r c h i t e c t u r e , the statuary, t h e m o n u m e n t s ,

261
RULERS OF E V I L

t h e e m b l e m s , the frescoes, t h e c e r e m o n i e s – t h e y c o m e n o t from


t h e Trickster’s v i c t i m s , but from the Trickster himself. It’s as if the
p o i n t of t h e trick is to w a r n t h e v i c t i m b e f o r e h a n d , in words and
p i c t u r e s , t h a t he or she is a b o u t to be t r i c k e d . A c o n is m u c h
sweeter w h e n the mark actually consents to the c o n . T h a t way, the
Trickster’s c o n s c i e n c e is clear.

C O N S T A N T I N O Brumidi c o n t i n u e d d e c o r a t i n g t h e D o m e o f the
G r e a t S k y w e l l i n t o his s e v e n t i e s . I n 1 8 7 9 , a t t h e age o f 74,
while painting “Penn’s Treaty w i t h the Indians” on the Rotunda
frieze, he slipped from a scaffold. D a n g l i n g fifty-eight feet from the
marble floor, he h e l d on until h e l p c a m e . He escaped a deadly fall.
But the shock of the e x p e r i e n c e killed h i m a few m o n t h s later.

262
Chapter 24

THE MARK OF CAIN

“The mark of C a i n is stamped upon our foreheads.


Across the centuries, our brother A b e l has lain in blood
which we drew, and shed tears we caused by forgetting T h y
love.”
— P o p e John X X I I I , A Prayer (1960),
cited in VICARS OF CHRIST

W
E L I V E I N T H E N e w W o r l d O r d e r , just a s p e o p l e u n d e r
A u g u s t u s C a e s a r did. N o t a future t h i n g to be feared or
avoided, the N e w W o r l d O r d e r is a present reality to be
identified, u n d e r s t o o d , a n d d e a l t w i t h in a w a y m o s t p l e a s i n g to
G o d . I t was G o d , after all, w h o established t h e N e w W o r l d Order.
We c a n read a b o u t it in t h e B i b l e . In fact, t h e B i b l e is t h e o n l y
record we h a v e that publicly and truthfully sets forth the essentials
of the Order’s origins and d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h time.
T h e B i b l e records t h e great d e c i s i v e e v e n t s i n t h e progress o f
h u m a n life up to the close of the first century A D . C r e a t i o n of earth
and t h e fullness thereof, c r e a t i o n o f m a n and w o m a n , t h e i r turn-
ing a w a y from G o d , t h e first c o n c e p t i o n , t h e first b i r t h , t h e first
sacrifice, t h e first murder, t h e first insignia, t h e first city, t h e first
and only great flood, the surviving family and its peculiar relation-
ship t h r o u g h time w i t h G o d – all of this m o m e n t o u s data is g i v e n
in the Bible w i t h a stark truthfulness t h a t is invariably supported,

265
RULERS OF E V I L

o f t e n to t h e surprise of many, by t h e results of s c i e n t i f i c inquiry.


T h e writers o f t h e B i b l e , Israelite p r o p h e t s inspired b y their G o d
Y a h w e h , h e l d n o m o n o p o l y o n r e p o r t i n g these e v e n t s . Priests o f
o t h e r n a t i o n s reported t h e m , t o o . But in doing so, they c u n n i n g l y
adapted t h e m to fit p r e v a i l i n g administrative needs. T h e result of
their adaptations is w h a t we call mythology.
O n e very persistent m y t h , based on a crucial e v e n t a c c o u n t e d
for in t h e B i b l e , e x p l a i n e d to p e o p l e u n d e r B a b y l o n i a n rulership
t h e d i v i n e origin of their g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s was the m y t h of Mar-
duk. 1

T h e m y t h o f M a r d u k begins
with A n n u , “the head deity of
Babylonian mythology,” 2
look-
ing d o w n u p o n earth in dismay.
T h e land is in c h a o s , o v e r r u n
by f l o o d - w a t e r s and m o n s t r o u s
serpents. Annu senses that
b r i n g i n g order to s u c h c h a o s is
a j o b for M a r d u k , the first-born
son of the m o o n goddess Ea. So
Annu summons Marduk and
asks h i m to organize t h e e a r t h .
M a r d u k agrees to t h e task, but
“only on the condition that he
be m a d e first a m o n g t h e gods
and t h a t his w o r d shall h a v e
T h e N a r a m - S i n [Enoch] Stele, with the force of the decree of
Annu’s name over the mountain-top. Annu.” 3
Annu accepts Mar-
duk’s terms and vests h i m w i t h “ t h e p o w e r s a n d insignia o f k i n g -
ship – and M a r d u k ’ s w o r d was d e c l a r e d to h a v e t h e a u t h o r i t y of
A n n u . ” A r m e d w i t h d i v i n e power, M a r d u k goes to earth and sepa-
rates dry land from sea. He polices t h e monsters, and any evildoer
foolish e n o u g h to oppose h i m receives the wrath of G o d .

