Sei sulla pagina 1di 198

INSDAG GUIDE FOR

THE STRUCTURAL USE OF


STEELWORK IN BUILDINGS

Compiled by:

Dr. Rangachari Narayanan


Dr. V. Kalyanraman

Published by:
Institute for Steel Development And Growth
Ispat Niketan', First Floor 52/1A
Ballygunge Circular Road Kolkata -
700 019
Phone: (033) 2461 4045/47/66/76, Fax: (033) 2461 4048 E-mail:
insdag@giascl2.vsnl.net.in; insdag@caj2^nLneLui

March 2003 INSDAG 7


REVISED PRICE
Copyright reserved 1 0 0 0 / -
52/1 A , Bally gunge CUcuUi Road
-Kolkata-700019
Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge that all the data
and information contained herein are correct to the extent that they relate to either
matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication,
Institute for Steel Development And Growth (INSDAG) assumes no responsibility for
any errors in or mis-interpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or
damage arising from or related to their use. __________________________________

US E M O R E S T E EL - T H E P R EF E RR E D M AT ER I A L O F TH E N E W
M IL L EN IUM
FOREWARD

INSDAG has played a pivotal role over the last few years in propagating the
awareness amongst students, faculties of various engineering institutes and experts
and professionals from various industries, about the advantages and benefits of usage
of steel in the construction sector.

It is now being accepted by most engineering professionals both academic and


industrial, that the main stumbling block in the development of the steel construction
industry in India is the primitiveness of the methods of design adopted by the Indian
codes as against the international codes which allow higher flexibility in design
approach. The relevant Indian codes of practice (IS: 800-1984 and IS: 801-1975)
applicable for hot-rolled and cold-formed steel are based on the "Allowable Stress
Design" approach as against the more internationally popular "Limit State Method"
approach which has been proved to be technically sound and its use results in
optimum economy of the structure.

With the technical contributions from leading academics and professionals, INSDAG
has already brought out various publications on the design methodology of steel
structures using the Limit State Method of Design (LSM), which have been beneficial
to the engineering fraternity in learning the most intricate facets in LSM design.

On request from INSDAG, this publication in the form of a Guide book has been
written and compiled by Dr. Rangachari Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman for the
benefit of not only the student community both under-graduate and post graduate
level, but also other engineering professionals across the country, since most of the
engineering institutions have started including the LSM design in their curriculum and
also the engineering professionals need to update themselves with the latest
technological advancements. The publication is very timely as it coincides with the
revision of IS: 800- 1984, which is at its advanced stage.

The entire book has been reviewed by^Dr. T. K. Bandyopadhyay, Deputy Director
General and Mr. Arijit Guha, Manager (Civil & Structural). Comments and
suggestions received from a large number of faculty member*, have been
incorporated. INSDAG expresses its indebtedness to Dr. R. Narayanan and Dr. V.
Kalyanraman, academics and researchers of international experience for agreeing to
bring'out this publication.
Kolkata: February 2003
Special Note
The entire document has been written considering Limit State Method of
design following stipulations laid down in the relevant British code, BS:
5950 Part -1, 3 & 5 and Eurocode - 3 & 4. Since IS: 800 (Code of
Practice for General Construction in Steel) is presently being revised to
Limit State version, this guide book may undergo certain modifications in
some chapters after the publication of revised IS: 800 (LSM version) to
accommodate the possible variation in stipulations that are likely to be
considered in the revised code.

However, this document will be extremely useful to the students


of Civil I Structural Engineering to understand the theoretical
background associated with advancement in structural steel
design based on Limit State Method. ______________________________
CONTENTS

Pages

1. General 2-3
2. Material 4-4
3. General Design Requirements 5-15
4. Tension Members 16 - 18
5. Classification of Cross Sections 19 - 21
6. Axially Loaded Columns 22-31
7. Design of Members Subjected to Bending 32 - 58
8. Elements Subjected to Axial force and Bending 59 - 64
9. Beams of Hot Rolled Sections Subjectedto Torsion and
65 - 65
10. Portal Frames 66 - 72
11. Multi - Storey Buildings 73-88
12. Connection Design 89 - 109
13. Cold Formed Steel Sections 110 - 130
14. Basic Concepts of Composite Construction 131 - 139
15. Composite Beams and Slabs 140 - 153
16. Steel - Concrete Composite Columns 154 - 167

LIST OF APPENDICES

A. Appendix - A: Terminology 168 - 169


B. Appendix- B : Symbols 170-172
C. Appendix - C: Relevant Indian Standards 173 - 174
D. Appendix - D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis 175 - 180
E. Appendix - E: Location of Neutral Axis 181 - 182
PREFACE

The low usage of structural steel in India is attributable in part to the prevailing out-of-date design
practices, which result in uneconomic designs. The relevant Indian Codes of Practice (IS: 800 - 1984,
IS: 801 - 1975) applicable to the structural use of hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel are largely based on
"Working Stress Method". The more modern "Limit State Design Approach" developed in the 1970's in
the West, is technologically sound and results in significant economies in completed structures. This is
of particular advantage, as steel is reusable and environment friendly. Compared with competing
materials of construction, steel framed buildings have significantly better blast and earthquake resistance
and take less than half the time to build. In passing, it may be noted that the Indian Codes of Practice
applicable to concrete structures have been revised to conform to Limit State Methodology. This makes
the choice of steel in construction an uneconomic proposition. It is also noted that the Code of Practice
for steel-concrete-composite buildings (IS: 11384 - 1985) is based on the Limit State approach but is
very limited in its coverage, besides being inconsistent with IS: 800 and IS: 801 written in Working
Stress format.

This situation posed a challenge, when the Government of India, Ministry of Steel initiated steps to
rectify the skills shortage in Steel Construction in 1998. The newly started Institute for Steel
Development and Growth (INSDAG) was entrusted with the tasks of (a) improving the teaching
standards of Structural Steel Design in Indian Universities, (b) organising in-career courses for
enhancing the level of competence of practising engineers (c) publishing design guidance documents for
disseminating latest Steel Design Technology (d) organising design competitions for encouraging
state-of-the art Structural Steel Designs. As a part of that initiative, an up-to-date Resource Material for
disseminating the latest Steel Design Technology has been compiled and published in the web site of
INSDAG (www.steel-insdag.org). This Design Guide has been complied, as a complementary document
and has been drafted after studying the background research work carried out largely in the Western
World, which led to the latest British, American, Canadian, Australian and European Codes. Many of
the design specifications contained herein have been adopted from these Western Codes and will
hopefully serve as a Draft document, when the Bureau of Indian Standards eventually decides to revise
the Steel Codes, relevant to Construction.

The technical support provided by two young engineers, Mr. S. Sambasiva Rao and Miss P. Usha in
compiling this document is gratefully acknowledged.

Dr. T.K. Bandhyopadhyay of INSDAG and Professor A. R. Santhakumar of Anna University had
reviewed the document before its publication as a draft. Suggestions and comments aimed at improving
this document are welcome. We are also grateful to the many engineers - too numerous to mention -
who suggested improvements in the drafting stage.

Rangachari Narayanan V.
Kalyanaraman

1
SECTION 1: GENERAL

1.1 Scope

This Guide provides general recommendations for the design of structural steel work in
buildings and allied structures. In the absence of an Indian Standard written in the modern
Limit State Format for steel construction, this guide generally follows the provisions contained
in British Standard, BS: 5950 (various parts). INSDAG has a Memorandum of Understanding
with the British Steel Construction Institute and several supporting documents are available
from INSDAG at largely discounted prices for the use of steel designers in India. It will not
apply to bridges, chimneys, cranes, tanks, transmission line towers, storage structures, tubular
structures, however, general .principles discussed in this guide could be adopted in the design
of such structures appropriately..

This guide is in three parts and covers the design of building structures using (i) Hot
Rolled Steel section (ii) Cold Rolled Steel sections and (iii) Steel Concrete Composite sections.

The guide provides only general advice regarding the various loads to be considered in design.
For actual loads to be used reference may be made to IS: 875-1987.

This document is NOT a statutory document and intended as a guide for students and practicing
engineers. It is not intended to replace Codes of Practice.

1.2 Terminology - For the purpose of this Guide, the definitions of various terms are given in
Appendix A.

1.3 Symbols - Symbols used in this Guide are defined in Appendix B.

1.4 Reference to other Standards - All the standards referred to in this Guide are listed in
Appendix C and their latest version shall be applicable:

1.5 Units and Conversion Factors - The SI system of units is applicable to this Guide. For
conversion of system of units to another system, IS: 786-1967 (supplement) may be referred.

1.6 Standard Dimensions, Form and Weight

The dimensions, form, weight, tolerances of all rolled shapes and other members used in any
steel structure shall, wherever available, conform to the appropriate Indian Standards.

The dimensions, form, weight, tolerances of all rivets, bolts, nuts, studs, etc. shall conform to
the requirements of appropriate Indian Standards, wherever available.

2
1.7 Plans and Drawings

Plans, drawings and stress sheet shall be prepared according to IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967.

Plans - The plans (design drawings) shall show the complete design with sizes, sections, and the
relative locations of the various members. Floor levels, column centres, and offsets shall be
dimensioned. Plans shall be drawn to a scale large enough to convey the information adequately.
Plans shall indicate the type of construction to be employed; and shall be supplemented by such
data on the assumed loads, shears, moments and axial forces to be resisted by all members and
their connections, as may be required for the proper preparation of shop drawings. Any special
precaution to be taken in the erection of structure from the design consideration shall also be
indicated in the drawing.

Shop drawings - Shop drawings, giving complete information necessary for the fabrication of
the component parts of the structure including the location, type, size, length and detail of all
welds, shall be prepared in advance of the actual fabrication. They shall clearly distinguish
between shop and field rivets, bolts and welds. For additional information to be included on
drawings for designs based on the use of welding, reference shall be made to appropriate Indian
Standards. Shop drawings shall be made in conformity with IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. A
marking diagram allotting distinct identification marks to each separate part of steelwork shall be
prepared. The diagram shall be sufficient to ensure convenient assembly and erection at site.

It is essential that Steel Designers familiarize themselves with protection methods for structural
steelwork, with regard to fire and corrosion. For a great majority of steel buildings which are not
subject to alternate wetting and drying, corrosion is NOT a problem. Authentic guidance on
protection methods is available from INSDAG.

Symbols for welding used on plans and shop drawings shall be according to IS: 813-1961

3
SECTION 2: MATERIALS

Structural Steel - Ail structural steels used in general construction coming under the purview
of this Guide shall, before fabrication conform to IS: 2062-1984, IS: 8500-1977 and IS:
1977-1975, as appropriate.

Any structural steel other than that specified in 2.1 may also be used provided that the
characteristic yield stresses and other design provisions are suitably modified and the steel is
also suitable for the type of fabrication adopted.

Other Material - All other materials including manufactured products, welding consumables,
steel castings, bolts and nuts and cement concrete shall confirm to the requirements of the
appropriate Indian Standards.*

4
SECTION 3: GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

3.1 Aims of Structural Design

The aim of structural design is to provide, with due regard to economy, a structure which is fit
for its intended purpose, i.e., it should be capable of fulfilling its intended function and
sustaining the design loads for its intended life. The design should facilitate fabrication,
erection and future maintenance.

The structure should behave as a three-dimensional entity. The layout of its constituent parts,
such as foundations, steelwork, connections and other structural components should constitute a
robust and stable structure under normal loading to ensure that in the event of misuse or
accident, damage will not be disproportionate to the cause. To achieve this, it is necessary to
define clearly the basic structural anatomy by which the loads are transmitted to the
foundations. Any features of the structure, which have a critical influence on its overall
stability, can then be identified and taken account of in design.

Each part of the structure should be sufficiently robust and insensitive to the effects of minor
incidental loads applied during service that the safety of other parts is not prejudiced.

3.2 Overall Stability

The designer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the
compatibility of design and details of parts and components. There should be no doubt of this
responsibility for overall stability when some or all of the design and details are not made by
the same designer.

3.3 General Principles of Limit State Design

Structure should be designed considering the Limit States at which they would become unfit for
their intended purpose. For verifying the adequacy of the structure, appropriate partial safety
factors, based on semi-probabilistic methods described below shall be used. Two partial safety
factors, one applied to forces due to loading and another to the material strength shall
be employed.

allows for;

(a) the possible deviation of the actual behaviour of the structure from that of the analysis and
design model,
(b) the deviation of loads from their specified values and
(c) the reduced probability that the various loads acting together will simultaneously
reach the characteristic value.

5
(e) the possible deviation of the material in the structure from that assumed in design
(f) the possible reduction in the strength of the material from its characteristic value and
(g) manufacturing tolerances.
(h) Mode of failure (ductile/brittle).

3.3.1 Partial safety factors

In general, calculations take the form of verifying that

where is the calculated factored load effect on the element (like bending moment, shear force etc) and is
the calculated factored resistance of the element being checked, and is a function of the nominal value of the
material yield strength.

is a function of the combined effects of factored dead, live and wind loads.
(Other loads - if applicable, are also considered)

In accordance with the above concepts, the safety format used in this guide is based on probable maximum load
and probable minimum strengths, so that a consistent level of safety is achieved. Thus, the design requirements
are expressed as follows:

where = Design value of internal forces and moments caused by the design Loads,
Characteristic Loads. (From IS: 875 - 1987)
a load factor which is determined on probabilistic basis

where = a material factor, which is also determined on a 'probabilistic basis'


when considering yield stress and 1.25 when considering fracture ultimate stress).

It should be noted that IS: 11384 - 1985 (Code of Practice for Composite Construction) has
prescribed for Structural Steel when considering yield stress. The value
suggested is therefore consistent with that.

3.3.2 Limit states

(1) A limit state is a state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design
requirements.

6
(2) Ultimate limit states are limit states of collapse or other structural failure, which
might endanger the safety of people, including:
• Excessive deformation / formation of mechanism.
• Rupture
• Loss of stability
• Loss of equilibrium
(3) Serviceability limit states are limit states beyond which specified service criteria
are no longer met, including those for:
• Deflection
• Durability
• Ponding
• Vibration

Thus the following limit states may be identified for design purposes and are provided for in terms of
partial factors reflecting the severity of the risks.
• Ultimate Limit State is related to the maximum design load capacity under extreme
conditions. The partial load factors are chosen to reflect the probability of extreme
conditions, when loads act alone or in combination.
• Serviceability Limit State is related to the criteria governing normal use. Unfactored loads
are used to check the adequacy of the structure.
• Fatigue Limit State is important where distress to the structure by repeated loading is a
possibility.
An illustration of partial safety factors suggested for ultimate load conditions is given in Table 3.1.
These values are based on recommendations adopted by Eurocodes. (The Committee formed to review
BIS standards have adopted these values). Reference to the Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant
Design should be made, where appropriate. (At the present time, this Code is being revised).

Table 3.1: Recommended Partial safety factors

Loading Yf
DL LL WL
Dead Load (unfavourable effects) 1.35 - -
Dead load restraining uplift or overturning 1.0 - -
Dead Load + Imposed Load 1.35 1.5 -
Dead Load + Wind Load 1.35 - 1.5
Dead Load + Imposed Load + wind Load (Major Load)* 1.35 1.05 1.5
Dead Load + Imposed Load (Major Load) + wind Load* 1.35 1.5 1.05
Crane Load effects (from BS 5950, Parti)
Vertical load 1.6
Horizontal load 1.6
Vertical load acting with horizontal load 1.4
(Crabbing or Surge) 1.2 1.2 1.2
Crane load acting with Wind load
*If in doubt, calculations for both conditions are needed

7
3.4 Loading

3.4.1 Types of loads - For the purpose of computing the maximum stresses in any
structure or member of a structure, the following loads and secondary effects shall be
taken into account, where applicable:

a) Dead Loads, Imposed loads and Wind loads (as per IS: 875 - 1987)
b) Earthquake loads (as per IS: 1893 - 1991)
c) Erection loads; and
d) Secondary effects due to contraction or expansion resulting from temperature changes,
creep in steel, shrinkage and creep in contiguous concrete members, differential settlements
of the structure as a whole and its components.
e) For fire resistant design and fire rating, reference may be made to appropriate specialist
publications [For example, Design guide on Structural Fire Safety C1B-W14)

3.4.2 Erection loads - All loads required to be carried by the structure or any part of it
due to storage or positioning of construction material and erection equipment including
all loads due to operation of such equipment shall be considered as 'erection loads'.
Proper provision shall be made, including temporary bracings to take care of all stresses
due to erection loads. The structure as a whole and all parts of the structure in conjunction
with the temporary bracings shall be capable of sustaining these erection loads. Dead
load, wind load and also such parts of the live load as would be imposed on the structure
during the period of erection shall be taken as acting together with the erection loads.

3.4.3 Temperature effects

(a) Expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature of the materials of a structure
shall be considered and adequate provision made for the effects produced.

(b) The temperature range varies for different localities and under different diurnal and
seasonal conditions. Published data should be consulted in assessing the maximum
variations of temperature for which provision for expansion and contraction has to be
allowed in the structure.

(c) The co-efficient of expansion for steel shall be taken as 0.000012 per degree centigrade per
unit length.

3.5 Robustness Requirements

The requirements for all buildings to maintain Structural integrity (as prescribed by BS: 5950, Part 1
following the Ronan Point Collapse) are given below:

Structures should remain as complete integral units even when (due to an accident such as explosion)
one of the members fail or become inoperative. This requirement provides a

8
significant measure of safety for the occupants and is termed "Structural integrity requirement" or
"Robustness requirement".

All building frames should be effectively tied together at each principal floor and roof level, in both
directions. Either the beams or tie members should be designed so that they provide for the anchorage.
Ties may be steel members or steel reinforcement, which are properly anchored to the steel frame work.

Each section between expansion joints should be treated as a separate building. These requirements are
aimed at ensuring that the collapse of one element of a structure does not trigger the failure of the
structure as a whole. By tying the structure together, it is possible to ensure that there is an alternative
load path that would help to avoid progressive collapse.

Suggested requirements for integrity of buildings of five storeys or more are given below:

• For sway resistance, no portion of structures should be dependent on only one bracing
system.
• The minimum tie strengths (in respect of the ties referred above) should be
internally and externally (but not less than 75 kN

for floors and 40 kN at roof level), where


- total factored load /. unit area
- tie spacing
- distance between columns in the direction
• At the edge of the structure, columns should be restrained by horizontal ties resisting 1%
of column load.
• Columns should be continuous vertically through the floors, as far as possible.
• Column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force of two - thirds of the factored
vertical compressive load on the column below the splice.
• Collapse must not be disproportionate and the role of key elements should be identified.
• Precast floors must be anchored at both ends against sliding of supporting members.
• At each storey in turn any single column or beam carrying a column should be capable of
being removed without causing collapse beyond a limited portion of the building in the
vicinity of the member; in this event substantial permanent deformation may be accepted.
This is termed as " Localisation of damage".
• If the removal of one of these members would cause substantial damage, the member
should be designed as a "key element" so that it has a very low probability of failure. Any
member or other structural component, which provides lateral restraint vital to the "key
element", as well as the "key elements" themselves should be checked for safety and
stability, (using appropriate load factors and including the likely accidental loads) in the
appropriate directions.

9
3.6 General Principles and Design Methods

3.6.1 Methods of design - The design of any structure or its parts may be carried out by one of the methods
given in (a) to (d). In all cases, the details of members and connections should be such as to realise the
assumptions made in design without adversely affecting any other parts of the structure.

(a) Simple design - The connections between members are assumed not to develop
moments adversely affecting either the members or the structure as a whole.

The distribution of forces may be determined assuming that members intersecting at a joint are pin
connected. The necessary flexibility in connections may result in some non-elastic deformation of
the materials, other than the fasteners.

It is necessary to maintain stability against sway and this is ensured complying with provisions of
3.6.2.2 (c).

(b) Rigid design - The connections are assumed to be capable to developing the
strength and / or stiffness required by an analysis assuming full continuity. Such
analysis may be made using either elastic or plastic methods.

(c) Semi-rigid design - Some degree of connection stiffness is assumed, but it would
be insufficient to develop full continuity.

(i) The moment and rotation capacity of the joints should be based on
experimental evidence, which may permit some limited plasticity. On this
basis, the design should satisfy the strength, stability and stiffness
requirement of all parts of the structure when partial continuity at the
joints is to be taken into account in assessing moments and forces in the
members.
(ii) As an alternative, in simple beam and column structures an allowance may
be made for the inter-restraint of the connections between a beam and a
column by an end restraint moment not exceeding 10% of the free moment
applied to the beam, assuming this to be simply supported, provided that
the frame is braced against side sway in both directions.

(d) Design based on experiments - Where structure is of non-conventional or


complex in nature, the design may be based on full scale or model tests subject to
the following conditions:

(i) A full-scale test of prototype structure may be done. The prototype shall be accurately
measured before testing to determine the dimensional tolerance in all relevant parts of the
structure; the tolerances then specified on the drawing shall be such that all successive
structures shall be in practical conformity with the prototype. Where the design is based on
failure loads, a load factor of not less than 1.5 on the loads or load

10
combinations given in Table 3.1 should be used. Loading devices shall be previously
calibrated and care shall be exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints are applied
to the prototype by the loading systems. The distribution and duration of forces applied
in the test shall be representative of those to which the structure is deemed to be
subjected.

(ii) In the case where design is based on the testing of a small-scale model structure, the model
shall be constructed with due regard for the principles of dimensional similarity. The
thrusts, moments and deformations under working loads shall be determined by
physical measurements made when the loadings are applied to simulate the conditions
assumed in the deign of the actual structure.

3.6.2 Ultimate Limit States

3.6.2.1 Limit state of strength

(a) General - In checking the strength and stability of the structure the loads should be
multiplied by the relevant ^factors given in table 3.1. The factored loads should be applied in
the most unfavorable realistic combination for the part or effect under consideration.

The load capacity of each member and its connections, as determined by the relevant provisions
of this Guide, should be such that the factored loads would not cause failure.

3.6.2.2 Stability limit state

(a) General - In considering the overall stability of any structure or part, the loads should
be increased by the relevant factors given in table 3.1. The designer should consider overall
frame stability, which embraces stability against overturning, and sway stability as given below.

(b) Stability against overturning - The factored loads should not cause the structure or
any part of the structure (including the foundations) to overturn or lift off its seating. The
combination of imposed and dead loads should be such as to have the most severe effect on
overall stability.

Account should be taken of probable variations in dead load during construction or other
temporary conditions.

(c) Sway stability - All structures, including portions between expansion


joints, should be adequately stiff against sway. To ensure this, in addition to
designing for applied horizontal loads, a separate check should be carried out for
notional horizontal forces.

11
These notional forces may arise from practical imperfections such as lack of vertically and
should be taken as the greater of:

1% of factored dead load from that level, applied horizontally;


0.5% of factored total gravity load (dead plus vertical imposed) from that level,
applied horizontally.

The notional forces should be assumed to act on all structures in any one orthogonal direction at
a time and should be applied at each roof and floor level or their equivalent. They should be
taken as acting simultaneously with vertical loads.

The notional force should not be:

• applied when considering overturning;


• combined with horizontal loads;
• combined with temperature effects;
• taken to contribute to net shear on the foundations.

Sway stability may be provided for example by braced frames, joint rigidity or by utilising
staircase, lift cores and shear walls. Whatever system is used, reversal of loading should be
accommodated. The cladding, floors and roof should have adequate strength and be so secured
to the structural framework as to transmit all horizontal forces to the points of sway resistance.
Where such sway stability is provided by construction other than the steel framework, the
steelwork designer should state clearly the need for such construction and the forces acting
upon it.

3.6.2.3 Foundation design - The design of foundations should accommodate all the forces imposed on
them. The stiffness (deformation) of the foundation should reflect the boundary condition
assumed in the analysis model of the structural system. Attention should be given to the method
of connecting the steel superstructure to the foundations and the anchorage of any holding
down bolts. Where it is necessary to quote the foundation-reactions it should be clearly stated
whether the forces and moments result from factored or unfactored loads. Where they result
from factored loads the relevant factors for each load in each combination should be stated.

3.6.2.4 Fatigue - Fatigue need not be considered unless a structure or element is subjected to numerous
significant fluctuations of stress. Stress changes due to fluctuations in wind loading need not be
considered but account should be taken of wind-induced oscillations.

3.6.2.5 Earthquake Resistant Design - The standards appropriate for earthquake


resistance of buildings in various parts of the country should be carefully
considered and suitable provisions should be made taking into account the
Capacity design and requisite ductility.

12
3.6.3 Serviceability Limit State

3.6.3.1 Deflection - The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or building component should
not impair the strength of the structure/components or cause damage to the finishing. When
checking for deflections the most adverse and realistic combination of service loads and their
arrangement should be checked by elastic analysis.
Table 3.2 gives recommended limitations for certain structural members. Circumstances may
arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate. (Where the deflection due to
Dead + Live load combination is likely to be excessive, consideration should be given to
pre-camber the beams)

Table 3.2: Deflection limits other than for pitched roof portal frame
( a ) Deflection on beams due to unfactored imposed loads
Cantilevers Length / 180
Beams carrying plaster or other brittle Span / 325
finish
All other beams Span / 325
( b ) Horizontal deflection of columns other than portal frames due to unfactored
imposed and wind loads
Tops of columns in single-storey Height / 325
buildings
In each storey of a building with more Height of storey under consideration / 325
than one storey
( c ) Crane gantry girders
Refer to IS: 800 - 1984
NOTE 1. On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs consideration for Composite

Construction using metal decking.

3.6.3.2 Durability - Several factors affecting the durability of the buildings under
conditions relevant to their intended life, are listed below:

(a) the environment;


(b) the degree of exposure;
(c) the shape of the members and the structural detailing
(d) the protective measure if any;
(e) whether maintenance is possible.

Detailed advice on protection of steel for various environmental/exposure conditions is


contained in an INSDAG publication titled "Corrosion Protection for Structural Steel".

3.6.3.3 Ponding

a) All roofs with a slope of less than 5% must be checked to ensure that rainwater cannot
collect in pools. Allowance must be made for possible construction inaccuracies,
settlements of foundations, deflections of roofing

13
materials and structural members and the effects of pre-camber. This also applies to floors
of car parks and other open-sided structures.

b) Pre-cambering of beams can be used to reduce the likelihood of rainwater collecting in


pools, provided that rainwater outlets are appropriately located.

c) Where the roof slope is less than 3%, it must be checked that collapse cannot occur due to
the weight of water (or snow- if applicable) collected in pools, which might be formed due
to the deflection of structural members or roofing material.

3.6.3.4 Dynamic effects

a) The design must make suitable provision for the effects of imposed loads, which can
induce impact, vibration, etc.
b) Vibration caused by machines and oscillation caused by harmonic resonance must be
considered, and provided for.
c) To avoid resonance, the natural frequencies of structures or parts of structures must be
sufficiently different from those of the excitation source.
d) Table 3.3 gives limiting values for the natural frequency or the alternative total deflection
to avoid resonance.

