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Tutorial – Second Law of Thermodynamics


Calculate the maximum thermal efficiency for a heat engine working between temperatures of
800ºC and 15ºC. [73.2 %]


A Carnot cycle engine using air as a working fluid has a volume expansion ratio of 16:1. It
operates between temperatures of 300ºC and 23ºC. Calculate:
(a) The volume ratios for the isothermal and adiabatic parts of the cycle.[3.07:1, 5.2:1]
(b) Thermal efficiency. [48.3%]


What is the difference between a reversible engine and a reversible cycle?


A Carnot cycle engine using air as a working fluid operates between a heat source which has a
temperature of 800ºC and a heat sink which has a temperature of 15ºC. The maximum and
minimum pressures are 21 MPa and 0.1 MPa. Calculate thermal efficiency and work ratio.

Note – Work ratio = net work./positive work. [73.2 %, 0.212]


0.23 kg of gas a gas with a gas constant of 280 J/kg.K and a ratio of specific heats of 1.4,
undergoes a Carnot cycle between temperatures of 300ºC and 50ºC. The volume ratio of the
isothermal process is 2.5:1. Calculate:

(a) Thermal efficiency. [43.6 %]

(b) Net work. [14.8 kJ]
(c) Work ratio. [0.2]


Heat is supplied to a Carnot cycle at a temperature of 400ºC. Its thermal efficiency is 55 %.

The volume ratio of the isothermal process is 2.8:1. Calculate:
(a) The temperature at which heat is rejected. [30ºC]
(b) Volume ratio of the adiabatic process. [7.3:1]
(c) Overall volume ratio. [20.6:1]

Temperature, Pressure and Volume of air (1.4=‫ )ﻻ‬at the end of isentropic compression in an air
standard Carnot heat engine cycle are 315.6 0C, 120 kPa and 0.05 m3 respectively. The
volumetric ratio of the isothermal expansion ( v1 ) and that of isothermal compression (
v3 v3
=3 =6
v4 ). The volumetric ratio the isentropic expansion ( v2 ) and that of isothermal
compression ( v 1 ). (Please draw a P-V diagram of the Carnot cycle)


a) The pressure, minimum Temperature and volumes of other states of the Carnot cycle. [
40 kPa; 3.26kPa; 9.77kPa; 287.45 K; 0.15 m3;0.9 m3; 0.3 m3]
b) The heat supplied and rejected by the cycle [6.68 kJ; -3.263kJ]

c) The efficiency of the cycle [51.2%]


A farmer runs a heat pump with a 2 kW motor. It should keep a chicken hatchery at 30◦C, which
loses energy at a rate of 10 kW to the colder ambient Tamb. What is the minimum COP that will
be acceptable for the heat pump? (please sketch the schematic diagram ) [5]

Calculate the amount of work input a refrigerator needs to make ice cubes out of a tray of 0.25
kg liquid water at 10◦C. Assume the refrigerator works in a Carnot cycle between −8◦C and
35◦C with a motor-compressor of 750 W. How much time does it take if this is the only cooling
load? (please sketch the schematic diagram ) [4.5 kW ; 4200sec]