T h e result of Marduk’s o r d i n a t i o n was depicted in t h e S t e l e of


N a r a m - S i n , n o w i n t h e L o u v r e . I n this very a n c i e n t B a b y l o n i a n
m o n u m e n t , A n n u i s s h o w n i m b u i n g N a r a m - S i n ( E n o c h t o the

266
CHAPTER 24 THE MARK OF C A I N

M a r d u k p o l i c i n g the evildoer T i a m a t w i t h thunderbolts. From a bas-relief on


the walls of the palace of the Assyrian king Assur-nasir-pal (9th century bc at
C a l a h , n o w in the British M u s e u m ) . N o t e the repeated A n n u signature in the
s a c r e d h e m o f M a r d u k ’ s g a r m e n t . A n d t h e s c y t h e u n d e r h i s left a r m : i s t h e artist
s u b t l y r e v e a l i n g t h a t M a r d u k w a s o n c e a farmer?

H e b r e w s ) w i t h p o w e r o v e r a mass o f o t h e r b e i n g s . A n n u ’ s n a m e ,
seen in t h e tip of the stele, is t h e c u n e i f o r m s y m b o l for “ h e a v e n , ”
the double-cross, or
M a r d u k wears the A n n u signature like a c o p w i t h his badge. It
makes h i m a god. In fact, the o r d i n a t i o n - o f - p o w e r i c o n o g r a p h y of
a n c i e n t B a b y l o n i a n n a t i o n s was n e v e r w i t h o u t it. E v e n today (see
A p p e n d i x : “Fifty C e n t u r i e s of the A n n u S i g n a t u r e ” ) , we find it in
the flag of G r e a t Britain, said to be the u n i o n of St. A n d r e w ’ s S c o t -
tish cross and S t . G e o r g e ’ s E n g l i s h cross. W e find i t p r o m i n e n t l y
displayed in t h e d e c o r of g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d i n g s , especially court-
rooms. It forms the m o t i f for m u c h of t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e
o f t h e U . S . S u p r e m e C o u r t B u i l d i n g , interior a n d exterior. T h e
p a v e m e n t surrounding the O b e l i s k of C a l i g u l a in S t . Peter’s Piaz-
za, w h e r e t h e m u l t i t u d e s s t a n d to r e c e i v e p a p a l e d i c t s and bless-
ings, is inlaid w i t h a gigantic A n n u signature. No doubt about it: a
very a n c i e n t symbol has remained consistently identified w i t h the
presence of rulership. C o u l d it be that a symbol of so m u c h p o w e r

267
RULERS OF E V I L

is based on a myth? Or is it based on the fact from w h i c h the m y t h


sprang?

T HE sensitive Bible-reader immediately sees in the m y t h of Mar-


duk a missionary a d a p t a t i o n of t h e b i b l i c a l a c c o u n t of C a i n .
T h e t w o protagonists are remarkably similar. B o t h C a i n and Mar-
duk were firstborn sons of mothers bearing almost the same name:
Marduk, son of Ea; C a i n , son of E v e . B o t h firstborns were appoint-
ed to rule over evil, albeit for different reasons: M a r d u k because of
his h e r o i s m , C a i n b e c a u s e o f his o w n w i c k e d n e s s . S o t h a t t h e y
4

m i g h t m o v e effectively a m o n g evildoers, b o t h were g i v e n protec-


tive seals of immunity by the G o d of H e a v e n . G o d said to C a i n ,

Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken


on him sevenfold. A n d the Lord set a mark upon Cain, lest any
finding him should kill him. 5

I n M a r d u k ’ s case, t h e e v i l d o e r s w e r e c h a o t i c b e i n g s r u i n i n g
A n n u ’ s e a r t h . C a i n ’ s e v i l d o e r s w e r e persons w h o m i g h t slay h i m
b e c a u s e h e h a d b e c o m e a h o m e l e s s trespasser. T h e B i b l e details
e x a c t l y w h y C a i n b e c a m e homeless. His farm refused to yield har-
vests because he had defiled t h e soil w i t h the b l o o d of his brother.
C a i n “rose u p against A b e l his b r o t h e r and slew h i m . ” W e ’ r e n o t
told why. It may h a v e b e e n jealous rage, and it may n o t . N o t h i n g
i n Scripture indicates that C a i n h a t e d A b e l . T h e most w e k n o w o f
their relationship is that “ C a i n talked w i t h his brother,” and after-
ward, in a field, m u r d e r e d h i m . N o r are we g i v e n details of the
6