Fig 3.1 Vertical deflections to be considered

sagging in the final state relative to the straight line joining the supports,
pre-camber (hogging) of the beam in the unloaded state, (state 0)
variation of the deflection of the beam due to permanent loads immediately afterloading,
(state 1)
variation of the deflection of the beam due to the variable loading plus any time dependant
deformations due to the permanent load, (state 2)

14
15
SECTION 4: TENSION MEMBERS 4.1

Limiting Load on Plates in Tension

In the design of tension members, the load-causing yield across the section is taken as one of the limiting
loads. The corresponding design strength for the member under axial tension is given by

where, is the yield stress of the material (in MP a), is the gross area of cross section in and Ym is
the partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding. (The suggested value of

The design strength in tension as governed by net cross-section at the hole, is given by

where, is the ultimate stress of the material, is the net area of the cross section after deductions for the
hole and is the partial safety factor against ultimate tension failure by rupture (The suggested value
of . Similarly threaded rods subjected to
tension could fail by rupture at the root of the threaded region and hence net area, is the root area of the
threaded section.
The lower value of the design tension capacities, as calculated by Eqn. 4.1 and 4.2, will govern the tensile
design strength of a plate with holes.

Fig. 4.1 Plates with Bolt Holes under Tension

16
When multiple holes are arranged in a staggered fashion in a plate (Fig 4.1), the net area corresponding to the
staggered section will be given by

(4.3)

where, n is the number of bolt holes in the staggered section and the summation over is carried over all
inclined legs of the section. The design strength in tension will be obtained by substituting the value of in
Eqn. 4.2

4.2 Limiting Load on Angles under Tension

When a connection is made through one leg of an angle, the stress in the outstanding leg at the ultimate stage
will be closer to the yield stress (due to shear lag) while the net section of the connected leg will often reach
the ultimate stress The tensile strength of angles connected by one leg, is evaluated accounting for this
phenomenon by

1. limiting the stress in the outstanding leg to (the yield stress)


2. and the connected leg having holes to (the ultimate stress).

In addition, the potential for "block shear failure" should also be assessed. The design tensile strength,
will be the minimum value obtained from (4.4), (4.5), and (4.6) below:

(i) Strenfith as governed by the yielding of gross section:

where, is the gross area of the angle section.

(ii) Strength as governed by tearing at net section:

where, and are the yield and ultimate stress of the material, respectively. and are the net
area of the connected leg and the gross area of the outstanding leg, respectively, accounts for the end
fastener restraint effect.

when the number of fasteners


when the number of fasteners is 3 if
the number of fasteners is 1 or 2 and if the
connection is adequately welded

17
(iii) Strength as governed by block shear failure:

A tension member may fail along end connection due to block shear as shown in Fig. 4.2. If the centroid
of bolt pattern is not located between the heel of the angle and the centerline of the connected leg, the
connection shall be checked for block shear strength. The corresponding design strength in tension shall
be evaluated as the lower of the value obtained from the following equations.

Fig. 4.2 Block Shear Failure

where, and = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line of transmitted force,
respectively, and = minimum gross and net area in tension from the hole
to the toe of the angle, perpendicular to the line of force, respectively.

4.3 Maximum Slenderness Ratio

The maximum slenderness ratio (length/least radius of gyration of the cross section) of a tension
member is limited to 400 (This will provide a margin of safety for members normally acting as ties but
subject to reversal of stresses due to wind and earthquake. It will also provide a margin for avoiding
excessive self-weight deflection).

18
SECTION 5: CLASSIFICATION OF CROSS SECTIONS

5.1 Basis

The proposed classification of cross sections is illustrated by considering the idealised moment-rotation
characteristics of a symmetrical beam subjected to incremental flexural loading continued till its
collapse. A beam capable of developing full plasticity would exhibit an idealised elastic/plastic
moment-rotation curve as shown in Fig. 5.1. At failure, the stress distribution across the section will
consist of two rectangles and a significant rotation will take place. Such a stocky section is termed as a
'plastic' section, and it exhibits considerable "ductility" is the rotation at the onset
of plasticity; is the lower limit of rotation for treatment as a plastic section)

Fig. 5.1 Elastic/plastic moment-rotation curve.

On the other hand, a cross section may develop fully plastic stress distribution across the entire cross
section but may not have adequate ductility The horizontal part of the
moment-rotation diagram will be limited. Such a cross-section is termed 'compact' section.

If the section were to be even more slender (higher ratios of it may only be able to sustain an
elastic moment up to the attainment of yield strength in the extreme fibres, with a triangular stress
distribution. This section is termed as 'semi-compact'.

If the section were to be further more slender still (i.e. yet higher values of local
buckling would occur before the attainment of yield stress in the extreme fibres, i.e. before attaining the
theoretical elastic moment capacity. Such a section is termed as 'slender'.

Assuming that the flange plate or the web does not buckle locally, these four different modes of behaviour
can be expressed graphically on a plot of stress against strain at the

19
extreme fibres (Fig. 5.2). These different modes of behaviour can also be shown by the
stress patterns, as in Fig. 5.3.

Fig. 5.2 Stress/strain relation of extreme fibres for different classes of sections

Fig. 5.3 Bending stress distribution for different classes of sections

The class of a section is determined by the lowest class of all its constituent elements,
i.e. flange plates and web plate. The class of section determines its resistance (e.g.
Moment resistance, shear resistance etc.).

Only plastic sections can be used in forming plastic collapse mechanisms. Compact
sections can generally be used in simply supported beams failing soon after
reaching at one section. In elastic design, semi-compact sections are to be used
with the understanding that they will fail at The slender section design is discussed
in the section on Cold-Form Steel member design.

20
Table 5.1. Limits on Width to Thickness Ratio of Plate Elements*

Type of Element Type of


Section

Outstand element of Welded


compression flange
Rolled
Internal element of Welded
compression flange
Rolled
Web with neutral axis All
at mid depth
Web under uniform Welded
compression Rolled
Single/double angle Rolled
T-stems
Circular tube with
outer diameter D

where

are the limits for b/t


width of the flange overhang
depth of the web
outer diameter of the circular tubular section
thickness of the plate

* This table is derived from BS 5950: Part 1.

21
SECTION 6: AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

6.1 Axial Compression Resistance of Columns

The axial load resistance of steel columns is governed by the type of cross section and the axis
of buckling. Axially loaded columns having a slenderness ratio values
below are "stocky" and will fail by yielding across the entire cross

section. For columns having values in excess of the following


computations are necessary. The choice of axis of buckling to obtain the design strength is not
always clear, so calculations have to be canned out in respect of both principal axes and the
lower value of load resistance chosen.

The design axial load resistance for a member subjected to axial compression is given

(Note that no calculations for is needed when as the column would fail by
squashing at The compressive strength curves obtained for the various types of
sections are shown in Fig 6.1.

22
Fig. 6.1 Compressive strength curves for struts for different values'of [For =
250 Mpa; Based on BS 5950: Part 1J
Table 6.1: Choice of appropriate values of

Welded Sections: for cross sections fabricated by welding of plates 20 N/mm2 should
reduce the value of
Table 6.2 gives the ultimate compressive stress values in compression members
corresponding to various values of and for Graphs (similar to Fig.
6.1) and Table 6.2 may be constructed for different values of using equations 6.1 to
6.6.
23
Table 6.2: Ultimate Compressive stress i

6.2 Effective Length of Columns

Designs of columns have to be checked using the appropriate effective length for
buckling about both the strong and weak axes. Effective length, may be regarded as
the equivalent length of a pin-ended column having the same cross section, which
would be expected to have the same strength and stiffness as the column being
designed. The recommended effective lengths for design purposes are given below

24
6.3 Cross Sectional Shapes for Compression Members and Built - Up
Columns
When compression members are required for large structures like bridges, built-up
sections will be used. Cross section shapes of rolled steel compression members and
built-up or fabricated compression members are shown in Fig. 6.2 and Fig. 6.3. For
preliminary calculations, approximate values of radii of gyration given in Fig. 6.4 for
various built-up sections may be employed.

Fig 6.2: Cross Section Shapes for Rolled Steel Compression Members

( d ) Plated I Section (e) Built - up I Section

Fig 6.3: Cross Section Shapes for Built - up or fabricated Compression Members

25
Fig 6.4: Approximate radii of gyration
(Continued in next page)

26
Fig 6.4: Approximate radii of gyration

6.4 General Guidance for Connection Requirements

When compression members consist of different components, which are in contact


with each other and are bearing on base plates or milled surfaces, they should be
connected at their ends with welds or bolts. When welds are used, the weld length
must be not less than the maximum width of the member. If bolts are used they should
be spaced longitudinally at less than 4 times the bolt diameter and the connection
should extend to at least times the width of the member.

When single angle discontinuous struts connected by a single bolt are employed, it
may be designed for 1.25 times the factored axial load and the effective length taken
as the centre-to-centre distance of the intersection at each end. Single angle
discontinuous struts connected by two or more bolts in line along the member at each
end may be designed for the factored axial load, assuming the effective length to be
0.85 times the centre to centre distance of the intersection at each end.

27
For double angle discontinuous struts connected back to back to both sides of a gusset or section
by not less than two bolts or by welding, the factored axial load is used in design,with an
effective length conservatively chosen. (A value between is chosen depending
upon the degree of restraint provided at the ends).

All double angle struts must be tack bolted or welded. The spacing'of connectors must be such
that the largest slenderness ratio of each component member is neither greater than 60 nor less
than 40. Spacing of tack bolts or welds should be less than 600 mm. A minimum of two bolts at
each end and a minimum of two additional connectors spaced equidistant in between will be
required. Solid washers or packing plates should be used in-between.

For member thickness up to 10 mm, M16 bolts may be used unless otherwise noted. For members
of large thickness M20 bolts may be used.

The following guide values are suggested for initial choice of members:

(i) Single angle size: 1/30 of the length of the strut

(ii) Double angle size: 1/35 of the length of strut

(iii) Circular hollow sections diameter = 1/40 length

6.5 Design Considerations for Laced and Battened Columns

The two channel constituents of a laced column, shown in Fig. 6.5(a) and 6.5 ( b ) have a
tendency to buckle independently. The load that these tying forces cause may be assumed to
cause a shearing force equal to 2.5% of axial load on the column. (Additionally if the columns
are subjected to moments or lateral loading the lacing should be designed for the additional
bending moment and shear). To prevent local buckling of unsupported lengths between the two
constituent lattice points (or between two battens), the slenderness ratio of individual components
should be less than 50 or 70% of the slenderness ratio of the built up column (whichever is less).

In laced columns, the lacing should be symmetrical in any two opposing faces to avoid torsion.
Lacings and battens are not combined in the same column. The inclination of lacing bars from the
axis of the column should not be less than 40° nor more than 70°. The slenderness ratio of the
lacing bars should not exceed 145. The effective length of lacing bars is the length between bolts
for single lacing and 0.7 of this length for double lacing. The width of the lacing bar should be at
least 3 times the diameter of the bolt. Thickness of lacing bars should be at least l/40th of the
length between bolts for single lacing and 1/60 of this length for double lacing (both for welded
and bolted connections).

The slenderness ratio of battened columns shall be calculated using the following
formula:
(6.7)

28
where, is lower value of slenderness of the individual vertical members between centre to
centre of batten intervals and is slenderness of the overall column, using the radius of
gyration of the whole built up section.

The imperfection factor is calculated from

(6.8)

The strength of the battened column is evaluated from

= effective slenderness with computed as given in Eqn. (6.8)


= calculated using values given in Eqn. (6.7)

Fig. 6.5 Built-up column members

29
6.6 Base Plates for Concentrically Loaded Columns

For a purely axial load, a plain square steel plate or a slab attached to the column is
adequate. If uplift or overturning forces are present, a more positive attachment is
necessary. These base plates can be welded directly to the columns or they can be
fastened by means of bolted or welded lug angles. These connection methods are
illustrated in Fig. 6.6.

Fig. 6.6 Column base plates

A base plate welded directly to the columns is shown in Fig. 6.6 ( a ) . For small
columns these plates will be shop-welded to the columns, but for larger columns, it
may be necessary to ship the plates separately and set them to the correct elevations.
For this second case the columns are connected to the footing with anchor bolts that
pass through the lug angles, which have been shop-welded to the columns. This type
of arrangement is shown in Fig. 6.6

When there is a large moment in relation to the vertically applied load a gusseted base
may be used. If column base plates are insufficient to develop the applied bending
moment or if thinner plates are used, some form of stiffening must be provided.

Concrete support area should be significantly larger than the base plate area so that the
applied load can disperse satisfactorily on to the foundation. To spread the column
loads uniformly over the base plates, and to ensure there is good contact between the
two, it is customary not to grind or machine the underside of the base plate, but grout it
in place.
Columns supporting predominantly axial loads are designed as being pin-ended at
the base. The design steps for a base plate attached to an axially loaded column
with pinned base are explained below.

Procedure for empirical design of a slab base plate for axial load only (pinned
connection)

1. Determine the factored axial load and shear at the column base.
2. Decide on the number and type of holding down bolts to resist shear and
tension. The chosen number of bolts is to be arranged symmetrically near
corners of base plate or next to column web, similar to the arrangement
sketched in Fig. 6.6.
3. Maximum allowable bearing strength = 0.4 (where = cube strength
ofconcrete) Actual bearing pressure to be less than or equal to 0.4
4. Determine base plate thickness

For channel, box or columns

but not less than the thickness of the flange of the

supported column.

= pressure in on underside of plate, assuming a uniform distribution.


= larger plate projection from column [See Fig.
6.7]
= smaller plate projection from column
= design strength of mild steel plate, but not
greater than divided by

Fig. 6.7 Base plates subjected to concentric force

5. Check for adequacy of weld. Calculate the total length of weld to resist axial
load.
6. Select weld size.
7. Check shear stress on weld.
8. Vector sum of all the stresses carried by the weld must not exceed the
design strength, of the weld.
9. Check for bolt. Check maximum co-existent factored shear and tension, if any,
on the holding down bolts.
10. Check the bolts for adequacy.
SECTION 7: DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING
7.1 General
The main failure modes of hot rolled beams of compact or plastic cross section are as
follows:
• If the beam is prevented from buckling laterally, and the component elements are
compact or plastic, then the failure will be triggered by excessive flexure and the
collapse will follow the formation of plastic hinges. Such a beam is termed
restrained beam".

• "Long beams" which are not suitably braced in the lateral direction will fail by a
combination of lateral deflection and twist. These are termed "unrestrained
beams".

• Fabricated plate girders may fail by web shear buckling or local buckling of a
flange. This type of failure is unlikely to be encountered in hot rolled sections.

• Local failure by (a) shear yield of the web. (b) local crushing of the web or (c)
buckling of thin flanges may sometimes be encountered. These are to be eliminated
by provision of web stiffeners for (a) and (b) and the welding of additional flange
plates to reduce the plate ratio, in the case of (c).

7.1.1 Laterally restrained beams

"Laterally Restrained Beams" are those, which will not fail by lateral instability.
Lateral Instability or Lateral Torsional Buckling of beams can be prevented by
providing full restraint to the compression flange of member. Adequate restraint may
be regarded as being available if there is a positive connection of a floor or other
construction fixed to the compression flange capable of resisting a lateral force of not
less than 2.5% of the maximum factored force in the compression flange of the
member.

The design adequacy of a laterally restrained beam is verified using the following
criteria:

• lateral restraint force


• bending resistance of the cross section
• shear resistance of the cross section
• combined bending and shear at locations where there are

(a) combinations of maximum factored bending moment and co-existent


shear and
(b) combinations of maximum factored shear force and the co-existent
bending moment.

7.1.2. The influence of local buckling of flanges and webs

In section 5, all rolled steel sections used as beams are classified in four ways in order
to reflect the effect of local buckling of the beam elements.
• Slender - the elastic moment capacity of the cross section can NOT be
attained
• Semi-compact - The elastic moment capacity of the cross section
can be attained, but NOT the plastic moment capacity
• Compact - The plastic moment capacity can be attained, but the
cross section has little rotation capacity.
• Plastic - as for compact, but there is sufficient rotation capacity in the
cross section, so that the frame can be designed by plastic methods.

Hot rolled sections used as beams are generally of the "plastic" or "compact" cross
sections.
For the plastic or compact sections, the design bending resistance of the cross
section is given by

Slender cross sections will not be able to resist a moment equal to the elastic
moment resistance, as the maximum fibre stress at failure will be less than
The design bending resistance in these sections is given by

7.1.3 Span of beams: The span of a beam should be taken between the effective
points
of support.

7.1.4 Length of cantilevers: The length of a cantilever should be taken as the


distance from the effective point of the support to the tip of the cantilever.

7.1.5 General conditions: All members in bending should meet the following
conditions.
(a) At critical points the combination of maximum moment and co-
existent shear,and the combination of maximum shear and co-existent
moment should be checked at the ultimate limit state

(b) The deflection limits prescribed under "serviceability Limits" (Table


3.2) should be adhered to.
(c) Unless the compression flange has full lateral restraint, the resistance
of the member to lateral torsional buckling should be checked in
accordance with specifications detailed in 7.3 section
(d) Local buckling should be considered as given in Table 5.1.
(e) When loads or reactions are applied through the flange to the web, the
conditions of 7.2.5 and 7.2.6 for web buckling and web bearing should
be
met.

7.2 Shear

7.2.1 Plastic and compact sections

The design shear resistance, of a plastic or compact cross section is taken as

Where = shear area given by the following for the three cases:
(a) Rolled and channel sections, load parallel to web
(b) Built-up sections and boxes, load parallel to webs
(c) Solid bars and plates

Where
= thickness of the web
= Total depth of the section
= depth of the web
= area of the plate or bar.

7.2.2 Elastic shear stress

In sections where webs vary in thickness or have holes significantly larger than
those required for fasteners, the shear stress should be calculated from first
principles assuming elastic behaviour.

7.2.3 Moment resistance with low shear load


Where the design shear force is less than 0.6 times the design shear resistance
of the cross section the design moment resistance,should be taken
as the value
obtained from

• Equation (7.1) for plastic and compact sections


• Equation (7.2) for semi-compact sections and

34
• Equation (7.3) for slender sections

When the depth to thickness ratio, of a web exceeds where then it

should be checked for shear buckling in accordance with the requirements set out under
Section 7.4.

7.2.4 Moment resistance with high shear load


Where the design shear force exceeds 0.6 times the design shear resistance,
(defined in equation 7.4) the moment resistance, should be taken as follows.

(a) For plastic or compact sections:

and is taken as follows:

For sections with equal flanges: the plastic modulus of the shear area,

For sections with unequal flanges: the plastic modulus of the gross section less the plastic
modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of the shear area.

7.2.5 Web buckling

To prevent the web buckling under point loads or reactions (applied through the
compression flange) the following check is required to be carried out on all beams

The buckling resistance, is given by


Fig. 7.1 Effective width for web buckling
If the applied load or reaction (as the case may be) exceeds suitable stiffness
should be provided.

7.2.6 Web Bearing


For all beams, the web crippling resistance should also be checked at its
junction with the flange to the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2.5 of
the plane of the flange. The buckling resistance in crippling, is given by

where = crippling resistance of the webin


buckling
=design yield stress of the web
= length obtained by dispersion through the flange-to-web connection
at a slope of 1:2.5 to the plane of the flange.

Fig. 7.2 Effective width of web bearing

If the applied load or the reaction exceeds the crippling resistance of the web,
suitably designed bearing stiffeners should be provided.
7.2.7 Plastic and compact beams with web openings

Beams with web openings are frequently required for passing service ducts. Beams
having (a) an isolated hole (b) a series of web openings at regular intervals are
included in this guide.

When designing holes in webs, the following aspects should be kept in view:

• The effect of bending


• The possible need to provide stiffening around the hole
• The effect of openings on slender webs (covered in the section 7.4)
• The effect of opening on the stiffness of the section and deflections.

Unreinforced circular openings having a diameter not exceeding 10% of the web depth
may be located within the web of compact beams without considering the net section
properties, provided that

• the holes are located within the middle third of the depth and middle half of
the span of the member.
• the load on the member is substantially uniform and no point loads are
situated within a distance from the edges of the hole, equal to the depth of
the girder.

• the spacing between the centres of any two adjacent openings measured
parallel to the axis of the member is at least 2.5 times the diameter of the
larger opening.

• the factored maximum shear at the support does not exceed 60% of the
shear resistance of the section.

When the hole diameter exceeds 10% of the depth of the girder, or if any of the above
conditions are not satisfied, the net section properties should be computed and the
adequacy of the design should be verified.

If web reinforcement is provided, it may be either around the hole or as a flat


reinforcement carried past the opening for such a distance that the local shear stress
due
to the load being transferred from the reinforcement does not exceed

7.3 Laterally Unrestrained Beams of Plastic and Compact Sections 7.3.1

Lateral torsional buckling of symmetric sections


The elastic critical moment resistance of a symmetrical I beam subjected to equal
end moments undergoing lateral torsional buckling between points of lateral support is
obtained as
Comparing the two cases covered by Eqns. (7.6) and (7.7) the ratio of the tw constants
is often termed "the equivalent uniform moment factor" Its value is a

direct measure of the severity of a particular pattern of moments relative to the basic
case. This is clear from Fig.7.3. Several factors affect the lateral stability of beams and
these are outlined below:

(a) Support conditions

Lateral buckling involves three kinds of deformations, namely lateral bending,


twisting and warping. Various types of end conditions are consequently possible but
the supports should either completely prevent or offer no resistance to each type of
deformation (Solutions for partial restraint conditions are complicated). The effect of
various support conditions is taken into account by way of a parameter called effective
length. For a beam with simply supported end conditions and no intermediate lateral
restraint, the effective length is equal to the actual length between the supports. The
effective length factor would indirectly account for the increased lateral and torsional
rigidities provided by the restraints. As an illustration, the effective lengths
appropriate for different end restraints according to BS 5950 are given in Tables 7.1
and 7.2.

(b) Level of application of transverse loads (Stabilising and destabilising loads)

The lateral stability of a transversely loaded beam is dependent on the arrangement of


theloads as well as the position of application of the loads with respect to the centroid
of thecross section. A load applied above the centroid of the cross section causes an
additional overturning moment and becomes more de-stabilising than when the same
load is applied at the centroid. On the other hand, if the load is applied below the
centroid, it produces astabilising effect.
Table 7.1 Effective length of beams of Compact Plastic Cross section
between supports

Table 7.2. Effective length, for cantilever of length


(c) Influence of the type of loading
So far, only the basic case of beams loaded with equal and opposite end moments has
been considered. But, in reality, loading patterns would vary widely from the basic
case. Cases of moment gradient, where the end moments are unequal, are less prone to
insiability and this beneficial effect is taken into account by the use of "equivalent
uniform moments". In this case, the basic design procedure is modified by comparing
the elastic critical moment for the actual case with the elastic critical moment for the
basic case. The equivalent uniform moment is defined as

where m = equivalent uniform moment factor and bending moment.

Fig. 7.3 Equivalent uniform moment

40
(d) Slenderness correction factor ( n )
For situations, where the maximum moment occurs away from a braced point, e.g. when
the beam is uniformly loaded in the span, a modification to the slenderness, may be
used. The allowable critical stress is determined for an effective slenderness, where
n is the slenderness correction factor, as illustrated in Fig.7.4 for a few cases of loading.

Fig 7.4 Slenderness Correction Factor

41
7.3.2 Limitations of the elastic buckling theory for beams

Direct use of the theory described in the foregoing pages for design purposes is in
appropriate because

• Formulae (such as Eqns. 7.6 and 7.7) are too complex for routine use.

• In any case, these are derived on the basis of elastic behaviour and cannot be
extrapolated to check the ultimate bending resistance. Significant differences
exist between the assumptions forming the basis of the theory and the
observed behaviour of beams under ultimate load tests.

The beam slenderness can be expressed in a non-dimensional form using

Fig.7.5 Comparison of test data (mostly I sections) with theoretical elastic critical moments

Fig 7.5 compares a typical set of lateral torsional buckling test data using actual hot
rolled sections with theoretical elastic critical moments given by Eqn 7.6, using the
non-dimensional slenderness so that the results from many test series (using
different

42
In region I, lateral instability does not influence the design as these beams will
collapse by developing full plasticity.

Region II covers much of the practical range of beams without lateral restraint.
The designs must be based on inelastic buckling, with suitable modifications to
account for residual stresses and geometric imperfections. The design method
will consequently involve some degree of empiricism.

Region III covers beams, which largely fail by elastic instability. The formulae
derived so far will provide an upper bound.

7.3.3 Design method

As discussed previously the basic theory of elastic lateral stability cannot be


directly used for design purposes because of limitations and its extension to the
ultimate range.

A simple method of computing the buckling resistance of compact and plastic


beams is given below and is analogous to the Perry-Robertson approach for
columns. (See Fig 7.6) The three categories of beams are listed under section
7.3.2. The buckling resistance moment, is obtained as the smaller root of
the equation

43
where = bending strength allowing for susceptibility to lateral -torsional buckling
and are supplied in Tabulated form by steel makers.

For more slender beams, is a function of given by,

(7.16)

= a buckling parameter, which may be conservatively


taken as 0.9 for rolled steel I- sections and channels and 1.0
for all other sections.

44
7.4 Plate Girders

7.4.1 General

A fabricated plate girder is employed for supporting heavy loads over long spans.
Stiffeners are provided at a spacing of as shown in Fig. 7.7. In these girders, the
bending moments are assumed to be carried by the flanges by developing compressive
and tensile forces and shear is carried by the web. To effect economy, the web depth
is chosen to be large enough to result in low flange forces for the design bending
moment.

45
7.4.1.1 Recommended Proportions (Indicative values)
Span to Depth Ratios: The recommended span / depth ratios for initial choice of
cross-section in a plate girder used in a building are given below as indicative values:

i. Constant depth beams used in simply-supported composite


and non-composite girders with concrete decking
ii. Constant depth beams in continuous composite and non-
composite girders
iii. Simply-supported crane girders
Web proportions: When the web plate will not buckle.
The design, in such cases, is similar to rolled steel beams. In the design of thin webs with
shear buckling should be considered. In general we may have an un-stiffened
web, a web stiffened by transverse stiffeners (Fig. 7.7) or a web stiffened by both transverse
and longitudinal stiffeners (Fig. 7.8). By choosing a minimum web thickness the
self-weight is reduced, but the webs vulnerable to buckling may have to be stiffened if
necessary. The recommended web thickness are (Fig. 7.7):

i. For un-stiffened web

ii. For stiffened web

In practice, however, is rarely used - if at all - in plate girders used in buildings


and bridges. Similarly, d/t exceeding 250 is rarely used.

To avoid flange buckling into web,

i. For un-stiffened web

where is the design stress of flange material.

ii. For stiffened web

Flange proportions: Generally the thickness of flange plates is not varied along the
spans for plate girders used in buildings. For non-composite plate girder the width of
flange plate is chosen to be about 0.3 times the depth of the section as a thumb rule. It
is also necessary to choose the breadth to thickness ratio of the flange such that the
section classification is generally limited to plastic or compact sections
only This is
46
to avoid local buckling before reaching the yield stress. For preliminary sizing, the overall
flange width-to-thickness ratio may be limited to 24. For the tension flanges (i.e. bottom flange
of a simply supported girder) the width can be increased by 30% if needed.

Fig. 7.8 End panel strengthened by longitudinal stiffener

Stiffener spacing: Vertical stiffeners are provided close to supports to increase the bearing
resistance and to improve shear capacity. Horizontal stiffeners are generally not provided in
plate girders used in buildings. Intermediate stiffeners also may not be required in the mid-span
region. When vertical stiffeners are provided, the panel aspect ratio a/d (see Fig.7.7) is chosen
in the range of 1.2 to 1.6. The web is able to sustain shear in excess of shear force
corresponding to because of vertical stiffeners. Vertical stiffeners help to support the
tension field action of the web panel between them. Where the end panel near support is
designed without using the tension field action a smaller spacing of is adopted.
Sometimes double stiffeners are adopted near the
bearing (see Fig. 7.9) and in such cases the overhangs beyond the supports are limited to
1/8 of the depth of the girder.

7.4.2 Design methodology

7.4.2.1 Moment Resistance - Moment resistance is computed from the plastic moment
resistance of the flanges. Thus,

where, The design stress of the flange steel


= Plastic section modulus of flanges about the transverse axis of the section.
= Material safety factor for steel (= 1.15)

47
7.4.2.2 Shear Resistance
Thin webs are designed either with or without stiffeners. These two cases are described
individually below.

Webs without intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of unstiffened webs is


limited to its elastic shear buckling resistance, given by

The values for for webs, which are not too slender (see Table 7.4) depend on the
slenderness parameter defined as

where, = Elastic critical shear strength values to be used in design for


different values of a/d and d/t are tabulated in Table - 7.3.
=Design strength of web
= Material safety factor for steel (= 1.15)

The elastic critical stress has been simplified and given based on a/d and t/d
as given in Table 7.3 7.3: Elastic critical stress related to aspect ratio
Table

48
Table 7.4 gives the values of for design purposes.

Note that for very slender webs is limited to elastic critical shear stress. In other
cases the value of is a function of design stress of web steel,

Webs with intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of the plate girders with
intermediate stiffeners may be improved by the following two ways.
i) Increase in buckling resistance due to reduced a/d ratio.

ii) The web develops tension field action and thus resists considerably larger stress than
the elastic critical strength of web in shear.

Fig.7.9 shows the diagonal tension fields anchored between top and bottom flanges and
against transverse stiffeners on either side of the panel.

The full shear buckling resistance is calculated as,

The first
term co
mprises of
critical
elastic
stress an
d the
tension
field
strength of
the panel
i.e.,

The term represents the contribution of the flanges to the post buckling
strength
and depends on plastic moment capacity of the flanges

The flanges support the pull exerted by the tension field. When the flanges reach their
ultimate capacity they form hinges. is a parameter that relates to the plastic moment
capacity of the flange and the web described later.

49
The flange-dependent shear strength is simplified and given as

where,

When the girder is to resist pure shear, then

However in presence of overall bending moment, the contribution of flange to shear resistance
will be reduced by the longitudinal stress induced because of overall bending moment, by
the factor When approaches at maximum moment region, the
factor nearly becomes zero and hence the contribution of flanges to shear resistance will
become negligible.

The plastic moment capacity of the web, is given by

7.4.3 End panels

For tension field action to develop in the end panels, adequate anchorage should be provided
all around the end panel. The anchor force required to anchor the tension field force is

The end panel, when designed for tension field will impose additional loads on end post and
hence it will become stout [Fig. 7.10(a)]. For a simple design it may be assumed that the
capacity of the end panel is restricted to so that no tension field develops in it [Fig. 7.10
(c)]. In this case, end panel acts as a beam spanning between the flanges to resist shear and
moment caused by and produced by tension field of penultimate panel.

This approach is conservative, as it does not utilise the post-buckling strength of end panel
especially where the shear is maximum. This will result in the a/d value of end panel spacing
to be less than that of other panels. The end stiffener should be designed for compressive
forces due to bearing and the moment, due to tension field in the penultimate panel.

50
In order to be economical the end panel also may be designed using tension field action. In this case
the bearing stiffener and end post are designed for a combination of stresses resulting from
compression due to bearing and a moment equal to 2/3 caused due to tension in the flanges, The
stiffener will be stout. Instead of one stout stiffener we can use a double stiffener as shown in Fig.
7.10(d). Here the end post is designed for horizontal shear and the moment

7.4.4 Stiffeners

Stiffeners are provided to transfer transverse concentrated compressive force on the flange into the
web and are essential for desired performance of web panels. These are referred to as bearing
stiffeners. Intermediate web stiffeners are provided to improve web shear capacity. Design of these
stiffeners is discussed below.

Load bearing stiffeners: Whenever there is a risk of the buckling resistance of the web being exceeded,
especially owing to concentrated loads, load-bearing stiffeners are provided. Normally a web width of
20 t on both sides as shown in Fig. 7.10 (b) is assumed to act along with the stiffener provided to resist
the compression as an equivalent cruciform shaped strut of effective length 0.7 times its actual length
between the top and bottom flanges. The bearing stress in the stiffener is checked using the area of that
portion of the stiffener in contact with the flange through which compressive force is transmitted.

Intermediate stiffeners: The intermediate stiffeners are provided to prevent out of plane buckling of
web at the location of stiffeners. The buckling resistance of the stiffeneracting as a strut (with a
cruciform section as described earlier) should be not less than where is the maximum shear
force in the panel and is the buckling resistance of web without considering tension field action. In
its limit will be equal to of the web without stiffeners.

Sometimes the stiffeners are provided for more than one of the above purposes. In such cases stiffeners
are considered for their satisfactory resistance under combined load effects. Such combined loads are
common.

Longitudinal stiffeners: Longitudinal stiffeners are hardly used in building plate girders, but
sometimes they are used in highway bridge girders for aesthetic reasons. They are not as effective as
transverse stiffeners. Nowadays, the use of longitudinal stiffeners is rare due to higher welding costs.

In order to obtain greater economy and efficiency in the design of plate girders, slender webs are
sometimes reinforced both longitudinally and transversely. The longitudinal stiffeners are generally
located in the compression zones of the girder. The main function of the longitudinal stiffeners is to
increase the buckling resistance of web by subdividing the web and limiting the web buckling to
smaller web panels. The additional cost of welding the longitudinal stiffeners invariably offsets any
economy resulting in their use.

51
(a) End panel designed using
tension field action and end post
designed for both bearing and
to resist tension field

(d) End panel designed using tension field


strengthened by additional stiffener (Double
stiffener)

Fig. 7.10 Various treatments for end panel

3
7.4.5 Curtailment of flange plates
For a plate girder subjected to external loading, the maximum bending moment occurs at
one section usually, e.g. when the plate girder is simply supported at the ends, and
subjected to the uniformly distributed load, then, maximum bending moment occurs at
the centre. Since the values of bending moment decreases towards the end, the flange
area designed to resist the maximum bending moment is not required at other sections.
Therefore the flange plates may be curtailed at a distance from the centre of span greater
than the distance where the plate is no longer required as the bending moment decreases
towards the ends. It gives economy as regards to the material and cost. At least one
flange plate should be run for the entire length of the girder.

7.4.6 Splices

Web splices: A joint in the web plate provided to increase its length is known as web
splice. The plates are manufactured up to a limited length. When the maximum
manufactured length of the plate is insufficient for full length of the plate girder, web
splice becomes essential. It also becomes essential when the length of plate girder is too
long to handle conveniently during transportation and erection. Generally, web splices
are mainly used in bridges and not buildings. Splices in the web of the plate girder are
designed to resist the shear and moment at the spliced section. The splice plates are
provided on each side of the web or direct butt welding.

Flange splices: A joint in the flange element provided to increase the length of flange
plate is known as flange splice. The flange splices should be avoided as far as possible.
Generally, the flange plates can be obtained for full length of the plate girder. In spite of
the availability of full length of flange plates, sometimes it becomes necessary to make
flange splices. Flange joints should preferably be located at the points away from section
of maximum bending moment.

7.5 Webs Subjected to Co-existent Bending and Shear

When a girder is subjected to predominant bending moments and low shear, its ultimate
capacity is conditioned by the interaction between the effects of the bending moment and
shear force.

The interaction diagram is generally expressed in the form seen in Fig. 7.11, where the
shear capacity is plotted in the axis and the bending capacity in the axis. Any point in
the interaction diagram shows the co-existent values of shear and bending moment that
the girder can sustain. The vertical ordinates are non-dimensionalised using (Yield
shear of the web) and the horizontal ordinates by (the fully plastic moment resistance
of the cross section). The portion of the curve between points A and C is the region in
which the girder will fail by predominant shear, i.e. shear mechanism of the type
represented in Fig. 7.12 will develop at collapse.

The vertical ordinate at A presents the shear capacity given by Eqn.7.28.

53
Fig. 7.11 Interaction between bending and shear effects

54
Fig. 7.12 Collapse of the panel

This shear capacity will reduce gradually due to the presence of co-existent bending moment.
Beyond point in Fig. 7.11 when the applied moment is high, the failure will be triggered by
the collapse of flanges by one of the following: (i) by yielding of flange material or (ii) by
inward buckling of the compression flange or (iii) by lateral buckling of the flange. Thus there
is a distinct change in failure criterion represented by line in Fig. 7.11(a); the left
of represents shear failure and the right of flexural failure. Generally the flange failure
mode will be triggered, when the applied bending moment is approximately equal to the plastic
moment resistance provided by the flange plates only, neglecting the contribution from the
web.

This value represents the horizontal co-ordinate of the point C, i.e. the point F. In zone ABC,
the presence of additional bending moment requires the following three factors to be
considered.

• The reduction in the web buckling stress due to the presence of bending stresses.
• The influence of bending stresses on the value of membrane stress required causing yield in
the web.
• The reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges due to the presence of axial flange
stresses caused by bending moment.

7.5.1 Reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges

When high axial forces are developed in the flanges due to bending moments, their effects in
reducing plastic moment capacity of flange plates must be taken into account. From plasticity
theory, the reduced capacity is given by

55
where, is the average axial stress for the portion of the flange between hinges.

7.5.2 Design procedure

The simplified design procedure due to Rockey et. al (1978) and validated by them by
experiments is summarised below:

The shear load capacity at point C of the interaction diagram may be obtained approximately
from an empirical relationship given below.

This equation gives the vertical ordinate of the point C in the interaction diagram [Fig.
7.11(a)]. The horizontal ordinate as stated previously is given by the value of (See Eqn
7.29).

The interaction diagram is constructed in stages as follows [See Fig. 7.11(6)]:

(i) Between A and B, the curve is horizontal. The horizontal ordinate B is given by
maximum bending moment in the end panel given by but limited to a value
of
(ii) Between B and C, the curve may be straight (for simplicity). The moment
corresponding to C is given by

(iii) The point D represents nearly the ultimate capacity of the flanges and the
shear values when high bending is present. This is discussed in the next section.

Webs subjected to pure bending: The region beyond C of the interaction diagram represents a
high bending moment, so the failure is by bending moment. In a thin walled girder, the web
subjected to compressive bending stress will buckle, thereby losing its capacity to carry further
compressive stresses. The compression flange will therefore carry practically all the
compressive stresses, as the web is unable to be fully effective. Consequently the girder is
unable to develop full plastic moment of resistance of the cross section.

If no lateral buckling occurs (e.g. by provision of adequate lateral supports), the girder will fail
by inward collapse of compression flange at an applied moment which is approximately
equal to the moment required to produce first yield in the extreme fibres of compression flange.
This moment is - of course - reduced because of the effects of web buckling. Though the
concept is simple, the resulting calculations are complex. The

56
ultimate moment capacity to be determined by a simple formula due to Cooper (1971) is given
below:

= Bending moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibre of flange assuming
fully effective web (i.e. neglecting web buckling)

This value of is the moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibres of the flange.
The corresponding stresses in the web will be below yield. (Point D in the interaction
diagrams). The ordinate of D can be calculated approximately from

The complete interaction diagram can now be drawn. 7.6

Plate Girders with Web Openings

The following general guidance is given for plate girders with web openings.

• The hole should be centrally placed in the web and eccentricity of the opening is
avoided as far as possible.
• Unstiffened openings are not always appropriate, unless they are located in low
shear and low bending moment regions.
• Web opening should be away from the support by at least twice the beam depth, D
or 10% of the span whichever is greater
• The best location for the opening is within the middle third of the span.
• Clear Spacing between the openings should not be less than beam depth, D.
• The best location for opening is where the shear force is the lowest.
• The diameter of circular openings is generally restricted to 0.5D.
• Depth of rectangular openings should not be greater than 0.5D and the length not
greater than 1.5D for un-stiffened openings. The clear spacing between such
opening should be at least equal the longer dimension of the opening.
• The depth of the rectangular openings should not be greater than 0.6D and the
length not greater than 2D for stiffened openings. The above rule regarding spacing
applies.
• Corners of rectangular openings should be rounded
• Point loads should not be applied at less than D from side of the adjacent opening.

57
• If stiffeners are provided at the openings, the length of the welds should be
sufficient to develop the full strength of the stiffener.
When a circular web opening of depth is provided, the shear resistance is reduced by
If a rectangular opening of is provided, the reduction in shear resistance
may be approximately evaluated as Suitable reinforcement to recover this
loss of shear resistance may be designed, where necessary.

58
SECTION 8: ELEMENTS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL FORCE AND BENDING

8.1 Basic Behaviour of Beam Columns

Columns subjected to a combined axial force and bending moments are referred to as
Beam-Columns. In practice, all columns experience bending about one or both axis in addition to
axial compression, due to one or more of the following reasons.

• The compressive force may be eccentrically transferred to the column [Fig.

• In braced rigid portal frames, when the beam is subjected to gravity loads, it will
transfer the bending moments to the column in addition to axial loads

• When a multi-storey multi-bay un-braced frame is subjected to gravity loads as well as


lateral loads due to wind or earthquake, the columns are subjected to sway deflection
and bending, thereby subjecting the columns to axial compression as well as bending
moments

• Beams from orthogonal directions in corner columns in buildings may be subjected to


bending about both principal axes in addition to axial compression

A beam-column may be subjected to single curvature bending over its length or


reverse curvature bending as shown in causing variation of the nature
(positive or negative) of the bending moment and curvature over the length of the column. An
overestimate of the vertical loading may inadvertently make the design unsafe by reducing the
moment resistance capacity of the column. Hence, the realistic assessment of the vertical load of
the column is necessary.

The presence of bending moments in the beam-columns reduces the axial force at which they fail.
In "short" columns, the failure is triggered by the material reaching its ultimate capacity. In
"long" columns, the failure is normajly due to overall instability of the column, and in some cases
due to the material strength having been reached at the ends of the column.

59
Fig.8.1 Beam-Columns in Frames
8.2 Short Beam - Columns made of Plastic and Compact Cross sections
A short member (stub column), made of non-slender (plastic / compact) section
under axial compression, fails by yielding, at the squas load, give
by

60
Where, is the yield strength of the material, and is the gross area of the cross section.

If the stub column is made of slender cross section, the plate elements of the cross section
undergo local buckling before reaching the yield stress. This causes reduction in the effective
area of the cross section to a value below the gross area, and the member fails at a load
below given by Eqn.8.1.

Similarly a short member made of plastic or compact section and subjected to only bending
moment fails at the plastic moment capacity, given by [Fig. 8.2(6)]

where, S = plastic section modulus of the cross section, in the case of plastic and compact
sections.

Fig. 8.2 Stresses in Short Beam-Columns

8.3 Long Beam-Columns

Typically steel columns in practice are long and slender: Such slender columns when axially
compressed tend to fail by buckling rather than yielding.

The additional deflection and bending moment are due to the axial load acting on the
deformed column as given below.

• in a column within a floor


• between the ends of the columns (sway) at adjacent floors

The consequent magnified deflection and bending moments are approximately allowed for in
the design method described in section 8.5.

61
{a) Single curvature ( b ) Double curvature ( c ) Swav Deformation

Fig. 8.3 Deflection and Moment Magnification

8.3.1 Effects of slenderness ratio and axial force on modes of failure

Beam-columns may fail by flexural yielding or torsional flexural buckling. The actual
mode of failure will depend upon the magnitude of the axial load and eccentricity as
well as the slenderness ratio. For design purposes, simplified equations are available;
using which it is possible to obtain the resistance of members, conservatively. These
are discussed below.

8.4 Modes of Failure

The following are the possible modes of failure of beam-

columns 8.4.1 Local section failure

This is usually encountered in the case of short, stocky beam


columns with
relatively small axial compression ratio and beam-columns bent in
reverse curvature.

62
• The resistance of the end section (reached under combined axial force and
bending moment) governs the failure.
• The resistance of the section may be governed by plastic buckling of plate
elements in the case of plastic, compact sections and semi-compact or by
elastic local buckling in the case of slender sections.

8.4.2 Overall instability failure under flexural yielding

This type of failure is encountered in the case of all members subjected to larger
compression and single curvature bending about the minor axis as well as
not very slender members subjected to axial compression and single curvature bending
about the major axis.

• The member fails by reaching the ultimate resistance of the member at a


section over the length of the member, under the combined axial
compression and magnified bending moment.

• In the case of weak axis bending of slender members the failure


may be by weak axis buckling, or failure of the maximum moment section
under the combined effect of axial force and magnified moment.

• The section failure may be due to elastic or plastic buckling of plate


elements depending on the slenderness ratio (b/t) of the plate.

8.4.3 Overall instability by torsional flexural buckling


This is common in slender members subjected to large ompression
and uniaxial bending about the major axis or biaxial bending.

• At the ultimate stage the member undergoes biaxial bending and torsional
instability mode of failure.

8.5 Design Equations

The design rules are given below in the form of linear interaction equations to verify
resistance of the section against local section failure as well as member failure by
flexural yielding and torsional flexural buckling. These are conservative implifications
of the complex non-linear failure envelopes.

8.5.1 Local section failure

The interaction equation is given by:

63
where and are the actual compressive force and bending moments about the
major axis and minor axis of the cross section, respectively. is the gross area
of cross section in the case of plastic / compact cross sections. and are the plastic
section moduli of the cross section about the major and minor axis, respectively.
The is the design yield strength given by Normally, the moments
obtained
from the linear-elastic analysis would suffice for normal buildings with only a few
storeys and low axial compression. In very tall buildings with a large axial
compression and large lateral sway, the end moments after accounting for the effects
have to be considered.

8.5.2 Overall member failure

The interaction equation to check the member capacity as governed by overall


member buckling is given by

where, are the actual axial compression, and actual bending moments
about the major and minor axes, respectively. are the design
compressive strength, and the bending strength about the and axis, respectively,
when only the corresponding axial force/bending moment is acting. These are
calculated considering minor buckling in the case of compression and lateral torsional
buckling in the case of bending about major axis. These design strengths have to be
calculated considering the type of section (plastic / compact). are the moment
amplification factors which account for the effect of moment gradient over the
member length, instead of uniform moment over the entire length, and magnification
of moments due to the axial force acting on the deformed column The
values of corresponding to the appropriate axis are evaluated from:

= 1.3 (For inplane lateral UDL over the member)


= 1.4 (For inplane lateral concentrated load over the member)
= Axial compressive strength about the respective axis
= Plastic and elastic section moduli, respectively and should be
substituted for the corresponding x or y-axis.

The effect is accounted for by taking effective length to be greater than one in sway
frames. More accurate evaluation of beam-column strength is possible by resorting to
non-linear analysis. When a designer feels that a detailed and rigorous analysis is
warranted, he is free to do so, not withstanding the approximate analysis procedure
detailed in this chapter.

64
SECTION 9: BEAMS OF HOT ROLLED SECTIONS, SUBJECTED TO
TORSION AND BENDING

9.1 Introduction

Torsional moments are invariably introduced in beams when the line of action of the
resultant transverse force does not pass through the shear centre of the cross section.
Beams circular in plan and supported on a few columns, interconnected bridge
girders, beams carrying loads predominantly on one side are all examples of
structures where torsional moments are important.

9.2 Practical Advice

Designing for torsion is complex and it is wise not to transfer loads by Torsional
mode. It is well to remember that torsion will not occur if the section is loaded such
that the resultant force passes through the shear centre of the cross section.

When possible, the framing should be arranged so as to minimise any torsion. Careful
detailing, particularly when considering the load path, and the way loads are
transferred to members of the frame will generally help to minimise or eliminate
many potential difficulties associated with torsional effects.

When significant torsion is unavoidable, the designer should consider using box
girders or hollow rolled or plated sections.

When torsion is unavoidable due to detailing difficulties, the designer should ensure
the following conditions:

• Beams subjected to torsion should have sufficient stiffness and strength to


resist the torsional moment and forces in addition to other moments and
forces. The connections and bracing of such members should be carefully
designed to ensure that the reactions are transferred to the supports.
• Factored resistance of I - beams subjected to combined flexure and torsion
should be determined from Moment - Torque interaction diagrams.
• Members subjected to compatibility torsion deformations need not be
designed to resist the associated torsional moments provided that structure
satisfies equilibrium. For fuller description of "equilibrium torsion" and
compatibility torsion, reference may be made to IS: 456 - 2000.
• Stresses and deflections due to combined effects should be within the
specified limits.
• When necessary, the designer may incorporate more accurate methods of
combined torsion and bending from the relevant literature.

6
SECTION 10: PORTAL FRAMES 10.1

General Design Consideration

Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial
structures. The slopes of rafters in the gable portal frames (Fig. 10.1) vary in the range of 1
in 10 to 7 in 3 depending upon the type of sheeting and its seam impermeability. With the
advent of new cladding systems, it is possible to achieve roof slopes as low as 1°. But in
such cases, frame deflections must be carefully controlled and the large horizontal thrusts
that occur at the base should be accounted for. Generally, the centre-to-centre distance
between frames is of the order 6 to 7.5 m, with eaves height ranging from 6 -15 m .
Normally, larger spacing of frames is used in the case of taller buildings, from the point of
economy. Moment-resisting connections should be provided at the eaves and crown to
resist moments under lateral and gravity loadings. The stanchion bases behave as either
pinned or fixed, depending upon rotational restraint provided by the foundation and the
connection detail between the stanchion and foundations. For the design of portal frames,
plastic methods of analysis are mainly used, to obtain economical designs.

The most common form of portal frame used in the construction industry is the pinned-base
frame with different rafter and column member size and with haunches at both the eaves
and apex connections (Fig. 10.1).

Due to transportation requirements, field joints are introduced at suitable positions. As a


result, connections are usually located at positions of high moment, i.e. at the interface of
the column and rafter members (at the eaves) and also between the rafter members at the
apex (ridge) (See Fig. 10.1). It is very difficult to develop sufficient moment resistance at
these connections by providing 'tension' bolts located solely within the small depth of the
rafter section. Therefore the lever arm of the bolt group is usually increased by haunching
the rafter members at the joints. This in addition increases the section strength.

Although a short length of the haunch is enough to produce an adequate lever arm for the
bolt group, haunch is usually extended along the rafter and column adequately to reduce the
maximum moments in the uniform portion of the rafter and columns and hence reduce the
size of these members. Due to this, there will be a corresponding increase in the moment in
the column and at the column-haunch-rafter interface. This allows the use of smaller rafter
member compared to column member. The resulting solution usually proves to be
economical, because the total length of the rafter is usually greater than the total length of
the column members. The saving in weight is usually sufficient to offset the additional cost
of haunch. The effect of introducing the haunches is to ensure that the hinges, which were
assumed to be at nodes, are forced away from the actual column- rafter junction to the ends
of the haunches. Provided the haunch regions remain elastic, hinges can develop at their
ends. The haunch must be capable of resisting the bending moment, axial thrust and shear
force transferred by the joining members. The common practice is to make the haunch at
the connection interface approximately twice the depth of the basic rafter section, so that the
haunch could be fabricated from the same basic section.

7
(a) Haunched portal frame

Fig. 10.1 Typical gable frame 10.2

General Design Procedure

Detailed steps in the plastic design of portals are prescribed in SP 6(6): 1972 -
"Handbook for Structural Engineers - Application of Plastic Theory in the Design of
Steel Structures". These are summarized below:

a) Determine possible loading conditions.


b) Compute the factored design load combination(s).
c) Estimate the plastic moment ratios of frame members.
d) Analyse the frame for each loading condition and calculate the maximum required
plastic moment resistance, of the column and rafter.
e) Select the section, and
f) Check the design for other secondary modes of failure

The design commences with determination of possible loading conditions, in which


decisions such as, whether to treat the distributed loads as such or to consider them as

67
equivalent concentrated loads, are to be made. It is often convenient to deal with
equivalent concentrated loads in computer aided and plastic analysis methods.

In step (b), the loads determined in (a) are multiplied by the appropriate load factors
to assure the needed margin of safety. The step (c) is to make an assumption
regarding the ratio of the plastic moment capacities of the column and rafter, the
frame members. The following simple procedure may be adopted for arriving at the
ratio.

(i) Determine the absolute plastic moment value for separate loading conditions.

(Assume that all joints are fixed against rotation, but the frame is free to sway). For
beams, solve the beam mechanism equation and for columns, solve the panel (sway)
mechanism equation. These are done for all loading combinations. The moments thus
obtained are the absolute minimum plastic moment values. The actual section
moment will be greater than or at least equal to these values.

(ii) Now select plastic moment ratios using the following guidelines.

• At joints establish equilibrium.


• For beams use the ratio determined in step (i)
• For columns use the corner connection moments

In the step (d) each loading condition is analysed by a plastic analysis method for
arriving at the minimum required Based on this moment, select the appropriate
sections in step (e). The step (f) is to check the design according to secondary design
considerations discussed in the following sections.

10.3 Secondary Design Considerations

The 'simple plastic theory' neglects the effects of axial force, shear and buckling on
the member resistance. So checks must be carried out for the following factors as
recommended by "The Hand book for Structural Engineers" referred above.

a) Reductions in the plastic moment resistance due to the effect of axial force and
shear force.

b) Instability due to local buckling, lateral buckling and column buckling.


c) Brittle fracture.
d) Deflection at service loads.

In addition, connections must be designed carefully to ensure that the plastic moments
can be developed at the hinge locations.

10.3.1 Influence of axial force on plastic moment

Even though the presence of axial force tends to reduce the magnitude of the plastic
moment resistance of the section, the design procedure may be modified to account
for its

68
influence, retaining the 'plastic hinge' characteristic. The following recommendations account
for effect of axial compression on
• Neglect the effect of axial force on the plastic moment resistance unless
where P is the actual axial force and is the axial force that could cause yielding of the full
cross section.

• If P is greater than 15 percent of the modified plastic moment resistance,


is given by

where, is the plastic moment resistance of the section when the axial force
is absent, is the actual axial force; is the axial force corresponding to yielding.

The required design value of plastic section modulus of the member (Z) under combined
compression and bending, is given by:

10.3.2 The influence of shear force

The effect of shear force is also to reduce the plastic moment resistance. Due to the presence of
shear, two types of 'premature failure' can occur.

(a) General shear yield of the web may occur in the presence of high shear-to-moment
ratios.
(b) After the beam has become partially plastic at a critical section due to flexural
yielding, the intensity of shear stress at the centre line may reach the yield
condition.
(c)
The maximum shear resistance of a beam under combined shear and moment should be
calculated as

Where, = effective cross sectional area resisting shear after deducting the area that has
yielded under flexure.