murder, e x c e p t that it was bloody. T h e b l o o d is an important clue


7

as to m o t i v e .
W e k n o w t h a t C a i n was first crestfallen t h e n angry a t G o d for
preferring A b e l ’ s sacrifice t o his o w n . A b e l , t h e s h e p h e r d , sacri-
8

ficed lambs from his flock. C a i n , t h e farmer, apparently t h i n k i n g


9

sacrifice was a b o u t r e t u r n i n g t h e best o f his p r o d u c t i v i t y t o G o d ,


sacrificed the best of his harvest. G o d found C a i n ’ s sacrifice offen-
sive and A b e l ’ s p l e a s i n g . 10
Elsewhere in Scripture we learn why. It
i n v o l v e s a principle that is very difficult for many of us to compre-
h e n d . T h e p r i n c i p l e is this: without shedding of blood there is no

268
CHAPTER 24 THE MARK OF C A I N

remission of sin. 11
A b e l pleased G o d b e c a u s e he shed b l o o d , t h e
blood of sacrificial animals.
T h e great t e a c h i n g o f t h e B i b l e i s t h a t t h e d e a t h s e n t e n c e
m a n k i n d has inherited from the original breaking of G o d ’ s Law by
C a i n ’ s parents ( “ T h o u shalt n o t eat of t h e f r u i t . . . ” ) is p a r d o n a b l e
o n l y by d e a t h , by t h e e x t r e m e a c t of shedding blood fatally. T h i s
t e a c h i n g is the bedrock of the O l d T e s t a m e n t and the w h o l e point
o f t h e N e w . I n t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t , t h e p e o p l e o f G o d w e r e par-
d o n e d t h e sinfulness i n h e r i t e d from A d a m b y s h e d d i n g t h e b l o o d
of animals, as A b e l h a d dutifully d o n e . In t h e N e w , t h e p e o p l e of
G o d w e r e p a r d o n e d this same sinfulness by d o i n g e x a c t l y as C a i n
had d o n e , shedding the blood of a man. To this day, a c c o r d i n g to the
S c r i p t u r e s , all w h o b e l i e v e t h a t Jesus Christ’s b l o o d has p o w e r t o
remit sins are imputed sinless by G o d . 1 2
Imputed sinless, their sen-
t e n c e o f e t e r n a l s e p a r a t i o n from G o d i s c o m m u t e d , and t h e y are
g i v e n eternal life in H e a v e n . 13

N o w , S c r i p t u r e does n o t tell u s t h a t G o d e v e r e x p l a i n e d t h e
purpose o f b l o o d sacrifice t o C a i n . 1 4
But w e k n o w t h a t G o d i s t h e
greatest o f all t e a c h e r s . A n d w e k n o w h e w a n t s t h e best for
m a n k i n d . It’s u n t h i n k a b l e , t h e n , t h a t H e w o u l d w a n t C a i n igno-
rant o f t h e l i f e - s a v i n g effect o f b l o o d sacrifice. H e must h a v e
taught C a i n a s thoroughly a s h e taught A b e l . A n d C a i n must h a v e
listened a t t e n t i v e l y , for w e k n o w h e was a n x i o u s t o please G o d –
otherwise, w h y would he h a v e b e e n angry and crestfallen at learn-
ing o f G o d ’ s dissatisfaction w i t h his sacrifice? B u t C a i n was more
c r e a t i v e t h a n o b e d i e n t . It’s entirely c o n s i s t e n t w i t h his c h a r a c t e r
for h i m to h a v e decided

Okay, if it’s blood sacrifice He wants, I’ll give Him the sacri-
fice He deserves, a better sacrifice than lambs: I’ll give Him the
blood of an innocent man!

C a i n ’ s i n t e n t was e v i l o n l y in t h a t he s o u g h t to improve on
what G o d had commanded, in the way Saul improved on God’s
c o m m a n d m e n t to a n n i h i l a t e the A m a l e k i t e s by sparing their k i n g
and c e r t a i n v a l u a b l e l i v e s t o c k . 15
C a i n k n e w the logic o f G o d – h e
was, after all, t h e first h u m a n b e i n g b o r n w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f

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RULERS OF E V I L

g o o d and e v i l . A n d w e k n o w from w h a t h a p p e n e d t o Jesus t h a t


G o d ’ s l o g i c calls for t h e sacrifice o f t h e o n l y O n e w h o s e perfect
i n n o c e n c e o v e r c a m e d e a t h . In his obsession to please G o d , would-
n’t C a i n h a v e regarded spilling A b e l ’ s b l o o d as the ultimate godli-
ness?
W h a t I am suggesting is t h a t , in C a i n ’ s m i n d , A b e l was n o t so
m u c h murdered as sacrificed, nailed to A n n u ’ s very n a m e —