Usually it is found that the reduction in moment resistance due to shear is more than
compensated by the strain hardening of extreme fibre under flexure and consequently effect of
shear on plastic moment resistance may be neglected in most cases.

69
10.3.3 Local buckling of flanges and webs

If the plates, of which the cross section is made, are not stocky enough, they may be
subject to local buckling either before or soon after the first plastic moment is reached.
Due to this, the moment resistance of the section would drop off and the rotation
resistance would be inadequate to ensure formation of complete failure mechanism.
Therefore, in order to ensure adequate rotation at values and to avoid premature
plastic buckling, the compression elements should have restriction on the
width-thickness ratios as given in section 5, corresponding to plastic sections.

10.3.4 Lateral buckling of flexural members

To avoid lateral buckling and torsional displacements, bracings should be provided to


compression flanges at points as given below (Fig. 10.2).

(a) Lateral support to the compression flange should be provided at the location of
plastic hinges.
(b) The ratio of laterally unsupported length of the compression flange to the radius
of gyration of the member about weak axis, should not exceed
where v is defined below in Eqn. 10.4.

(c) The slenderness ratio of compression flange, of the length, adjacent to the
unsupported length where the moment exceeds should not be greater

than

(d) The slenderness ratio, of the rest of the elastic portion of the member should
be such that the lateral buckling strength of that portion is greater than actual
maximum elastic moment in the region.

where, = yield stress of the material in Mpa and may be taken conservatively as 1.0
or may be calculated using the following equation.

where is the ratio of the plastic rotation at the hinge point just as the mechanism is
formed to the relative elastic rotation of the far ends of the beam segment containing
the plastic hinge.

70
10.3.5 Column buckling

In the plane of bending of columns which would develop a plastic hinge at ultimate
loading, the slenderness ratio should not exceed 120, where is the centre-to-centre
distance of bracing members connecting and providing restraint against weak axis
buckling of the column or the distance from such a member to the base of the column.
Further, columns in moment resisting frames, where side sway is not prevented, should
be so proportioned such that

The slenderness ratio, of the frame in the plane normal to the plane of frame action
under consideration should be such that the following condition is satisfied.

the ratio of applied end moment to the plastic moment resistance of


columns and other axially loaded members, should not exceed unity or the value
given by the following formula.

Case I - For columns bent in double curvature by applied moments producing plastic
hinges at both ends of the columns:

Case II - For slender struts, where in addition to exceeding 0.75 also exceeds

should not contain plastic hinges. However, it is permissible to design the

71
member as an elastic part of a plastically designed structure. Such a member should be
designed according to the maximum permissible stress requirements satisfying:

where, = axial force, compressive or tensile in a member;


= maximum plastic moment resistance in the beam - column;
= plastic moment resistance of the section when no axial force is acting.
= lateral buckling resistance in the absence of axial load
= if the beam column is adequately braced against lateral buckling
= buckling resistance in the plane of bending if only axially loaded
(without any bending moment) and if the beam - column is laterally
braced. If the column is not adequately laterally braced, is the weak
axis buckling strength under only axial compression.

= Euler load = in the plane of bending;

= yield strength of axially loaded section


= effective cross-section area of the member;
= a coefficient whose value should be taken as follows:

a) For member in frames where side sway is not prevented,


b) For members in frames where side sway is prevented and not subject to
transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending:

c) For members in frames where side sway is prevented in the plane of


loading and subjected to transverse loading between their supports; the
value of is given by,

For members whose ends are restrained against rotation,

For members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation,

= radius of gyration about the same axis as the applied moment;

= non -dimensional slenderness ratio

= the ratio of end moment; = actual strut length.

10.4 Connections

In a portal frame, points of maximum moments usually occur at connections. Further, at


corners the connections must accomplish the direction of forces change. Therefore, the design
of connections must assure that they are capable of developing and maintaining the required
moment until the frame fails by forming a mechanism.
72
SECTION 11: MULTI - STOREY BUILDINGS
11.1 Introduction

Recent innovations in lateral load resisting systems (e.g. frame-wall, framed tube, belt
truss with outrigger, tube in tube and bundled tube systems) have enabled
construction of very tall buildings elsewhere in the world using steel frames. When
we build such tall structures it becomes necessary to consider some of the effects such
as the effect of lateral deflection, on gravity loading, P which are normally ignored
in the design of building frames of three or four storeys.

A building frame deflects under lateral load. The columns of tall buildings carry large
axial loads. A building frame, which deflects under lateral load, is further forced to
undergo additional deflection because of the eccentricity of gravity load from the
centre of gravity of the column due to the deflected shape. These two effects of large
axial loads P in the columns combined with significant lateral deflection need
careful consideration in the design of tall multi-storey buildings. The combined effect
of the large axial loads P and lateral deflection give rise to the
destabilising effect.However, in frames that are only a few storeys high, this
effect is negligible and hence ignored in the analysis. It is therefore necessary to
classify frames based on the relative importance of effects for the purpose of
evaluating design forces.

11.2 Classification of Frames

A frame in which sway is prevented is called a "non-sway" frame. However, there


are some frames, which may sway only by a small amount since the magnitude of
sway in such frame is small it will have only a negligible effect. Such frames are
also classified as "non-sway" frames. Therefore, to define the non-sway frame
precisely, its lateral stiffness is used as the criteria irrespective of whether it is braced
or not. For such frames lateral stiffness is provided by one of the following:

(i) rigidity of the joints.


(ii) provision of bracing system.
(iii) connecting the frame to a braced frame, shear core, shear wall or a lift well.
The inter storey deflection (i.e. the difference in deflection of top and bottom end
of a column in that storey) is used to quantify the lateral stiffness of the frame. The
meaning of inter storey deflection is shown in Fig. 11.1(c). Fig. 11.1 ( a ) shows a
typical multi storey frame subjected to factored (dead + live) load. To ascertain the
stiffness of the frame, it is analysed when subjected to assumed forces of magnitude
0.5% of factored (dead + live) load applied laterally on the frame at each floor level
as shown in Fig. 11.1 ( b ) for getting the inter storey deflection for the storey.
Note that the lateral loads are applied without the presence of dead and live loads.
The maximum for any storey is taken as a measure of the frame stiffness.

73
Fig. 11.1 Approximate calculation offrame stiffness for classification of frames
(according to Home's method)

74
For a frame to be of the non-sway" type the maximum inter storey deflection permitted in
any storey is generally taken as follows:

where hi is the height of the i'h storey (<5/ and hi are in the same units).

11.3 Idealisation of Material Behaviour for Analysis of Frames [Fig. 11.2]

The strength and stability of a rigid jointed frame is examined based on material stress
-strain idealisation of its true behaviour.

• Elastic Behaviour
• Elastic - Plastic Behaviour
• Rigid Plastic Behaviour

Strain
(c) Rigid-Plastic behaviour

Fig 11.2: Idealisation of Material Behaviour curve

75
11.4 Effective Length of Columns

11.4.1 Limited frame method

The behaviour of a column under compression is largely controlled by its effective


length. A number of idealised end conditions such as pinned, fixed, partially fixed,
free and supported on rollers, etc., are used in textbooks to describe the restraint at the
two ends of a column. In multi-storey buildings, columns are continuous and beam,
members frame into them at floor levels connected rigidly. These columns become a
part of either non-sway or sway frame.
The column, which is a part of the multi-storey non-sway frame, can be idealised to
be a part of a limited sub-frame shown in Fig. 11.3. Let be the effective length of
the column, the actual length between floor beams. The effective length factor for
the column is defined as

Fig. 11.3 Limited Substitute Frame


In the figure are relative stiffness values for upper and lower column
respectively. are the sum of values for beams framing into the column
under examination at the top and bottom respectively. The joint restraint coefficient
for the column at the top and bottom is obtained from

In Fig. 11.3, represents the joint stiffness of the column 1-2 at the end 1 and 2
respectively.

76
11.4.2 Effective length for non-sway (k3 = ) and sway k3=0 frames
Based on the work of Wood, the value of relative end restraints can be obtained
from a contour Plot reproduced in Fig. 11.4(b) and Fig. 11.5(b) for the non-sway frame shown
in Fig. 11.4(a) and for sway frame shown in Fig. 11.5(a) respectively. In the case of non-sway
frame, stability criteria considered are rotations that take place at top and bottom end of the
column for the elastic critical load using stability functions.

Fig. 11.4(a) Non sway frame

Fig. 11.4 (b) Effective Length ratioljlfor a column in a rigid- jointed


frame braced against sidesway for

77
However, in the case of sway frames, [Fig. 11.5(a)] in addition to rotations, the effect of
lateral deflection has been considered. Subsequently, it was shown by Wood that the plots in
Fig. 11.4(6) and Fig. 11.5(6) can also be used when the columns at the top and (or) bottom are
continuous over stories provided that the joint stiffness at top and bottom are correctly
accounted for.

The effective length factor for the column for non-sway frames lie in the range of
"0.5 to 1.0". For sway frames the range increases to indicating clearly the
contribution of lateral sway to instability.

Fig.11.5(a)Swayframe

Fig. 11.5 (b) Effective Length ratio IJ1 for a column in a rigid- jointed
frame with unrestricted sidesway for k3=0

78
11.4.3 Effective length of insufficiently restrained columns in the frames

While using the charts given in Fig. 11.4(b) and Fig. 11.5(6), following limitations
should be kept in view:

(i) When a member is either not present or not firmly connected to the frame, it
should be considered to have zero stiffness.
(ii) If a framing member carries nearly full moment (90% of its moment resistance)
it will not provide resistance for preventing the column from buckling when plastic
hinges have formed. For such beams, stiffness should be taken as zero.

(iii) If the column under question itself carries full moment (90% of its moment
resistance) it will develop flexural hinge at top and bottom and as such its
effective length should be taken as
(iv) When the column is attached to the foundation, a rational value of k at the
bottom should be chosen (i.e. if pinned, 0.9 if not rigidly connected and 0.5 if
rigidly connected with transverse beams).

11.4.4 Effective length consideration when the frame is partially braced

The above cases highlight the importance of rotational continuity being distributed by
Neither the column
either plasticity considered
or partial releasein
dueFig. 11.4(a) foundation
to practical with full restraint
problems,nor the are
which column
likely
considered in Fig. 11.5(a) with no restraint can
to reduce the restraint at the ends of the column. be applied to a case of a frame partially
restrained by filler walls in between the framing members. These panel walls partially
inhibit sway. In such cases, the effective length will depend on the relative stiffness of
bracing system provided.
*
The relative stiffness of the bracing system to that of the frame is designated as £3 and
is given by

where = Storey height


= Sum of the spring stiffness calculated as horizontal force required to
produce unit horizontal deflection of the panel in the storey in which the
column is located.
= Modulus of Elasticity of Column
= Sum of the stiffness of all columns in that storey represented by their
values.
The spring stiffness in eqn (11.1) can be conveniently obtained from the unit load
method as given in eqn (11.2)

79
where, = storey height
= width of panel
= thickness of panel
= Modulus of Elasticity of panel

Fig. 11.6 and Fig.l 1.7 show the charts (currently used in reinforced concrete frames) for
computing effective length ratios for sway bracing stiffness of and
respectively. Thus, effective length factor for a column being a part of the frame with
as well as can be determined using these charts. These charts are intended to
account for the effect of partial sway bracing.

Fig. 11.6 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid- jointed frame with
partial sway bracing of relative stiffness

Fig. 11.7 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid-jointed


frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness

80
The actual effective length factor for the partial sway bracing case for a particular
case of bracing stiffness determined from equation (1) is determined by
interpolating the values obtained for [Fig. 11.5(b)], (Fig. 11.6)
and (Fig. 11.7).

11.4.5 Consideration of realistic beam stiffness based on buckling mode

It is assumed that the far end of the beam from the column under consideration is
fully restrained. This assumption is realistic (as shown by Wood) and acceptable
because about 48 to 60 percent of the width of slabs is available for stiffening beams
and for carrying the fixed end moments of loaded beams. However, this assumption is
not appropriate for base frames which are not integral with concrete floor and hence
the value used for such floors should be modified taking into account the critical
buckling mode at failure.

Fig, 11.8 Critical Buckling Mode of a Braced Frame

Fig. 11.9 Critical Buckling Mode for an Unbraced Frame

81
For a non-sway frame, the beams are bent into single curvature as shown in Fig. 11.8. For this
case, the beam stiffness is

In the case of a sway frame, the bending mode will have double curvature as shown in Fig.
11.9. The beam stiffness in this case is The effective length obtained for the
column using this assumption is appropriate. A more exact value can be obtained from the
consideration of frame instability discussed later.

It is assumed that the beam members are not subjected to axial forces. If they are, the limited
frame method can still be used, provided the frame is a non-sway one and proper care is taken
to use reduced stiffness for beams based on the level of axial load carried by it, to its elastic
buckling load

11.5 A Simplified Sway Method

In this method, the effect of instability of the column on bending moments and deflection is
considered by appropriately increasing their magnitude by a moment magnification

factor where is the current load level and is the load required to cause

instability. This method has been tested for different ratios of moments acting at top and
bottom of the column. If we designate this moment ratio as (smaller end moment / larger
end moment) the magnification factor due to instability for different ratios of is shown (by
Wood) as in Fig. 11.10.

If design, then the amplification factor will be

The influence of frame instability on elastic response is shown in Fig. 11.11. In the simplified
sway method, all the moments obtained by elastic analysis due to horizontal forces be increased
by this magnification factor. Since the effects of instability are incorporated by moment magnifier
method, the effective length of the column is kept as actual length of the column itself.

82
4
11.4 Elastic design

11.6.1 General

The elastic design is made for factored loads when the deflections are small. The deflections
should generally be limited to span/200. The design of beams and columns are made using
substitute frames for gravity loading described earlier. For horizontal loading it is necessary to
consider entire frame. One of the approximate methods described earlier can be used. Even when
elastic design is used, moment redistribution to the extent of 70% can be made provided compact
or plastic sections are used and minor axis column moments are not reduced while maintaining
equilibrium.

11.6.2 Non - sway frames

For gravity loading, non-sway frames are analysed either using full frame or using substitute
frame. The effective length of columns is obtained as described earlier in section 11.4 taking
them as braced. For load cases involving horizontal load pattern e.g. wind loading, vertical
loading is not considered and the entire frame is analysed.

11.6.3 Sway frames

The frames, which exceed the non-sway limit as specified in Section 11.2, are designed
considering sway. As a first step, the frame is analysed for vertical gravity loading considering
also pattern loading as a non-sway frame using effective length of columns applicable to those
braced against sidesway.

Next, the effects of sway is considered under all combination of loading, considering vertical
loading effects on sway, the notional lateral load as described in section 11.2 is applied at each
storey level and one of the following two design methods is adopted to get the final design forces.

(i) Simplified Design Method

The side sway is allowed. The effective length as explained in section 11.4 using limited
frame method is used and the design forces are obtained.

(ii) Amplified Sway Method

The bending moments due to lateral loads are magnified by moment magnification factor

as explained in section 11.5 and the final design forces are obtained. Since the

moments have been magnified the effective length of the column is assumed as actual
length of column

84
11.7 Stability Considerations of Sway Frame under Elastic - Plastic Failure Loads

11.7.1 Elastic critical conditions

It is necessary to find the lowest critical load because it shows the onset of elastic critical
condition. The elastic critical load factor of the frame is the ratio by which each of the
factored loads will have to be increased to cause elastic instability.

This load factor is also required to be used in the approximate method for evaluating
elastic-plastic failure loads. An approximate method based on the work of Home to arrive
at a reasonable estimate of elastic buckling load is described below:

Consider the rigid frame shown in Fig. 11.1(a) and the analysis performed as indicated in
section 11.2 under lateral loads whose magnitude is 0.5% of the factored dead and live
loads as shown in Fig. 11.1(b).

The sway index of the typical storey is

Note that storey inter storey displacement. Thus the values of


for all storeys are computed. If is the maximum of all values, then the elastic
critical load factor is

Horne has shown that the above expression gives an approximate lower bound to the
elastic critical load.

11.7.2 Deteriorated critical load

The stability of a structure depends on the equilibrium state with reference to the potential
energy U. A structure with small deformation will have a typical load-deflection curve as
indicated by curve XYZ in Fig. 11.12 (b). The effect of load due to lateral deflection in
these structures is not significant. The points X , Y and Z represent three different states
of stability of the frame shown in Fig. 11.12 (a). The potential energy U is the sum of the
potential energy of loads and the elastic strain energy stored Thus,

The condition of stability of the frame can be assessed based on whether the first partial
derivative with respect to deflection is greater than zero, less than zero or equal to zero.
When it is greater than zero the system is stable. When it is equal to zero the system is
neutral i.e. more displacement will not change the system. When it is less than zero the

85
system is unstable i.e. a small change will cause collapse. This is valid for an elastic system
undergoing instability problem.

Consider the load deflection curve OXFD in Fig. 11.12(6) for a typical elastic-plastic non-
linear structure system. This should include the energy absorbed in plastic deformation. Now
the total energy is

Fig. 11.12 Load-deflection curve for an elastic-plastic


The failure criteria for elastic-plastic structure is similar to elastic structure with plastically
deforming parts eliminated. The elastic portion between plastic hinges will still be contributing
to the energy. The structure with the eliminated parts is termed "deteriorated or depleted". The
critical load obtained under this depleted or deteriorated structure is known as deteriorated
critical load. The curve OXC represents the behaviour of ideally elastic frame. The following
are identified with respect to "deteriorated" critical load condition:

= elastic critical load factor

= rigid plastic critical load factor


= rigid plastic critical load considering members between hinges formed.
= deteriorated critical load factor without the energy component of these parts which
are plastically deforming
= load factor at on set of yield.

86
Such a complete analysis as discussed above is required for a realistic estimate of deteriorated
critical load. In the absence of sophisticated Computer Programme to carry out such an analysis,
a simplified method is required for considering the deteriorated critical load for use by
designers. Such an empirical approach proposed by Merchant Rankine Wood Equation is
discussed in the next section.

11.8 Simplified Empirical Approach using Merchant - Rankine - Wood Equation

An examination of Fig. 11.12 reveals that the elastic critical value is too high and cannot be
reached. If rigid plastic behaviour is assumed the critical load is represented by the drooping
curve GH descending from the rigid plastic load factor. Merchant suggested that realistic
failure load can be expressed as a function of and According to original Merchant
Rankine Equation.

If we call the failure load as Merchant - Rankine load then

Wood suggested a modification of Merchant Rankine load considering strain- hardening and
restraint provided by cladding

when then Consider stocky structures i.e. with and

ensures that structures have adequate strength. For slender structures,

87
and

This is applicable to clad frames in which no account has been taken of cladding.

These equations are modified for unclad frames or frames where stiffness of cladding is
considered as indicated below:

Thus the method involves finding the elastic critical load and the rigid plastic critical
load and then appropriate equation satisfied based on whether the frame is a clad one or
otherwise.

11.9 Plastic Design

Plastic design of frames can be used for the frames, which are effectively braced against out of
plane sway.

11.9.1 Non-sway frames

The frame should be braced against lateral sway such that it can be classified as a non-sway
frame as per the condition explained in section 11.2. However, while considering the sway,
against lateral loads, the bending stiffness of the frame should be ignored, as its buckling
resistance will not be available to prevent sidesway when the frame reaches its plastic capacity.

11.9.2 Sway frames

Either of the following two methods is used:

a) Rigorous Analysis: A full elastic-plastic sway analysis is performed where proper


allowance is made for frame instability effects.
b) Simplified Empirical Approach: A simplified frame stability check is made using
Merchant-Rankine-Wood Equation provided the following conditions are satisfied.
(i) The beam side-sway mechanism with hinges in all beam ends and at base of
columns should be applicable. There should not be other hinges in the
column, which may lead to premature failure.
(ii) The column in the ground floor should be designed to remain within elastic
limit. Under the combination of unfactored load and notional horizontal load
to simulate sway (wind force not included), forces and moments in the frame
should be within elastic limit.

88
SECTION 12: CONNECTION DESIGN

12.1 General
Connections are critical components of steel structures as they have the potential for greater
variability in behaviour and strength. They are more complex to design than the members and
are usually the most vulnerable components in a structural system consequent on the effects of
geometric imperfections, complexity of connection geometry and residual stresses and strains.

12.2 Design Philosophy

The design philosophy for connections, based on simple analysis, is summarised below.

12.2.1 Transfer of member forces to joints

For most of the connections, force distribution is based on the concept of 'force paths' taking
account of overall connection behaviour. The loads acting on the connection are replaced by
an equivalent system of forces and assigned to specific paths through the connection. While
finding the forces, the effect of the size of the joint (in reducing the design forces), has to be
considered. The force resultants thus obtained should be replaced by an equivalent system of
forces on the elements of the joint (e.g., the major proportion of the bending moment is carried
by the flanges of a beam and the major proportion of shear force is carried by the web).

The flexibility of the components of the connection is another important aspect. It is the most
flexible components that will govern the distribution of forces eg. in an end plate connection,
if the bolts are of small diameter and the end plate is thick, it is the bolt flexibility that will
govern the distribution of forces. However, if the bolts are stiff compared to the end plates it is
the flexural action of the latter that will primarily govern the distribution of forces, including
the distribution of forces in the bolts.

Equivalent system of forces should be in equilibrium with the external force resultants and
also in equilibrium with the joint as a whole.

12.2.2 Determination of force flow in the joint

Each element in the force flow path should be checked to ensure that they have

(a) adequate strength to withstand the force and


(b) adequate ductility to redistribute the forces to parallel elements in case of overload.

The strength and ductility evaluation has to be done for all components in the force path
including bolts and welds.

Above discussions are related to static ultimate capacity. In addition to this the connection
should achieve satisfactory serviceability, fatigue resistance etc.

89
12.3 Classification of Connections

There are three types of connections

(i) Flexible or hinged connections - This type of connection is also known as shear
connection. It will permit large angle of rotation and transmit little or no moment. These
connections are also referred as "simple".

(ii) Semi-rigid connections - This type of connection allows small end rotation for
transmitting appreciable moment (moment less than the full moment capacity of
connected members).

(iii) Rigid connections - This type of connections are intended not allow any end
rotation and retain a constant relative angle between the connected members under any
joint rotation and transmit moment equal to full moment capacity of the members
connected. The original angles between the connected members remain unchanged.

(a) Rigid Joint (b) Hinged Joint (c ) Semi-rigid Joint

Fig. 12.1(a) Types of Beam to Column joints

Fig. 12.1 (b) Moment versus Joint Rotation

90
Another factor to be kept in mind in connection design is that the joints are neither ideally
hinged nor ideally rigid and all joints exhibit some relative rotation between members being
joined. This is due to the deformation of elements in the joint. The moment versus relative
joint rotation of different types of connections is shown in Fig. 12.1

Any joint developing more than 90% of the ideal rigid joint moment may be realistically
classified as rigid and similarly any joint exhibiting less than 10% of the ideal rigid joint
moment classified as hinged joint; the joint developing moments and rotations in between are
referred as semi-rigid.

12.4 Bolted Connections

Connections are normally made either by bolting or by welding. The behaviour of bolted
connection in tension and shear is discussed below.

12.4.1 Types of bolted connections

There are two types of bolted connection


(i) Bearing type
(ii) Friction type

12.4.2 Bolts under shear

Bearing type: The most common type is bearing bolts in clearance holes, often referred to as
ordinary bolts / black bolts. The force transfer mechanism under shear is shown in Fig. 12.2.
The force is transferred by bearing between the plate and bolts at the bolt holes. The failure
may be either by shearing of the bolts or bearing of the plate and the bolt.

Fig. 12.2 Shear Transfer Mechanism in Bearing type Bolts

Friction type: In High strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolted joints; high strength bolts are pre-
tensioned against the plates to be bolted together, so that contact pressure is developed
between the plates being joined. When external shear force is applied, the frictional resistance
to slip between the plates prevents their relative slip. These bolted joints achieve higher
stiffness in shear because of frictional resistance between the contact surfaces. Only when the
externally applied force exceeds the frictional resistance between the plates, the plates slip &
the bolts bear against the bolt holes. The HSFG

2
91
Connections are designed such that under service load the force does not exceed the
Frictional resistance so that the relative slip is avoided during service.(See Fig.12.3)

12.4.3 Bolts under tension


Bearing Type: The free body diagram of the tension transfer in a bearing type of bolted
connection is shown in Fig 12.4 (a). The variation of bolt tension due to externally applied
tension is shown in Fig. 12.4 (b). It is seen that before any external tension is applied, the force
in the bolt is almost zero, since the bolts are only snug tight. As the external tension is increased
it is equilibrated by the increase in bolt tension. Failure is reached due to large elongation when
the root of the bolt starts yielding. Depending on the relative flexibility of the plate and the bolt,
sometimes the opening of the joint may be accompanied by prying action (described in section
12.4.5).

923
Friction type: In the case of HSFG bolts, even before any external load is applied, the force in
the bolt is equal to proof load. Correspondingly there is a clamping force between the plates in
contact. When external load is applied, part of the load (nearly 10%) of the load is equilibrated
by the increase in bolt force. The balance of the force is equilibrated by the reduction in contact
between the plates. This process continues and the contact between the plates is maintained
until the contact force due to pre tensioning is reduced to zero by the externally applied load.

Fig. 12.5 HSFG bolts under tension


Normally, the design is done such that the externally applied tension doesn't exceed this level.
After the external force exceeds this level, the behaviour of the bolt under tension is essentially
the same as that in a bearing type of joint.

12.4.4 Bolts subjected to shear and tension

Bearing Type: The bolts used in many structural steel connections are subjected to a
combination of shear and tension. Tests on bearing type bolts subject to combined shear and
tension show that their ultimate strengths can be represented with an elliptical interaction curve
as shown in Fig. 12.6, in which, is the limiting tensile stress if there is no shear, and is the
limiting shearing stress if there is no externally applied tension. The three dashed lines very
closely represent the test result interaction curve. Nominally, the shank cross section may be
more critical in the presence of significant shear and coincident bending.

Fig. 12.6 Bolts in a bearing type connection subject to


combined shear and tension

93
The compressive design is governed by

Friction Type: In a slip critical connection, the tension will reduce the contact force and thus,
lower the shear required to cause the connection to slip. Any external tension will produce a
corresponding reduction in clamping force between the contact surfaces. If any variation in
coefficient of friction with bearing pressure is discounted there will be a linear reduction in
friction capacity of the connection. If the external tension arises because of an applied moment
there will be no net change in clamping force.

12.4.5 Prying action

In practice it is not possible to separate the discussion of bolts in tension from that of
surrounding elements. Flexure of the connected parts may lead to a significant increase in bolt
load due to prying action. Fig. 12.7 (a) shows the variations in behaviour that can occur in
simple, two bolt connections.

If the end plate is relatively rigid and does not deflect significantly, it is possible to ignore its
flexural action. For applied loads that are less than the sum of the bolt preloads there is no
significant separation of the connection components and only modest change in the bolt
preload. Once the applied load exceeds the sum of bolt preloads, the end plate separates
entirely from the base. From this point onwards to rupture the sum of the bolt loads equals the
applied load.

Fig. 12.7 Bolts under tension and prying

However, if a flexible end plate is used, the behaviour is more complex. Each portion of the
end plate bends into double curvature the restraining moments at the bolt centreline develop
from forces at or near the tips of the end plate. Overall equilibrium is now

94
given by 2B = 2F+2Q. The effect of the amplification of the bolt forces is twofold: there is an
earlier separation of the connection elements with a reduction in connection stiffness once
separation has occurred, and the ultimate capacity is reduced.

The design formula for minimum prying force is given by (Owens and Cheal, 1989)

(12.1)

where,

is the distance from the bolt centreline to the toe of the fillet weld or to half the root radius
for a rolled section;
= distance between prying force and bolt centreline and is the minimum of, either the
end distance, or the value given by Eqn.(12.2);
2 for non pre-loaded bolt;
1.5 for limit state design; the effective width of flange per pair of bolts;
the proof stress in consistent units and t is the thickness of the end plate.

(12.2)

Even if the bolts are strong enough to carry the additional prying forces, the plate can fail by
developing a mechanism with yield lines at the centreline of the bolt and at the distance from
it. Therefore, the minimum thickness of the end plate to avoid yielding of the plate, can be
obtained by equating the moment in the plate at the bolt centreline (point A) and at the
distance from it (point B), to the plastic moment capacity of the plate From this the
minimum thickness for the end plate can be obtained as

(12.3)

The corresponding prying force will be If the total force in the bolt
exceeds the tensile capacity of the bolt, then the thickness of the end plate will have to be
increased.

12.4.6 Failure of bolted connection

Connections in shear: The failure of connections with bearing bolts in shear involves either bolt
failure or the failure of the connected plates. In the case of HSFG bolts, however, it may simply
be a slip between the connected plates.

95
(1) Bearing bolts

In connections made with bearing type of bolts, the failure may be due to

• shearing takes place at the bolt shear plane


• failure of bolt takes place in bearing, and
• failure of plate takes place in bearing

In addition to the above, the plate may also tear or burst at the edge due to inadequate edge
distance. Therefore, to develop the full bearing stress, the bolt has to have adequate distance
from the edge of the plate.

QZD

(2) HSFG bolts


HSFG bolts will come into bearing only after slip takes place. Therefore if slip is critical (i.e. if
slip cannot be allowed) then one has to calculate the slip resistance, which will govern the
design. However, if slip is not critical, and limit state method is used then bearing failure can
occur at the Limit State of collapse and needs to be checked. Even in the Limit State method,
since HSFG bolts are designed to withstand working loads without slipping, the slip resistance
needs to be checked anyway as a Serviceability Limit State.

Tension Failure: In a tension or hanger connection, the applied load produces tension in the
bolts. If the attached plate is allowed to deform, additional tensile forces called prying forces
are developed in the bolts as shown in Fig. 12.7. The prying forces can be kept small by using a
thick plate or by limiting the distance between the bolt and the plate edge. Black bolts and
turned and fitted bolts have sufficient ductility to take care of prying forces simply by an
increase in the bolt strain under constant yield stress. However, HSFG bolts, which are pre-
tensioned and thus have less ductility, are susceptible to failure. These are therefore normally
designed to take only 0.9 times their proof load.

7
96
Block Shear: Block shear failure is another mode of failure wherein the failure may occur along
a path involving tension on one plane and shear on a perpendicular plane. For this situation it is
possible for a "block" of steel to tear out as shown in Fig. 12.9.

When a tensile load applied to a particular connection is increased the fracture strength of the
weaker plane will be approached. The plane will not fail because the stronger plane restrains it.
The load can be increased until the fracture strength of stronger plane is reached. The total
strength is obtained from the sum obtained by adding the fracture strength of the stronger plane
plus the yield strength of the weaker plane. Thus it is not correct to add the fracture strength of
stronger plane to the fracture strength of the weaker plane to determine shear resistance of a
particular member.

Fig.12.9 Block Shear

If a member has a large shear area and a small tensile area, then the primary resistance to a
block shear failure is shearing and not tensile and vice versa. Thus, the block shear strength of
a particular member is determined by,

(i) Computing the tensile fracture strength on the net section in one direction and
adding to that value the shear yield strength on the gross area on the perpendicular
direction.
(ii) Computing the shear fracture strength on the gross area subject to tension and
adding it to the tensile yield strength on the area subject to shear on the
perpendicular segment.

Failure by block shear occurs when a portion of the member tears out in a combination of
tension and shear. The strength as governed by block shear is the minimum of

Check for block shear should be carried out when using high strength bolts with minimum pitch
and edge distances and in coped sections.

12.5 Code Provisions

12.5.1 Summary of code provisions in BS5950, Part 1 (1985)

(1) Fastener Spacing and edge distances:

8
97
Pitch of bolts:

where d0 is the nominal diameter and t is the thickness of the thinner element

Edge and End distances:

Minimum edge and end distances:


Quality of cut Edge and end distance
For a rolled, machine flame cut, 1.25 D
sawn or planned edge
For a sheared or hand flame cut edge 1.40 D
and any end
D is the diameter of the holes

Maximum edge distances: Maximum edge distance is

for corrosive environment.

where py is the design strength of steel

( 2 ) Bearing Bolts:

(i) Shear Capacity: The shear strength per bolt is given by

where is the ultimate shear stress in the bolt, is


the shear area

(ii) Bearing Capacity : The bearing strength per bolt is given by

where, is the permissible bearing stress,


is the nominal diameter of the bolt and
is the combined thickness of the thinner plates bearing on the bolt in any
direction.

The bearing strength of the plate is given by

98
where, is the permissible bearing stress for the plate, is the end distance and
is the thickness of the plate
(hi) Long Joints: When the joint length, of a splice or end connection in a
compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds
the shear capacity, should be taken as

where length of the joint


(iv) Large grip lengths: When the grip length exceeds five times the nominal
diameter, the shear capacity, is taken as

(v) Bolts subject to Tension: The tension capacity, of a bolt is given by

where is the tension strength of bolt, and is the tensile stress area

(vi) Bolts subject to Combined Shear and Tension: When bolts are subject to
both shear and tension then the following condition should be satisfied.

(2) Friction type bolts

(i) Slip Resistance: Slip Resistance of parallel shank HSFG bolts is given by an
expression similar to the frictional force between surfaces in contact.

Slip resistance per bolt

Where is a factor, which takes care of the frictional area in different hole types
for clearance holes, for oversized holes and long slots
perpendicular to the load and for long slots parallel to the load);

99
is the slip factor - 0.45 for untreated (non-galvanised, non-painted) surfaces
and is the proof load.

(ii) Bearing strength: The bearing strength of plates for parallel shank friction grip
fasteners is given by
(12.13)

Where e is the end distance and is the bearing stress.

(iii) Long Joints: When the joint length, of a splice or end connection in a
compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds 500 mm,
the shear capacity, should be taken as

(12.14)

(iv)Tension Failure: HSFG bolts are designed to take only 0.9 times their proof
load.
(v) Combined Shear and tension failure: For HSFG bolts subjected to combined
action of shear and tension, the following relation has to be satisfied.
(12.15)

Where, = applied shear, = applied tension, = shear capacity and


= tension capacity

12.6 Welded Connection

Static strength of a welded joint depends upon factors such as type and size of the weld,
manner of welding, and type of electrode. The generally employed welding methods are
gas and arc welding. But the most common welding process is arc welding. Shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW), submerged-arc welding (SAW), manual metal-arc welding
(MMA), metal-active gas welding (MAG) and stud welding are commonly used arc
welding processes.

12.6.1 Weld symbols


The symbolic representation of welds includes elementary symbols along with
a) Supplementary symbol,
b) A means of showing dimensions, or
c) Some complementary indications.

100
IS: 813-1986, "Scheme Of Symbols for Welding" gives all the details of weld
representation in drawings.

12.6.2 Weld defect acceptance levels


In general the following weld defects detected during inspection are acceptable for
structures.
• For joints welded from both the sides, incomplete penetration with thickness
up to 5% of the parent metal thickness, but not exceeding 2 mm and the length
more than 500 mm can be accepted. The aggregate length of flaw shall not be
more than 200 mm per meter length of the joint. Incomplete penetration and
cracks are not allowed at or near the end or beginning of a joint.
• For joints welded from one side with out backing strip, incomplete penetration
with thickness up to 15% of parent metal thickness but not exceeding 3 mm at the
root is allowed.

• Slag inclusion located along the weld as a chain or unbroken line is allowed if
their aggregate length does not exceed 200 mm per meter of weld length. Size of
the slag may also be considered.

• Total of isolated gas pores and slag inclusion shall not exceed 5 in number per
square centimetre of the weld.

• Total of incomplete penetration, slag inclusion on pores located separately or


as a chain shall not exceed 10% of metal thickness but not greater than 2 mm
when welding is done from both the sides and 15% of metal thickness, but not
greater than 3 mm when welding is done from one side.
• For metal thickness up to 10 mm, undercuts shall not be more than 0.5 mm.
For metal thickness more than 10 mm, undercuts shall not be greater than 1
mm.

Incomplete weld, molten metal flow, pits and cracks shall not be allowed.

12.6.3 Welding inspection


It is essential that welded joints are thoroughly examined and defects are detected so that
any possible distress could be averted. There are several non-destructive testing methods
to check the quality of welds such as visual inspection, liquid penetrants, magnetic
particles, ultrasonic testing, and radiography.

12.6.4 Types of welds

The commonly used forms of welds are butt welds and fillet welds.

Butt welds are used at an edge-to-edge junction or a tee junction and is made by bringing
the plates to be joined face to face edgewise and then filling the cavity formed by edge
preparation or by just penetrating the unprepared junction. Butt welds can be either full
penetration or partial penetration. Fig. 12.10 shows different types of butt welds.

101
103
A fillet weld is made away from the edges of the abutting plates and is formed by
welding the members in an overlapped position or by using a secondary joining material.
Fillet welding could be applied for lap joints, tee joints and corner joints. Fig. 12.11
shows the two types of fillet welds: side fillet weld and end fillet weld.

Fig. 12.10 Different types of butt joints

Fig. 12.11 Fillet (a) side welds and (b) end welds

12.6.5 Design of butt weld

The butt weld is normally designed for direct tension or compression. However, a
provision is made to ensure that it is safe against shear failure. Design stress value is
often taken to be the same as the parent metal strength.

For design purposes, the effective area of the butt-welded connection is taken as the
effective length of the weld times the throat size. Effective length of the butt weld is
taken as the length of the continuous full size weld. The throat size is specified by the
effective throat thickness.

102
For a full penetration butt weld, the throat dimension is usually assumed as the thickness
of the thinner part of the connection. For a butt weld reinforced on both sides the effect of
reinforcement should be neglected for estimating the throat dimensions.

For partial penetration weld effective throat thickness is taken as the minimum thickness
of the weld metal common to the parts joined, excluding reinforcement. For stress
calculation, a maximum value of reduced effective throat thickness equal to 5/8 of the
thickness of the thinner part joined must be used. The unwelded portion in partial
penetration butt welds, welded from both sides, shall not be greater than lA thickness of
the thinner part joined, and should be in the central portion.

Unsealed butt welds of V, U, J and bevel types and incomplete penetration butt welds
should not be used for highly stressed joints and joints subjected to dynamic and
alternating loads. Intermittent butt welds are used to resist shear only and the effective
length should not be less than four times the longitudinal space between the effective
length of welds nor more than 16 times the thinner part. They are not to be used in
locations subjected to dynamic or alternating stresses.

For butt welding parts with unequal cross sections, say unequal width, or thickness, the
dimensions of the wider or thicker part should be reduced at the butt joint to those of the
smaller part. This is applicable in cases where the difference in thickness exceeds 25 % of
the thickness of the thinner part or 3.0 mm, whichever is greater. The slope provided at
the joint for the thicker part should not be steeper than one in five [Figs. 12.12 (a) & (b)].
In instances, where this is not practicable, the weld metal is built up at the junction equal
to a thickness which is at least 25 % greater than the thinner part or equal to the dimension
of the thicker part [Fig. 12.12(c)]. Where reduction of the wider part is not possible, the
ends of the weld shall be returned to ensure full throat thickness.

Fig. 12.12 Butt welding of members with


(a)&(b) unequal thickness (c) unequal width

Design stresses for butt welds are assumed same as for the parent metal with a
thickness equal to the throat thickness. For field welds, the design stresses in shear and
tension may be reduced to 80% of the above value.

103
12.6.6 Design of fillet weld

A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions
and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average throat thickness is obtained by
dividing the applied loads summed up in vectorial form per uniFor stress calculations,
the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a
constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in
Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts
whose

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled
section

Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Thickness of thicker part Minimum size


Over (mm) Up to and including (mm) (mm)

- 10 3
10 20 5
For a 20
deep penetration weld, 32 the depth of penetration should
6 be a minimum of 2.4 mm.
Then 32
the size of the weld is50minimum leg length plus
8 (First 2.410(Minimum
run) mm. The size of a fillet weld
should not be less than 3 mm or more than the thickness
size ofoffillet)
the thinner part joined.
Mi

Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld

12.6.6-Design Table 12.1weld


of fillet Minimum
10 size of first run or of 3a single run fillet
weld
A simple approach Thicknessto design is to assume
of thicker part uniform filletMinimum weld strength size
10 Table
in all directions 12.1
and toUp 20
Minimum
specify size of first run or of 5
a single
(mm) run fillet
Over (mm) to anda including
certain throat (mm) stress value. The average
throat thickness is obtained by dividing the weldapplied loads summed up in
vectorial form - per unit length by 10 3 design
Fig.12.14
20 (a) fillet welds on square
32 edge of plate,size.
the throat Alternatively,
(b) fillet welds
6 on round toe of rolled
strength can 10
be different with 20 of the load vector. This5method
direction
section
is limited in 20 usage to cases of pure 32 shear, tension or compression. 6 It
cannot 32
32be used in cases where 50
50 the load vector 8 (First
direction
8 (First run) 10(Minimum
varies around
run) 10(Minimum
weld 12.2.
Table group. For othe
Value f K simple method,
for different angles thebetween
stress fusion
issize
taken size
faces
of as the
fillet) of fillet)
vector
sum of the force components acting in the weld divided by the throat
area.
Angle between 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120°
fusion faces Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld
The size of a normal fillet should be taken104 as the minimum leg size
Table 12.1
12.6.6 Minimum
- Design 60°of -fillet
90°of weld
size 91°-100°
first
10 run or of 101°-106°
a single run fillet 107°-113°
3 114°-120°
(Fig. 12.13).
weld
square A edge of aapproach
simple part, thetoweld designsizeisshould
to assumebe atuniform
least 1.5 mmweld
fillet lessstrength
than the edge
Constant
thickness
Table in K
12.1 10
[Fig. 12.14
Minimum 0.70(a)]
size . For
of 20
0.65
the
first runrounded
or of 0.60
a toe
singleof a
run rolled
all directions and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average 0.55
fillet 5
section, the0.50
weld size
should not exceed
throat 3/4 thickness
thickness of the
weld
is obtained by section
dividingatthe theapplied
toe [Fig. 12.14
loads (b)] . up in
summed
12.6.6 Design of fillet weld
n shouldvectorial form per
be a20minimum of unit
2.4 mm.length
32 Thenby thethe throat
size ofsize. Alternatively,
the weld 6 minimum
is design
leg length
plus strength
2.4 mm. can
The size be different
of a fillet with direction of the load vector. This method
A simple approach
is of
limited intousage
design to toweld
iscasesassume should
of pure
not be
uniform
shear,
lessweld
fillet
tension
thanstrength
3 mm or
or compression.in more than the
all directions
Itis given
thickness
and to specify the thinner part joined. Minimum size requirement of fillet welds
below cannot
in 32abecertain
Table 12.1.
throat
usedEffective
in cases stress50value.
where
throat the The
loadaverage
thickness vector
should
throat
direction
8 (First not run)thickness
be variesthan
10(Minimum
less
is obtained by
around
3 mm and
dividingweld
the applied
group. loadsthesummed upmethod,
in vectorial form per uniFor asstress calculations,
should not exceed 0.7Fort and 1.0 simple
t under specialthe stress
circumstances, issize
taken
of theis vector
fillet)
where't' the thickness
the effective
sum throat
of the thickness should beacting
force components taken inas the
K times
weldfilletdividedsize,by where K is a
the throat
of thinner part.
constant. Values
area. of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in
Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts
whose The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size
Table 12.1 Minimum 60° size
- 90°of first 91°-100°
run or of 101°-106°
a single run fillet 107°-113° 114°-120°
Fig.12.14 (Fig. 12.13).
(a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled
section weld
For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet
size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion
faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose
fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length
having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should
not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge
of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14
(a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, the weld size should not exceed 3/4
thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] .

For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet
size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion
faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose
fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length
having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should
not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge
of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14
(a)] . For the rounded
Fig.12.14 (a) toe
filletof a rolled
welds section,
on square edge the weld(b)size
of plate, filletshould
welds not exceed 3/4
thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14
on round toe of rolled section(b)] .

Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds
on round toe of rolled section

Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces


Generally speaking, continuous welding is preferred because of its superior performance
in dynamic loading. However intermittent fillet welds may sometimes be provided
where the strength required is less than that can be developed by a continuous fillet weld
of the smallest allowable size for the parts joined. The length of intermediate welds
should not be less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 40 mm. The clear
spacing between the effective lengths of the intermittent welds should be less than or
equal to 12 times the thickness of the thinner member in compression and 16 times in
tension; in no case the length should exceed 20 cm. Chain intermittent welding is better
than staggered intermittent welding. Intermittent fillet welds are not used in main
members exposed to weather. For lap joints, the overlap should not be less than five
times the thickness of the thinner part. For fillet welds to be used in slots and holes, the
dimension of the slot or hole should comply with the following limits:

105
a) The width or diameter should not be less than three times the thickness or 25 mm
whichever is greater
b) Corners at the enclosed ends or slots should be rounded with a radius not less than
1.5 times the thickness or 12 mm whichever is greater, and
c) The distance between the edge of the part and the edge of the slot or hole, or between adjacent
slots or holes, should be not less than twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm for the
holes.

The effective area of a plug weld is assumed as the nominal area of the whole in the plane of the
faying surface. Plug welds are not designed to carry stresses. If two or more of the general types
of weld (butt, fillet, plug or slots) are combined in a single joint, the effective capacity of each
has to be calculated separately with reference to the axis of the group to determine the capacity
of the welds.

Fig. 12.15 End returns

The high stress concentration at ends of welds is minimised by providing welds around the ends
as shown in Fig. 12.15. These are called end returns. End returns are invariably provided for
welded joints that are subject to eccentricity, impact or stress reversals. The end returns are
provided for a distance not less than twice the size of the weld.

12.6.7 Slot welds

When the lengths available for the normal longitudinal fillet welds are not sufficient to resist the
loads, slot and plug welds [Fig. 12.16] are used to develop the required strength. Plug welds
when used to fill the holes that are temporarily made for erection bolts for beam and column
connections, their strength may not be considered in the overall strength of the joint.

Fig. 12.16 Slot and Plug welds

The limitations given in specifications for the maximum sizes of plug and slot welds are
necessary to avoid large shrinkage, which might be caused around these welds when they exceed
the specified sizes. The strength of a plug or slot weld is calculated by considering the allowable
stress and its nominal area in the shearing plane. This area is usually
104
106
referred to as the faying surface and is equal to the area of contact at the base of the slot or plug. The
length of the slot weld can be obtained from the following relationship:

12.7 Eccentric Connection


When external load does not pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt or weld group, the load is
said to be eccentric. The eccentricity causes either in plane moment and rotation or out of plane
moment and shear.
■ Load lying in the plane of connection [Fig. 12.17]

Bolted Connection: If the applied load lies in the plane of the connection, the bolt group is subjected
to shear and torsional moment. The bolt group is analysed by resolving the eccentric load into a
concentric load acting through the centroid of bolt group and a torsional
moment where The moment acts with respect to the centroid of the
bolt group as a centre of rotation. P can be resolved into components and acting at distances
of and respectively from the centroid.

Fig. 12.17 Bolt group eccentrically loaded in shear


The resultant force on each bolt is given by

Where n is the number of bolts in the bolt group and the and co-ordinates reflect the positive and
negative values of the bolt location as appropriate.

Welded Connection: When the applied load lies in the plane of the fillet weld connection, it causes
shear and torsion (Fig. 12.18). The force caused by torsion is determined using the formula

= (Moment / Polar moment of inertia) (12.18)

Where, is the tension, s is the distance from the centre of gravity of the weld to the point under
consideration, and is the polar moment of inertia of the weld. For convenience, the force can be
decomposed into its vertical and horizontal components:

107
Where, and denote the vertical and horizontal components of the distance The stress due to shear
force is calculated by the following expression

Where, is the shearing stress and is the reaction and is the total length of the weld. While
designing a weld subjected to combined shear and torsion, it is a usual practice to assume a unit size
weld and compute the stresses on a weld of unit length. From the maximum weld force per unit
length the required size of the fillet weld can be calculated.

Fig. 12.18 Welds subjected to shear and torsion ■ Load

lying out of plane of connection [Fig. 12.19]


Bolted Connection: In the connection shown in Fig. 12.19, the bolts are subjected to combined
shear and tension. The neutral axis may be assumed to be at a distance of one-sixth of the total
depth d. If there is initial tension in bolts, then the neutral axis will pass through the centre of
gravity of the bolt group. The nominal tensile force in the bolts can be calculated assuming it to be
proportional to the distance of the bolt from the neutral axis in Fig. 12.19 (b).

When there is no initial tension in bolts the number of bolts required may be calculated using the
equation given below

Where m is the number of bolt lines, is the pitch of bolts and is the design strength of the bolt.
For bolts with initial tension the number of bolts required is taken as 80% of Eqn. 12.21.

108
Welded Connection: In the case of welds, it is a common practice to treat the variation of shear
stress as uniform if the welds are short. But, if the bending stress is calculated by the flexure
formula, the shear stress variation for vertical welds is parabolic with a maximum value equal to
1.5 times the average value. These bending and shear stress variations are shown in Fig. 12.20. It
may be observed here that the locations of maximum bending and shearing stresses are not the
same. Hence, for design purposes the stresses need not be combined at a point. It is generally
satisfactory if the weld is designed to withstand the maximum bending stress and the maximum
shear stress separately. If the welds used are as shown in Fig. 12.21, it can be safely assumed that
the web welds would carry all the of the shear and the flange welds all of the moment.

Fig. 12.20 Variation of bending and shear stress

Fig. 12.21 Weld provision for carrying shear and moment

109
SECTION: 13 COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS

13.1 General

Thin sheet steel products are extensively used in building industry, and range from purlins to
roof sheeting and floor decking. Generally these are available for use as basic building
elements for assembly at site or as prefabricated frames or panels. These thin steel sections are
cold-formed, i.e. their manufacturing process involves forming steel sections in a cold state
(i.e. without application of heat) from steel sheets of uniform thickness. These are given the
generic title Cold Formed Steel Sections. Sometimes they are also called Light Gauge Steel
Sections or Cold Rolled Steel Sections. The thickness of steel sheet used in cold-formed
construction is usually 1 to 3 mm. Much thicker material up to 8 mm can be formed if
pre-galvanised material is not required for the particular application. The method of
manufacturing differentiates these products from hot rolled steel sections. Normally, the yield
strength of steel sheets used in cold-formed sections is at least although there is a
trend to use steels of higher strengths, and also sometimes as low as Cold forming
has the effect of increasing the yield strength of steel, the increase being the consequence of
cold working well into the strain-hardening range. These increases are predominant in zones
where the metal is bent by folding. The effect of cold working is thus to enhance the mean
yield stress by 15% - 30%. For purposes of design, the yield stress may be regarded as having
been enhanced by a minimum of 15%. The strength/weight ratio of cold-formed sections is
significantly high compared with hot rolled sections. Some of the main advantages of cold
rolled sections are as follows:

• Cross sectional shapes are formed to any desired shape and to close tolerances and these
can be consistently repeated for as long as required.
• Pre-galvanised or pre-coated metals can be formed, so that high resistance to corrosion,
besides an attractive surface finish, can be achieved.

13.2 Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements

Cold-formed steel elements are either stiffened or unstiffened. An element, which is supported
by webs along both its longitudinal edges, is called a stiffened element. An unstiffened
element is one, which is supported along one longitudinal edge only with the other parallel
edge being free to displace. Stiffened and unstiffened elements are shown in Fig. 13.1

An intermittently stiffened element is made of a very wide thin element, which has been
divided into two or more narrow sub elements by the introduction of intermediate stiffeners,
formed during rolling.

In order that a flat compression element be considered as a stiffened element, it should be


supported along one longitudinal edge by the web and along the other by a web or lip or other
edge stiffener, (e.g. a bend) which has sufficient flexural rigidity to maintain straightness of the
edge, when the element buckles on loading. A rule of thumb is that

110
the depth of simple "lips" or right-angled bends should be at least one-fifth of the adjacent
plate width. More exact formulae to assess the adequacy of the stiffeners are sometimes
employed. If the stiffener is adequate, then the edge-stiffened element may be treated as
having a local buckling coefficient ( K ) value of 4.0. If the edge stiffener is inadequate (or
only partially adequate) its effectiveness is disregarded and the element will be regarded as
unstiffened, for purposes of design calculations.

Fig. 13.1 Stiffened and Unstiffened

elements 13.2.1 Effective width concept

The effects of local buckling can be evaluated by using the concept of effective width.
Lightly stressed regions at centre are ignored, as these are least effective in resisting
the applied stresses. Regions near the supports are far more effective and are taken to
be fully effective. The section behaviour is modelled on the basis of the effective
width

111
The effective width, multiplied by the edge stress is the same as the mean stress
•across the section multiplied by the total width of the compression member.

The effective width of an element under compression is dependent on the magnitude of the
applied stress the width/thickness ratio of the element and the edge support conditions.

13.2.2 Local buckling of compressed plates

The effective width concept is usually modified to take into account the effects of yielding
and imperfection. For example, BS5950: Part 5 provides a semi-empirical formula for basic
effective width, to conform to extensive experimental data.

When then

Where
compressive stress on the effective element,
local buckling stress given by

load buckling coefficient which depends on the element type, section geometry etc.
thickness of the element, in
width of the element, in
Modifications are necessary for an unstiffened element under uniform compression and for elements under
combined bending and axial load. Typical formula given in BS 5950, Part 5 for computing K values for a
channel element is given below for illustration (See BS 5950, Part 5 for a complete list of buckling
coefficients).

The buckling coefficient for the member having a width of in a lipped channel of
the type shown above is given by

112
For the member having the width of in the above sketch.

Where are the thicknesses of element width respectively. (Note:


normally and will be equal). The computed values of should not be less than 4.0 or
0.425 as the case may be.

The buckling coefficient for the element of width is given by

is computed from Eqn. 2(b) given above.