— hanged upon a cross! W o u l d n ’ t this e x p l a i n w h y Scripture shows


n o e v i d e n c e t h a t C a i n sensed any guilt? W o u l d n ’ t i t also e x p l a i n
the hundreds o f a n c i e n t , p r e - C h r i s t i a n m y t h s o f y o u n g shepherds
(such as Tammuz, B a c c h u s , A t t i s , Mithras) w h o were slain in cold
b l o o d by v a r i o u s v i l l a i n s o n l y to rise from t h e d e a d , t h e i r shed
b l o o d h a v i n g supposedly p r o p i t i a t e d o r i g i n a l sin and resurrected
t h e m t o e t e r n a l life? T h e m y t h s , o b v i o u s l y based o n t h e fact o f
Abel’s crucifixion, all p o i n t e d to a universally anticipated event fore-
told b y t h e Israelite p r o p h e t s : Messiah’s d e a t h a n d r e s u r r e c t i o n ,
w h i c h would pardon the sins of m a n k i n d and restore eternal life.
T h u s e m e r g e s t h e possibility t h a t t h e “ l a m b slain from t h e
foundation of the world” mentioned at R e v e l a t i o n 1 3 : 8 might
h a v e indeed b e e n A b e l , G o d ’ s first o b e d i e n t servant. For it is a fact
that “the W o r l d ” – by w h i c h the N e w T e s t a m e n t writers m e a n t the
ordering o f h u m a n institutional systems w h i c h G o d admitted into
existence – did actually begin, as we are about to see, in the imme-
diate a f t e r m a t h of A b e l ’ s d e a t h . If this is t h e case, t h e n m a n k i n d
owes a strange debt t o C a i n . N o C a i n , n o death o f A b e l . N o d e a t h
of A b e l , no World. No World, no incarnation of G o d as only
b e g o t t e n S o n . N o S o n o f G o d , n o true d e a t h and resurrection. N o
true d e a t h and resurrection, no h o p e of m a n k i n d for e t e r n a l inti-
macy w i t h G o d .

I T was t h e c o m p l a i n t of an e a r t h o u t r a g e d by A b e l ’ s spilt b l o o d
t h a t m o v e d G o d t o b a n i s h C a i n f r o m his a c c u s t o m e d h a b i t a t

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CHAPTER 24 THE M A R K O F C A I N

forever. Just as M a r d u k d e m a n d e d p r o t e c t i o n from the monsters he


had b e e n asked t o c o n t r o l , C a i n d e m a n d e d p r o t e c t i o n from possi-
ble assailants i n his e x i l e . G o d graciously a c c o m m o d a t e d C a i n b y
“set[ting] a m a r k ” u p o n h i m w h i c h m a d e C a i n s e v e n t i m e s more
powerful t h a n any mortal competitor. T h e mark served as the very
“ p o w e r s and insignia o f k i n g s h i p ” A n n u h a d g r a n t e d M a r d u k . I t
e m p o w e r e d C a i n t o rule all h u m a n b e i n g s likely t o c h a l l e n g e his
p r o t e c t i v e mark, b e i n g s unafraid o f Y a h w e h ’ s n a m e , 1 6
beings w h o
shared C a i n ’ s environs “out from the presence of the L o r d . ” 17

A r m e d w i t h his mark, C a i n b e g a n t h e rulership o f e v i l . T h e


Bible accounts for Cain’s m o v e m e n t s after his ordination. He t o o k
a wife and sired a son. T h e n , he built a city and n a m e d it after his
son, “ E n o c h . ” 1 8
C e n t u r i e s later, E n o c h disappeared under t h e silt
of N o a h ’ s flood. It passed from m e m o r y to mystery to o b l i v i o n ,
until the 1 8 4 0 s , w h e n archaeologists f o l l o w i n g the Bible’s descrip-
tions o f B a b y l o n i a b e g a n e x c a v a t i n g i n p r e s e n t - d a y Iraq. A l o n g
the Euphrates River, near Al Khidr, they discovered numerous
strata o f a n c i e n t settlements. T h e deepest stratum, b e n e a t h w h i c h
there was n o t h i n g but bedrock, had called itself U n u k . “ U n u k was
founded on the oldest bricks,” declared o n e of the leading archae-
ologists, a r e n o w n e d classical linguist from Q u e e n s C o l l e g e , O x -
ford, n a m e d A r c h i b a l d S a y c e .
H a v i n g deciphered and evaluated large numbers of clay tablets
from t h e site, Professor S a y c e issued t h e o p i n i o n i n 1 8 8 7 t h a t
U n u