Maximum width to thickness ratios:

The maximum permitted ratios of (b/t) for compression elements are as follows:

• Stiffened elements with one longitudinal edge connected to a flange or web element
and the other stiffened by a simple lip = 60
• Stiffened elements with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements
= 500
• Unstiffened compression elements = 60

The designer should guard against the elements developing very large deformations, when b/t
values exceed half the values tabulated above.

13.2.3 Treatment of elements with stiffeners

Edge Stiffeners: As stated previously, elements having and provided with simple lip
having one fifth of the element width may be regarded as a stiffened element. 60, then
the width required for the lip may become too large and the lip itself may have

113
stability problems. Special types of lips (called "compound" lips) are designed in such
cases and are usually validated by tests.
Intermediate stiffeners: A wide and ineffective element may be transformed into a highly
effective element by providing suitable intermediate stiffeners (having a minimum
moment of inertia about an axis through the element mid surface). The required
minimum moment of inertia of the stiffener about the axis 0-0 in Fig. 13.3 is given by:

Where = larger flat width of the sub element (see Fig. 13.3) between stiffeners
= thickness of the element
= yield stress

If the sub-element width/thickness ratio does not exceed 60, the total effective area of
the element may be obtained by adding effective areas of the sub-elements to the full areas of
stiffeners. When is larger than 60, the effectiveness of the intermediately stiffened
elements is somewhat reduced due to shear lag effects. If an element has a number of
stiffeners spaced closely and then generally all the stiffeners and
sub elements can be considered to be effective.

13.2.4 Effective section properties

In the analysis of member behaviour, the effective section properties are determined by
summing up the effective widths of individual elements. As a general rule, the portions
located close to the supported edges are effective. In the case of compression members, all
elements may be subject to reductions in width.

In the case of flexural members, generally, only the compression elements are considered to
have reduced effective widths. Elements in tension are, of course, not subject to any
reduction of width, as they are not subjected to bending.

13.2.5 Proportioning of stiffeners

The performance of unstiffened elements could be substantially improved by introducing


stiffeners (such as a lip). Similarly very wide elements can be divided into two or more
narrower sub elements by introducing intermediate stiffeners formed during the rolling

114
process; the sum of the "effective widths" of individual sub elements will enhance the efficiency
of the section.

According to BS 5950, Part 5 an unstiffened element (when provided with a lip) can be regarded
as a stiffened element, when the lip or the edge stiffener has a moment of inertia about an axis
through the plate middle surface equal to or greater than

Where t and b are the thickness and breadth of the full width of the element to be stiffened. For
elements having a full width b less than or equal to 60 t, a simple lip of one fifth of the element
width (i.e. b/5) can be used safely. For lips with b > 60 t, it would be appropriate to design a lip to
ensure that the lip itself does not develop instability. A maximum b/t ratio of 90 is regarded as the
upper limit for load bearing edge stiffeners.

The Indian standard IS: 801-1975 prescribes a minimum moment of inertia for the lip
given by

Where = minimum allowable moment of inertia of stiffener about its own


centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened element in
= flat width - thickness ratio of the stiffened element.
= Yield stress in

For a simple lip bent at right angles to the stiffened element, the required overall depth
is given by

Note that both the above equations given by the Indian Standards are dependent on the units
employed.

Intermediate Stiffeners: Intermediate stiffeners are used to split a wide element into a series of
narrower and therefore more effective elements. The minimum moment of inertia about an axis
through the element middle surface required for this purpose (according to BS 5950, Part 5) is
given in Eqn (4) above.

The effective widths of each sub element may be determined according to Eqn 1 (a) and Eqn.l
(b) by replacing the sub element width in place of the element width b.

When then the total effective area of the element is obtained as the sum of the
effective areas of each sub element to the full areas of stiffeners.

115
When the sub elements having a larger values are employed the
performance of intermittently stiffened elements will be less efficient. To model this reduced
performance, the sub element effective width must be reduced to given by,

The effective stiffener areas are also reduced when by employing the equation:

For values between 60 and 90, the effective stiffener area varies between and as
given below:

It must be noted that when small increases in the areas of intermediate stiffeners are provided, it is
possible to obtain large increases in effectiveness and therefore it is advantageous to use a few
intermediate stiffeners, so long as the complete element width does not exceed 500 t.

When stiffeners are closely spaced, i.e. the stiffeners and sub elements may be
considered to be fully effective. However there is a tendency for the complete element (along
with the stiffeners) to buckle locally. In these circumstances, the complete element is replaced for
purposes of analysis by an element of width b and having fictitious

Where = Moment of inertia of the complete element including stiffeners, about its
own neutral axis.
IS: 801- 1975 also suggests some simple rules for the design of intermediate stiffeners.

When the flanges of a flexural member is unusually wide, the width of flange projecting beyond
the web is limited to

Where = flange thickness


= depth of beam
= the amount of curling
= average stress in as specified in IS: 801 - 1975.

116
The amount of curling should be decided by the designer but will not generally exceed 5 % of
the depth of the section.

Equivalent thickness of intermediate stiffener is given by

13.3 Beams

As stated previously, the effect of local buckling should invariably be taken into account in thin
walled members. Laterally stable beams are beams, which do not buckle laterally. Designs may be
carried out using simple beam theory, making suitable modifications to take account of local
buckling of the webs. This is done by imposing a maximum compressive stress, which may be
considered to act on the bending element.

117

117
The maximum value of the stress is given by

Where = the limiting value of compressive stress in N/mm 2


= web depth/thickness ratio
= material yield stress in N/mm2.
= design strength in N/mm
For steel with
For greater web slenderness values, local web buckling has a detrimental effect. The moment
capacity of the cross section is determined by limiting the maximum stress on the web to The
effective width of the compression element is evaluated using this stress and the effective section
properties are evaluated. The ultimate moment capacity is given by

Where = effective compression section modulus


This is subject to the condition that the maximum tensile stress in the section does not exceed (see
Fig. 13.4a).

If the neutral axis is such that the tensile stresses reach yield first, then the moment capacity is to be
evaluated on the basis of elasto-plastic stress distribution (see Fig. 13.4b). In elements having low
(width/thickness) ratios, compressive stress at collapse can equal yield stress (sec Fig. 13.4c). In
order to ensure yielding before local buckling, the
maximum (width/thickness) ratio of stiffened elements is and for unstiffened

13.3.1 Other beam failure criteria

Web Crushing: This may occur under concentrated loads or at support point when deep slender
webs are employed. A widely used method of overcoming web crushing problems is to use web
cleats at support points (See Fig. 13.5).

Shear Buckling; The phenomenon of shear buckling of thin webs has been discussed in detail in
the section on "Plate Girders". Thin webs subjected to predominant shear will buckle as shown
in Fig. 13.6. The maximum shear in a beam web is invariably limited to 0.7 times yield stress in
shear. In addition in deep webs, where shear buckling can occur, the average shear
stress must be less than the value calculated as follows:

118
Fig. 13.6 Web buckling

13.3.2 Lateral Buckling

The great majority of cold-formed beams are (by design) restrained against lateral deflections.
This is achieved by connecting them to adjacent elements, roof sheeting or to bracing members.
However, there are circumstances where this is not the case and the possibility of lateral
buckling has to be considered.

If the beam is provided with lateral restraints, capable of resisting a lateral force of 3% of the
maximum force in the compression flange, the beam may be regarded, as restrained and no
lateral buckling will occur.

The design approach is based on the "effective length" of the beam for lateral buckling, which is
dependent on support and loading conditions. The effective length of beams

119
with both ends supported and having restraints against twisting is taken âs 0.9 times the length, provided
the load is applied at bottom flange level. If a load is applied to the top flange which is unrestrained
laterally, the effective length is increased by 20%. This is considered to be a "destabilising load", i.e. a load
that encourages lateral instability.

The elastic lateral buckling moment capacity is determined next. For an / section or
symmetrical channel section bent in the plane of the web and loaded through shear centre, this
is

A = cross sectional area, in


D = web depth, in mm
t = web thickness, in mm
= radius of gyration for the lateral bending of section

Where = ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment M in an unbraced length of
beam, is taken positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature (see Fig.
13.8)

To provide for the effects of imperfections, the bending capacity in the plane of loading and
other effects, the value of ME obtained from Eqn. (13) will need to be modified.

120
Fig. 13.8 Single and double curvature bending

A Perry-Robertson type equation is employed for evaluating the Moment Resistance of


the beam

= First yield moment given by the product of yield stress and the Elastic Modulus
of the gross section.

= Elastic lateral buckling resistance moment given by Eqn (13)

= Perry coefficient, given by

When

121
= effective length
= radius of gyration of the section about the - axis.

When the calculated value of exceeds calculated by using Eqn (1 l.a), then is
limited to This will happen when the beams are "short".

13.4 Axially Compressed Columns


In analysing column behaviour, the first step is to determine the effective area of
the cross section by summing up the total values of effective areas for all the individual
elements.

Fig. 13.9 Column Strength (Hon- dimensional) for different Q factors

The ultimate load (or squash load) of a short strut is obtained from

Where = ultimate load of a short strut


= sum of the effective areas of all the individual plate elements
= the ratio of the effective area to the total area of cross section at yield stress

Following the Perry-Robertson approach, the failure load is evaluated from

122
and = radius of gyration corresponding to
Fig. 13.9 shows the mean stress at failure cross sectional area) obtained for
columns with variation of for a number of "Q" factors. (The y-axis is non-
dimensionalised using the yield stress; and "Q" factor is the ratio of effective cross
sectional area to full cross sectional area). Plots such as Fig. 13.9 can be employed directly
for doubly symmetric sections.

( a ) Channel section loaded ( b ) The move of the neutral axis (due to plate
through its centroid buckling) causes an eccentricity and a
consequent moment This would cause an additional
compression on flange AR

Fig. 13.10 Effective shift in the loading axis in an axially compressed column 13.4.1

Effective shift of loading axis


If a section is not doubly symmetric (see Fig. 13.10) and has a large reduction of effective widths
of elements, then the effective section may have changed position of centroid. This would induce
bending on an initially concentrically loaded section, as shown in Fig. 13.10 To allow for this
behaviour, the movement of effective neutral axis from the geometric neutral axis of the cross
section must be first determined by comparing the gross and effective section properties. The
ultimate load is evaluated by allowing for the interaction of bending and compression using the
following equation:

123
Where Pc is obtained from Eqn (16) and Mc is the bending resistance of the section for moments acting in
the direction corresponding to the movement of neutral axis; es is the distance between the effective
centroid and actual centroid of the cross section.

13.4.2 Torsional - flexural buckling

Singly symmetric columns may fail either (a) by Euler buckling about an axis perpendicular to the line of
symmetry (as detailed in 13.4.1 above) or (b) by a combination of bending about the axis of symmetry and
a twist as shown in Fig. 13.11. This latter type of behaviour is known as Torsional-flexural behaviour.
Purely torsional and purely flexural failure does not occur in a general case.

Fig. 13.11Column displacements during Flexural - Torsional


buckling
Analysis of torsional-flexural behaviour of cold-formed sections is tedious and time consuming for
practical design. Codes deal with this problem by simplified design methods or by empirical
methods based on experimental data.

As an illustration, the following design procedure, suggested in BS5950, Part 5 is detailed below as
being suitable for sections with at least one axis of symmetry (say and subjected to flexural
torsional buckling.

124
Effective length multiplication factors (known as factors) are tabulated for a number of
section geometries. These factors are employed to obtain increased effective lengths,
which together with the design analysis prescribed in 13.4.1 above can be used to obtain
torsional buckling resistance of a column.

values can be computed as follows:

Where is the elastic flexural buckling load (in Newtons) for a column about the

y-axis, i.e.

= effective length (in mm) corresponding to the minimum radius of gyration


= torsional flexural buckling load (in Newtons) of a column given by

Where = Elastic flexural buckling load of the column (in Newtons) about the

given by

= Torsional buckling load of a column (In Newtons) given by

In these equations,
= polar radius of gyration about the shear centre (in mm) given
by

125
where
are the radii of gyration (in mm) about the
is the shear modulus
is the distance from shear centre to the centroid measured along the axis (mm)

St Venants' Torsion constant which may be taken as summed up for


all elements, where flat width of the element and thickness (both of them
measure in mm)

Ix the moment of inertia about the x axis (mm4)

F Warping constant for all section.

13.4.3 Torsion behaviour

Cold formed sections are mainly formed with "open" sections and do not have high resistance
to torsion. Hence the application of load that would cause torsion should be avoided where
possible. Generally speaking, by adjusting the method of load application, it is possible to
restrain twisting so that torsion does not occur to any significant extent.

13.5 Combined Bending and Compression

Compression members, which are also subject to bending, will have to be designed to take into
account the effects of interaction. The following checks are suggested for members that have
at least one axis of symmetry: (i) the local capacity at points of greatest bending moment and
axial load and (ii) an overall buckling check.

13.5.1 Local capacity check

The local capacity check is ascertained by satisfying the following at the points of greatest
bending moment and axial load:

= applied axial load


= short strut capacity defined by (Eqn. 15)
= applied bending moments about x and y axis
= Moment resistance of the beam about x-axis in the absence of
= Moment resistance of the beam about y-axis in the absence of

126
13.5.2 Overall buckling check

For members not subject to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be
satisfied:

For beams subject to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be satisfied:

Where
= axial buckling resistance in the absence of moments (see Eqn. 16)
= flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the x- axis
and for bending about the y-axis respectively.
= factors (defined in the previous chapter) with regard to moment variation
about x and y axis respectively.
= lateral buckling resistance moment about the x axis

13.6 Tension Members

If a member is connected in such a way as to eliminate any moments due to connection


eccentricity, the member may be designed as a simple tension member. Where a member is
connected eccentrically to its axis, then the resulting moment has to be allowed for.

The tensile capacity of a member may be evaluated from

Where

is the effective area of the section making due allowance for the type of member (angle, plain
channel, Tee section etc) and the type of connection (e.g. connected through one leg only or
through the flange or web of a T- section).

is design strength

127
The area of the tension member should invariably be calculated as its gross area less
deductions for holes or openings. (The area to be deducted from the gross sectional area of a
member should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross section at
right angles to the direction of applied stress).

Reference is also made to the section on "Tension Members" where provision for
enhancement of strength due to strain hardening has been incorporated for hot rolled steel
sections. The Indian code IS: 801-1975 is in the process of revision and it is probable that a
similar enhancement will be allowed for cold rolled steel sections also.

When a member is subjected to both combined bending and axial tension, the capacity of the
member should be ascertained from the following:

Where Ft = applied load

= tensile capacity (see Eqn. 26)

are as defined previously.

13.7 Design on the Basis of Testing

While it is possible to design many cold-formed steel members on the basis of analysis, the very
large variety of shapes that can be formed and the complex interactions that occur make it
frequently uneconomical to design members and systems completely on theoretical basis. The
behaviour of a component or system can often be ascertained economically by a test and suitable
modifications incorporated, where necessary.

Particular care should be taken while testing components, that the tests model the actual loading
conditions as closely as possible. For example, while these tests may be used successfully to assess
the material work hardening much caution will be needed when examining the effects of local
buckling. There is a possibility of these tests giving misleading information or even no information
regarding neutral axis movement. The specimen lengths may be too short to pick up certain types
of buckling behaviour.

128
Testing is probably the only realistic method of assessing the strength and characteristics of
connections. Evaluating connection behaviour is important as connections play a crucial role
in the strength and stiffness of a structure.

In testing complete structures or assemblies, it is vital to ensure that the test set up reflects
the in-service conditions as accurately as possible. The method of load application, the type
of supports, the restraints from adjacent structures and the flexibility of connections are all
factors to be considered carefully and modelled accurately.

Testing by an independent agency (such as Universities) is widely used by manufacturers of


mass produced components to ensure consistency of quality. The manufacturers also provide
load/span tables for their products, which can be employed by structural designers and
architects who do not have detailed knowledge of design procedures. An advantage to the
manufacturers in designing on the basis of proof testing is that the load/span tables obtained
are generally more advantageous than those obtained by analytical methods; they also
reassure the customers about the validity of their load/span tables.

13.8 Empirical Methods

Some commonly used members such as Z purlins are sometimes designed by time-tested
empirical rules; such rules are employed when theoretical analysis may be impractical or not
justified and when prototype test data are not available. (Members designed by proven
theoretical methods or by prototype testing need not comply with the empirical rules). As an
illustration the empirical rules permitted by BS 5950, Part 5 is explained below.

Fig. 13.12 Z Purlins

13.8.1 Z Purlins

A Z purlin used for supporting the roofing sheet is sketched in Fig. 13.11. In designing Z
purlins with lips using the simplified empirical rules the following recommendations are to
be complied with:

Unfactored loads should be used for designing purlins


Imposed loads should be taken to be at least

• 129
• Claddings and fixings should be checked for adequacy to provide lateral restraint to the purlin and should be
capable of carrying the component of load in the plane of the roof slope.
• The purlin should be considered to carry the load normal to roof slope (and a nominal axial load due to wind
or restraint forces)
• These rules apply to purlins up to 8 m span in roof slopes up to 22.5°.
• Antisag bars should be provided to ensure that laterally unsupported length of the purlin does not exceed 3.8
m. These should be anchored to rigid apex support or their forces should be transferred diagonally to main
frames.
• Purlin cleats should provide adequate torsional restraint.

13.8.2 Design rules

The following design rules apply with reference to Fig. 13.12

• The overall depth should not be greater than and not less than
• Overall width of compression flange / thickness ratio should not be greater than 35.
• Lip width should be greater than

• Section Modulus for simply supported purlins

and for continuous or semi rigidly jointed purlins.

In the above,
L =span of the purlin (in mm)
W = Normal component of unfactored (distributed dead load+imposed load)
in

B = Width of the compression flange in mm


T = thickness of the purlin in mm.

• The net allowable wind uplift in a direction normal to roof when purlins are restrained is taken as 50% of
the (dead + imposed) load.

130
SECTION 14: BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

14.1 General

A steel concrete composite beam made up of a steel beam, over which a reinforced concrete slab is cast with shear
connectors is covered by IS: 11384-1985. The composite beam can also be constructed with profiled sheeting with
concrete topping, instead of cast-in place or precast reinforced concrete slab. However, this is not covered by IS
11384:1985. By employing profiled steel decking in composite construction, the most effective utilisation of steel
and concrete is achieved. "Fast Track" construction developed in the West invariably utilises Composite
Construction.

14.2 Materials

14.2.1 Structural steel

All structural steels used shall, before fabrication conform to IS: 1977-1975, IS: 2062-1992, and IS: 8500-1977 as
appropriate. Some of the structural steel grade commonly used in construction are given in IS: 961-1975 and IS:
1977-1975.

14.2.2 Concrete
Concrete strengths are specified in terms of the characteristic cube strengths, measured at 28 days. Table
14.1 gives the properties of different grades of concrete.

Where, characteristic compressive (cube) strength of concrete


characteristic compressive (cylinder) strength of concrete, given by
0.8 times 28 days cube strength of concrete
mean tensile strength of concrete

Note is proposed to be evaluated in accordance with Eurocodes. For lightweight concrete, the values are
obtained by multiplying the values from Table 14.1 by /2400,where is the unit mass

14.2.3 Reinforcing steel used in composite columns

Reinforcing Steel grades used in construction should conform to IS 432 (1982) and IS: 1786 (1985). It should be
noted that although the ductility of reinforcing bars has a significant effect on the behaviour of continuous beams,
this property has little effect on

131
the design of composite columns. Concrete filled tubular sections may be used without any reinforcement except for
reasons of fire resistance, where appropriate.

14.3 Shear Connectors

Mechanical shear connectors are required at the steel-concrete interface. These connectors are designed to (a) transmit
longitudinal shear along the interface, and (b) prevent separation of steel beam and concrete slab at the interface. Three
types of shear connectors have been developed:

Rigid type: These connectors are very stiff and they sustain only a small deformation while resisting the shear force.
They derive their resistance from bearing pressure on the concrete, and fail due to crushing of concrete.

Flexible type: Headed studs, channels come under this category. These connectors are welded to the flange of the steel
beam. They derive their stress resistance through bending and undergo large deformation before failure.

Bond or anchorage type: These connectors derive their resistance through bond and anchorage action.

Typical shear connectors are shown in Fig 14.1 14.3.1 Characteristics of shear

connectors

The load-slip characteristic of shear connectors affects their design considerably. To obtain the load-slip curve "push-
out" tests are performed as per codal specifications. Arrangements for these tests as per and IS: 11384-1985 are
shown in Fig. 14.2 (a) and 14.2 ( b ) respectively.

To. perform the test, IS: 11384-1985 suggests that,

• At the time of testing, the characteristic strength of concrete used should not exceed the characteristic strength of
concrete in the beams for which the test is designed.

• A minimum of three tests should be made and the design values should be taken as 67% of the lowest ultimate
capacity.

Based on the load-slip characteristics observed in the push-out tests, [see 14.3 (a)] the connector stiffness is usually
determined while ultimate strength design is based on plastic behaviour of the shear connectors, the value is needed
for serviceability considerations.

132
133

133
134
133
Fig. 14.3 (b) shows an idealised load-slip characteristic of three different types of interaction that
arise depending on the type of connectors used. Note that full interaction would occur and
when very stiff connectors are used. When there is partial interaction the load slip relationship is
assumed to be bilinear.

Fig. 14.3 (b). Idealized load-slip characteristics

14.3.2 Strength of connectors

The design resistance of shear studs with may be determined using the following
two empirical formulae. The lower of the two values governs the design.

(14.1)

136
(14.2)

ultimate tensile strength of steel


cylinder strength of concrete
Ecm = mean secant (elastic) modulus of concrete,
partial safety factor for stud connector

The design strengths of headed shear connectors as per IS: 11384-1985 are reproduced in Table
(14.2). Similar data about other shear connectors is available in that code.

It is to be noted that as per this code the design value of a shear connector is taken as 67% of
the ultimate capacity arrived at by testing.

Table 14.2: Design Strength of Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Different
Concrete Strengths

14.4 Basic Design Considerations

14.4.1 Design method

The ultimate strength of a composite section is determined from its plastic moment
resistance, provided the elements of the steel cross section do not fall (in the
semi-compact or slender category). The serviceability is checked using elastic analysis,
as the structure will remain elastic under service loading. Full shear connection ensures
that full moment resistance of the section develops. In partial shear connection, although
full moment resistance of the beam cannot be achieved, the design will have to be
adequate to resist the applied bending moment. This design is often preferred due to
economy achieved through the reduced number of shear connectors.

137
Adequacy in Serviceability Limit State is verified by resorting to prescribed span/depth
ratios. EC4 has prescribed that the following span to depth (total beam and slab depth)
ratios for which the serviceability criteria will be deemed to be satisfied.

Table 14.3: Span to Depth ratio

Support Condition Span to Depth


Simply supported 15-18 (Primary Beams)
18-20 (Secondary Beams)
Continuous 18-22 (Primary Beams)
22-25 (end bays)

Effective breadth of flange: A composite beam


acts as a T-beam with the concrete slab as its
flange. For design purpose a portion of the
beam span (20% - 33%) is taken as the
effective breadth of the slab (see Fig. 14.4).

Fig. 14.4. Use of effective width to allow for shear

Fig. 14.5 Value of for continuous beam

138
The effective breadth of simply supported beam is taken as on each side of the steel
web, but not greater than half the distance to the next adjacent web. For simply supported beam Therefore,

Where,
the effective span taken as the distance between points of zero
moments,
actual span
centre-to-centre distance of transverse spans for slab. For continuous
beams is obtained from Fig 14.5
Modular ratio: Modular ratio is the ratio of elastic modulus of steel to the time dependent secant modulus
of concrete While evaluating stress due to long termloading (dead load etc.) the time dependent secant
modulus of concrete should be used. This takes into account the long-term effects of creep under sustained
loading. The values of elastic modulus of concrete under short term loading for different grades of concrete are
given in Table 14.1. IS: 11384 -1985 has suggested a modular ratio of 15 for live load and 30 for dead load, for
elastic analysis of section.

14.4.2 Section classifications and partial safety factor

Section Classifications has been dealt with in section 5 of this Design Guide. Table 14.4 lists the Partial safety
factors to be used in design.

Table 14.4: Suggested Partial safety factors

• These are in conforming with IS: 11384 - 1985.

139
SECTION 15: COMPOSITE BEAMS AND SLABS

15.1 Moment Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Slabs, supported on Steel beams

Reinforced concrete slab connected to rolled steel section through shear connectors is the simplest form
of composite beam and has been covered in IS 11384:1985. The ultimate strength of the composite beam
is determined from its collapse load capacity. Table 15.1 gives the moment capacity of the composite
section with full shear connection.

Fig. 15.1 Notations as per IS: 11384-1985

Table 15.1: Moment capacity of composite Section with full


shear interaction (according to IS: 11384 -1985)

140

140
15.2 Reinforced Concrete Slabs, with Profiled Sheeting supported on Steel Beams

A more advanced method of composite beam construction is one, where profiled deck slabs are connected to steel
beams through stud connectors. This has not been covered in any IS Code. In this case the steel sheeting itself acts
as the bottom reinforcement and influences the capacity of the section. Table 15.2 presents the equations for
moment capacity. These equations are largely restricted to sections, which are capable of developing their plastic
moment of resistance without local buckling problems. Fig 15.2 shows the stress distribution diagram for plastic
and compact sections for full interactior according to EC4. Fig 15.3 shows the stress distribution for hogging
bending moment.

141

141
142
15.3 Vertical Shear

Although the concrete slab resists some of the vertical shear in a composite T-beam,
there is no simple design model for this. It is therefore assumed that the vertical shear is
resisted by steel beam alone, as if it were not composite.
The shear force resisted by the structural steel section should satisfy:

Where, is the plastic shear resistance given by,

In addition to this the shear buckling of steel web should be checked.

The shear buckling of steel web can be neglected if following condition is satisfied

Where, and d is the depth of the web considered in the shear area.

15.4 Resistance of Shear Connectors when used with Profile Decking

The profile of the deck slab has a marked influence on strength of shear
connector. There should be a 45° projection from the base of the connector
to the core of the solid slab for smooth transfer of shear. But the profiled
deck slab limits the concrete around the connector. This in turn makes the
centre of resistance on connector to move up, initiating a local concrete
failure as cracking. This is shown in Fig 15.4. EC 4 suggests the following
reduction factor k (relative to solid slab).

(1) Profiled steel decking with the ribs parallel to the supporting beam.
(2) Profiled steel decking with the ribs transverse to the supporting beam.

143
For studs of diameter not exceeding 20 mm,

Where,
is the average width of trough
is the stud height
is the height of the profiled decking slab

Nr is the number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection (should not greater than 2).

For studs welded through the steel decking, k, should not be greater than 1.0 when and not
greater than 0.8 when

Fig. 15.4 Behaviour of a shear connection fixed through profile sheeting

15.5 Longitudinal Shear Force in Single Span Beams

For single span beams the total design longitudinal shear, to be resisted by shear
connectors between the point of maximum bending moment and the end support is
given by:

Whichever is smaller.

15.6 Longitudinal Shear Force in Continuous Beams

For continuous beams the total design longitudinal shear, to be resisted by shear
connectors between the point of maximum positive bending moment and an
intermediate support is given by:

Where, - the effective area of longitudinal slab reinforcement


144
The number of required shear connectors in the zone under consideration for full composite action is given by:

Where
is the design longitudinal shear force as defined in Eqn. (15.8) and is design resistance of the connector.

The shear connectors are usually equally spaced.

15.6.1 Minimum degree of shear connection

Ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connectors may be assumed if a minimum degree of shear connection is provided, as
the opportunity for developing local plasticity are greater in these cases

The minimum degree of shear connection is defined by the following equations:

At is the top flange area;


where is the bottom flange area and beam span in metres

15.7 Interaction between Shear and Moment


Interaction between bending and shear can influence the design of continuous beam. Fig. 15.5 shows the resistance of the composite
section in combined bending (hogging or sagging) and shear. When the design shear force, exceeds (point in the Fig.
15.5), moment capacity of the section reduces non-linearly as shown by the parabolic curve AB, in the presence of high shear force.
At point B the remaining bending resistance is that contributed by the flanges of the composite section, including reinforcement in
the slab. Along curve AB, the reduced bending resistance is given by

design bending moment


plastic resistance of the flange alone
plastic resistance of the entire section
design shear force
plastic shear resistance as defined in Eqn. (15.2) and Eqn. (15.3).

145
Figl5.5 Resistance to combined bending and vertical shear

15.8 Transverse Reinforcement


Shear connectors transfer the interfacial shear to concrete slab by thrust, which could
cause splitting in concrete in potential failure planes. Reinforcement is provided in the
direction transverse to the axis of the beam. Like stirrups in the web of a reinforced T
beam, the reinforcement supplements the shear strength of the concrete. Based on Truss
Analogy, the following design equation has been developed.

Where,
is cross sectional area of concrete shear surface per unit length of beam and is the
area of transverse reinforcement.

The formulae suggested by EC4 and IS: 11384 - 1985 are given in Table 15.4.

15.9 Effect of Continuity


The above design formulae are applicable to simply supported beams as well as to
continuous beams. Besides these, a continuous beam necessitates the check for the stability
of the bottom flange, which is in compression due to hogging moments at supports.
15.9.1 Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beam
In order to determine the distribution of bending moments under the design loads,
Structural analysis has to be performed. For convenience, the IS: 456 -2000 lists moment
coefficients as well as shear coefficients that are close to exact values of the maximum load
effects obtainable from rigorous analysis on an infinite number of equal spans on point
supports. Table 15.5 gives the bending moment coefficients and Table 15.6 gives the shear
coefficients according to IS: 456 - 2000. These coefficients are applicable to continuous
beams with at least three spans, which do not differ by more than 75 percent of the longest.
These values are also applicable for composite continuous beams.

146
2

>
Tablel5.5: Bending moment coefficients according to IS: 456-2000

TYPE OF LOAD SPAN [OMENTS SUPPORT] MOMENTS

IVI
Near middle At middle of At support next At other
of end span interior span to the end interior
support supports
Dead load + Imposed + 1/12 + 1/16 - 1/10 - 1/12
load (fixed)
Imposed load (not + 1/10 + 1/12 - 1/9 - 1/9
fixed)
For obtaining the bending moment, the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design
load and effective span.

Table 15.6: Shear force coefficients

TYPE OF At end At support ext to the end At all other


LOAD support n sup port interior
Outer side Inner side supports
Dead load + 0.40 0.60 0.55 0.50
Imposed load
(fixed)
Imposed load 0.45 0.60 0.60 0.60
(not fixed)
For obtaining the shear force, the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load

15.9.2 Lateral torsional buckling of continuous beams

The concrete slab prevents the top flange of the steel section (connected to concrete slab)
from moving laterally. In negative moment regions of continuous composite beams the
lower flange is subjected to compression. Hence, the stability of bottom flange should be
checked at that region. The tendency of the lower flange to buckle laterally is restrained
by the distortional stiffness of the cross section. The tendency for the bottom flange to
displace laterally causes bending of the steel web, and twisting at top flange level, which
is resisted by bending of the slab as shown in Fig. 22.6.

Fig 15.6 Inverted - U frame Action


Lateral Torsional Buckling of Continuous Beams can be neglected if following
conditions are satisfied.

1. Adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 20% of the shorter span or where
there is a cantilever, its length does not exceed 15% of the adjacent span.

i
148
3
2. The loading on each span is uniformly distributed and the design permanent load
exceeds 40% of the total load.

3. The shear connection in the steel-concrete interface satisfies the requirements of


section

15.10 Serviceability

Composite beams must also be checked for adequacy in the Serviceability Limit State. It is
not desirable that steel yields under service load. To check the composite beams
serviceability criteria, elastic section properties are used.

IS: 11384-1985 limits the maximum deflection of the composite beam to The total
elastic stress in concrete is limited to while for steel, considering different stages of
construction, the elastic stress is limited to Unfortunately this is an error made in the
Code as the same limits are applied for steel in determining the ultimate resistance of the
cross section. Since EC4 gives explicit guidance for checking serviceability Limit State,
therefore the method described below follows EC 4.

15.10.1 Deflection

The elastic properties relevant to deflection are section modulus and moment of inertia of
the section. Applying appropriate modular ratio m the composite section is transformed into
an equivalent steel section. The moment of inertia of uncracked section is used for
calculating deflection. Normally unfactored loads are used for for serviceability checks. No
stress limitations are made in EC 4.

Under positive moment the concrete is assumed uncracked, and the moment of inertia is
calculated as:

Where

is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete taking into account creep.

is the moment of inertia of steel section.

Simply supported Beams: The mid-span deflection of simply supported composite beam
under distributed load w is given by

4149
Where, is the modulus of elasticity of steel and is the gross uncracked moment of
inertia of composite section.

Influence of partial shear connection: Deflections increase due to the effects of slip in the
shear connectors. These effects are ignored in composite beams designed for full shear
connection. To take care of the increase in deflection due to partial shear connection, the
following expression is used.

Where
are deflection of steel beam and composite beam respectively with proper
serviceability load.

Note: For this additional simplification can usually beignored

Shrinkage induced deflections: For simply supported beams, when the span to depth ratio
of beam exceeds 20, or when the free shrinkage strain of the concrete exceeds
shrinkage, deflections should be checked. In practice, these deflections will only be
significant for spans greater than 12 m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres. The
shrinkage-induced deflection is calculated using the following formula:

is the effective span of the beam and is the curvature due to the free shrinkage
strain, given by

modular ratio appropriate for shrinkage

calculations

Note: This formula ignores continuity effects at the supports.

150
5
Continuous Beams: In the case of continuous beam, the deflection is modified by the
influence of cracking in the hogging moment regions (at or near the supports). This may
be taken into account by calculating the second moment of area of the cracked section
under negative moment (ignoring concrete). In addition to this there is a possibility of
yielding in the negative moment region. To take account of this the negative moments
may be further reduced. As an approximation, a deflection coefficient of 3/384 is usually
appropriate for determining the deflection of a continuous composite beam subject to
uniform loading on equal adjacent spans. This may be increased to 4/384 for end spans.
The second moment of area of the section is based on the uncracked value.

Crack Control: Cracking of concrete should be controlled in cases where the functioning
of the structure or its appearance would be affected. In order to avoid the presence of
large cracks in the hogging moment regions, the amount of reinforcement should not
exceed a minimum value given by,

Where
is the percentage of steel
is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section
is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in the tensile strength of concrete

is the effective tensile strength of concrete. A value of 3 is the minimum


adopted.
is the maximum permissible stress in concrete

Generally the span/depth ratios specified by codes take care of the shrinkage deflection.
However, a check on shrinkage deflection should be done in case of thick slabs resting on
small steel beams, electrically heated floors and concrete mixes with high "free
shrinkage". Eurocode 4 recommends that the effect of shrinkage should be considered
when the span/depth ratio exceeds 20 and the free shrinkage strain exceeds 0.04%. For
dry environments, the limit on free shrinkage for normal- weight concrete is 0.0325% and
for lightweight concrete 0.05%.

15.10.2 Vibration

Generally, human response to vibration is taken as the yardstick to limit the amplitude and
frequency of a vibrating floor. The present discussion is mainly aimed at design of an office
floor against vibration. To design a floor structure, only the source of vibration near or on
the floor need be considered. Other sources such, as machines, lift or cranes should be
isolated from the building. In most buildings following two cases are considered-

6151
i) People walking across a floor with a pace frequency between 1.4 Hz and 2.5Hz.
ii) An impulse such as the effect of the fall of a heavy object.

Fig. 15.7. Curves of constant human response to vibration,


and Fourier component factor
The root mean square acceleration of the floor is plotted against its natural frequency for
acceptable level R based on human response for different situations such as, hospitals,
offices etc. The human response R-l corresponds to a "minimal level of adverse comments
from occupants" of sensitive locations such as hospital, operating theatre and precision
laboratories. Curves of higher response (R) values are also shown in the Fig. 15.7. The
recommended values of R for other situations are

R = 4 for offices
R = 8 for workshops

These values correspond to continuous vibration and some relaxation is allowed in case the
vibration is intermittent (see BS6472 for further information).

Natural frequency of beam and slab: The most important parameter associated with
vibration is the natural frequency of floor. For free elastic vibration of a beam or one way
slab of uniform section the fundamental natural frequency is,

Where,
for simple support; and
for both ends fixed.
= Flexural rigidity (per unit width for slabs)
= span
= vibrating mass per unit length (beam) or unit area (slab).

152
7
The effect of damping (being negligible) has been ignored.

Un-cracked concrete section and dynamic modulus of elasticity should be used for
concrete. Generally these effects are taken into account by increasing the value of by
10% for variable loading. In absence of an accurate estimate of mass (m), it is taken
as the mass of the characteristic permanent load plus 10% of characteristic variable
load.

The frequencies for slab and beam (each considered alone) and are given by

Where, is the spacing of the beams.

The natural frequency is given by

Where is the Fourier component factor. It takes into account the differences
between the frequency of the pedestrians' paces and the natural frequency of the floor.
This is given in the form of a function of in Fig. (15.7):
= magnification factor at resonance

=0.03 for open plan offices with composite floor

To check the susceptibility of the floor to vibration after finding from Eqn.15.22 and
the value of R from Eqn. 15.23 compare the result with the target response curve as in
Fig. (15.7).

153
8
16.1 General

A steel-concrete composite column is a compression member, comprising either a concrete encased


hot-rolled steel section or a concrete filled tubular section of hot-rolled steel. Typical cross-sections of
composite columns with fully and partially concrete encased steel sections are illustrated in Fig. 16.1. Fig.
16.2 shows three typical cross-sections of concrete filled tubular sections. Supplementary reinforcement in
the concrete encasement prevents excessive spalling of concrete both under normal load and fire conditions.

16.2 Members under Axial Compression

The design method described below is formulated for prismatic composite columns with doubly
symmetrical cross-sections, and generally follows the guidelines prescribed in EC4.

16.2.1 Resistance of cross-section to compression


Encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular/square tubular sections: The plastic resistance of
an encased steel section or concrete filled rectangular or square section (i.e. the so-called "squash load")
is given by

Where,

154
9
are the areas of the steel section, the concrete and the reinforcing
steel respectively

are the yield strength of the steel section, the characteristic


compressive strength (cylinder) of the concrete, and the yield strength of the
reinforcing steel respectively.

is the characteristic compressive strength (cube) of the concrete


is strength coefficient for concrete, which is 1.0 for concrete filled tubular
sections, and 0.85 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections.

Fig. 16.3 Stress distribution of the plastic resistance


to compression of an encased I section

Concrete filled circular tubular sections: The ductility performance of this type of columns
is significantly better than rectangular types. Also, there is an increased resistance of
concrete due to the confining effect of the circular tubular section. However, this effect is
significant only in stocky columns. For composite columns with a non- dimensional
slenderness of (where is defined in Eqn.16.5, in section 16.2.2J, or where the
eccentricity, of the applied load does not exceed the value d/10, (where d is the outer
dimension of the circular tubular section) this effect has to be considered.

The plastic compression resistance of concrete filled circular tubular sections is calculated
by using two coefficients and as given below.

where
t is the thickness of the circular tubular section, and and two coefficients given by

155
10
In general, the resistance of a concrete filled circular tubular section to compression may
increase by 15% under axial load only when the effect of tri-axial confinement is considered.
Linear interpolation is permitted for various load eccentricities of The basic
values and depend on the non-dimensional slenderness which can be
read off from Table 16.1.

If the eccentricity e exceeds the value d/10, or if the non-dimensional slenderness exceeds the
value 0.5 then

Table 16.1: Basic value to allow for the effect of tri-axial confinement in
concrete filled circular tubular sections, as provided in EC 4 applicable for concrete
grades

16.2.2 Non-dimensional slenderness

For convenience, column strength curves are plotted in a non-dimensionalised form as shown in
Fig. 16.4. The buckling resistance of a column is expressed as a proportion of the plastic
resistance to compression, where is called the reduction factor. The horizontal axis is
non-dimensionalised similarly by

Fig.16.4 Non-dimensionalised
column buckling curve

The European buckling curves have been drawn after incorporating the effects of both residual
stresses and geometric imperfections. They form the basis of column buckling design for both
steel and composite columns in EC 3 and EC4. For using the European

11
156
buckling curves, the non-dimensional slenderness of the column is first evaluated as
follows:

Where
plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression, according to Eqn (16.1) or
Eqn. (23.2) with 1.0; and is the elastic buckling load of the
column.

16.2.3 Local buckling of steel sections

Both Eqns. (16.1) and (16.2) are valid provided that local buckling in the steel sections
does not occur. To prevent premature local buckling, the width to thickness ratio of the
steel sections in compression must satisfy the following limits:

for concrete filled circular tubular sections

for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections

is the yield strength of the steel section in

For fully encased steel sections, no verification for local buckling is necessary as the
concrete surrounding it effectively prevents local buckling. However, the concrete cover to
the flange of a fully encased steel section should not be less than 40 mm, nor less than
one-sixth of the breadth, of the flange for it to be effective in preventing local buckling.

Local buckling may be critical in some concrete filled rectangular tubular sections with
large h/t ratios. Designs using sections, which exceed the local buckling limits for semi-
compact sections, should be verified by tests.

157
16.2.4 Effective elastic flexural stiffness

The value of the flexural stiffness may decrease with time due to creep and shrinkage
of concrete. Two design rules for the evaluation of the effective elastic flexural stiffness
of composite columns are given below.
Short term loading: The effective elastic flexural stiffness, is obtained by adding
up the flexural stiffness of the individual components of the cross-section:

Where
are the second moments of area of the steel section, the concrete(assumed
uncracked) and the reinforcement about the axis of bending considered
respectively

are the moduli of elasticity of the steel section and the reinforcement

is the effective stiffness of the concrete; the factor 0.8 is an empirical


multiplier (determined by a calibration exercise to give good agreement
with test results). Note is the moment of inertia about the centroid of
the uncracked column section.

is the secant modulus of the concrete

is reduced to 7.55 for the determination of the effective stiffness of


concrete
Note: Dividing the Modulus of Elasticity by is unusual and is included here to obtain
the effective stiffness, which conforms to test data.

Long term loading: For slender columns under long-term loading, the creep and
shrinkage of concrete will cause a reduction in the effective elastic flexural stiffness of
the composite column, thereby reducing the buckling resistance. However, this effect is
significant only for slender columns. As a simple rule, the effect of long term loading
should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column
exceeds 15.

If the eccentricity of loading is more than twice the cross-section dimension, the effect
on the bending moment distribution caused by increased deflections due to creep and
shrinkage of concrete will be very small. Consequently, it may be neglected and no
provision for long-term loading is necessary. Moreover, no provision is also necessary
if

158
the non-dimensional slenderness, of the composite column is less than the limiting values
given in Table 16.2
Table 16.2: Limiting values of for long term loading

Note: is the steel contribution ratio defined as

However, when exceeds the limits given by Table 16.2 and e/d is less than 2, the effect of
creep and shrinkage of concrete should be allowed for by employing the modulus of
elasticity of the concrete instead of in Eqn. 16.8, which is defined as follows:

Where P is the applied design load; and the part of the applied design load
permanently acting on the column.

The effect of long-term loading may be ignored for concrete filled tubular sections with
provided that is greater than 0.6 for braced (or non-sway) columns, and 0.75 for
unbraced (and/or sway) columns.

16.2.5 Elastic buckling load

Composite columns may fail in buckling. The elastic critical buckling load (Euler Load),
is defined as follows:

Where ( E I ) e is the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column.


is the effective length of the column, which may be conservatively taken as system
length L for an isolated non-sway composite column.

159
16.2.6 Resistance of members to axial compression

For each of the principal axes of the column, the designer should check that

Where is the plastic resistance to compression of the cross-section, from Eqn. (16.1) or
Eqn. (16.2) and is the reduction factor due to column buckling

The European buckling curves illustrated in Fig. 16.5 arc proposed to be used for
composite columns. They are selected according to the types of the steel sections and the
axis of bending:

Curve a for concrete filled tubular sections

Curve b for fully or partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the strong
axis of the steel sections

Curve c for fully and partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the weak
axis of the steel sections (y-y axis)

These curves can also be described mathematically as follows:

1
The factor allows for different levels of imperfections and residual stresses in the
columns corresponding to curves a, b, and c. Table 16.3 gives the value of for each
buckling curve. Note that the second order moment due to imperfection, has been
incorporated in the method by using multiple buckling curves; no additional
considerations are necessary.

Table 16.3: Imperfection factor a for the buckling curves

The isolated non-sway composite columns need not be checked for buckling, if anyone of
the following conditions is satisfied:

(a) The axial force in the column is less than where is the elastic
buckling
load of the column

(b) The non-dimensional slenderness, less than

16.3 Combined Compression and Uni-Axial Bending

16.3.1 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending

The resistance of the composite column to combined compression and bending is


determined using an interaction curve. Fig. 16.6 represents the non-dimensional
interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending for a composite cross-section.

Fig. 16.7 shows an interaction curve drawn using simplified design method suggested in
the UK National Application Document for This neglects the increase in
moment capacity beyond discussed above, (under relatively low axial compressive
loads). The method of locating neutral axis for rectangular and circular filled tubular
sections is given in Appendix E.

Fig. 16.8 shows the stress distributions in the cross-section of a concrete filled rectangular
tubular section at each point, A, B and C of the interaction curve given in Fig. 16.7.

• Point A marks the plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression (at this point
the blending point is is zero).

• Point B corresponds to the plastic moment resistance of the cross-section (the


axial compression is zero).

2
Where are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement, steel section,and
concrete about their own centroids respectively and are plastic section
moduli of the reinforcement, steel section, and concrete about neutral axis respectively.
• At point the compressive and the moment resistances of the column are given as
follows;

Fig. 16.7 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method

3
Fig. 16.8 Stress distributions for the points of
the interaction curve for concrete filled
rectangular tubular sections

Fig. 16.9 Variation in the neutral axis positions

4
16.3.2 Analysis of bending moments due to second order effects

The second order moment, or 'imperfection moment', does not need to be considered
separately, as its effect on the buckling resistance of the composite column is already
accounted for in the European buckling curves.

For slender columns, the 'first order' displacements may be significant and additional or
'second order' bending moments may be induced under the actions of applied loads. As a
simple rule, the second order effects should be considered if the buckling length to depth
ratio of a composite column exceeds 15.

The second order effects on bending moments for isolated non-sway columns should be
considered if both of the following conditions are satisfied:

Where is the design applied load, and is the elastic critical load of the composite
column.

(2) Elastic slenderness conforms to:

Where is the non-dimensional slenderness of the composite column

In case the above two conditions are met, the second order effects may be allowed for by modifying the
maximum first order bending moment (moment obtained initially), with a correction factor which
is defined as follows:

Where is the applied design load and is the elastic critical load of the composite
column.

16.3.3 Resistance of members under combined compression and uni-axial bending

The design checks are carried out in the following stages:


(1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both
(2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compression and
uni-axial bending

The design is adequate when the following condition is satisfied:

5
Where is the design bending moment, which may be factored to allow for second
order effects, if necessary is the moment resistance ratio obtained from the interaction
curve and is the plastic moment resistance of the composite cross-section.

Fig. 16.10 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending


using the simplified method
Moment resistance ratio can be obtained from the interaction curve (Figl6.10) or may be
evaluated
In accordance with the UK NAD, the moment resistance ratio for a composite column
under combined compression and uni-axial bending is evaluated as follows:

is axial resistance ratio due to the concrete, ; is the design axial resistance

ratio,

16.4 Combined Compression and Bi-axial Bending

The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the

section under axial compression for both and

6
(2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compressionand
bi-axial bending

The three conditions to be satisfied are:

The interaction of the moments must also be checked using moment interaction curve as
shown in Fig. 16.11

Fig. 16.11 Moment interaction curve for bi-axial bending


The moment resistance ratios and for both the axes are evaluated as given below:

7
Where

and are the reduction factors for buckling in the and directions respectively.

When the effect of geometric imperfections is not considered the moment resistance ratio
is evaluated as given
below:

8
APPENDIX A: Terminology

Buckling Load - The load at which a member or a structure as whole collapses in


service or buckles in a load test.

Characteristic load is that value of the load, which has an accepted probability of not
being exceeded during the life span of the structure. Characteristic load is therefore
that load which will not be exceeded 95% of the time.

Characteristic resistance of a material (such as Concrete or Steel) is defined as that


value of resistance below which not more than a prescribed percentage of test results
may be expected to fall. (For example the characteristic yield stress of steel is usually
defined as that value of yield stress below, which not more than 5% of the test values
may be, expected to fall). In other words, this strength is expected to be exceeded by
95% of the cases.

Compact Section - A cross section capable of developing full plastic distribution


across it, without local buckling in any of the component members but not capable of
developing ductility.

Dead Loads - The self weights of all permanent constructions and installations
including the self weights of all walls, partitions, floors and roofs.

Effective Lateral Restraint - Restraint, which produces sufficient resistance in a plane


perpendicular to the plane of bending to restrain the compression flange of a loaded
strut, beam or girder from buckling to either side at the point of application of the
restraint.

Elastic Critical Moment - The elastic moment which will initiate yielding or cause
buckling.

Factor of Safety - The factor by which the yield stress of the material of a member is
divided to arrive at the permissible stress in the material.

Gauge - The transverse spacing between parallel adjacent lines of fasteners.

Imposed (Live) Load - The load assumed to be produced by the intended use of
occupancy including distributed, concentrated, impact and vibration and snow loads
but excluding, wind and earthquake loads.

Limit States- Limit States are states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the
design performance requirements and fulfils the purpose for which it is built.

Load Factor - The numerical factor by which the working load is to be multiplied to
obtain an appropriate design ultimate load.

9
Main Member - A structural member that is primarily responsible for carrying and
distributing the applied load.

Pitch - The centre-to-centre distance between individual fasteners in a line of fastener.

Plastic Section - A cross section capable of developing full plasticity across it and
exhibit considerable ductility. (Plastic cross-sections when used as beams, will fail by
formation of plastic hinges)

Secondary Member - Secondary member is that which is provided for stability and or
restraining the main members from buckling or similar modes of failure.

Semi-Compact Section - A cross section capable of developing yield stress at the


extreme fibres, without buckling of any of the component elements (e.g. with a
triangular stress distribution in a beam) but not capable of developing redistribution of
stresses.

Serviceability Limit States - Serviceability Limit States correspond to states beyond


which the criteria for service are no longer met and include deformations and
deflections, which adversely affect the appearance or its proper functioning and
include vibration that causes discomfort to people or damage to the building

Slender Section - In a slender section, local buckling of one of the components will
occur before the attainment of yield stress in extreme fibre.

Welding Terms - Unless otherwise defined in this standard the welding terms used
shall have the meaning given in IS: 812-1957.

Ultimate Limit States - Ultimate Limit States are those associated with collapse or
other forms of structural failure, which may endanger the safety of people. This
includes the loss of equilibrium of the structure (or any part of it), failure by excessive
deformation, rupture etc.

Yield Stress - The minimum yield stress of the material in tension as specified in
relevant Indian Standards.

10
APPENDIX B: Symbols
Cross-sectional area ( used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place)
Respectively the greater and lesser projection of the plate beyond column
Length of side of cap or base
Width of steel flange in encased member
Coefficient
The distance centre to centre of battens Distance
between vertical stiffeners
Respectively the lesser and
greater distances from the sections
neutral axis to the extreme fibres
Overall depth of beam
Depth of girder - to be taken as the clear distance between the flange angles or where there
are no flange angles the clear distance between flanges ignoring fillets
Diameter of the reduced end of the column
i) For the web of a beam without horizontal stiffeners - the clear distance
between the flanges, neglecting fillets or the clear distance between the
inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate.
ii) For the web of a beam with horizontal stiffeners - the clear distance
between the horizontal stiffener and the tension flange, neglecting fillets
or the inner toes of the tension flange angles as appropriate.
Twice the clear distance from the neutral axis of a beam to the compression flange,
neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate.
The modulus of elasticity for steel, taken as Mpa in this Guide.
Yield stress
Elastic critical stress in bending
Elastic critical stress in compression, also known as Euler critical stress. Gauge
Outstand of the stiffener Moment of
inertia Flexural stiffness
Coefficients
Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet of member to be stiffened
Span/length of the member Effective
length of the member Bending moment
Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section
Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section subjected to bending and axial loads.
Lateral buckling strength in the absence of axial load Number of
parallel planes of battens

11
Coefficient in the Merchant Rankine formula, assumed as 1.4 Axial force, compressive
or tensile Calculated maximum load capacity of a strut Calculated maximum load
capacity as a tension member Euler load
Yield strength of axially loaded section The
reaction of the beam at the support Radius of gyration
of the section
Transverse distance between centroids of rivets groups or welding Staggered pitch
Mean thickness of compression flange used with subscripts has been defined at
appropriate place) Thickness of web Transverse shear Longitudinal shear
Calculated maximum shear capacity of a section Total load
Pressure or loading on the underside of the base Plastic
modulus of the section Ratio of smaller to larger moment
Stiffness ratio
Slenderness ratio of the member; ratio of the effective length to the appropriate radius of
gyration

Characteristic slenderness ratio =

Maximum permissible compressive stress in an axially loaded strut not subjected to


bending
Maximum permissible tensile stress in an axially loaded tension member not subjected to
bending
Maximum permissible compressive stress in slab base
Maximum permissible compressive stress due to bending in a member not
subjected to axial force.
Maximum permissible tensile stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial
force
Maximum permissible stress in concrete in compression
Maximum permissible equivalent stress
Maximum permissible bearing stress in a member
Maximum permissible bearing stress in a fastener
Maximum permissible stress in steel in compression
Maximum permissible stress in axial tension in fastener
Calculated average axial compressive stress
Calculated average stress in a member due to an axial tensile force
Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a
principal axis

12
Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis
Calculated tensile stress in a member due to bending about both principal axes

Maximum permissible average shear stress in a member Maximum


permissible shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress
in fastener
Ratio of the rotation at the hinge point to the relative elastic rotation of the far end of the
beam segment containing plastic hinge angle of twist (in a beam subjected to torsion)
Coefficient
Ratio of total area of both the flanges at the point of least bending moment to the
corresponding area at the point of greatest bending moment Ratio of moment of inertia of
the compression flange alone to that of the sum of the moments of inertia of the flanges each
calculated about its own axis parallel to the y-y axis of the girder, at the point of maximum
bending moment.

NOTE - The subscript x, y denote the x-x and y-y axes of the section respectively. For
symmetrical sections, x-x denotes the major principal axis whilst y-y denotes the minor
principal axis.

13
APPENDIX C: Relevant Indian Standards

IS:

226-1975 Structural steel (standard quality) (fifth revision) 456-2000 Code of


practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision) 696-1972 Code of practice for
general engineering drawings (second revision) 786-1967 (Supplement) SI supplement
to Indian Standard conversion factors and
conversion tables (first revision) 800-1984 Code
of Practice for General Construction in Steel
801-1975 Code of Practice for the use of cold-formed light gauge steel structural
members in general building construction 812-1957
Glossary of terms relating to welding and cutting of metals 813-1961
Scheme of symbols for welding
814 Covered electrodes for metal arc welding of structural steels:
(Part 1) - 1991 Part 1 for welding products other than sheets
(Part 2) - 1991 Part 2 for welding sheets 816-1969 Code of practice for
use of metal arc welding for general construction in
mild steel (first revision) 817-1966 Code of practice for training and
testing of metal arc welders (revised) 819-1957 Code of practice for resistance spot
welding for light assemblies in mild
steel
875-1987 Code of practice for structural safety of buildings: Loading standards
919-1963 Recommendations for limits and fits for engineering (revised) 961-1975
Structural steel (high tensile) (Second revision)
962-1967 Code of practice for architectural and building drawings (first revision)
1024-1992 Code of practice for use of welding in bridges and structures subject to
dynamic loading
1030-1982 Carbon steel castings for general engineering purposes (second revision)
1148-1973 Hot-rolled steel rivet bars (up to 40mm diameter) for structural purposes
(second revision) 1149-1982 High tensile steel rivet bars for structural
purposes 1261-1959 Code of practice for seam welding in mild steel 1278-1972 Filler
rods and wires for gas welding (second revision) 1323-1962 Code of practice for
oxy-acetylene welding for structural work in mild
steel (revised)
1363-1967 Black hexagon bolts, nuts and lock nuts (diameter 6 to 39mm) and black
hexagon screws (diameter 6 to 24 mm) (first revision) 1364-1967
Precision and semi-precision hexagon bolts, screws, nuts and lock nuts
(diameter range 6 to 39 mm) (first revision) 1367-1967 Technical supply
conditions for threaded fasteners (first revision) 1393-1961 Code of practice for training
and testing of oxy-acetylene welders 1395-1982 Molybdenum and chromium
molybdenum vanadium low alloy steel
electrodes for metal arc welding (third revision)
1477 Code of practice for painting of ferrous metals in buildings:
(Part 1) - 1995 Part 1 Pre-treatment

173
(Part 2) - 1995 Part 2 Painting 1893-1991 Criteria for earthquake resistant
design of structures (third revision) 1929-1961 Rivets for general purposes (12 to 48 mm
diameter) 1977-1975 Structural steel (ordinary quality) (second revision) 2062-1992
Weldable structural steel (third revision) 2155-1982 Rivets for general purposes (below 12
mm diameter) 3613-1974 Acceptance tests for wire-flux combinations for submerged-arc
welding of
structural steels (first revision)
3640-1967 Hexagon fit bolts
3757-1972 High-tensile friction grip bolts (first revision)
4000-1967 Code of practice for assembly of structural joints using high tensile friction
grip fasteners
5369-1975 General requirements for plain washers and lock washers (first revision)
5370-1969 Plain washers with outside diameter 3 times inside diameter 5372-1975
Taper washers for channels (ISMC) (first revision) 5374-1975 Taper washers for I-beams
(ISMB) (first revision)
6419-1971 Welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc welding of structural
steel
6560-1972 Molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel welding rods
and base electrodes for gas shielded arc welding 6610-1972 Heavy
washers for steel structures 6623-1972 High tensile friction grip nuts 6639-1972
Hexagon bolts for steel structures 6649-1972 High tensile friction grip washers.
7205-1973 Safety code for erection of structural steel work 7215-1974 Tolerances for
fabrication of steel structures 7280-1974 Bare wire electrodes for submerged arc welding
of structural steels 7307 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welding procedures: Part I Fusion
welding of
steel
7310 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders working to approved welding procedures:
Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 7318 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders
when welding procedure is not required:
Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 8500-1977 Weldable structural steel
(medium and high strength qualities) 9595-1980 Recommendations for metal arc welding
of carbon and carbon manganese
steels.
SP6 - 1972 Handbook for Structural Engineers - Application of Plastic theory in the
Design of Steel Structures

174
APPENDIX D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis 1.0 An

Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis

Due to the complexity of the Torsion analysis, a simple approach often adopted by structural
designers for rapid design of steel structures is known as the bi-moment method and is
sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. The applied torque is replaced by a couple of
horizontal forces acting in the plane of the top and bottom flanges as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

When a uniform torque is applied to an open section restrained against warping, the member
itself will be in non-uniform torsion. The angle of twist, therefore, varies along the member
length. The rotation of the section will be accompanied by bending of flanges in their own
plane. The direct and shear stresses caused are shown in Fig. 3.

For an section, the warping resistance can be interpreted in a simple way. The applied
torque is resisted by a couple comprising the two forces equal to the shear forces in each
flange. These forces act at a distance equal to the depth between the centroids of each flange.

Each of these flanges can be visualised as a separate beam subjected to bending moments
produced by the forces This leads to bending stresses in the flanges. These are termed
Warping Normal Stresses.

The magnitude of the warping normal stress at any particular point in the cross section is
given by

Where = normalized warping function at a particular point in the cross section

16
176
An approximate method of calculating the normalised warping function for any section is
described in by Nethercot etal. The in-plane shear stresses are called Warping shear stresses.
They are constant across the thickness of the element. Their magnitude varies along the length
of the element. The magnitude of the warping shear stress at any given point is given by

where = Warping statical moment of area at a particular point Values of warping normal
stress and in-plane shear stress are tabulated in standard steel tables produced by steel makers.

1.1 The effect of Torsional Rigidity (GJ) and Warping Rigidity (ET) on the
Design of Sections

The warping deflections due to the displacement of the flanges vary along the length of the
member. Both direct and shear stresses are generated in addition to those due to bending and
pure torsion. The stiffness of the member associated with the former stresses is directly
proportional to the warping rigidity,

When the torsional rigidity is very large compared to the warping rigidity, then the
section will effectively be in "uniform torsion". Closed sections (e.g. rectangular or square
hollow sections) angles and Tees behave this way, as do most flat plates and all circular
sections. Conversely if is very small compared with the member will effectively be
subjected to warping torsion. Most thin walled open sections fall under this category. Hot
rolled sections as well as channel sections exhibit a torsional
behaviour in between these two extremes. In other words, the members will be in a state of
non-uniform torsion and the loading will be resisted by a combination of uniform (St.Venant's)
and warping torsion.

1.2 End Conditions

The end support conditions of the member influence the torsional behaviour significantly; three
ideal situations are described below. (It must be noted that torsional fixity is essential at least in
one location to prevent the structural element twisting bodily). Warping fixity cannot be
provided without also ensuring torsional fixity.

The following end conditions are, therefore, relevant for torsion calculations

• Torsion fixed, Warping fixed: This means that the twisting along the longitudinal (Z) axis
and also the warping of cross section at the end of the member are prevented. =0
at the end). This is also called "fixed" end condition.

177
• Torsion fixed, Warping free: This means that the cross section at the end of the member
cannot twist, but is allowed to warp. This is also called "pinned" end
condition.

• Torsion free, Warping free: This means that the end is free to twist and warp. The
unsupported end of cantilever illustrates this condition. (This is also called "free" end
condition).

Effective warping fixity is difficult to provide. It is not enough to provide a connection,


which provides fixity for bending about both axes. It is also necessary to restrain the
flanges by additional suitable reinforcements. It may be more practical to assume "warping
free" condition even when the structural element is treated as "fixed" for bending.

2.0 Pure Torsion and Warping

When a torque is applied only at the ends of a member such that the ends are free to warp,
then the member would develop only pure torsion.

The total angle of twist over a length of is given by

Where = applied torque


= Torsional Rigidity

When a member is in non-uniform torsion, the rate of change of angle of twist will vary
along the length of the member. The warping shear stress at a point is given by

Where = Modulus of elasticity


= Warping statical moment at a particular point S chosen.

The warping normal stress due to bending moment in-plane of flanges (bi-moment) is
given by

where = Normalised warping function at the chosen point S.

3.0 Combined Bending and Torsion

There will be an interaction between the torsional and flexural effects, when a load
produces both bending and torsion. The angle of twist caused by torsion would be
amplified by bending moment, inducing additional warping moments and torsional

178
shears. This is analogous to the checks for buckling effects in columns due
to effects.The following design checks are suggested in the SCI publication "Design of
members subject to combined Bending and Torsion' by Nethercot, Salter and Malik.

3.1 Maximum Stress Check or "Capacity check"

The maximum stress at the most highly stressed cross section is limited to the design
strength Assuming elastic behaviour and assuming that the loads produce
bending about the major axis in addition to torsion, the longitudinal direct stresses will
be due to three causes.

is dependent on which itself is dependent on the major axis moment and the
twist

Methods of evaluating for various conditions of loading and boundary


conditions are given in the SCI publication referred above.

3.2 Buckling Check

Whenever lateral torsional buckling governs the design (i.e. when is less than the
values of and will be amplified. The SCI publication has suggested a simple
"buckling check" along lines similar to BS 5950, part 1

179
3.3 Applied Loading having both Major axis and Minor Axis Moments

When the applied loading produces both major axis and minor axis moments, the "capacity
checks" and the "buckling checks" are modified as follows:

Capacity check:

3.4 Torsional Shear Stress check

Torsional shear stresses and warping shear stresses should also be amplified in a similar manner:

This shear stress should be added to the shear stresses due to bending in checking the adequacy
of the section.

180
APPENDIX E: Location of Neutral Axis

(1) For concrete encased steel sections: Major

axis bendins

181
Note: is the sum of the

reinforcement area within the region

of (2) For concrete filled tubular

sections Major axis bending

Note:

• For circular tubular section substitute


For minor axis bending the same equations can be used by
interchanging and as well as the subscripts and

182
INSDAG'S ACTIVITIES AND PUBLICATIONS

During the past three and half years, INSDAG has undertaken some important projects and already published
some valuable documents. Some of the projects are currently on going and the publications will be available in
appropriate times.

Following are a brief glimpse on some of the activities of INSDAG:

A. Publications Avalable For Sale

1. Directory of Steel Supply Chain

The Institute compiled and printed 'Directory of Steel Supply Chain' for improving interaction among
professionals engaged directly or indirectly in the business of steel. It contains contact details of more than 5000
architects, builders, designers, consultants, fabricators, steel producers, re-rollers, importers etc. The directory
fulfills long-standing need of professionals in the country.

Publication No INS/PUB/001 Price Rs 685/-

2. Buyer's Manual (including CD ROM)

The professionals in the steel supply chain have also been in need of a source book for obtaining ready
reference for their steel product needs. The 'Buyer's Manual' brought out by the Institute is a very useful
document, which has a listing of about 220 steel companies/traders/importers etc. The manual contains details
of products, grades of steel and marketing procedure including lead time, minimum order quantity etc. The
manual is also available in the form of user-friendly CD version.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 002

Price Rs 350/- for hardcopy and CD ROM version separately, and Rs 550/- for a complete set of hardcopy and
CD ROM together.

3. Reference Manual for Structural Engineers

Since the existing BIS Structural Engineers Handbook (last revised in 1964) does not contain information about
sectional properties of all the presently available sections from the producers and import as required by
designers, INSDAG has prepared and published up-to-date "Reference Manual for Structural Engineers". In
addition to sectional properties, the Manual also contains brief extract from important codes, details of producers
etc.

Publication No INS/PUB/003 Price Rs 450/-

4. Handbook on Composite Construction: Bridges and Flyover

Steel-concrete Composite Construction is widely used in the advanced countries. Their popularity is largely due
to the speed with which bridges / flyovers can be constructed in busy metros. In

8
order to provide guidance to the professionals to use this technology for design of bridges and flyovers, one
handbook, based on Indian codes, has been prepared, printed and widely circulated. This handbook is user
friendly and contains 4 sample calculations for 16 metre and 24 metre spans along with properties of Composite
Sections to help in designing similar problems quickly and accurately.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 004 Price Rs 525/-

5. Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges

Corrosion has been told to be the major problem for application of steel in construction sector. In order to
provide the engineers proper technical write-up about occurrence of corrosion and ways to overcome it as being
done in the developed countries, a comprehensive corrosion protection guide publication has been published.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 005 Price Rs 85/-

6. Case Studies on Pre-Engineered Buildings and Space Frame

Pre-engineered buildings and space frames are widely employed in the advanced countries in view of their
multifarious benefits such as: significant saving in time of designing, construction, erection and cost apart from
being aesthetically elegant. With a view to popularize their use in India, nine case studies of such constructions
recently executed in the country have been prepared and published.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 016 Price Rs 285/-

7. Life Cycle Cost Study on Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System

INSDAG has carried out a techno-economic study on life cycle cost assessment of elevated viaducts for the
proposed Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System Limited with the steel intensive construction route. It has been
observed that though the initial cost of the concrete intensive option was 10 percent lower than the steel
intensive option, the life cycle cost of the steel option is economical to the owner by 49 percent as well as the
BOOT partner by 28 percent. Further detailed analysis has also been made. The study was made in April 2000.

Base paper Price Rs 200/-

8. Life Cycle Cost Assessment of a Typical Urban Flyover

Though presently steel intensive construction is not able to compete with concrete construction on the initial cost
basis, life cycle cost (LCC) is generally favourable. In the advanced countries, LCC is often used an important
tool for decision- making. Keeping this in view, an interesting life cycle cost assessment study has been made
fore a typical urban flyover for two city locations. The work has been done in association with two leading
consultants: M/s STUP Consultants Ltd and M/s CES (I) Pvt. Ltd.

Publication No INS/PUB/017 Price Rs 600/-


9. Welding Guide for Structural Steel

Various steel products—sections in the form of joists, channels, angles, SHS/RHS and plates of different
thicknesses are now available in the domestic market. Though different steel companies and welding suppliers
have published some information on welding aspects of their specific products using proprietary consumables,
this welding guide will provide consolidated information covering structural steel grades, which could serve a
useful reference for the Supervisors/Practicing Engineers engaged in steelwork. The guide is broadly divided
into seven chapters namely: Structural steel and welding; Welding process and joints; Electrodes and
Equipment; Welding defects, controls and care; Weld economics and cost calculations; Inspection and
acceptance criteria; and other useful information.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 018 Price Rs 250/-

10. Handbooks on Composite Construction : Multilevel Carparks

With the same objective of Composite Construction: Bridge and Flyover handbook, design guidebooks are also
being prepared on Car Parks (Part 2) and Buildings (Part 3) under the steel intensive composite construction
route. The outcome of this study indicates that initial direct cost of 5 level & 7 level steel intensive Carpark is
lower than that of RCC option.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 019 on Car Park Price Rs 625/-

11. Survey of Important Rail Bridges

It had been planned to conduct survey of about 100 important rail bridges to ascertain the performance of steel
bridges vis-a-vis RCC and pre-stressed concrete bridges. With the help and support from ED (B&S), RDSO and
railway officials in different zones, about 50 rail bridges were visited for data collection, and relevant data for
another about 50 bridges have been collected. It has been observed that bridges with steel superstructure
constructed even more than 100 years ago are still functioning well.

Publication No: INS/PUB/020 Price Rs 350/-

12. Handbook on Structural Steel Detailing

To simplify the fabrication process by bringing about uniformity in detailing as also to reduce the risk of corrosion
and to provide technical aid to small fabricators and designers, a Handbook on Steel Detailing is have been
prepared. It is spread over 12 chapters and 6 Appendices namely: Joining; Splices; Trusses; Beam to Beam
Connection; and Ladders, Stairs and Hand Railings etc. The book is comprised of about 230 pages including
180 figures and 37 tables.

Publication No.: INS/PUB/021 Price Rs 825/-

13. Handbook on Composite Construction: Multi-Storey Buildings

INSDAG brought out this publication to promote steel-concrete composite construction in Multi-Storey Building.
Write-up on design aspects of composite beams, columns & composite

10
slabs using profiled deck. This design handbook also covers the complete detail design of a typical G+3 &
B+G+9 storeyed Residential & Commercial Buildings.

Publication No.: INS/PUB/022 Price Rs 625/-

14. Economics of Two Steel Framed Commercial Buildings: Under Initial Cost and Life Cycle
Cost Assessment Route

Steel intensive construction for buildings is gradually becoming a subject of interest in India, though its cost
effectiveness is often questioned. The sustainability of construction is also another important modern concept for
buildings. Keeping this in view, a study on the construction cost, total initial cost and life cycle cost assessment
of two typical urban commercial buildings has been done in association with leading consultants like M N Dastur
& Co Private Ltd. and Development Consultants Private Ltd.

Publication No.: INS/PUB/023 Price Rs 600/-

15. Design of Composit Truss for Building

Rolled/fabricated beams are commonly being used as the structural members of medium span
structures.Moreover for longer spans, use of steel truss as the structural member of composite section is most
desired. Use of steel-concrete composite truss is ideally suited for applications in community halls, industrial
buildings, office buildings, conference halls etc. where large column free spans are a necessity. The publication
mainly covers framing, analysis and connection details followed in advanced countries. It also contains a
detailed example covering all important aspects of design by limit state method.

Publication No.: INS/PUB/034 Price Rs. 475/-

16. Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement
Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways

Rigid pavement is widely used in the developed countries. Some beginning has been made in our country also.
On life cycle cost basis rigid pavements are very cost effective due much lower vehicle operating cost &
maintenance cost. In order to assess the most cost effective pavement solution for National Highways &
Expressways INSDAG carried out a study on CRCP and published a document entitled "Life Cycle Cost
Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways
and Expressways". The outcome of the study reveals that the LCC cost of CRCP is much lower than flexible
pavement. An analysis, based on the applicable Indian, AASHTO and British Standards as well as based on the
published literature, shows that LCC cost of CRCP is lower than jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP).
Accordingly CRCP is the best long-term pavement solution both on cost as well as maintenance point of view for
National highways & expressways.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 035 Price: Rs. 325/-


17. Guidebook on Steel Doors and Windows for Domestic Use

Traditionally wooden doors and windows have been used in places like homes, offices, hotels, flats, factories
and hospitals. With the developments taken place in advanced countries, steel doors and windows are now
being preferred for various applications. This publication provides general and technical information concerning
steel doors & windows. Users of windows, doors and related accessories will find it very useful in terms of
design, manufacturing process, sourcing and application of these products. This guidebook is broadly divided
into seven chapters namely: Introduction; Steel windows; Steel Doors; Standards for Manufacturing; Corrosion
Protection & Maintenance; Cost Index & Practices and Bibliography. The beneficiaries of this publication are
buyers, specifiers / procurement officers, manufacturers, distributors/ retailers, architects, designers, builders
and suppliers, policy-workers and government officials.

Publication No INS/PUB/ 036 Price: Rs. 300/-

18.(B+G+20) Storied Residential Building with Steel-Concrete Composite Option

In India residential buildings are coming up in numbers with a height of 20 storied and above to accommodate
the influx of population to Metros which are facing severe space constraint. This publication covers a study on
the cost effectiveness of the fast-track Steel -Concrete Composite construction in comparison with the RCC
option based on the same type plan of a (B+G+20) storied residential building which has been collected from a
live example. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter
cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc., which has indicated substantial savings over its
RCC option. The design of the structural elements have been carried out following relevant Indian/foreign
standards in Limit State Method of Design both for RCC and Composite construction, this book helps the
builders, designers, Architects to selects an econoimic and safe Technical option for their projects.

Publication No.: INS/PUB/047 Price Rs 650/-

19. (G+3) & (G+6) Storied Residential Buildings with Steel -Concrete Composite Option

In the publication the modern trend of Steel-Concrete Composite construction has been considered. It also
includes a study of the cost effectiveness of the steel-Concrete Composite options vis-a-vis RCC option based
on the type plan of (G+3) & (G+6) storied residential buildings collected from a live example. The Composite
options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2
Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc., which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option. The design of
the Structural elements has been carried out in Limit State Method of Design following Indian/foreign standards
both for RCC & Composite options.

Publication No.: INS/PUB/048 Price Rs 650/-

20. Typical Design of Cost-effective Rural Housing

Housing is considered as one of the major problems in the world. The habitation conditions of the Indian
villagers particularly need to be improved. This publication includes a Housing scheme with Steel in frame
having colums, beams & trusses with SHS sections and Ferro-Cement

12
panels used for roofing and cladding. The housing scheme has been developed with doubled-layered
Ferro-Cement cladding having an air-gap in between and with sufficient openings for ventilation, which makes
habitation comfortable for the villagers, and it is designed to take care of the effects of Earthquake & Wind.
Elevated units also take care of water clogging during monsoon.

Publication No.: INS/PUB/049 Price Rs 3007-

B. Projects Under Progress

1. Design of a Typical cyclone / Flood relief Center at Paradip

At the instance of JPC - one of the major stakeholders, INSDAG had prepared a steel intensive design for a
raised two-storey school building (15 m X 15 m X 8 m) with required wind loading to be used as a cyclone/flood
relief center in Paradeep, Orissa.

2. Road Island Project

INSDAG has prepared a design of an exquisite inverted pyramid (top: 16 m X 16 m; height: 8 m) of tubular
structure displaying steel application in a typical road island.

3. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures

Steel is globally used for earthquake resistant structures. In view of the need for speedy rehabilitation and
reconstruction of earthquake affected areas in Gujarat and based on interaction made with various agencies, the
Institute had prepared general arrangement drawings of 7 variants (260 sq. ft. for rural areas; 435 sq. ft., 640
sq.ft. and 840 sq.ft. in G+1 and G+3 modules) with the help of a leading consultant and submitted to concerned
authorities in Gujarat. Later on, the Institute has also developed detail-engineering drawings for the
single-storeyed building and the G+3 building (640 sqft appartments) and submitted to the concerned authorities
in Gujarat. These drawings are available for sale.

4. Teaching Resource for Structural Steel Design for Faculty of Civil/Structural Engg.

The project on Teaching Resource for Structrual Steel Design for the Faculty of Civil/Structural Engineering has
been pursued by the Expert Team (Dr V Kalyanraman, Dr A R Santhakumar, DrS.R. Satish Kumar, DrS.
Seetharaman, Mr A. Jayachandran and others) under the leadership of Dr. R. Narayanan, expert from Steel
Construction Institute, UK. Preparation of all the 45 chapters for one semester course had been completed after
expert reviews.

Six Workshops for the university faculty have been organized at six different places namely IIT-Chennai,
IIT-Mumbai, BE College(DU)-Howrah, Delhi College of Engineering-Delhi, Malviya National Institute of
Technology-Jaipur and IIT-Roorkee with total involvement of the expert team to train approximately 220
teachers from 173 engineering colleges using the state-of-art teaching material. All the 45 chapters are available
in the INSDAG website www.steel-insdag.org.
Technical volumes are available for sale. Price Rs 2500/- for full set (Rs 3000/- with CD). Only CD ROM is
available at Rs 800/- only.

5. Refresher Courses on Composite Construction

Improving knowledge and skill of professionals in design using composite construction has been identified as an
important area of activity. Twelve refresher courses had been conducted till December 2002. These consist of
two at Calcutta, two at Chennai, one each at Delhi, Bhubaneswar, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Ranchi and
IITGuwahati.

About 250 professionals and 50 faculties have been exposed to composite construction technology. Considering
the importance of ductile design of steel structures, concept of earthquake resistant design had also been
included in the lecture material of some refresher courses.

The technical volumes are available for sale. Price Rs 800/- (for each course)

C. Steel Promotional Brochures

The Institute has published five attractive promotional/ awareness brochures for free distribution to target
customers such as designers, consultants, architects, builders at various conferences and other forums:

• Pre-engineered Buildings

• Steel —The Right Choice for Building Construction

• Steel — The Trusted Material for Bridges and Flyovers

• Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges

• Steel Car Parks - A Worldwide Choice

D. Regular Publications of Insdag

1. Insdag's Steel in Construction - a half yearly technical journal Price Rs 90/-

2. INSDAG News - a quarterly news bulletin Price Rs 20/-

3. Insdag E-News Letter - Monthly Free

E. Other Activities

1. Student Award Scheme for Best Innovative Use of Steel inArchitecture

In the fourth year (2002 - 03) for the "Student Award Scheme for the Innovative Use of Steel in Architecture", an
exciting brief entitled "World Class Shopping Plaza" had been prepared and circulated to more than 100 Schools
of Architecture / Engineering Colleges. The last date of recipt of entries is 30th January 2003 The entries will be
evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April 2003. The final selection will be done in June 2003.

14
2. Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative
Structural Steel Design

In the third year (2002 - 2003) for the "Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best
Innovative Structural Steel Design", an exciting brief on the theme of "Elevated Light Rail Transit System" has
been prepared and circulated to more than 240 Engineering Institutions. The last date of receipt of entries is 31 st
March 2003. The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April-May 2003. The final
selection will be done in July 2003.

3. Interfacing with the MOS

The Institute has prepared technical documents/Vision Paper for consideration/perusal by concerned authorities:

o Use of steel crash barriers on bridges and highways

o Input paper on National Steel Policy with particular focus on construction sector

o Justification for adoption of steel scaffolding in place of bamboo/wood based on life cycle costing and
safety requirement

4. Review of Relevant Documents for Modification of IRC 22, IRC 24 and some IS codes.

Advances on knowledge of structural behaviour resulting from research need to be adopted in design practice
for innovative / efficient design techniques. This necessitated modification of Codes of Practices (BIS/IRC Codes
which have not kept pace with the technological improvements in latest design methodologies), pertaining to
construction in steel as well as steel-concrete composite.

INSDAG has been involved in IRC B-7 Committee engaged in revision of IRC 22, 24 pertaining to construction
of composite, steel bridges respectively, and a Committee on IS 800 engaged in modifying the Code of Practice
for use of structural steel in general building construction to limit state method. Also, INSDAG has been included
in a sub-committee entrusted to preparation of "Guidelines for design of Composite / Steel Box Girder bridges"
considered to be cost effective for relatively higher spans where composite bridges using steel plate girders are
not economical compared to other competitive options.

To make the design of steel bridges as well as steel-concrete composite bridges economical and rational based
on the state-of-the-art methodologies, modifications have been suggested to clauses pertaining of deflection
stipulation, modular ratio and shear connector capacity in the present design environment (working stress
method). It has been estimated that amended clause on deflection stipulation itself will reduce the weight of
bridge girder to the tune of 13 percent.

F. Copyright Publications From SCI, UK

In addition to the above, INSDAG has published 20 important documents under copyright from the steel
Construction Institute, UK on steel intensive design of structures. A list of such publications is provided below: