100%(1)Il 100% ha trovato utile questo documento (1 voto)

2K visualizzazioni198 pagineJan 12, 2011

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

100%(1)Il 100% ha trovato utile questo documento (1 voto)

2K visualizzazioni198 pagineAttribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Sei sulla pagina 1di 198

STEELWORK IN BUILDINGS

Compiled by:

Dr. V. Kalyanraman

Published by:

Institute for Steel Development And Growth

Ispat Niketan', First Floor 52/1A

Ballygunge Circular Road Kolkata -

700 019

Phone: (033) 2461 4045/47/66/76, Fax: (033) 2461 4048 E-mail:

insdag@giascl2.vsnl.net.in; insdag@caj2^nLneLui

REVISED PRICE

Copyright reserved 1 0 0 0 / -

52/1 A , Bally gunge CUcuUi Road

-Kolkata-700019

Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge that all the data

and information contained herein are correct to the extent that they relate to either

matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication,

Institute for Steel Development And Growth (INSDAG) assumes no responsibility for

any errors in or mis-interpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or

damage arising from or related to their use. __________________________________

US E M O R E S T E EL - T H E P R EF E RR E D M AT ER I A L O F TH E N E W

M IL L EN IUM

FOREWARD

INSDAG has played a pivotal role over the last few years in propagating the

awareness amongst students, faculties of various engineering institutes and experts

and professionals from various industries, about the advantages and benefits of usage

of steel in the construction sector.

industrial, that the main stumbling block in the development of the steel construction

industry in India is the primitiveness of the methods of design adopted by the Indian

codes as against the international codes which allow higher flexibility in design

approach. The relevant Indian codes of practice (IS: 800-1984 and IS: 801-1975)

applicable for hot-rolled and cold-formed steel are based on the "Allowable Stress

Design" approach as against the more internationally popular "Limit State Method"

approach which has been proved to be technically sound and its use results in

optimum economy of the structure.

With the technical contributions from leading academics and professionals, INSDAG

has already brought out various publications on the design methodology of steel

structures using the Limit State Method of Design (LSM), which have been beneficial

to the engineering fraternity in learning the most intricate facets in LSM design.

On request from INSDAG, this publication in the form of a Guide book has been

written and compiled by Dr. Rangachari Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman for the

benefit of not only the student community both under-graduate and post graduate

level, but also other engineering professionals across the country, since most of the

engineering institutions have started including the LSM design in their curriculum and

also the engineering professionals need to update themselves with the latest

technological advancements. The publication is very timely as it coincides with the

revision of IS: 800- 1984, which is at its advanced stage.

The entire book has been reviewed by^Dr. T. K. Bandyopadhyay, Deputy Director

General and Mr. Arijit Guha, Manager (Civil & Structural). Comments and

suggestions received from a large number of faculty member*, have been

incorporated. INSDAG expresses its indebtedness to Dr. R. Narayanan and Dr. V.

Kalyanraman, academics and researchers of international experience for agreeing to

bring'out this publication.

Kolkata: February 2003

Special Note

The entire document has been written considering Limit State Method of

design following stipulations laid down in the relevant British code, BS:

5950 Part -1, 3 & 5 and Eurocode - 3 & 4. Since IS: 800 (Code of

Practice for General Construction in Steel) is presently being revised to

Limit State version, this guide book may undergo certain modifications in

some chapters after the publication of revised IS: 800 (LSM version) to

accommodate the possible variation in stipulations that are likely to be

considered in the revised code.

of Civil I Structural Engineering to understand the theoretical

background associated with advancement in structural steel

design based on Limit State Method. ______________________________

CONTENTS

Pages

1. General 2-3

2. Material 4-4

3. General Design Requirements 5-15

4. Tension Members 16 - 18

5. Classification of Cross Sections 19 - 21

6. Axially Loaded Columns 22-31

7. Design of Members Subjected to Bending 32 - 58

8. Elements Subjected to Axial force and Bending 59 - 64

9. Beams of Hot Rolled Sections Subjectedto Torsion and

65 - 65

10. Portal Frames 66 - 72

11. Multi - Storey Buildings 73-88

12. Connection Design 89 - 109

13. Cold Formed Steel Sections 110 - 130

14. Basic Concepts of Composite Construction 131 - 139

15. Composite Beams and Slabs 140 - 153

16. Steel - Concrete Composite Columns 154 - 167

LIST OF APPENDICES

B. Appendix- B : Symbols 170-172

C. Appendix - C: Relevant Indian Standards 173 - 174

D. Appendix - D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis 175 - 180

E. Appendix - E: Location of Neutral Axis 181 - 182

PREFACE

The low usage of structural steel in India is attributable in part to the prevailing out-of-date design

practices, which result in uneconomic designs. The relevant Indian Codes of Practice (IS: 800 - 1984,

IS: 801 - 1975) applicable to the structural use of hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel are largely based on

"Working Stress Method". The more modern "Limit State Design Approach" developed in the 1970's in

the West, is technologically sound and results in significant economies in completed structures. This is

of particular advantage, as steel is reusable and environment friendly. Compared with competing

materials of construction, steel framed buildings have significantly better blast and earthquake resistance

and take less than half the time to build. In passing, it may be noted that the Indian Codes of Practice

applicable to concrete structures have been revised to conform to Limit State Methodology. This makes

the choice of steel in construction an uneconomic proposition. It is also noted that the Code of Practice

for steel-concrete-composite buildings (IS: 11384 - 1985) is based on the Limit State approach but is

very limited in its coverage, besides being inconsistent with IS: 800 and IS: 801 written in Working

Stress format.

This situation posed a challenge, when the Government of India, Ministry of Steel initiated steps to

rectify the skills shortage in Steel Construction in 1998. The newly started Institute for Steel

Development and Growth (INSDAG) was entrusted with the tasks of (a) improving the teaching

standards of Structural Steel Design in Indian Universities, (b) organising in-career courses for

enhancing the level of competence of practising engineers (c) publishing design guidance documents for

disseminating latest Steel Design Technology (d) organising design competitions for encouraging

state-of-the art Structural Steel Designs. As a part of that initiative, an up-to-date Resource Material for

disseminating the latest Steel Design Technology has been compiled and published in the web site of

INSDAG (www.steel-insdag.org). This Design Guide has been complied, as a complementary document

and has been drafted after studying the background research work carried out largely in the Western

World, which led to the latest British, American, Canadian, Australian and European Codes. Many of

the design specifications contained herein have been adopted from these Western Codes and will

hopefully serve as a Draft document, when the Bureau of Indian Standards eventually decides to revise

the Steel Codes, relevant to Construction.

The technical support provided by two young engineers, Mr. S. Sambasiva Rao and Miss P. Usha in

compiling this document is gratefully acknowledged.

Dr. T.K. Bandhyopadhyay of INSDAG and Professor A. R. Santhakumar of Anna University had

reviewed the document before its publication as a draft. Suggestions and comments aimed at improving

this document are welcome. We are also grateful to the many engineers - too numerous to mention -

who suggested improvements in the drafting stage.

Rangachari Narayanan V.

Kalyanaraman

1

SECTION 1: GENERAL

1.1 Scope

This Guide provides general recommendations for the design of structural steel work in

buildings and allied structures. In the absence of an Indian Standard written in the modern

Limit State Format for steel construction, this guide generally follows the provisions contained

in British Standard, BS: 5950 (various parts). INSDAG has a Memorandum of Understanding

with the British Steel Construction Institute and several supporting documents are available

from INSDAG at largely discounted prices for the use of steel designers in India. It will not

apply to bridges, chimneys, cranes, tanks, transmission line towers, storage structures, tubular

structures, however, general .principles discussed in this guide could be adopted in the design

of such structures appropriately..

This guide is in three parts and covers the design of building structures using (i) Hot

Rolled Steel section (ii) Cold Rolled Steel sections and (iii) Steel Concrete Composite sections.

The guide provides only general advice regarding the various loads to be considered in design.

For actual loads to be used reference may be made to IS: 875-1987.

This document is NOT a statutory document and intended as a guide for students and practicing

engineers. It is not intended to replace Codes of Practice.

1.2 Terminology - For the purpose of this Guide, the definitions of various terms are given in

Appendix A.

1.4 Reference to other Standards - All the standards referred to in this Guide are listed in

Appendix C and their latest version shall be applicable:

1.5 Units and Conversion Factors - The SI system of units is applicable to this Guide. For

conversion of system of units to another system, IS: 786-1967 (supplement) may be referred.

The dimensions, form, weight, tolerances of all rolled shapes and other members used in any

steel structure shall, wherever available, conform to the appropriate Indian Standards.

The dimensions, form, weight, tolerances of all rivets, bolts, nuts, studs, etc. shall conform to

the requirements of appropriate Indian Standards, wherever available.

2

1.7 Plans and Drawings

Plans, drawings and stress sheet shall be prepared according to IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967.

Plans - The plans (design drawings) shall show the complete design with sizes, sections, and the

relative locations of the various members. Floor levels, column centres, and offsets shall be

dimensioned. Plans shall be drawn to a scale large enough to convey the information adequately.

Plans shall indicate the type of construction to be employed; and shall be supplemented by such

data on the assumed loads, shears, moments and axial forces to be resisted by all members and

their connections, as may be required for the proper preparation of shop drawings. Any special

precaution to be taken in the erection of structure from the design consideration shall also be

indicated in the drawing.

Shop drawings - Shop drawings, giving complete information necessary for the fabrication of

the component parts of the structure including the location, type, size, length and detail of all

welds, shall be prepared in advance of the actual fabrication. They shall clearly distinguish

between shop and field rivets, bolts and welds. For additional information to be included on

drawings for designs based on the use of welding, reference shall be made to appropriate Indian

Standards. Shop drawings shall be made in conformity with IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. A

marking diagram allotting distinct identification marks to each separate part of steelwork shall be

prepared. The diagram shall be sufficient to ensure convenient assembly and erection at site.

It is essential that Steel Designers familiarize themselves with protection methods for structural

steelwork, with regard to fire and corrosion. For a great majority of steel buildings which are not

subject to alternate wetting and drying, corrosion is NOT a problem. Authentic guidance on

protection methods is available from INSDAG.

Symbols for welding used on plans and shop drawings shall be according to IS: 813-1961

3

SECTION 2: MATERIALS

Structural Steel - Ail structural steels used in general construction coming under the purview

of this Guide shall, before fabrication conform to IS: 2062-1984, IS: 8500-1977 and IS:

1977-1975, as appropriate.

Any structural steel other than that specified in 2.1 may also be used provided that the

characteristic yield stresses and other design provisions are suitably modified and the steel is

also suitable for the type of fabrication adopted.

Other Material - All other materials including manufactured products, welding consumables,

steel castings, bolts and nuts and cement concrete shall confirm to the requirements of the

appropriate Indian Standards.*

4

SECTION 3: GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

The aim of structural design is to provide, with due regard to economy, a structure which is fit

for its intended purpose, i.e., it should be capable of fulfilling its intended function and

sustaining the design loads for its intended life. The design should facilitate fabrication,

erection and future maintenance.

The structure should behave as a three-dimensional entity. The layout of its constituent parts,

such as foundations, steelwork, connections and other structural components should constitute a

robust and stable structure under normal loading to ensure that in the event of misuse or

accident, damage will not be disproportionate to the cause. To achieve this, it is necessary to

define clearly the basic structural anatomy by which the loads are transmitted to the

foundations. Any features of the structure, which have a critical influence on its overall

stability, can then be identified and taken account of in design.

Each part of the structure should be sufficiently robust and insensitive to the effects of minor

incidental loads applied during service that the safety of other parts is not prejudiced.

The designer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the

compatibility of design and details of parts and components. There should be no doubt of this

responsibility for overall stability when some or all of the design and details are not made by

the same designer.

Structure should be designed considering the Limit States at which they would become unfit for

their intended purpose. For verifying the adequacy of the structure, appropriate partial safety

factors, based on semi-probabilistic methods described below shall be used. Two partial safety

factors, one applied to forces due to loading and another to the material strength shall

be employed.

allows for;

(a) the possible deviation of the actual behaviour of the structure from that of the analysis and

design model,

(b) the deviation of loads from their specified values and

(c) the reduced probability that the various loads acting together will simultaneously

reach the characteristic value.

5

(e) the possible deviation of the material in the structure from that assumed in design

(f) the possible reduction in the strength of the material from its characteristic value and

(g) manufacturing tolerances.

(h) Mode of failure (ductile/brittle).

where is the calculated factored load effect on the element (like bending moment, shear force etc) and is

the calculated factored resistance of the element being checked, and is a function of the nominal value of the

material yield strength.

is a function of the combined effects of factored dead, live and wind loads.

(Other loads - if applicable, are also considered)

In accordance with the above concepts, the safety format used in this guide is based on probable maximum load

and probable minimum strengths, so that a consistent level of safety is achieved. Thus, the design requirements

are expressed as follows:

where = Design value of internal forces and moments caused by the design Loads,

Characteristic Loads. (From IS: 875 - 1987)

a load factor which is determined on probabilistic basis

when considering yield stress and 1.25 when considering fracture ultimate stress).

It should be noted that IS: 11384 - 1985 (Code of Practice for Composite Construction) has

prescribed for Structural Steel when considering yield stress. The value

suggested is therefore consistent with that.

(1) A limit state is a state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design

requirements.

6

(2) Ultimate limit states are limit states of collapse or other structural failure, which

might endanger the safety of people, including:

• Excessive deformation / formation of mechanism.

• Rupture

• Loss of stability

• Loss of equilibrium

(3) Serviceability limit states are limit states beyond which specified service criteria

are no longer met, including those for:

• Deflection

• Durability

• Ponding

• Vibration

Thus the following limit states may be identified for design purposes and are provided for in terms of

partial factors reflecting the severity of the risks.

• Ultimate Limit State is related to the maximum design load capacity under extreme

conditions. The partial load factors are chosen to reflect the probability of extreme

conditions, when loads act alone or in combination.

• Serviceability Limit State is related to the criteria governing normal use. Unfactored loads

are used to check the adequacy of the structure.

• Fatigue Limit State is important where distress to the structure by repeated loading is a

possibility.

An illustration of partial safety factors suggested for ultimate load conditions is given in Table 3.1.

These values are based on recommendations adopted by Eurocodes. (The Committee formed to review

BIS standards have adopted these values). Reference to the Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant

Design should be made, where appropriate. (At the present time, this Code is being revised).

Loading Yf

DL LL WL

Dead Load (unfavourable effects) 1.35 - -

Dead load restraining uplift or overturning 1.0 - -

Dead Load + Imposed Load 1.35 1.5 -

Dead Load + Wind Load 1.35 - 1.5

Dead Load + Imposed Load + wind Load (Major Load)* 1.35 1.05 1.5

Dead Load + Imposed Load (Major Load) + wind Load* 1.35 1.5 1.05

Crane Load effects (from BS 5950, Parti)

Vertical load 1.6

Horizontal load 1.6

Vertical load acting with horizontal load 1.4

(Crabbing or Surge) 1.2 1.2 1.2

Crane load acting with Wind load

*If in doubt, calculations for both conditions are needed

7

3.4 Loading

3.4.1 Types of loads - For the purpose of computing the maximum stresses in any

structure or member of a structure, the following loads and secondary effects shall be

taken into account, where applicable:

a) Dead Loads, Imposed loads and Wind loads (as per IS: 875 - 1987)

b) Earthquake loads (as per IS: 1893 - 1991)

c) Erection loads; and

d) Secondary effects due to contraction or expansion resulting from temperature changes,

creep in steel, shrinkage and creep in contiguous concrete members, differential settlements

of the structure as a whole and its components.

e) For fire resistant design and fire rating, reference may be made to appropriate specialist

publications [For example, Design guide on Structural Fire Safety C1B-W14)

3.4.2 Erection loads - All loads required to be carried by the structure or any part of it

due to storage or positioning of construction material and erection equipment including

all loads due to operation of such equipment shall be considered as 'erection loads'.

Proper provision shall be made, including temporary bracings to take care of all stresses

due to erection loads. The structure as a whole and all parts of the structure in conjunction

with the temporary bracings shall be capable of sustaining these erection loads. Dead

load, wind load and also such parts of the live load as would be imposed on the structure

during the period of erection shall be taken as acting together with the erection loads.

(a) Expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature of the materials of a structure

shall be considered and adequate provision made for the effects produced.

(b) The temperature range varies for different localities and under different diurnal and

seasonal conditions. Published data should be consulted in assessing the maximum

variations of temperature for which provision for expansion and contraction has to be

allowed in the structure.

(c) The co-efficient of expansion for steel shall be taken as 0.000012 per degree centigrade per

unit length.

The requirements for all buildings to maintain Structural integrity (as prescribed by BS: 5950, Part 1

following the Ronan Point Collapse) are given below:

Structures should remain as complete integral units even when (due to an accident such as explosion)

one of the members fail or become inoperative. This requirement provides a

8

significant measure of safety for the occupants and is termed "Structural integrity requirement" or

"Robustness requirement".

All building frames should be effectively tied together at each principal floor and roof level, in both

directions. Either the beams or tie members should be designed so that they provide for the anchorage.

Ties may be steel members or steel reinforcement, which are properly anchored to the steel frame work.

Each section between expansion joints should be treated as a separate building. These requirements are

aimed at ensuring that the collapse of one element of a structure does not trigger the failure of the

structure as a whole. By tying the structure together, it is possible to ensure that there is an alternative

load path that would help to avoid progressive collapse.

Suggested requirements for integrity of buildings of five storeys or more are given below:

• For sway resistance, no portion of structures should be dependent on only one bracing

system.

• The minimum tie strengths (in respect of the ties referred above) should be

internally and externally (but not less than 75 kN

- total factored load /. unit area

- tie spacing

- distance between columns in the direction

• At the edge of the structure, columns should be restrained by horizontal ties resisting 1%

of column load.

• Columns should be continuous vertically through the floors, as far as possible.

• Column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force of two - thirds of the factored

vertical compressive load on the column below the splice.

• Collapse must not be disproportionate and the role of key elements should be identified.

• Precast floors must be anchored at both ends against sliding of supporting members.

• At each storey in turn any single column or beam carrying a column should be capable of

being removed without causing collapse beyond a limited portion of the building in the

vicinity of the member; in this event substantial permanent deformation may be accepted.

This is termed as " Localisation of damage".

• If the removal of one of these members would cause substantial damage, the member

should be designed as a "key element" so that it has a very low probability of failure. Any

member or other structural component, which provides lateral restraint vital to the "key

element", as well as the "key elements" themselves should be checked for safety and

stability, (using appropriate load factors and including the likely accidental loads) in the

appropriate directions.

9

3.6 General Principles and Design Methods

3.6.1 Methods of design - The design of any structure or its parts may be carried out by one of the methods

given in (a) to (d). In all cases, the details of members and connections should be such as to realise the

assumptions made in design without adversely affecting any other parts of the structure.

(a) Simple design - The connections between members are assumed not to develop

moments adversely affecting either the members or the structure as a whole.

The distribution of forces may be determined assuming that members intersecting at a joint are pin

connected. The necessary flexibility in connections may result in some non-elastic deformation of

the materials, other than the fasteners.

It is necessary to maintain stability against sway and this is ensured complying with provisions of

3.6.2.2 (c).

(b) Rigid design - The connections are assumed to be capable to developing the

strength and / or stiffness required by an analysis assuming full continuity. Such

analysis may be made using either elastic or plastic methods.

(c) Semi-rigid design - Some degree of connection stiffness is assumed, but it would

be insufficient to develop full continuity.

(i) The moment and rotation capacity of the joints should be based on

experimental evidence, which may permit some limited plasticity. On this

basis, the design should satisfy the strength, stability and stiffness

requirement of all parts of the structure when partial continuity at the

joints is to be taken into account in assessing moments and forces in the

members.

(ii) As an alternative, in simple beam and column structures an allowance may

be made for the inter-restraint of the connections between a beam and a

column by an end restraint moment not exceeding 10% of the free moment

applied to the beam, assuming this to be simply supported, provided that

the frame is braced against side sway in both directions.

complex in nature, the design may be based on full scale or model tests subject to

the following conditions:

(i) A full-scale test of prototype structure may be done. The prototype shall be accurately

measured before testing to determine the dimensional tolerance in all relevant parts of the

structure; the tolerances then specified on the drawing shall be such that all successive

structures shall be in practical conformity with the prototype. Where the design is based on

failure loads, a load factor of not less than 1.5 on the loads or load

10

combinations given in Table 3.1 should be used. Loading devices shall be previously

calibrated and care shall be exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints are applied

to the prototype by the loading systems. The distribution and duration of forces applied

in the test shall be representative of those to which the structure is deemed to be

subjected.

(ii) In the case where design is based on the testing of a small-scale model structure, the model

shall be constructed with due regard for the principles of dimensional similarity. The

thrusts, moments and deformations under working loads shall be determined by

physical measurements made when the loadings are applied to simulate the conditions

assumed in the deign of the actual structure.

(a) General - In checking the strength and stability of the structure the loads should be

multiplied by the relevant ^factors given in table 3.1. The factored loads should be applied in

the most unfavorable realistic combination for the part or effect under consideration.

The load capacity of each member and its connections, as determined by the relevant provisions

of this Guide, should be such that the factored loads would not cause failure.

(a) General - In considering the overall stability of any structure or part, the loads should

be increased by the relevant factors given in table 3.1. The designer should consider overall

frame stability, which embraces stability against overturning, and sway stability as given below.

(b) Stability against overturning - The factored loads should not cause the structure or

any part of the structure (including the foundations) to overturn or lift off its seating. The

combination of imposed and dead loads should be such as to have the most severe effect on

overall stability.

Account should be taken of probable variations in dead load during construction or other

temporary conditions.

joints, should be adequately stiff against sway. To ensure this, in addition to

designing for applied horizontal loads, a separate check should be carried out for

notional horizontal forces.

11

These notional forces may arise from practical imperfections such as lack of vertically and

should be taken as the greater of:

0.5% of factored total gravity load (dead plus vertical imposed) from that level,

applied horizontally.

The notional forces should be assumed to act on all structures in any one orthogonal direction at

a time and should be applied at each roof and floor level or their equivalent. They should be

taken as acting simultaneously with vertical loads.

• combined with horizontal loads;

• combined with temperature effects;

• taken to contribute to net shear on the foundations.

Sway stability may be provided for example by braced frames, joint rigidity or by utilising

staircase, lift cores and shear walls. Whatever system is used, reversal of loading should be

accommodated. The cladding, floors and roof should have adequate strength and be so secured

to the structural framework as to transmit all horizontal forces to the points of sway resistance.

Where such sway stability is provided by construction other than the steel framework, the

steelwork designer should state clearly the need for such construction and the forces acting

upon it.

3.6.2.3 Foundation design - The design of foundations should accommodate all the forces imposed on

them. The stiffness (deformation) of the foundation should reflect the boundary condition

assumed in the analysis model of the structural system. Attention should be given to the method

of connecting the steel superstructure to the foundations and the anchorage of any holding

down bolts. Where it is necessary to quote the foundation-reactions it should be clearly stated

whether the forces and moments result from factored or unfactored loads. Where they result

from factored loads the relevant factors for each load in each combination should be stated.

3.6.2.4 Fatigue - Fatigue need not be considered unless a structure or element is subjected to numerous

significant fluctuations of stress. Stress changes due to fluctuations in wind loading need not be

considered but account should be taken of wind-induced oscillations.

resistance of buildings in various parts of the country should be carefully

considered and suitable provisions should be made taking into account the

Capacity design and requisite ductility.

12

3.6.3 Serviceability Limit State

3.6.3.1 Deflection - The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or building component should

not impair the strength of the structure/components or cause damage to the finishing. When

checking for deflections the most adverse and realistic combination of service loads and their

arrangement should be checked by elastic analysis.

Table 3.2 gives recommended limitations for certain structural members. Circumstances may

arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate. (Where the deflection due to

Dead + Live load combination is likely to be excessive, consideration should be given to

pre-camber the beams)

Table 3.2: Deflection limits other than for pitched roof portal frame

( a ) Deflection on beams due to unfactored imposed loads

Cantilevers Length / 180

Beams carrying plaster or other brittle Span / 325

finish

All other beams Span / 325

( b ) Horizontal deflection of columns other than portal frames due to unfactored

imposed and wind loads

Tops of columns in single-storey Height / 325

buildings

In each storey of a building with more Height of storey under consideration / 325

than one storey

( c ) Crane gantry girders

Refer to IS: 800 - 1984

NOTE 1. On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs consideration for Composite

3.6.3.2 Durability - Several factors affecting the durability of the buildings under

conditions relevant to their intended life, are listed below:

(b) the degree of exposure;

(c) the shape of the members and the structural detailing

(d) the protective measure if any;

(e) whether maintenance is possible.

contained in an INSDAG publication titled "Corrosion Protection for Structural Steel".

3.6.3.3 Ponding

a) All roofs with a slope of less than 5% must be checked to ensure that rainwater cannot

collect in pools. Allowance must be made for possible construction inaccuracies,

settlements of foundations, deflections of roofing

13

materials and structural members and the effects of pre-camber. This also applies to floors

of car parks and other open-sided structures.

pools, provided that rainwater outlets are appropriately located.

c) Where the roof slope is less than 3%, it must be checked that collapse cannot occur due to

the weight of water (or snow- if applicable) collected in pools, which might be formed due

to the deflection of structural members or roofing material.

a) The design must make suitable provision for the effects of imposed loads, which can

induce impact, vibration, etc.

b) Vibration caused by machines and oscillation caused by harmonic resonance must be

considered, and provided for.

c) To avoid resonance, the natural frequencies of structures or parts of structures must be

sufficiently different from those of the excitation source.

d) Table 3.3 gives limiting values for the natural frequency or the alternative total deflection

to avoid resonance.

sagging in the final state relative to the straight line joining the supports,

pre-camber (hogging) of the beam in the unloaded state, (state 0)

variation of the deflection of the beam due to permanent loads immediately afterloading,

(state 1)

variation of the deflection of the beam due to the variable loading plus any time dependant

deformations due to the permanent load, (state 2)

14

15

SECTION 4: TENSION MEMBERS 4.1

In the design of tension members, the load-causing yield across the section is taken as one of the limiting

loads. The corresponding design strength for the member under axial tension is given by

where, is the yield stress of the material (in MP a), is the gross area of cross section in and Ym is

the partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding. (The suggested value of

The design strength in tension as governed by net cross-section at the hole, is given by

where, is the ultimate stress of the material, is the net area of the cross section after deductions for the

hole and is the partial safety factor against ultimate tension failure by rupture (The suggested value

of . Similarly threaded rods subjected to

tension could fail by rupture at the root of the threaded region and hence net area, is the root area of the

threaded section.

The lower value of the design tension capacities, as calculated by Eqn. 4.1 and 4.2, will govern the tensile

design strength of a plate with holes.

16

When multiple holes are arranged in a staggered fashion in a plate (Fig 4.1), the net area corresponding to the

staggered section will be given by

(4.3)

where, n is the number of bolt holes in the staggered section and the summation over is carried over all

inclined legs of the section. The design strength in tension will be obtained by substituting the value of in

Eqn. 4.2

When a connection is made through one leg of an angle, the stress in the outstanding leg at the ultimate stage

will be closer to the yield stress (due to shear lag) while the net section of the connected leg will often reach

the ultimate stress The tensile strength of angles connected by one leg, is evaluated accounting for this

phenomenon by

2. and the connected leg having holes to (the ultimate stress).

In addition, the potential for "block shear failure" should also be assessed. The design tensile strength,

will be the minimum value obtained from (4.4), (4.5), and (4.6) below:

where, and are the yield and ultimate stress of the material, respectively. and are the net

area of the connected leg and the gross area of the outstanding leg, respectively, accounts for the end

fastener restraint effect.

when the number of fasteners is 3 if

the number of fasteners is 1 or 2 and if the

connection is adequately welded

17

(iii) Strength as governed by block shear failure:

A tension member may fail along end connection due to block shear as shown in Fig. 4.2. If the centroid

of bolt pattern is not located between the heel of the angle and the centerline of the connected leg, the

connection shall be checked for block shear strength. The corresponding design strength in tension shall

be evaluated as the lower of the value obtained from the following equations.

where, and = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line of transmitted force,

respectively, and = minimum gross and net area in tension from the hole

to the toe of the angle, perpendicular to the line of force, respectively.

The maximum slenderness ratio (length/least radius of gyration of the cross section) of a tension

member is limited to 400 (This will provide a margin of safety for members normally acting as ties but

subject to reversal of stresses due to wind and earthquake. It will also provide a margin for avoiding

excessive self-weight deflection).

18

SECTION 5: CLASSIFICATION OF CROSS SECTIONS

5.1 Basis

The proposed classification of cross sections is illustrated by considering the idealised moment-rotation

characteristics of a symmetrical beam subjected to incremental flexural loading continued till its

collapse. A beam capable of developing full plasticity would exhibit an idealised elastic/plastic

moment-rotation curve as shown in Fig. 5.1. At failure, the stress distribution across the section will

consist of two rectangles and a significant rotation will take place. Such a stocky section is termed as a

'plastic' section, and it exhibits considerable "ductility" is the rotation at the onset

of plasticity; is the lower limit of rotation for treatment as a plastic section)

On the other hand, a cross section may develop fully plastic stress distribution across the entire cross

section but may not have adequate ductility The horizontal part of the

moment-rotation diagram will be limited. Such a cross-section is termed 'compact' section.

If the section were to be even more slender (higher ratios of it may only be able to sustain an

elastic moment up to the attainment of yield strength in the extreme fibres, with a triangular stress

distribution. This section is termed as 'semi-compact'.

If the section were to be further more slender still (i.e. yet higher values of local

buckling would occur before the attainment of yield stress in the extreme fibres, i.e. before attaining the

theoretical elastic moment capacity. Such a section is termed as 'slender'.

Assuming that the flange plate or the web does not buckle locally, these four different modes of behaviour

can be expressed graphically on a plot of stress against strain at the

19

extreme fibres (Fig. 5.2). These different modes of behaviour can also be shown by the

stress patterns, as in Fig. 5.3.

Fig. 5.2 Stress/strain relation of extreme fibres for different classes of sections

The class of a section is determined by the lowest class of all its constituent elements,

i.e. flange plates and web plate. The class of section determines its resistance (e.g.

Moment resistance, shear resistance etc.).

Only plastic sections can be used in forming plastic collapse mechanisms. Compact

sections can generally be used in simply supported beams failing soon after

reaching at one section. In elastic design, semi-compact sections are to be used

with the understanding that they will fail at The slender section design is discussed

in the section on Cold-Form Steel member design.

20

Table 5.1. Limits on Width to Thickness Ratio of Plate Elements*

Section

compression flange

Rolled

Internal element of Welded

compression flange

Rolled

Web with neutral axis All

at mid depth

Web under uniform Welded

compression Rolled

Single/double angle Rolled

T-stems

Circular tube with

outer diameter D

where

width of the flange overhang

depth of the web

outer diameter of the circular tubular section

thickness of the plate

21

SECTION 6: AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

The axial load resistance of steel columns is governed by the type of cross section and the axis

of buckling. Axially loaded columns having a slenderness ratio values

below are "stocky" and will fail by yielding across the entire cross

computations are necessary. The choice of axis of buckling to obtain the design strength is not

always clear, so calculations have to be canned out in respect of both principal axes and the

lower value of load resistance chosen.

The design axial load resistance for a member subjected to axial compression is given

(Note that no calculations for is needed when as the column would fail by

squashing at The compressive strength curves obtained for the various types of

sections are shown in Fig 6.1.

22

Fig. 6.1 Compressive strength curves for struts for different values'of [For =

250 Mpa; Based on BS 5950: Part 1J

Table 6.1: Choice of appropriate values of

Welded Sections: for cross sections fabricated by welding of plates 20 N/mm2 should

reduce the value of

Table 6.2 gives the ultimate compressive stress values in compression members

corresponding to various values of and for Graphs (similar to Fig.

6.1) and Table 6.2 may be constructed for different values of using equations 6.1 to

6.6.

23

Table 6.2: Ultimate Compressive stress i

Designs of columns have to be checked using the appropriate effective length for

buckling about both the strong and weak axes. Effective length, may be regarded as

the equivalent length of a pin-ended column having the same cross section, which

would be expected to have the same strength and stiffness as the column being

designed. The recommended effective lengths for design purposes are given below

24

6.3 Cross Sectional Shapes for Compression Members and Built - Up

Columns

When compression members are required for large structures like bridges, built-up

sections will be used. Cross section shapes of rolled steel compression members and

built-up or fabricated compression members are shown in Fig. 6.2 and Fig. 6.3. For

preliminary calculations, approximate values of radii of gyration given in Fig. 6.4 for

various built-up sections may be employed.

Fig 6.2: Cross Section Shapes for Rolled Steel Compression Members

Fig 6.3: Cross Section Shapes for Built - up or fabricated Compression Members

25

Fig 6.4: Approximate radii of gyration

(Continued in next page)

26

Fig 6.4: Approximate radii of gyration

with each other and are bearing on base plates or milled surfaces, they should be

connected at their ends with welds or bolts. When welds are used, the weld length

must be not less than the maximum width of the member. If bolts are used they should

be spaced longitudinally at less than 4 times the bolt diameter and the connection

should extend to at least times the width of the member.

When single angle discontinuous struts connected by a single bolt are employed, it

may be designed for 1.25 times the factored axial load and the effective length taken

as the centre-to-centre distance of the intersection at each end. Single angle

discontinuous struts connected by two or more bolts in line along the member at each

end may be designed for the factored axial load, assuming the effective length to be

0.85 times the centre to centre distance of the intersection at each end.

27

For double angle discontinuous struts connected back to back to both sides of a gusset or section

by not less than two bolts or by welding, the factored axial load is used in design,with an

effective length conservatively chosen. (A value between is chosen depending

upon the degree of restraint provided at the ends).

All double angle struts must be tack bolted or welded. The spacing'of connectors must be such

that the largest slenderness ratio of each component member is neither greater than 60 nor less

than 40. Spacing of tack bolts or welds should be less than 600 mm. A minimum of two bolts at

each end and a minimum of two additional connectors spaced equidistant in between will be

required. Solid washers or packing plates should be used in-between.

For member thickness up to 10 mm, M16 bolts may be used unless otherwise noted. For members

of large thickness M20 bolts may be used.

The following guide values are suggested for initial choice of members:

The two channel constituents of a laced column, shown in Fig. 6.5(a) and 6.5 ( b ) have a

tendency to buckle independently. The load that these tying forces cause may be assumed to

cause a shearing force equal to 2.5% of axial load on the column. (Additionally if the columns

are subjected to moments or lateral loading the lacing should be designed for the additional

bending moment and shear). To prevent local buckling of unsupported lengths between the two

constituent lattice points (or between two battens), the slenderness ratio of individual components

should be less than 50 or 70% of the slenderness ratio of the built up column (whichever is less).

In laced columns, the lacing should be symmetrical in any two opposing faces to avoid torsion.

Lacings and battens are not combined in the same column. The inclination of lacing bars from the

axis of the column should not be less than 40° nor more than 70°. The slenderness ratio of the

lacing bars should not exceed 145. The effective length of lacing bars is the length between bolts

for single lacing and 0.7 of this length for double lacing. The width of the lacing bar should be at

least 3 times the diameter of the bolt. Thickness of lacing bars should be at least l/40th of the

length between bolts for single lacing and 1/60 of this length for double lacing (both for welded

and bolted connections).

The slenderness ratio of battened columns shall be calculated using the following

formula:

(6.7)

28

where, is lower value of slenderness of the individual vertical members between centre to

centre of batten intervals and is slenderness of the overall column, using the radius of

gyration of the whole built up section.

(6.8)

= calculated using values given in Eqn. (6.7)

29

6.6 Base Plates for Concentrically Loaded Columns

For a purely axial load, a plain square steel plate or a slab attached to the column is

adequate. If uplift or overturning forces are present, a more positive attachment is

necessary. These base plates can be welded directly to the columns or they can be

fastened by means of bolted or welded lug angles. These connection methods are

illustrated in Fig. 6.6.

A base plate welded directly to the columns is shown in Fig. 6.6 ( a ) . For small

columns these plates will be shop-welded to the columns, but for larger columns, it

may be necessary to ship the plates separately and set them to the correct elevations.

For this second case the columns are connected to the footing with anchor bolts that

pass through the lug angles, which have been shop-welded to the columns. This type

of arrangement is shown in Fig. 6.6

When there is a large moment in relation to the vertically applied load a gusseted base

may be used. If column base plates are insufficient to develop the applied bending

moment or if thinner plates are used, some form of stiffening must be provided.

Concrete support area should be significantly larger than the base plate area so that the

applied load can disperse satisfactorily on to the foundation. To spread the column

loads uniformly over the base plates, and to ensure there is good contact between the

two, it is customary not to grind or machine the underside of the base plate, but grout it

in place.

Columns supporting predominantly axial loads are designed as being pin-ended at

the base. The design steps for a base plate attached to an axially loaded column

with pinned base are explained below.

Procedure for empirical design of a slab base plate for axial load only (pinned

connection)

1. Determine the factored axial load and shear at the column base.

2. Decide on the number and type of holding down bolts to resist shear and

tension. The chosen number of bolts is to be arranged symmetrically near

corners of base plate or next to column web, similar to the arrangement

sketched in Fig. 6.6.

3. Maximum allowable bearing strength = 0.4 (where = cube strength

ofconcrete) Actual bearing pressure to be less than or equal to 0.4

4. Determine base plate thickness

supported column.

= larger plate projection from column [See Fig.

6.7]

= smaller plate projection from column

= design strength of mild steel plate, but not

greater than divided by

5. Check for adequacy of weld. Calculate the total length of weld to resist axial

load.

6. Select weld size.

7. Check shear stress on weld.

8. Vector sum of all the stresses carried by the weld must not exceed the

design strength, of the weld.

9. Check for bolt. Check maximum co-existent factored shear and tension, if any,

on the holding down bolts.

10. Check the bolts for adequacy.

SECTION 7: DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING

7.1 General

The main failure modes of hot rolled beams of compact or plastic cross section are as

follows:

• If the beam is prevented from buckling laterally, and the component elements are

compact or plastic, then the failure will be triggered by excessive flexure and the

collapse will follow the formation of plastic hinges. Such a beam is termed

restrained beam".

• "Long beams" which are not suitably braced in the lateral direction will fail by a

combination of lateral deflection and twist. These are termed "unrestrained

beams".

• Fabricated plate girders may fail by web shear buckling or local buckling of a

flange. This type of failure is unlikely to be encountered in hot rolled sections.

• Local failure by (a) shear yield of the web. (b) local crushing of the web or (c)

buckling of thin flanges may sometimes be encountered. These are to be eliminated

by provision of web stiffeners for (a) and (b) and the welding of additional flange

plates to reduce the plate ratio, in the case of (c).

"Laterally Restrained Beams" are those, which will not fail by lateral instability.

Lateral Instability or Lateral Torsional Buckling of beams can be prevented by

providing full restraint to the compression flange of member. Adequate restraint may

be regarded as being available if there is a positive connection of a floor or other

construction fixed to the compression flange capable of resisting a lateral force of not

less than 2.5% of the maximum factored force in the compression flange of the

member.

The design adequacy of a laterally restrained beam is verified using the following

criteria:

• bending resistance of the cross section

• shear resistance of the cross section

• combined bending and shear at locations where there are

shear and

(b) combinations of maximum factored shear force and the co-existent

bending moment.

In section 5, all rolled steel sections used as beams are classified in four ways in order

to reflect the effect of local buckling of the beam elements.

• Slender - the elastic moment capacity of the cross section can NOT be

attained

• Semi-compact - The elastic moment capacity of the cross section

can be attained, but NOT the plastic moment capacity

• Compact - The plastic moment capacity can be attained, but the

cross section has little rotation capacity.

• Plastic - as for compact, but there is sufficient rotation capacity in the

cross section, so that the frame can be designed by plastic methods.

Hot rolled sections used as beams are generally of the "plastic" or "compact" cross

sections.

For the plastic or compact sections, the design bending resistance of the cross

section is given by

Slender cross sections will not be able to resist a moment equal to the elastic

moment resistance, as the maximum fibre stress at failure will be less than

The design bending resistance in these sections is given by

7.1.3 Span of beams: The span of a beam should be taken between the effective

points

of support.

distance from the effective point of the support to the tip of the cantilever.

7.1.5 General conditions: All members in bending should meet the following

conditions.

(a) At critical points the combination of maximum moment and co-

existent shear,and the combination of maximum shear and co-existent

moment should be checked at the ultimate limit state

3.2) should be adhered to.

(c) Unless the compression flange has full lateral restraint, the resistance

of the member to lateral torsional buckling should be checked in

accordance with specifications detailed in 7.3 section

(d) Local buckling should be considered as given in Table 5.1.

(e) When loads or reactions are applied through the flange to the web, the

conditions of 7.2.5 and 7.2.6 for web buckling and web bearing should

be

met.

7.2 Shear

Where = shear area given by the following for the three cases:

(a) Rolled and channel sections, load parallel to web

(b) Built-up sections and boxes, load parallel to webs

(c) Solid bars and plates

Where

= thickness of the web

= Total depth of the section

= depth of the web

= area of the plate or bar.

In sections where webs vary in thickness or have holes significantly larger than

those required for fasteners, the shear stress should be calculated from first

principles assuming elastic behaviour.

Where the design shear force is less than 0.6 times the design shear resistance

of the cross section the design moment resistance,should be taken

as the value

obtained from

• Equation (7.2) for semi-compact sections and

34

• Equation (7.3) for slender sections

should be checked for shear buckling in accordance with the requirements set out under

Section 7.4.

Where the design shear force exceeds 0.6 times the design shear resistance,

(defined in equation 7.4) the moment resistance, should be taken as follows.

For sections with equal flanges: the plastic modulus of the shear area,

For sections with unequal flanges: the plastic modulus of the gross section less the plastic

modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of the shear area.

To prevent the web buckling under point loads or reactions (applied through the

compression flange) the following check is required to be carried out on all beams

Fig. 7.1 Effective width for web buckling

If the applied load or reaction (as the case may be) exceeds suitable stiffness

should be provided.

For all beams, the web crippling resistance should also be checked at its

junction with the flange to the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2.5 of

the plane of the flange. The buckling resistance in crippling, is given by

buckling

=design yield stress of the web

= length obtained by dispersion through the flange-to-web connection

at a slope of 1:2.5 to the plane of the flange.

If the applied load or the reaction exceeds the crippling resistance of the web,

suitably designed bearing stiffeners should be provided.

7.2.7 Plastic and compact beams with web openings

Beams with web openings are frequently required for passing service ducts. Beams

having (a) an isolated hole (b) a series of web openings at regular intervals are

included in this guide.

When designing holes in webs, the following aspects should be kept in view:

• The possible need to provide stiffening around the hole

• The effect of openings on slender webs (covered in the section 7.4)

• The effect of opening on the stiffness of the section and deflections.

Unreinforced circular openings having a diameter not exceeding 10% of the web depth

may be located within the web of compact beams without considering the net section

properties, provided that

• the holes are located within the middle third of the depth and middle half of

the span of the member.

• the load on the member is substantially uniform and no point loads are

situated within a distance from the edges of the hole, equal to the depth of

the girder.

• the spacing between the centres of any two adjacent openings measured

parallel to the axis of the member is at least 2.5 times the diameter of the

larger opening.

• the factored maximum shear at the support does not exceed 60% of the

shear resistance of the section.

When the hole diameter exceeds 10% of the depth of the girder, or if any of the above

conditions are not satisfied, the net section properties should be computed and the

adequacy of the design should be verified.

reinforcement carried past the opening for such a distance that the local shear stress

due

to the load being transferred from the reinforcement does not exceed

The elastic critical moment resistance of a symmetrical I beam subjected to equal

end moments undergoing lateral torsional buckling between points of lateral support is

obtained as

Comparing the two cases covered by Eqns. (7.6) and (7.7) the ratio of the tw constants

is often termed "the equivalent uniform moment factor" Its value is a

direct measure of the severity of a particular pattern of moments relative to the basic

case. This is clear from Fig.7.3. Several factors affect the lateral stability of beams and

these are outlined below:

twisting and warping. Various types of end conditions are consequently possible but

the supports should either completely prevent or offer no resistance to each type of

deformation (Solutions for partial restraint conditions are complicated). The effect of

various support conditions is taken into account by way of a parameter called effective

length. For a beam with simply supported end conditions and no intermediate lateral

restraint, the effective length is equal to the actual length between the supports. The

effective length factor would indirectly account for the increased lateral and torsional

rigidities provided by the restraints. As an illustration, the effective lengths

appropriate for different end restraints according to BS 5950 are given in Tables 7.1

and 7.2.

theloads as well as the position of application of the loads with respect to the centroid

of thecross section. A load applied above the centroid of the cross section causes an

additional overturning moment and becomes more de-stabilising than when the same

load is applied at the centroid. On the other hand, if the load is applied below the

centroid, it produces astabilising effect.

Table 7.1 Effective length of beams of Compact Plastic Cross section

between supports

(c) Influence of the type of loading

So far, only the basic case of beams loaded with equal and opposite end moments has

been considered. But, in reality, loading patterns would vary widely from the basic

case. Cases of moment gradient, where the end moments are unequal, are less prone to

insiability and this beneficial effect is taken into account by the use of "equivalent

uniform moments". In this case, the basic design procedure is modified by comparing

the elastic critical moment for the actual case with the elastic critical moment for the

basic case. The equivalent uniform moment is defined as

40

(d) Slenderness correction factor ( n )

For situations, where the maximum moment occurs away from a braced point, e.g. when

the beam is uniformly loaded in the span, a modification to the slenderness, may be

used. The allowable critical stress is determined for an effective slenderness, where

n is the slenderness correction factor, as illustrated in Fig.7.4 for a few cases of loading.

41

7.3.2 Limitations of the elastic buckling theory for beams

Direct use of the theory described in the foregoing pages for design purposes is in

appropriate because

• Formulae (such as Eqns. 7.6 and 7.7) are too complex for routine use.

• In any case, these are derived on the basis of elastic behaviour and cannot be

extrapolated to check the ultimate bending resistance. Significant differences

exist between the assumptions forming the basis of the theory and the

observed behaviour of beams under ultimate load tests.

Fig.7.5 Comparison of test data (mostly I sections) with theoretical elastic critical moments

Fig 7.5 compares a typical set of lateral torsional buckling test data using actual hot

rolled sections with theoretical elastic critical moments given by Eqn 7.6, using the

non-dimensional slenderness so that the results from many test series (using

different

42

In region I, lateral instability does not influence the design as these beams will

collapse by developing full plasticity.

Region II covers much of the practical range of beams without lateral restraint.

The designs must be based on inelastic buckling, with suitable modifications to

account for residual stresses and geometric imperfections. The design method

will consequently involve some degree of empiricism.

Region III covers beams, which largely fail by elastic instability. The formulae

derived so far will provide an upper bound.

directly used for design purposes because of limitations and its extension to the

ultimate range.

beams is given below and is analogous to the Perry-Robertson approach for

columns. (See Fig 7.6) The three categories of beams are listed under section

7.3.2. The buckling resistance moment, is obtained as the smaller root of

the equation

43

where = bending strength allowing for susceptibility to lateral -torsional buckling

and are supplied in Tabulated form by steel makers.

(7.16)

taken as 0.9 for rolled steel I- sections and channels and 1.0

for all other sections.

44

7.4 Plate Girders

7.4.1 General

A fabricated plate girder is employed for supporting heavy loads over long spans.

Stiffeners are provided at a spacing of as shown in Fig. 7.7. In these girders, the

bending moments are assumed to be carried by the flanges by developing compressive

and tensile forces and shear is carried by the web. To effect economy, the web depth

is chosen to be large enough to result in low flange forces for the design bending

moment.

45

7.4.1.1 Recommended Proportions (Indicative values)

Span to Depth Ratios: The recommended span / depth ratios for initial choice of

cross-section in a plate girder used in a building are given below as indicative values:

and non-composite girders with concrete decking

ii. Constant depth beams in continuous composite and non-

composite girders

iii. Simply-supported crane girders

Web proportions: When the web plate will not buckle.

The design, in such cases, is similar to rolled steel beams. In the design of thin webs with

shear buckling should be considered. In general we may have an un-stiffened

web, a web stiffened by transverse stiffeners (Fig. 7.7) or a web stiffened by both transverse

and longitudinal stiffeners (Fig. 7.8). By choosing a minimum web thickness the

self-weight is reduced, but the webs vulnerable to buckling may have to be stiffened if

necessary. The recommended web thickness are (Fig. 7.7):

and bridges. Similarly, d/t exceeding 250 is rarely used.

Flange proportions: Generally the thickness of flange plates is not varied along the

spans for plate girders used in buildings. For non-composite plate girder the width of

flange plate is chosen to be about 0.3 times the depth of the section as a thumb rule. It

is also necessary to choose the breadth to thickness ratio of the flange such that the

section classification is generally limited to plastic or compact sections

only This is

46

to avoid local buckling before reaching the yield stress. For preliminary sizing, the overall

flange width-to-thickness ratio may be limited to 24. For the tension flanges (i.e. bottom flange

of a simply supported girder) the width can be increased by 30% if needed.

Stiffener spacing: Vertical stiffeners are provided close to supports to increase the bearing

resistance and to improve shear capacity. Horizontal stiffeners are generally not provided in

plate girders used in buildings. Intermediate stiffeners also may not be required in the mid-span

region. When vertical stiffeners are provided, the panel aspect ratio a/d (see Fig.7.7) is chosen

in the range of 1.2 to 1.6. The web is able to sustain shear in excess of shear force

corresponding to because of vertical stiffeners. Vertical stiffeners help to support the

tension field action of the web panel between them. Where the end panel near support is

designed without using the tension field action a smaller spacing of is adopted.

Sometimes double stiffeners are adopted near the

bearing (see Fig. 7.9) and in such cases the overhangs beyond the supports are limited to

1/8 of the depth of the girder.

7.4.2.1 Moment Resistance - Moment resistance is computed from the plastic moment

resistance of the flanges. Thus,

= Plastic section modulus of flanges about the transverse axis of the section.

= Material safety factor for steel (= 1.15)

47

7.4.2.2 Shear Resistance

Thin webs are designed either with or without stiffeners. These two cases are described

individually below.

limited to its elastic shear buckling resistance, given by

The values for for webs, which are not too slender (see Table 7.4) depend on the

slenderness parameter defined as

different values of a/d and d/t are tabulated in Table - 7.3.

=Design strength of web

= Material safety factor for steel (= 1.15)

The elastic critical stress has been simplified and given based on a/d and t/d

as given in Table 7.3 7.3: Elastic critical stress related to aspect ratio

Table

48

Table 7.4 gives the values of for design purposes.

Note that for very slender webs is limited to elastic critical shear stress. In other

cases the value of is a function of design stress of web steel,

Webs with intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of the plate girders with

intermediate stiffeners may be improved by the following two ways.

i) Increase in buckling resistance due to reduced a/d ratio.

ii) The web develops tension field action and thus resists considerably larger stress than

the elastic critical strength of web in shear.

Fig.7.9 shows the diagonal tension fields anchored between top and bottom flanges and

against transverse stiffeners on either side of the panel.

The first

term co

mprises of

critical

elastic

stress an

d the

tension

field

strength of

the panel

i.e.,

The term represents the contribution of the flanges to the post buckling

strength

and depends on plastic moment capacity of the flanges

The flanges support the pull exerted by the tension field. When the flanges reach their

ultimate capacity they form hinges. is a parameter that relates to the plastic moment

capacity of the flange and the web described later.

49

The flange-dependent shear strength is simplified and given as

where,

However in presence of overall bending moment, the contribution of flange to shear resistance

will be reduced by the longitudinal stress induced because of overall bending moment, by

the factor When approaches at maximum moment region, the

factor nearly becomes zero and hence the contribution of flanges to shear resistance will

become negligible.

For tension field action to develop in the end panels, adequate anchorage should be provided

all around the end panel. The anchor force required to anchor the tension field force is

The end panel, when designed for tension field will impose additional loads on end post and

hence it will become stout [Fig. 7.10(a)]. For a simple design it may be assumed that the

capacity of the end panel is restricted to so that no tension field develops in it [Fig. 7.10

(c)]. In this case, end panel acts as a beam spanning between the flanges to resist shear and

moment caused by and produced by tension field of penultimate panel.

This approach is conservative, as it does not utilise the post-buckling strength of end panel

especially where the shear is maximum. This will result in the a/d value of end panel spacing

to be less than that of other panels. The end stiffener should be designed for compressive

forces due to bearing and the moment, due to tension field in the penultimate panel.

50

In order to be economical the end panel also may be designed using tension field action. In this case

the bearing stiffener and end post are designed for a combination of stresses resulting from

compression due to bearing and a moment equal to 2/3 caused due to tension in the flanges, The

stiffener will be stout. Instead of one stout stiffener we can use a double stiffener as shown in Fig.

7.10(d). Here the end post is designed for horizontal shear and the moment

7.4.4 Stiffeners

Stiffeners are provided to transfer transverse concentrated compressive force on the flange into the

web and are essential for desired performance of web panels. These are referred to as bearing

stiffeners. Intermediate web stiffeners are provided to improve web shear capacity. Design of these

stiffeners is discussed below.

Load bearing stiffeners: Whenever there is a risk of the buckling resistance of the web being exceeded,

especially owing to concentrated loads, load-bearing stiffeners are provided. Normally a web width of

20 t on both sides as shown in Fig. 7.10 (b) is assumed to act along with the stiffener provided to resist

the compression as an equivalent cruciform shaped strut of effective length 0.7 times its actual length

between the top and bottom flanges. The bearing stress in the stiffener is checked using the area of that

portion of the stiffener in contact with the flange through which compressive force is transmitted.

Intermediate stiffeners: The intermediate stiffeners are provided to prevent out of plane buckling of

web at the location of stiffeners. The buckling resistance of the stiffeneracting as a strut (with a

cruciform section as described earlier) should be not less than where is the maximum shear

force in the panel and is the buckling resistance of web without considering tension field action. In

its limit will be equal to of the web without stiffeners.

Sometimes the stiffeners are provided for more than one of the above purposes. In such cases stiffeners

are considered for their satisfactory resistance under combined load effects. Such combined loads are

common.

Longitudinal stiffeners: Longitudinal stiffeners are hardly used in building plate girders, but

sometimes they are used in highway bridge girders for aesthetic reasons. They are not as effective as

transverse stiffeners. Nowadays, the use of longitudinal stiffeners is rare due to higher welding costs.

In order to obtain greater economy and efficiency in the design of plate girders, slender webs are

sometimes reinforced both longitudinally and transversely. The longitudinal stiffeners are generally

located in the compression zones of the girder. The main function of the longitudinal stiffeners is to

increase the buckling resistance of web by subdividing the web and limiting the web buckling to

smaller web panels. The additional cost of welding the longitudinal stiffeners invariably offsets any

economy resulting in their use.

51

(a) End panel designed using

tension field action and end post

designed for both bearing and

to resist tension field

strengthened by additional stiffener (Double

stiffener)

3

7.4.5 Curtailment of flange plates

For a plate girder subjected to external loading, the maximum bending moment occurs at

one section usually, e.g. when the plate girder is simply supported at the ends, and

subjected to the uniformly distributed load, then, maximum bending moment occurs at

the centre. Since the values of bending moment decreases towards the end, the flange

area designed to resist the maximum bending moment is not required at other sections.

Therefore the flange plates may be curtailed at a distance from the centre of span greater

than the distance where the plate is no longer required as the bending moment decreases

towards the ends. It gives economy as regards to the material and cost. At least one

flange plate should be run for the entire length of the girder.

7.4.6 Splices

Web splices: A joint in the web plate provided to increase its length is known as web

splice. The plates are manufactured up to a limited length. When the maximum

manufactured length of the plate is insufficient for full length of the plate girder, web

splice becomes essential. It also becomes essential when the length of plate girder is too

long to handle conveniently during transportation and erection. Generally, web splices

are mainly used in bridges and not buildings. Splices in the web of the plate girder are

designed to resist the shear and moment at the spliced section. The splice plates are

provided on each side of the web or direct butt welding.

Flange splices: A joint in the flange element provided to increase the length of flange

plate is known as flange splice. The flange splices should be avoided as far as possible.

Generally, the flange plates can be obtained for full length of the plate girder. In spite of

the availability of full length of flange plates, sometimes it becomes necessary to make

flange splices. Flange joints should preferably be located at the points away from section

of maximum bending moment.

When a girder is subjected to predominant bending moments and low shear, its ultimate

capacity is conditioned by the interaction between the effects of the bending moment and

shear force.

The interaction diagram is generally expressed in the form seen in Fig. 7.11, where the

shear capacity is plotted in the axis and the bending capacity in the axis. Any point in

the interaction diagram shows the co-existent values of shear and bending moment that

the girder can sustain. The vertical ordinates are non-dimensionalised using (Yield

shear of the web) and the horizontal ordinates by (the fully plastic moment resistance

of the cross section). The portion of the curve between points A and C is the region in

which the girder will fail by predominant shear, i.e. shear mechanism of the type

represented in Fig. 7.12 will develop at collapse.

53

Fig. 7.11 Interaction between bending and shear effects

54

Fig. 7.12 Collapse of the panel

This shear capacity will reduce gradually due to the presence of co-existent bending moment.

Beyond point in Fig. 7.11 when the applied moment is high, the failure will be triggered by

the collapse of flanges by one of the following: (i) by yielding of flange material or (ii) by

inward buckling of the compression flange or (iii) by lateral buckling of the flange. Thus there

is a distinct change in failure criterion represented by line in Fig. 7.11(a); the left

of represents shear failure and the right of flexural failure. Generally the flange failure

mode will be triggered, when the applied bending moment is approximately equal to the plastic

moment resistance provided by the flange plates only, neglecting the contribution from the

web.

This value represents the horizontal co-ordinate of the point C, i.e. the point F. In zone ABC,

the presence of additional bending moment requires the following three factors to be

considered.

• The reduction in the web buckling stress due to the presence of bending stresses.

• The influence of bending stresses on the value of membrane stress required causing yield in

the web.

• The reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges due to the presence of axial flange

stresses caused by bending moment.

When high axial forces are developed in the flanges due to bending moments, their effects in

reducing plastic moment capacity of flange plates must be taken into account. From plasticity

theory, the reduced capacity is given by

55

where, is the average axial stress for the portion of the flange between hinges.

The simplified design procedure due to Rockey et. al (1978) and validated by them by

experiments is summarised below:

The shear load capacity at point C of the interaction diagram may be obtained approximately

from an empirical relationship given below.

This equation gives the vertical ordinate of the point C in the interaction diagram [Fig.

7.11(a)]. The horizontal ordinate as stated previously is given by the value of (See Eqn

7.29).

(i) Between A and B, the curve is horizontal. The horizontal ordinate B is given by

maximum bending moment in the end panel given by but limited to a value

of

(ii) Between B and C, the curve may be straight (for simplicity). The moment

corresponding to C is given by

(iii) The point D represents nearly the ultimate capacity of the flanges and the

shear values when high bending is present. This is discussed in the next section.

Webs subjected to pure bending: The region beyond C of the interaction diagram represents a

high bending moment, so the failure is by bending moment. In a thin walled girder, the web

subjected to compressive bending stress will buckle, thereby losing its capacity to carry further

compressive stresses. The compression flange will therefore carry practically all the

compressive stresses, as the web is unable to be fully effective. Consequently the girder is

unable to develop full plastic moment of resistance of the cross section.

If no lateral buckling occurs (e.g. by provision of adequate lateral supports), the girder will fail

by inward collapse of compression flange at an applied moment which is approximately

equal to the moment required to produce first yield in the extreme fibres of compression flange.

This moment is - of course - reduced because of the effects of web buckling. Though the

concept is simple, the resulting calculations are complex. The

56

ultimate moment capacity to be determined by a simple formula due to Cooper (1971) is given

below:

= Bending moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibre of flange assuming

fully effective web (i.e. neglecting web buckling)

This value of is the moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibres of the flange.

The corresponding stresses in the web will be below yield. (Point D in the interaction

diagrams). The ordinate of D can be calculated approximately from

The following general guidance is given for plate girders with web openings.

• The hole should be centrally placed in the web and eccentricity of the opening is

avoided as far as possible.

• Unstiffened openings are not always appropriate, unless they are located in low

shear and low bending moment regions.

• Web opening should be away from the support by at least twice the beam depth, D

or 10% of the span whichever is greater

• The best location for the opening is within the middle third of the span.

• Clear Spacing between the openings should not be less than beam depth, D.

• The best location for opening is where the shear force is the lowest.

• The diameter of circular openings is generally restricted to 0.5D.

• Depth of rectangular openings should not be greater than 0.5D and the length not

greater than 1.5D for un-stiffened openings. The clear spacing between such

opening should be at least equal the longer dimension of the opening.

• The depth of the rectangular openings should not be greater than 0.6D and the

length not greater than 2D for stiffened openings. The above rule regarding spacing

applies.

• Corners of rectangular openings should be rounded

• Point loads should not be applied at less than D from side of the adjacent opening.

57

• If stiffeners are provided at the openings, the length of the welds should be

sufficient to develop the full strength of the stiffener.

When a circular web opening of depth is provided, the shear resistance is reduced by

If a rectangular opening of is provided, the reduction in shear resistance

may be approximately evaluated as Suitable reinforcement to recover this

loss of shear resistance may be designed, where necessary.

58

SECTION 8: ELEMENTS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL FORCE AND BENDING

Columns subjected to a combined axial force and bending moments are referred to as

Beam-Columns. In practice, all columns experience bending about one or both axis in addition to

axial compression, due to one or more of the following reasons.

• In braced rigid portal frames, when the beam is subjected to gravity loads, it will

transfer the bending moments to the column in addition to axial loads

lateral loads due to wind or earthquake, the columns are subjected to sway deflection

and bending, thereby subjecting the columns to axial compression as well as bending

moments

bending about both principal axes in addition to axial compression

reverse curvature bending as shown in causing variation of the nature

(positive or negative) of the bending moment and curvature over the length of the column. An

overestimate of the vertical loading may inadvertently make the design unsafe by reducing the

moment resistance capacity of the column. Hence, the realistic assessment of the vertical load of

the column is necessary.

The presence of bending moments in the beam-columns reduces the axial force at which they fail.

In "short" columns, the failure is triggered by the material reaching its ultimate capacity. In

"long" columns, the failure is normajly due to overall instability of the column, and in some cases

due to the material strength having been reached at the ends of the column.

59

Fig.8.1 Beam-Columns in Frames

8.2 Short Beam - Columns made of Plastic and Compact Cross sections

A short member (stub column), made of non-slender (plastic / compact) section

under axial compression, fails by yielding, at the squas load, give

by

60

Where, is the yield strength of the material, and is the gross area of the cross section.

If the stub column is made of slender cross section, the plate elements of the cross section

undergo local buckling before reaching the yield stress. This causes reduction in the effective

area of the cross section to a value below the gross area, and the member fails at a load

below given by Eqn.8.1.

Similarly a short member made of plastic or compact section and subjected to only bending

moment fails at the plastic moment capacity, given by [Fig. 8.2(6)]

where, S = plastic section modulus of the cross section, in the case of plastic and compact

sections.

Typically steel columns in practice are long and slender: Such slender columns when axially

compressed tend to fail by buckling rather than yielding.

The additional deflection and bending moment are due to the axial load acting on the

deformed column as given below.

• between the ends of the columns (sway) at adjacent floors

The consequent magnified deflection and bending moments are approximately allowed for in

the design method described in section 8.5.

61

{a) Single curvature ( b ) Double curvature ( c ) Swav Deformation

Beam-columns may fail by flexural yielding or torsional flexural buckling. The actual

mode of failure will depend upon the magnitude of the axial load and eccentricity as

well as the slenderness ratio. For design purposes, simplified equations are available;

using which it is possible to obtain the resistance of members, conservatively. These

are discussed below.

columns with

relatively small axial compression ratio and beam-columns bent in

reverse curvature.

62

• The resistance of the end section (reached under combined axial force and

bending moment) governs the failure.

• The resistance of the section may be governed by plastic buckling of plate

elements in the case of plastic, compact sections and semi-compact or by

elastic local buckling in the case of slender sections.

This type of failure is encountered in the case of all members subjected to larger

compression and single curvature bending about the minor axis as well as

not very slender members subjected to axial compression and single curvature bending

about the major axis.

section over the length of the member, under the combined axial

compression and magnified bending moment.

may be by weak axis buckling, or failure of the maximum moment section

under the combined effect of axial force and magnified moment.

elements depending on the slenderness ratio (b/t) of the plate.

This is common in slender members subjected to large ompression

and uniaxial bending about the major axis or biaxial bending.

• At the ultimate stage the member undergoes biaxial bending and torsional

instability mode of failure.

The design rules are given below in the form of linear interaction equations to verify

resistance of the section against local section failure as well as member failure by

flexural yielding and torsional flexural buckling. These are conservative implifications

of the complex non-linear failure envelopes.

63

where and are the actual compressive force and bending moments about the

major axis and minor axis of the cross section, respectively. is the gross area

of cross section in the case of plastic / compact cross sections. and are the plastic

section moduli of the cross section about the major and minor axis, respectively.

The is the design yield strength given by Normally, the moments

obtained

from the linear-elastic analysis would suffice for normal buildings with only a few

storeys and low axial compression. In very tall buildings with a large axial

compression and large lateral sway, the end moments after accounting for the effects

have to be considered.

member buckling is given by

where, are the actual axial compression, and actual bending moments

about the major and minor axes, respectively. are the design

compressive strength, and the bending strength about the and axis, respectively,

when only the corresponding axial force/bending moment is acting. These are

calculated considering minor buckling in the case of compression and lateral torsional

buckling in the case of bending about major axis. These design strengths have to be

calculated considering the type of section (plastic / compact). are the moment

amplification factors which account for the effect of moment gradient over the

member length, instead of uniform moment over the entire length, and magnification

of moments due to the axial force acting on the deformed column The

values of corresponding to the appropriate axis are evaluated from:

= 1.4 (For inplane lateral concentrated load over the member)

= Axial compressive strength about the respective axis

= Plastic and elastic section moduli, respectively and should be

substituted for the corresponding x or y-axis.

The effect is accounted for by taking effective length to be greater than one in sway

frames. More accurate evaluation of beam-column strength is possible by resorting to

non-linear analysis. When a designer feels that a detailed and rigorous analysis is

warranted, he is free to do so, not withstanding the approximate analysis procedure

detailed in this chapter.

64

SECTION 9: BEAMS OF HOT ROLLED SECTIONS, SUBJECTED TO

TORSION AND BENDING

9.1 Introduction

Torsional moments are invariably introduced in beams when the line of action of the

resultant transverse force does not pass through the shear centre of the cross section.

Beams circular in plan and supported on a few columns, interconnected bridge

girders, beams carrying loads predominantly on one side are all examples of

structures where torsional moments are important.

Designing for torsion is complex and it is wise not to transfer loads by Torsional

mode. It is well to remember that torsion will not occur if the section is loaded such

that the resultant force passes through the shear centre of the cross section.

When possible, the framing should be arranged so as to minimise any torsion. Careful

detailing, particularly when considering the load path, and the way loads are

transferred to members of the frame will generally help to minimise or eliminate

many potential difficulties associated with torsional effects.

When significant torsion is unavoidable, the designer should consider using box

girders or hollow rolled or plated sections.

When torsion is unavoidable due to detailing difficulties, the designer should ensure

the following conditions:

resist the torsional moment and forces in addition to other moments and

forces. The connections and bracing of such members should be carefully

designed to ensure that the reactions are transferred to the supports.

• Factored resistance of I - beams subjected to combined flexure and torsion

should be determined from Moment - Torque interaction diagrams.

• Members subjected to compatibility torsion deformations need not be

designed to resist the associated torsional moments provided that structure

satisfies equilibrium. For fuller description of "equilibrium torsion" and

compatibility torsion, reference may be made to IS: 456 - 2000.

• Stresses and deflections due to combined effects should be within the

specified limits.

• When necessary, the designer may incorporate more accurate methods of

combined torsion and bending from the relevant literature.

6

SECTION 10: PORTAL FRAMES 10.1

Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial

structures. The slopes of rafters in the gable portal frames (Fig. 10.1) vary in the range of 1

in 10 to 7 in 3 depending upon the type of sheeting and its seam impermeability. With the

advent of new cladding systems, it is possible to achieve roof slopes as low as 1°. But in

such cases, frame deflections must be carefully controlled and the large horizontal thrusts

that occur at the base should be accounted for. Generally, the centre-to-centre distance

between frames is of the order 6 to 7.5 m, with eaves height ranging from 6 -15 m .

Normally, larger spacing of frames is used in the case of taller buildings, from the point of

economy. Moment-resisting connections should be provided at the eaves and crown to

resist moments under lateral and gravity loadings. The stanchion bases behave as either

pinned or fixed, depending upon rotational restraint provided by the foundation and the

connection detail between the stanchion and foundations. For the design of portal frames,

plastic methods of analysis are mainly used, to obtain economical designs.

The most common form of portal frame used in the construction industry is the pinned-base

frame with different rafter and column member size and with haunches at both the eaves

and apex connections (Fig. 10.1).

result, connections are usually located at positions of high moment, i.e. at the interface of

the column and rafter members (at the eaves) and also between the rafter members at the

apex (ridge) (See Fig. 10.1). It is very difficult to develop sufficient moment resistance at

these connections by providing 'tension' bolts located solely within the small depth of the

rafter section. Therefore the lever arm of the bolt group is usually increased by haunching

the rafter members at the joints. This in addition increases the section strength.

Although a short length of the haunch is enough to produce an adequate lever arm for the

bolt group, haunch is usually extended along the rafter and column adequately to reduce the

maximum moments in the uniform portion of the rafter and columns and hence reduce the

size of these members. Due to this, there will be a corresponding increase in the moment in

the column and at the column-haunch-rafter interface. This allows the use of smaller rafter

member compared to column member. The resulting solution usually proves to be

economical, because the total length of the rafter is usually greater than the total length of

the column members. The saving in weight is usually sufficient to offset the additional cost

of haunch. The effect of introducing the haunches is to ensure that the hinges, which were

assumed to be at nodes, are forced away from the actual column- rafter junction to the ends

of the haunches. Provided the haunch regions remain elastic, hinges can develop at their

ends. The haunch must be capable of resisting the bending moment, axial thrust and shear

force transferred by the joining members. The common practice is to make the haunch at

the connection interface approximately twice the depth of the basic rafter section, so that the

haunch could be fabricated from the same basic section.

7

(a) Haunched portal frame

Detailed steps in the plastic design of portals are prescribed in SP 6(6): 1972 -

"Handbook for Structural Engineers - Application of Plastic Theory in the Design of

Steel Structures". These are summarized below:

b) Compute the factored design load combination(s).

c) Estimate the plastic moment ratios of frame members.

d) Analyse the frame for each loading condition and calculate the maximum required

plastic moment resistance, of the column and rafter.

e) Select the section, and

f) Check the design for other secondary modes of failure

decisions such as, whether to treat the distributed loads as such or to consider them as

67

equivalent concentrated loads, are to be made. It is often convenient to deal with

equivalent concentrated loads in computer aided and plastic analysis methods.

In step (b), the loads determined in (a) are multiplied by the appropriate load factors

to assure the needed margin of safety. The step (c) is to make an assumption

regarding the ratio of the plastic moment capacities of the column and rafter, the

frame members. The following simple procedure may be adopted for arriving at the

ratio.

(i) Determine the absolute plastic moment value for separate loading conditions.

(Assume that all joints are fixed against rotation, but the frame is free to sway). For

beams, solve the beam mechanism equation and for columns, solve the panel (sway)

mechanism equation. These are done for all loading combinations. The moments thus

obtained are the absolute minimum plastic moment values. The actual section

moment will be greater than or at least equal to these values.

(ii) Now select plastic moment ratios using the following guidelines.

• For beams use the ratio determined in step (i)

• For columns use the corner connection moments

In the step (d) each loading condition is analysed by a plastic analysis method for

arriving at the minimum required Based on this moment, select the appropriate

sections in step (e). The step (f) is to check the design according to secondary design

considerations discussed in the following sections.

The 'simple plastic theory' neglects the effects of axial force, shear and buckling on

the member resistance. So checks must be carried out for the following factors as

recommended by "The Hand book for Structural Engineers" referred above.

a) Reductions in the plastic moment resistance due to the effect of axial force and

shear force.

c) Brittle fracture.

d) Deflection at service loads.

In addition, connections must be designed carefully to ensure that the plastic moments

can be developed at the hinge locations.

Even though the presence of axial force tends to reduce the magnitude of the plastic

moment resistance of the section, the design procedure may be modified to account

for its

68

influence, retaining the 'plastic hinge' characteristic. The following recommendations account

for effect of axial compression on

• Neglect the effect of axial force on the plastic moment resistance unless

where P is the actual axial force and is the axial force that could cause yielding of the full

cross section.

is given by

where, is the plastic moment resistance of the section when the axial force

is absent, is the actual axial force; is the axial force corresponding to yielding.

The required design value of plastic section modulus of the member (Z) under combined

compression and bending, is given by:

The effect of shear force is also to reduce the plastic moment resistance. Due to the presence of

shear, two types of 'premature failure' can occur.

(a) General shear yield of the web may occur in the presence of high shear-to-moment

ratios.

(b) After the beam has become partially plastic at a critical section due to flexural

yielding, the intensity of shear stress at the centre line may reach the yield

condition.

(c)

The maximum shear resistance of a beam under combined shear and moment should be

calculated as

Where, = effective cross sectional area resisting shear after deducting the area that has

yielded under flexure.

Usually it is found that the reduction in moment resistance due to shear is more than

compensated by the strain hardening of extreme fibre under flexure and consequently effect of

shear on plastic moment resistance may be neglected in most cases.

69

10.3.3 Local buckling of flanges and webs

If the plates, of which the cross section is made, are not stocky enough, they may be

subject to local buckling either before or soon after the first plastic moment is reached.

Due to this, the moment resistance of the section would drop off and the rotation

resistance would be inadequate to ensure formation of complete failure mechanism.

Therefore, in order to ensure adequate rotation at values and to avoid premature

plastic buckling, the compression elements should have restriction on the

width-thickness ratios as given in section 5, corresponding to plastic sections.

compression flanges at points as given below (Fig. 10.2).

(a) Lateral support to the compression flange should be provided at the location of

plastic hinges.

(b) The ratio of laterally unsupported length of the compression flange to the radius

of gyration of the member about weak axis, should not exceed

where v is defined below in Eqn. 10.4.

(c) The slenderness ratio of compression flange, of the length, adjacent to the

unsupported length where the moment exceeds should not be greater

than

(d) The slenderness ratio, of the rest of the elastic portion of the member should

be such that the lateral buckling strength of that portion is greater than actual

maximum elastic moment in the region.

where, = yield stress of the material in Mpa and may be taken conservatively as 1.0

or may be calculated using the following equation.

where is the ratio of the plastic rotation at the hinge point just as the mechanism is

formed to the relative elastic rotation of the far ends of the beam segment containing

the plastic hinge.

70

10.3.5 Column buckling

In the plane of bending of columns which would develop a plastic hinge at ultimate

loading, the slenderness ratio should not exceed 120, where is the centre-to-centre

distance of bracing members connecting and providing restraint against weak axis

buckling of the column or the distance from such a member to the base of the column.

Further, columns in moment resisting frames, where side sway is not prevented, should

be so proportioned such that

The slenderness ratio, of the frame in the plane normal to the plane of frame action

under consideration should be such that the following condition is satisfied.

columns and other axially loaded members, should not exceed unity or the value

given by the following formula.

Case I - For columns bent in double curvature by applied moments producing plastic

hinges at both ends of the columns:

Case II - For slender struts, where in addition to exceeding 0.75 also exceeds

71

member as an elastic part of a plastically designed structure. Such a member should be

designed according to the maximum permissible stress requirements satisfying:

= maximum plastic moment resistance in the beam - column;

= plastic moment resistance of the section when no axial force is acting.

= lateral buckling resistance in the absence of axial load

= if the beam column is adequately braced against lateral buckling

= buckling resistance in the plane of bending if only axially loaded

(without any bending moment) and if the beam - column is laterally

braced. If the column is not adequately laterally braced, is the weak

axis buckling strength under only axial compression.

= effective cross-section area of the member;

= a coefficient whose value should be taken as follows:

b) For members in frames where side sway is prevented and not subject to

transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending:

loading and subjected to transverse loading between their supports; the

value of is given by,

10.4 Connections

corners the connections must accomplish the direction of forces change. Therefore, the design

of connections must assure that they are capable of developing and maintaining the required

moment until the frame fails by forming a mechanism.

72

SECTION 11: MULTI - STOREY BUILDINGS

11.1 Introduction

Recent innovations in lateral load resisting systems (e.g. frame-wall, framed tube, belt

truss with outrigger, tube in tube and bundled tube systems) have enabled

construction of very tall buildings elsewhere in the world using steel frames. When

we build such tall structures it becomes necessary to consider some of the effects such

as the effect of lateral deflection, on gravity loading, P which are normally ignored

in the design of building frames of three or four storeys.

A building frame deflects under lateral load. The columns of tall buildings carry large

axial loads. A building frame, which deflects under lateral load, is further forced to

undergo additional deflection because of the eccentricity of gravity load from the

centre of gravity of the column due to the deflected shape. These two effects of large

axial loads P in the columns combined with significant lateral deflection need

careful consideration in the design of tall multi-storey buildings. The combined effect

of the large axial loads P and lateral deflection give rise to the

destabilising effect.However, in frames that are only a few storeys high, this

effect is negligible and hence ignored in the analysis. It is therefore necessary to

classify frames based on the relative importance of effects for the purpose of

evaluating design forces.

are some frames, which may sway only by a small amount since the magnitude of

sway in such frame is small it will have only a negligible effect. Such frames are

also classified as "non-sway" frames. Therefore, to define the non-sway frame

precisely, its lateral stiffness is used as the criteria irrespective of whether it is braced

or not. For such frames lateral stiffness is provided by one of the following:

(ii) provision of bracing system.

(iii) connecting the frame to a braced frame, shear core, shear wall or a lift well.

The inter storey deflection (i.e. the difference in deflection of top and bottom end

of a column in that storey) is used to quantify the lateral stiffness of the frame. The

meaning of inter storey deflection is shown in Fig. 11.1(c). Fig. 11.1 ( a ) shows a

typical multi storey frame subjected to factored (dead + live) load. To ascertain the

stiffness of the frame, it is analysed when subjected to assumed forces of magnitude

0.5% of factored (dead + live) load applied laterally on the frame at each floor level

as shown in Fig. 11.1 ( b ) for getting the inter storey deflection for the storey.

Note that the lateral loads are applied without the presence of dead and live loads.

The maximum for any storey is taken as a measure of the frame stiffness.

73

Fig. 11.1 Approximate calculation offrame stiffness for classification of frames

(according to Home's method)

74

For a frame to be of the non-sway" type the maximum inter storey deflection permitted in

any storey is generally taken as follows:

where hi is the height of the i'h storey (<5/ and hi are in the same units).

The strength and stability of a rigid jointed frame is examined based on material stress

-strain idealisation of its true behaviour.

• Elastic Behaviour

• Elastic - Plastic Behaviour

• Rigid Plastic Behaviour

Strain

(c) Rigid-Plastic behaviour

75

11.4 Effective Length of Columns

length. A number of idealised end conditions such as pinned, fixed, partially fixed,

free and supported on rollers, etc., are used in textbooks to describe the restraint at the

two ends of a column. In multi-storey buildings, columns are continuous and beam,

members frame into them at floor levels connected rigidly. These columns become a

part of either non-sway or sway frame.

The column, which is a part of the multi-storey non-sway frame, can be idealised to

be a part of a limited sub-frame shown in Fig. 11.3. Let be the effective length of

the column, the actual length between floor beams. The effective length factor for

the column is defined as

In the figure are relative stiffness values for upper and lower column

respectively. are the sum of values for beams framing into the column

under examination at the top and bottom respectively. The joint restraint coefficient

for the column at the top and bottom is obtained from

In Fig. 11.3, represents the joint stiffness of the column 1-2 at the end 1 and 2

respectively.

76

11.4.2 Effective length for non-sway (k3 = ) and sway k3=0 frames

Based on the work of Wood, the value of relative end restraints can be obtained

from a contour Plot reproduced in Fig. 11.4(b) and Fig. 11.5(b) for the non-sway frame shown

in Fig. 11.4(a) and for sway frame shown in Fig. 11.5(a) respectively. In the case of non-sway

frame, stability criteria considered are rotations that take place at top and bottom end of the

column for the elastic critical load using stability functions.

frame braced against sidesway for

77

However, in the case of sway frames, [Fig. 11.5(a)] in addition to rotations, the effect of

lateral deflection has been considered. Subsequently, it was shown by Wood that the plots in

Fig. 11.4(6) and Fig. 11.5(6) can also be used when the columns at the top and (or) bottom are

continuous over stories provided that the joint stiffness at top and bottom are correctly

accounted for.

The effective length factor for the column for non-sway frames lie in the range of

"0.5 to 1.0". For sway frames the range increases to indicating clearly the

contribution of lateral sway to instability.

Fig.11.5(a)Swayframe

Fig. 11.5 (b) Effective Length ratio IJ1 for a column in a rigid- jointed

frame with unrestricted sidesway for k3=0

78

11.4.3 Effective length of insufficiently restrained columns in the frames

While using the charts given in Fig. 11.4(b) and Fig. 11.5(6), following limitations

should be kept in view:

(i) When a member is either not present or not firmly connected to the frame, it

should be considered to have zero stiffness.

(ii) If a framing member carries nearly full moment (90% of its moment resistance)

it will not provide resistance for preventing the column from buckling when plastic

hinges have formed. For such beams, stiffness should be taken as zero.

(iii) If the column under question itself carries full moment (90% of its moment

resistance) it will develop flexural hinge at top and bottom and as such its

effective length should be taken as

(iv) When the column is attached to the foundation, a rational value of k at the

bottom should be chosen (i.e. if pinned, 0.9 if not rigidly connected and 0.5 if

rigidly connected with transverse beams).

The above cases highlight the importance of rotational continuity being distributed by

Neither the column

either plasticity considered

or partial releasein

dueFig. 11.4(a) foundation

to practical with full restraint

problems,nor the are

which column

likely

considered in Fig. 11.5(a) with no restraint can

to reduce the restraint at the ends of the column. be applied to a case of a frame partially

restrained by filler walls in between the framing members. These panel walls partially

inhibit sway. In such cases, the effective length will depend on the relative stiffness of

bracing system provided.

*

The relative stiffness of the bracing system to that of the frame is designated as £3 and

is given by

= Sum of the spring stiffness calculated as horizontal force required to

produce unit horizontal deflection of the panel in the storey in which the

column is located.

= Modulus of Elasticity of Column

= Sum of the stiffness of all columns in that storey represented by their

values.

The spring stiffness in eqn (11.1) can be conveniently obtained from the unit load

method as given in eqn (11.2)

79

where, = storey height

= width of panel

= thickness of panel

= Modulus of Elasticity of panel

Fig. 11.6 and Fig.l 1.7 show the charts (currently used in reinforced concrete frames) for

computing effective length ratios for sway bracing stiffness of and

respectively. Thus, effective length factor for a column being a part of the frame with

as well as can be determined using these charts. These charts are intended to

account for the effect of partial sway bracing.

Fig. 11.6 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid- jointed frame with

partial sway bracing of relative stiffness

frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness

80

The actual effective length factor for the partial sway bracing case for a particular

case of bracing stiffness determined from equation (1) is determined by

interpolating the values obtained for [Fig. 11.5(b)], (Fig. 11.6)

and (Fig. 11.7).

It is assumed that the far end of the beam from the column under consideration is

fully restrained. This assumption is realistic (as shown by Wood) and acceptable

because about 48 to 60 percent of the width of slabs is available for stiffening beams

and for carrying the fixed end moments of loaded beams. However, this assumption is

not appropriate for base frames which are not integral with concrete floor and hence

the value used for such floors should be modified taking into account the critical

buckling mode at failure.

81

For a non-sway frame, the beams are bent into single curvature as shown in Fig. 11.8. For this

case, the beam stiffness is

In the case of a sway frame, the bending mode will have double curvature as shown in Fig.

11.9. The beam stiffness in this case is The effective length obtained for the

column using this assumption is appropriate. A more exact value can be obtained from the

consideration of frame instability discussed later.

It is assumed that the beam members are not subjected to axial forces. If they are, the limited

frame method can still be used, provided the frame is a non-sway one and proper care is taken

to use reduced stiffness for beams based on the level of axial load carried by it, to its elastic

buckling load

In this method, the effect of instability of the column on bending moments and deflection is

considered by appropriately increasing their magnitude by a moment magnification

factor where is the current load level and is the load required to cause

instability. This method has been tested for different ratios of moments acting at top and

bottom of the column. If we designate this moment ratio as (smaller end moment / larger

end moment) the magnification factor due to instability for different ratios of is shown (by

Wood) as in Fig. 11.10.

The influence of frame instability on elastic response is shown in Fig. 11.11. In the simplified

sway method, all the moments obtained by elastic analysis due to horizontal forces be increased

by this magnification factor. Since the effects of instability are incorporated by moment magnifier

method, the effective length of the column is kept as actual length of the column itself.

82

4

11.4 Elastic design

11.6.1 General

The elastic design is made for factored loads when the deflections are small. The deflections

should generally be limited to span/200. The design of beams and columns are made using

substitute frames for gravity loading described earlier. For horizontal loading it is necessary to

consider entire frame. One of the approximate methods described earlier can be used. Even when

elastic design is used, moment redistribution to the extent of 70% can be made provided compact

or plastic sections are used and minor axis column moments are not reduced while maintaining

equilibrium.

For gravity loading, non-sway frames are analysed either using full frame or using substitute

frame. The effective length of columns is obtained as described earlier in section 11.4 taking

them as braced. For load cases involving horizontal load pattern e.g. wind loading, vertical

loading is not considered and the entire frame is analysed.

The frames, which exceed the non-sway limit as specified in Section 11.2, are designed

considering sway. As a first step, the frame is analysed for vertical gravity loading considering

also pattern loading as a non-sway frame using effective length of columns applicable to those

braced against sidesway.

Next, the effects of sway is considered under all combination of loading, considering vertical

loading effects on sway, the notional lateral load as described in section 11.2 is applied at each

storey level and one of the following two design methods is adopted to get the final design forces.

The side sway is allowed. The effective length as explained in section 11.4 using limited

frame method is used and the design forces are obtained.

The bending moments due to lateral loads are magnified by moment magnification factor

as explained in section 11.5 and the final design forces are obtained. Since the

moments have been magnified the effective length of the column is assumed as actual

length of column

84

11.7 Stability Considerations of Sway Frame under Elastic - Plastic Failure Loads

It is necessary to find the lowest critical load because it shows the onset of elastic critical

condition. The elastic critical load factor of the frame is the ratio by which each of the

factored loads will have to be increased to cause elastic instability.

This load factor is also required to be used in the approximate method for evaluating

elastic-plastic failure loads. An approximate method based on the work of Home to arrive

at a reasonable estimate of elastic buckling load is described below:

Consider the rigid frame shown in Fig. 11.1(a) and the analysis performed as indicated in

section 11.2 under lateral loads whose magnitude is 0.5% of the factored dead and live

loads as shown in Fig. 11.1(b).

for all storeys are computed. If is the maximum of all values, then the elastic

critical load factor is

Horne has shown that the above expression gives an approximate lower bound to the

elastic critical load.

The stability of a structure depends on the equilibrium state with reference to the potential

energy U. A structure with small deformation will have a typical load-deflection curve as

indicated by curve XYZ in Fig. 11.12 (b). The effect of load due to lateral deflection in

these structures is not significant. The points X , Y and Z represent three different states

of stability of the frame shown in Fig. 11.12 (a). The potential energy U is the sum of the

potential energy of loads and the elastic strain energy stored Thus,

The condition of stability of the frame can be assessed based on whether the first partial

derivative with respect to deflection is greater than zero, less than zero or equal to zero.

When it is greater than zero the system is stable. When it is equal to zero the system is

neutral i.e. more displacement will not change the system. When it is less than zero the

85

system is unstable i.e. a small change will cause collapse. This is valid for an elastic system

undergoing instability problem.

Consider the load deflection curve OXFD in Fig. 11.12(6) for a typical elastic-plastic non-

linear structure system. This should include the energy absorbed in plastic deformation. Now

the total energy is

The failure criteria for elastic-plastic structure is similar to elastic structure with plastically

deforming parts eliminated. The elastic portion between plastic hinges will still be contributing

to the energy. The structure with the eliminated parts is termed "deteriorated or depleted". The

critical load obtained under this depleted or deteriorated structure is known as deteriorated

critical load. The curve OXC represents the behaviour of ideally elastic frame. The following

are identified with respect to "deteriorated" critical load condition:

= rigid plastic critical load considering members between hinges formed.

= deteriorated critical load factor without the energy component of these parts which

are plastically deforming

= load factor at on set of yield.

86

Such a complete analysis as discussed above is required for a realistic estimate of deteriorated

critical load. In the absence of sophisticated Computer Programme to carry out such an analysis,

a simplified method is required for considering the deteriorated critical load for use by

designers. Such an empirical approach proposed by Merchant Rankine Wood Equation is

discussed in the next section.

An examination of Fig. 11.12 reveals that the elastic critical value is too high and cannot be

reached. If rigid plastic behaviour is assumed the critical load is represented by the drooping

curve GH descending from the rigid plastic load factor. Merchant suggested that realistic

failure load can be expressed as a function of and According to original Merchant

Rankine Equation.

Wood suggested a modification of Merchant Rankine load considering strain- hardening and

restraint provided by cladding

87

and

This is applicable to clad frames in which no account has been taken of cladding.

These equations are modified for unclad frames or frames where stiffness of cladding is

considered as indicated below:

Thus the method involves finding the elastic critical load and the rigid plastic critical

load and then appropriate equation satisfied based on whether the frame is a clad one or

otherwise.

Plastic design of frames can be used for the frames, which are effectively braced against out of

plane sway.

The frame should be braced against lateral sway such that it can be classified as a non-sway

frame as per the condition explained in section 11.2. However, while considering the sway,

against lateral loads, the bending stiffness of the frame should be ignored, as its buckling

resistance will not be available to prevent sidesway when the frame reaches its plastic capacity.

allowance is made for frame instability effects.

b) Simplified Empirical Approach: A simplified frame stability check is made using

Merchant-Rankine-Wood Equation provided the following conditions are satisfied.

(i) The beam side-sway mechanism with hinges in all beam ends and at base of

columns should be applicable. There should not be other hinges in the

column, which may lead to premature failure.

(ii) The column in the ground floor should be designed to remain within elastic

limit. Under the combination of unfactored load and notional horizontal load

to simulate sway (wind force not included), forces and moments in the frame

should be within elastic limit.

88

SECTION 12: CONNECTION DESIGN

12.1 General

Connections are critical components of steel structures as they have the potential for greater

variability in behaviour and strength. They are more complex to design than the members and

are usually the most vulnerable components in a structural system consequent on the effects of

geometric imperfections, complexity of connection geometry and residual stresses and strains.

The design philosophy for connections, based on simple analysis, is summarised below.

For most of the connections, force distribution is based on the concept of 'force paths' taking

account of overall connection behaviour. The loads acting on the connection are replaced by

an equivalent system of forces and assigned to specific paths through the connection. While

finding the forces, the effect of the size of the joint (in reducing the design forces), has to be

considered. The force resultants thus obtained should be replaced by an equivalent system of

forces on the elements of the joint (e.g., the major proportion of the bending moment is carried

by the flanges of a beam and the major proportion of shear force is carried by the web).

The flexibility of the components of the connection is another important aspect. It is the most

flexible components that will govern the distribution of forces eg. in an end plate connection,

if the bolts are of small diameter and the end plate is thick, it is the bolt flexibility that will

govern the distribution of forces. However, if the bolts are stiff compared to the end plates it is

the flexural action of the latter that will primarily govern the distribution of forces, including

the distribution of forces in the bolts.

Equivalent system of forces should be in equilibrium with the external force resultants and

also in equilibrium with the joint as a whole.

Each element in the force flow path should be checked to ensure that they have

(b) adequate ductility to redistribute the forces to parallel elements in case of overload.

The strength and ductility evaluation has to be done for all components in the force path

including bolts and welds.

Above discussions are related to static ultimate capacity. In addition to this the connection

should achieve satisfactory serviceability, fatigue resistance etc.

89

12.3 Classification of Connections

(i) Flexible or hinged connections - This type of connection is also known as shear

connection. It will permit large angle of rotation and transmit little or no moment. These

connections are also referred as "simple".

(ii) Semi-rigid connections - This type of connection allows small end rotation for

transmitting appreciable moment (moment less than the full moment capacity of

connected members).

(iii) Rigid connections - This type of connections are intended not allow any end

rotation and retain a constant relative angle between the connected members under any

joint rotation and transmit moment equal to full moment capacity of the members

connected. The original angles between the connected members remain unchanged.

90

Another factor to be kept in mind in connection design is that the joints are neither ideally

hinged nor ideally rigid and all joints exhibit some relative rotation between members being

joined. This is due to the deformation of elements in the joint. The moment versus relative

joint rotation of different types of connections is shown in Fig. 12.1

Any joint developing more than 90% of the ideal rigid joint moment may be realistically

classified as rigid and similarly any joint exhibiting less than 10% of the ideal rigid joint

moment classified as hinged joint; the joint developing moments and rotations in between are

referred as semi-rigid.

Connections are normally made either by bolting or by welding. The behaviour of bolted

connection in tension and shear is discussed below.

(i) Bearing type

(ii) Friction type

Bearing type: The most common type is bearing bolts in clearance holes, often referred to as

ordinary bolts / black bolts. The force transfer mechanism under shear is shown in Fig. 12.2.

The force is transferred by bearing between the plate and bolts at the bolt holes. The failure

may be either by shearing of the bolts or bearing of the plate and the bolt.

Friction type: In High strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolted joints; high strength bolts are pre-

tensioned against the plates to be bolted together, so that contact pressure is developed

between the plates being joined. When external shear force is applied, the frictional resistance

to slip between the plates prevents their relative slip. These bolted joints achieve higher

stiffness in shear because of frictional resistance between the contact surfaces. Only when the

externally applied force exceeds the frictional resistance between the plates, the plates slip &

the bolts bear against the bolt holes. The HSFG

2

91

Connections are designed such that under service load the force does not exceed the

Frictional resistance so that the relative slip is avoided during service.(See Fig.12.3)

Bearing Type: The free body diagram of the tension transfer in a bearing type of bolted

connection is shown in Fig 12.4 (a). The variation of bolt tension due to externally applied

tension is shown in Fig. 12.4 (b). It is seen that before any external tension is applied, the force

in the bolt is almost zero, since the bolts are only snug tight. As the external tension is increased

it is equilibrated by the increase in bolt tension. Failure is reached due to large elongation when

the root of the bolt starts yielding. Depending on the relative flexibility of the plate and the bolt,

sometimes the opening of the joint may be accompanied by prying action (described in section

12.4.5).

923

Friction type: In the case of HSFG bolts, even before any external load is applied, the force in

the bolt is equal to proof load. Correspondingly there is a clamping force between the plates in

contact. When external load is applied, part of the load (nearly 10%) of the load is equilibrated

by the increase in bolt force. The balance of the force is equilibrated by the reduction in contact

between the plates. This process continues and the contact between the plates is maintained

until the contact force due to pre tensioning is reduced to zero by the externally applied load.

Normally, the design is done such that the externally applied tension doesn't exceed this level.

After the external force exceeds this level, the behaviour of the bolt under tension is essentially

the same as that in a bearing type of joint.

Bearing Type: The bolts used in many structural steel connections are subjected to a

combination of shear and tension. Tests on bearing type bolts subject to combined shear and

tension show that their ultimate strengths can be represented with an elliptical interaction curve

as shown in Fig. 12.6, in which, is the limiting tensile stress if there is no shear, and is the

limiting shearing stress if there is no externally applied tension. The three dashed lines very

closely represent the test result interaction curve. Nominally, the shank cross section may be

more critical in the presence of significant shear and coincident bending.

combined shear and tension

93

The compressive design is governed by

Friction Type: In a slip critical connection, the tension will reduce the contact force and thus,

lower the shear required to cause the connection to slip. Any external tension will produce a

corresponding reduction in clamping force between the contact surfaces. If any variation in

coefficient of friction with bearing pressure is discounted there will be a linear reduction in

friction capacity of the connection. If the external tension arises because of an applied moment

there will be no net change in clamping force.

In practice it is not possible to separate the discussion of bolts in tension from that of

surrounding elements. Flexure of the connected parts may lead to a significant increase in bolt

load due to prying action. Fig. 12.7 (a) shows the variations in behaviour that can occur in

simple, two bolt connections.

If the end plate is relatively rigid and does not deflect significantly, it is possible to ignore its

flexural action. For applied loads that are less than the sum of the bolt preloads there is no

significant separation of the connection components and only modest change in the bolt

preload. Once the applied load exceeds the sum of bolt preloads, the end plate separates

entirely from the base. From this point onwards to rupture the sum of the bolt loads equals the

applied load.

However, if a flexible end plate is used, the behaviour is more complex. Each portion of the

end plate bends into double curvature the restraining moments at the bolt centreline develop

from forces at or near the tips of the end plate. Overall equilibrium is now

94

given by 2B = 2F+2Q. The effect of the amplification of the bolt forces is twofold: there is an

earlier separation of the connection elements with a reduction in connection stiffness once

separation has occurred, and the ultimate capacity is reduced.

The design formula for minimum prying force is given by (Owens and Cheal, 1989)

(12.1)

where,

is the distance from the bolt centreline to the toe of the fillet weld or to half the root radius

for a rolled section;

= distance between prying force and bolt centreline and is the minimum of, either the

end distance, or the value given by Eqn.(12.2);

2 for non pre-loaded bolt;

1.5 for limit state design; the effective width of flange per pair of bolts;

the proof stress in consistent units and t is the thickness of the end plate.

(12.2)

Even if the bolts are strong enough to carry the additional prying forces, the plate can fail by

developing a mechanism with yield lines at the centreline of the bolt and at the distance from

it. Therefore, the minimum thickness of the end plate to avoid yielding of the plate, can be

obtained by equating the moment in the plate at the bolt centreline (point A) and at the

distance from it (point B), to the plastic moment capacity of the plate From this the

minimum thickness for the end plate can be obtained as

(12.3)

The corresponding prying force will be If the total force in the bolt

exceeds the tensile capacity of the bolt, then the thickness of the end plate will have to be

increased.

Connections in shear: The failure of connections with bearing bolts in shear involves either bolt

failure or the failure of the connected plates. In the case of HSFG bolts, however, it may simply

be a slip between the connected plates.

95

(1) Bearing bolts

In connections made with bearing type of bolts, the failure may be due to

• failure of bolt takes place in bearing, and

• failure of plate takes place in bearing

In addition to the above, the plate may also tear or burst at the edge due to inadequate edge

distance. Therefore, to develop the full bearing stress, the bolt has to have adequate distance

from the edge of the plate.

QZD

HSFG bolts will come into bearing only after slip takes place. Therefore if slip is critical (i.e. if

slip cannot be allowed) then one has to calculate the slip resistance, which will govern the

design. However, if slip is not critical, and limit state method is used then bearing failure can

occur at the Limit State of collapse and needs to be checked. Even in the Limit State method,

since HSFG bolts are designed to withstand working loads without slipping, the slip resistance

needs to be checked anyway as a Serviceability Limit State.

Tension Failure: In a tension or hanger connection, the applied load produces tension in the

bolts. If the attached plate is allowed to deform, additional tensile forces called prying forces

are developed in the bolts as shown in Fig. 12.7. The prying forces can be kept small by using a

thick plate or by limiting the distance between the bolt and the plate edge. Black bolts and

turned and fitted bolts have sufficient ductility to take care of prying forces simply by an

increase in the bolt strain under constant yield stress. However, HSFG bolts, which are pre-

tensioned and thus have less ductility, are susceptible to failure. These are therefore normally

designed to take only 0.9 times their proof load.

7

96

Block Shear: Block shear failure is another mode of failure wherein the failure may occur along

a path involving tension on one plane and shear on a perpendicular plane. For this situation it is

possible for a "block" of steel to tear out as shown in Fig. 12.9.

When a tensile load applied to a particular connection is increased the fracture strength of the

weaker plane will be approached. The plane will not fail because the stronger plane restrains it.

The load can be increased until the fracture strength of stronger plane is reached. The total

strength is obtained from the sum obtained by adding the fracture strength of the stronger plane

plus the yield strength of the weaker plane. Thus it is not correct to add the fracture strength of

stronger plane to the fracture strength of the weaker plane to determine shear resistance of a

particular member.

If a member has a large shear area and a small tensile area, then the primary resistance to a

block shear failure is shearing and not tensile and vice versa. Thus, the block shear strength of

a particular member is determined by,

(i) Computing the tensile fracture strength on the net section in one direction and

adding to that value the shear yield strength on the gross area on the perpendicular

direction.

(ii) Computing the shear fracture strength on the gross area subject to tension and

adding it to the tensile yield strength on the area subject to shear on the

perpendicular segment.

Failure by block shear occurs when a portion of the member tears out in a combination of

tension and shear. The strength as governed by block shear is the minimum of

Check for block shear should be carried out when using high strength bolts with minimum pitch

and edge distances and in coped sections.

8

97

Pitch of bolts:

where d0 is the nominal diameter and t is the thickness of the thinner element

Quality of cut Edge and end distance

For a rolled, machine flame cut, 1.25 D

sawn or planned edge

For a sheared or hand flame cut edge 1.40 D

and any end

D is the diameter of the holes

( 2 ) Bearing Bolts:

the shear area

is the nominal diameter of the bolt and

is the combined thickness of the thinner plates bearing on the bolt in any

direction.

98

where, is the permissible bearing stress for the plate, is the end distance and

is the thickness of the plate

(hi) Long Joints: When the joint length, of a splice or end connection in a

compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds

the shear capacity, should be taken as

(iv) Large grip lengths: When the grip length exceeds five times the nominal

diameter, the shear capacity, is taken as

where is the tension strength of bolt, and is the tensile stress area

(vi) Bolts subject to Combined Shear and Tension: When bolts are subject to

both shear and tension then the following condition should be satisfied.

(i) Slip Resistance: Slip Resistance of parallel shank HSFG bolts is given by an

expression similar to the frictional force between surfaces in contact.

Where is a factor, which takes care of the frictional area in different hole types

for clearance holes, for oversized holes and long slots

perpendicular to the load and for long slots parallel to the load);

99

is the slip factor - 0.45 for untreated (non-galvanised, non-painted) surfaces

and is the proof load.

(ii) Bearing strength: The bearing strength of plates for parallel shank friction grip

fasteners is given by

(12.13)

(iii) Long Joints: When the joint length, of a splice or end connection in a

compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds 500 mm,

the shear capacity, should be taken as

(12.14)

(iv)Tension Failure: HSFG bolts are designed to take only 0.9 times their proof

load.

(v) Combined Shear and tension failure: For HSFG bolts subjected to combined

action of shear and tension, the following relation has to be satisfied.

(12.15)

= tension capacity

Static strength of a welded joint depends upon factors such as type and size of the weld,

manner of welding, and type of electrode. The generally employed welding methods are

gas and arc welding. But the most common welding process is arc welding. Shielded

metal arc welding (SMAW), submerged-arc welding (SAW), manual metal-arc welding

(MMA), metal-active gas welding (MAG) and stud welding are commonly used arc

welding processes.

The symbolic representation of welds includes elementary symbols along with

a) Supplementary symbol,

b) A means of showing dimensions, or

c) Some complementary indications.

100

IS: 813-1986, "Scheme Of Symbols for Welding" gives all the details of weld

representation in drawings.

In general the following weld defects detected during inspection are acceptable for

structures.

• For joints welded from both the sides, incomplete penetration with thickness

up to 5% of the parent metal thickness, but not exceeding 2 mm and the length

more than 500 mm can be accepted. The aggregate length of flaw shall not be

more than 200 mm per meter length of the joint. Incomplete penetration and

cracks are not allowed at or near the end or beginning of a joint.

• For joints welded from one side with out backing strip, incomplete penetration

with thickness up to 15% of parent metal thickness but not exceeding 3 mm at the

root is allowed.

• Slag inclusion located along the weld as a chain or unbroken line is allowed if

their aggregate length does not exceed 200 mm per meter of weld length. Size of

the slag may also be considered.

• Total of isolated gas pores and slag inclusion shall not exceed 5 in number per

square centimetre of the weld.

as a chain shall not exceed 10% of metal thickness but not greater than 2 mm

when welding is done from both the sides and 15% of metal thickness, but not

greater than 3 mm when welding is done from one side.

• For metal thickness up to 10 mm, undercuts shall not be more than 0.5 mm.

For metal thickness more than 10 mm, undercuts shall not be greater than 1

mm.

Incomplete weld, molten metal flow, pits and cracks shall not be allowed.

It is essential that welded joints are thoroughly examined and defects are detected so that

any possible distress could be averted. There are several non-destructive testing methods

to check the quality of welds such as visual inspection, liquid penetrants, magnetic

particles, ultrasonic testing, and radiography.

The commonly used forms of welds are butt welds and fillet welds.

Butt welds are used at an edge-to-edge junction or a tee junction and is made by bringing

the plates to be joined face to face edgewise and then filling the cavity formed by edge

preparation or by just penetrating the unprepared junction. Butt welds can be either full

penetration or partial penetration. Fig. 12.10 shows different types of butt welds.

101

103

A fillet weld is made away from the edges of the abutting plates and is formed by

welding the members in an overlapped position or by using a secondary joining material.

Fillet welding could be applied for lap joints, tee joints and corner joints. Fig. 12.11

shows the two types of fillet welds: side fillet weld and end fillet weld.

Fig. 12.11 Fillet (a) side welds and (b) end welds

The butt weld is normally designed for direct tension or compression. However, a

provision is made to ensure that it is safe against shear failure. Design stress value is

often taken to be the same as the parent metal strength.

For design purposes, the effective area of the butt-welded connection is taken as the

effective length of the weld times the throat size. Effective length of the butt weld is

taken as the length of the continuous full size weld. The throat size is specified by the

effective throat thickness.

102

For a full penetration butt weld, the throat dimension is usually assumed as the thickness

of the thinner part of the connection. For a butt weld reinforced on both sides the effect of

reinforcement should be neglected for estimating the throat dimensions.

For partial penetration weld effective throat thickness is taken as the minimum thickness

of the weld metal common to the parts joined, excluding reinforcement. For stress

calculation, a maximum value of reduced effective throat thickness equal to 5/8 of the

thickness of the thinner part joined must be used. The unwelded portion in partial

penetration butt welds, welded from both sides, shall not be greater than lA thickness of

the thinner part joined, and should be in the central portion.

Unsealed butt welds of V, U, J and bevel types and incomplete penetration butt welds

should not be used for highly stressed joints and joints subjected to dynamic and

alternating loads. Intermittent butt welds are used to resist shear only and the effective

length should not be less than four times the longitudinal space between the effective

length of welds nor more than 16 times the thinner part. They are not to be used in

locations subjected to dynamic or alternating stresses.

For butt welding parts with unequal cross sections, say unequal width, or thickness, the

dimensions of the wider or thicker part should be reduced at the butt joint to those of the

smaller part. This is applicable in cases where the difference in thickness exceeds 25 % of

the thickness of the thinner part or 3.0 mm, whichever is greater. The slope provided at

the joint for the thicker part should not be steeper than one in five [Figs. 12.12 (a) & (b)].

In instances, where this is not practicable, the weld metal is built up at the junction equal

to a thickness which is at least 25 % greater than the thinner part or equal to the dimension

of the thicker part [Fig. 12.12(c)]. Where reduction of the wider part is not possible, the

ends of the weld shall be returned to ensure full throat thickness.

(a)&(b) unequal thickness (c) unequal width

Design stresses for butt welds are assumed same as for the parent metal with a

thickness equal to the throat thickness. For field welds, the design stresses in shear and

tension may be reduced to 80% of the above value.

103

12.6.6 Design of fillet weld

A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions

and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average throat thickness is obtained by

dividing the applied loads summed up in vectorial form per uniFor stress calculations,

the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a

constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in

Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts

whose

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled

section

Over (mm) Up to and including (mm) (mm)

- 10 3

10 20 5

For a 20

deep penetration weld, 32 the depth of penetration should

6 be a minimum of 2.4 mm.

Then 32

the size of the weld is50minimum leg length plus

8 (First 2.410(Minimum

run) mm. The size of a fillet weld

should not be less than 3 mm or more than the thickness

size ofoffillet)

the thinner part joined.

Mi

Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld

of fillet Minimum

10 size of first run or of 3a single run fillet

weld

A simple approach Thicknessto design is to assume

of thicker part uniform filletMinimum weld strength size

10 Table

in all directions 12.1

and toUp 20

Minimum

specify size of first run or of 5

a single

(mm) run fillet

Over (mm) to anda including

certain throat (mm) stress value. The average

throat thickness is obtained by dividing the weldapplied loads summed up in

vectorial form - per unit length by 10 3 design

Fig.12.14

20 (a) fillet welds on square

32 edge of plate,size.

the throat Alternatively,

(b) fillet welds

6 on round toe of rolled

strength can 10

be different with 20 of the load vector. This5method

direction

section

is limited in 20 usage to cases of pure 32 shear, tension or compression. 6 It

cannot 32

32be used in cases where 50

50 the load vector 8 (First

direction

8 (First run) 10(Minimum

varies around

run) 10(Minimum

weld 12.2.

Table group. For othe

Value f K simple method,

for different angles thebetween

stress fusion

issize

taken size

faces

of as the

fillet) of fillet)

vector

sum of the force components acting in the weld divided by the throat

area.

Angle between 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120°

fusion faces Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld

The size of a normal fillet should be taken104 as the minimum leg size

Table 12.1

12.6.6 Minimum

- Design 60°of -fillet

90°of weld

size 91°-100°

first

10 run or of 101°-106°

a single run fillet 107°-113°

3 114°-120°

(Fig. 12.13).

weld

square A edge of aapproach

simple part, thetoweld designsizeisshould

to assumebe atuniform

least 1.5 mmweld

fillet lessstrength

than the edge

Constant

thickness

Table in K

12.1 10

[Fig. 12.14

Minimum 0.70(a)]

size . For

of 20

0.65

the

first runrounded

or of 0.60

a toe

singleof a

run rolled

all directions and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average 0.55

fillet 5

section, the0.50

weld size

should not exceed

throat 3/4 thickness

thickness of the

weld

is obtained by section

dividingatthe theapplied

toe [Fig. 12.14

loads (b)] . up in

summed

12.6.6 Design of fillet weld

n shouldvectorial form per

be a20minimum of unit

2.4 mm.length

32 Thenby thethe throat

size ofsize. Alternatively,

the weld 6 minimum

is design

leg length

plus strength

2.4 mm. can

The size be different

of a fillet with direction of the load vector. This method

A simple approach

is of

limited intousage

design to toweld

iscasesassume should

of pure

not be

uniform

shear,

lessweld

fillet

tension

thanstrength

3 mm or

or compression.in more than the

all directions

Itis given

thickness

and to specify the thinner part joined. Minimum size requirement of fillet welds

below cannot

in 32abecertain

Table 12.1.

throat

usedEffective

in cases stress50value.

where

throat the The

loadaverage

thickness vector

should

throat

direction

8 (First not run)thickness

be variesthan

10(Minimum

less

is obtained by

around

3 mm and

dividingweld

the applied

group. loadsthesummed upmethod,

in vectorial form per uniFor asstress calculations,

should not exceed 0.7Fort and 1.0 simple

t under specialthe stress

circumstances, issize

taken

of theis vector

fillet)

where't' the thickness

the effective

sum throat

of the thickness should beacting

force components taken inas the

K times

weldfilletdividedsize,by where K is a

the throat

of thinner part.

constant. Values

area. of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in

Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts

whose The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size

Table 12.1 Minimum 60° size

- 90°of first 91°-100°

run or of 101°-106°

a single run fillet 107°-113° 114°-120°

Fig.12.14 (Fig. 12.13).

(a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled

section weld

For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet

size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion

faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose

fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length

having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should

not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge

of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14

(a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, the weld size should not exceed 3/4

thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] .

For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet

size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion

faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose

fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length

having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should

not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge

of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14

(a)] . For the rounded

Fig.12.14 (a) toe

filletof a rolled

welds section,

on square edge the weld(b)size

of plate, filletshould

welds not exceed 3/4

thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14

on round toe of rolled section(b)] .

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds

on round toe of rolled section

Generally speaking, continuous welding is preferred because of its superior performance

in dynamic loading. However intermittent fillet welds may sometimes be provided

where the strength required is less than that can be developed by a continuous fillet weld

of the smallest allowable size for the parts joined. The length of intermediate welds

should not be less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 40 mm. The clear

spacing between the effective lengths of the intermittent welds should be less than or

equal to 12 times the thickness of the thinner member in compression and 16 times in

tension; in no case the length should exceed 20 cm. Chain intermittent welding is better

than staggered intermittent welding. Intermittent fillet welds are not used in main

members exposed to weather. For lap joints, the overlap should not be less than five

times the thickness of the thinner part. For fillet welds to be used in slots and holes, the

dimension of the slot or hole should comply with the following limits:

105

a) The width or diameter should not be less than three times the thickness or 25 mm

whichever is greater

b) Corners at the enclosed ends or slots should be rounded with a radius not less than

1.5 times the thickness or 12 mm whichever is greater, and

c) The distance between the edge of the part and the edge of the slot or hole, or between adjacent

slots or holes, should be not less than twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm for the

holes.

The effective area of a plug weld is assumed as the nominal area of the whole in the plane of the

faying surface. Plug welds are not designed to carry stresses. If two or more of the general types

of weld (butt, fillet, plug or slots) are combined in a single joint, the effective capacity of each

has to be calculated separately with reference to the axis of the group to determine the capacity

of the welds.

The high stress concentration at ends of welds is minimised by providing welds around the ends

as shown in Fig. 12.15. These are called end returns. End returns are invariably provided for

welded joints that are subject to eccentricity, impact or stress reversals. The end returns are

provided for a distance not less than twice the size of the weld.

When the lengths available for the normal longitudinal fillet welds are not sufficient to resist the

loads, slot and plug welds [Fig. 12.16] are used to develop the required strength. Plug welds

when used to fill the holes that are temporarily made for erection bolts for beam and column

connections, their strength may not be considered in the overall strength of the joint.

The limitations given in specifications for the maximum sizes of plug and slot welds are

necessary to avoid large shrinkage, which might be caused around these welds when they exceed

the specified sizes. The strength of a plug or slot weld is calculated by considering the allowable

stress and its nominal area in the shearing plane. This area is usually

104

106

referred to as the faying surface and is equal to the area of contact at the base of the slot or plug. The

length of the slot weld can be obtained from the following relationship:

When external load does not pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt or weld group, the load is

said to be eccentric. The eccentricity causes either in plane moment and rotation or out of plane

moment and shear.

■ Load lying in the plane of connection [Fig. 12.17]

Bolted Connection: If the applied load lies in the plane of the connection, the bolt group is subjected

to shear and torsional moment. The bolt group is analysed by resolving the eccentric load into a

concentric load acting through the centroid of bolt group and a torsional

moment where The moment acts with respect to the centroid of the

bolt group as a centre of rotation. P can be resolved into components and acting at distances

of and respectively from the centroid.

The resultant force on each bolt is given by

Where n is the number of bolts in the bolt group and the and co-ordinates reflect the positive and

negative values of the bolt location as appropriate.

Welded Connection: When the applied load lies in the plane of the fillet weld connection, it causes

shear and torsion (Fig. 12.18). The force caused by torsion is determined using the formula

Where, is the tension, s is the distance from the centre of gravity of the weld to the point under

consideration, and is the polar moment of inertia of the weld. For convenience, the force can be

decomposed into its vertical and horizontal components:

107

Where, and denote the vertical and horizontal components of the distance The stress due to shear

force is calculated by the following expression

Where, is the shearing stress and is the reaction and is the total length of the weld. While

designing a weld subjected to combined shear and torsion, it is a usual practice to assume a unit size

weld and compute the stresses on a weld of unit length. From the maximum weld force per unit

length the required size of the fillet weld can be calculated.

Bolted Connection: In the connection shown in Fig. 12.19, the bolts are subjected to combined

shear and tension. The neutral axis may be assumed to be at a distance of one-sixth of the total

depth d. If there is initial tension in bolts, then the neutral axis will pass through the centre of

gravity of the bolt group. The nominal tensile force in the bolts can be calculated assuming it to be

proportional to the distance of the bolt from the neutral axis in Fig. 12.19 (b).

When there is no initial tension in bolts the number of bolts required may be calculated using the

equation given below

Where m is the number of bolt lines, is the pitch of bolts and is the design strength of the bolt.

For bolts with initial tension the number of bolts required is taken as 80% of Eqn. 12.21.

108

Welded Connection: In the case of welds, it is a common practice to treat the variation of shear

stress as uniform if the welds are short. But, if the bending stress is calculated by the flexure

formula, the shear stress variation for vertical welds is parabolic with a maximum value equal to

1.5 times the average value. These bending and shear stress variations are shown in Fig. 12.20. It

may be observed here that the locations of maximum bending and shearing stresses are not the

same. Hence, for design purposes the stresses need not be combined at a point. It is generally

satisfactory if the weld is designed to withstand the maximum bending stress and the maximum

shear stress separately. If the welds used are as shown in Fig. 12.21, it can be safely assumed that

the web welds would carry all the of the shear and the flange welds all of the moment.

109

SECTION: 13 COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS

13.1 General

Thin sheet steel products are extensively used in building industry, and range from purlins to

roof sheeting and floor decking. Generally these are available for use as basic building

elements for assembly at site or as prefabricated frames or panels. These thin steel sections are

cold-formed, i.e. their manufacturing process involves forming steel sections in a cold state

(i.e. without application of heat) from steel sheets of uniform thickness. These are given the

generic title Cold Formed Steel Sections. Sometimes they are also called Light Gauge Steel

Sections or Cold Rolled Steel Sections. The thickness of steel sheet used in cold-formed

construction is usually 1 to 3 mm. Much thicker material up to 8 mm can be formed if

pre-galvanised material is not required for the particular application. The method of

manufacturing differentiates these products from hot rolled steel sections. Normally, the yield

strength of steel sheets used in cold-formed sections is at least although there is a

trend to use steels of higher strengths, and also sometimes as low as Cold forming

has the effect of increasing the yield strength of steel, the increase being the consequence of

cold working well into the strain-hardening range. These increases are predominant in zones

where the metal is bent by folding. The effect of cold working is thus to enhance the mean

yield stress by 15% - 30%. For purposes of design, the yield stress may be regarded as having

been enhanced by a minimum of 15%. The strength/weight ratio of cold-formed sections is

significantly high compared with hot rolled sections. Some of the main advantages of cold

rolled sections are as follows:

• Cross sectional shapes are formed to any desired shape and to close tolerances and these

can be consistently repeated for as long as required.

• Pre-galvanised or pre-coated metals can be formed, so that high resistance to corrosion,

besides an attractive surface finish, can be achieved.

Cold-formed steel elements are either stiffened or unstiffened. An element, which is supported

by webs along both its longitudinal edges, is called a stiffened element. An unstiffened

element is one, which is supported along one longitudinal edge only with the other parallel

edge being free to displace. Stiffened and unstiffened elements are shown in Fig. 13.1

An intermittently stiffened element is made of a very wide thin element, which has been

divided into two or more narrow sub elements by the introduction of intermediate stiffeners,

formed during rolling.

supported along one longitudinal edge by the web and along the other by a web or lip or other

edge stiffener, (e.g. a bend) which has sufficient flexural rigidity to maintain straightness of the

edge, when the element buckles on loading. A rule of thumb is that

110

the depth of simple "lips" or right-angled bends should be at least one-fifth of the adjacent

plate width. More exact formulae to assess the adequacy of the stiffeners are sometimes

employed. If the stiffener is adequate, then the edge-stiffened element may be treated as

having a local buckling coefficient ( K ) value of 4.0. If the edge stiffener is inadequate (or

only partially adequate) its effectiveness is disregarded and the element will be regarded as

unstiffened, for purposes of design calculations.

The effects of local buckling can be evaluated by using the concept of effective width.

Lightly stressed regions at centre are ignored, as these are least effective in resisting

the applied stresses. Regions near the supports are far more effective and are taken to

be fully effective. The section behaviour is modelled on the basis of the effective

width

111

The effective width, multiplied by the edge stress is the same as the mean stress

•across the section multiplied by the total width of the compression member.

The effective width of an element under compression is dependent on the magnitude of the

applied stress the width/thickness ratio of the element and the edge support conditions.

The effective width concept is usually modified to take into account the effects of yielding

and imperfection. For example, BS5950: Part 5 provides a semi-empirical formula for basic

effective width, to conform to extensive experimental data.

When then

Where

compressive stress on the effective element,

local buckling stress given by

load buckling coefficient which depends on the element type, section geometry etc.

thickness of the element, in

width of the element, in

Modifications are necessary for an unstiffened element under uniform compression and for elements under

combined bending and axial load. Typical formula given in BS 5950, Part 5 for computing K values for a

channel element is given below for illustration (See BS 5950, Part 5 for a complete list of buckling

coefficients).

The buckling coefficient for the member having a width of in a lipped channel of

the type shown above is given by

112

For the member having the width of in the above sketch.

normally and will be equal). The computed values of should not be less than 4.0 or

0.425 as the case may be.

The maximum permitted ratios of (b/t) for compression elements are as follows:

• Stiffened elements with one longitudinal edge connected to a flange or web element

and the other stiffened by a simple lip = 60

• Stiffened elements with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements

= 500

• Unstiffened compression elements = 60

The designer should guard against the elements developing very large deformations, when b/t

values exceed half the values tabulated above.

Edge Stiffeners: As stated previously, elements having and provided with simple lip

having one fifth of the element width may be regarded as a stiffened element. 60, then

the width required for the lip may become too large and the lip itself may have

113

stability problems. Special types of lips (called "compound" lips) are designed in such

cases and are usually validated by tests.

Intermediate stiffeners: A wide and ineffective element may be transformed into a highly

effective element by providing suitable intermediate stiffeners (having a minimum

moment of inertia about an axis through the element mid surface). The required

minimum moment of inertia of the stiffener about the axis 0-0 in Fig. 13.3 is given by:

Where = larger flat width of the sub element (see Fig. 13.3) between stiffeners

= thickness of the element

= yield stress

If the sub-element width/thickness ratio does not exceed 60, the total effective area of

the element may be obtained by adding effective areas of the sub-elements to the full areas of

stiffeners. When is larger than 60, the effectiveness of the intermediately stiffened

elements is somewhat reduced due to shear lag effects. If an element has a number of

stiffeners spaced closely and then generally all the stiffeners and

sub elements can be considered to be effective.

In the analysis of member behaviour, the effective section properties are determined by

summing up the effective widths of individual elements. As a general rule, the portions

located close to the supported edges are effective. In the case of compression members, all

elements may be subject to reductions in width.

In the case of flexural members, generally, only the compression elements are considered to

have reduced effective widths. Elements in tension are, of course, not subject to any

reduction of width, as they are not subjected to bending.

stiffeners (such as a lip). Similarly very wide elements can be divided into two or more

narrower sub elements by introducing intermediate stiffeners formed during the rolling

114

process; the sum of the "effective widths" of individual sub elements will enhance the efficiency

of the section.

According to BS 5950, Part 5 an unstiffened element (when provided with a lip) can be regarded

as a stiffened element, when the lip or the edge stiffener has a moment of inertia about an axis

through the plate middle surface equal to or greater than

Where t and b are the thickness and breadth of the full width of the element to be stiffened. For

elements having a full width b less than or equal to 60 t, a simple lip of one fifth of the element

width (i.e. b/5) can be used safely. For lips with b > 60 t, it would be appropriate to design a lip to

ensure that the lip itself does not develop instability. A maximum b/t ratio of 90 is regarded as the

upper limit for load bearing edge stiffeners.

The Indian standard IS: 801-1975 prescribes a minimum moment of inertia for the lip

given by

centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened element in

= flat width - thickness ratio of the stiffened element.

= Yield stress in

For a simple lip bent at right angles to the stiffened element, the required overall depth

is given by

Note that both the above equations given by the Indian Standards are dependent on the units

employed.

Intermediate Stiffeners: Intermediate stiffeners are used to split a wide element into a series of

narrower and therefore more effective elements. The minimum moment of inertia about an axis

through the element middle surface required for this purpose (according to BS 5950, Part 5) is

given in Eqn (4) above.

The effective widths of each sub element may be determined according to Eqn 1 (a) and Eqn.l

(b) by replacing the sub element width in place of the element width b.

When then the total effective area of the element is obtained as the sum of the

effective areas of each sub element to the full areas of stiffeners.

115

When the sub elements having a larger values are employed the

performance of intermittently stiffened elements will be less efficient. To model this reduced

performance, the sub element effective width must be reduced to given by,

The effective stiffener areas are also reduced when by employing the equation:

For values between 60 and 90, the effective stiffener area varies between and as

given below:

It must be noted that when small increases in the areas of intermediate stiffeners are provided, it is

possible to obtain large increases in effectiveness and therefore it is advantageous to use a few

intermediate stiffeners, so long as the complete element width does not exceed 500 t.

When stiffeners are closely spaced, i.e. the stiffeners and sub elements may be

considered to be fully effective. However there is a tendency for the complete element (along

with the stiffeners) to buckle locally. In these circumstances, the complete element is replaced for

purposes of analysis by an element of width b and having fictitious

Where = Moment of inertia of the complete element including stiffeners, about its

own neutral axis.

IS: 801- 1975 also suggests some simple rules for the design of intermediate stiffeners.

When the flanges of a flexural member is unusually wide, the width of flange projecting beyond

the web is limited to

= depth of beam

= the amount of curling

= average stress in as specified in IS: 801 - 1975.

116

The amount of curling should be decided by the designer but will not generally exceed 5 % of

the depth of the section.

13.3 Beams

As stated previously, the effect of local buckling should invariably be taken into account in thin

walled members. Laterally stable beams are beams, which do not buckle laterally. Designs may be

carried out using simple beam theory, making suitable modifications to take account of local

buckling of the webs. This is done by imposing a maximum compressive stress, which may be

considered to act on the bending element.

117

117

The maximum value of the stress is given by

= web depth/thickness ratio

= material yield stress in N/mm2.

= design strength in N/mm

For steel with

For greater web slenderness values, local web buckling has a detrimental effect. The moment

capacity of the cross section is determined by limiting the maximum stress on the web to The

effective width of the compression element is evaluated using this stress and the effective section

properties are evaluated. The ultimate moment capacity is given by

This is subject to the condition that the maximum tensile stress in the section does not exceed (see

Fig. 13.4a).

If the neutral axis is such that the tensile stresses reach yield first, then the moment capacity is to be

evaluated on the basis of elasto-plastic stress distribution (see Fig. 13.4b). In elements having low

(width/thickness) ratios, compressive stress at collapse can equal yield stress (sec Fig. 13.4c). In

order to ensure yielding before local buckling, the

maximum (width/thickness) ratio of stiffened elements is and for unstiffened

Web Crushing: This may occur under concentrated loads or at support point when deep slender

webs are employed. A widely used method of overcoming web crushing problems is to use web

cleats at support points (See Fig. 13.5).

Shear Buckling; The phenomenon of shear buckling of thin webs has been discussed in detail in

the section on "Plate Girders". Thin webs subjected to predominant shear will buckle as shown

in Fig. 13.6. The maximum shear in a beam web is invariably limited to 0.7 times yield stress in

shear. In addition in deep webs, where shear buckling can occur, the average shear

stress must be less than the value calculated as follows:

118

Fig. 13.6 Web buckling

The great majority of cold-formed beams are (by design) restrained against lateral deflections.

This is achieved by connecting them to adjacent elements, roof sheeting or to bracing members.

However, there are circumstances where this is not the case and the possibility of lateral

buckling has to be considered.

If the beam is provided with lateral restraints, capable of resisting a lateral force of 3% of the

maximum force in the compression flange, the beam may be regarded, as restrained and no

lateral buckling will occur.

The design approach is based on the "effective length" of the beam for lateral buckling, which is

dependent on support and loading conditions. The effective length of beams

119

with both ends supported and having restraints against twisting is taken âs 0.9 times the length, provided

the load is applied at bottom flange level. If a load is applied to the top flange which is unrestrained

laterally, the effective length is increased by 20%. This is considered to be a "destabilising load", i.e. a load

that encourages lateral instability.

The elastic lateral buckling moment capacity is determined next. For an / section or

symmetrical channel section bent in the plane of the web and loaded through shear centre, this

is

D = web depth, in mm

t = web thickness, in mm

= radius of gyration for the lateral bending of section

Where = ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment M in an unbraced length of

beam, is taken positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature (see Fig.

13.8)

To provide for the effects of imperfections, the bending capacity in the plane of loading and

other effects, the value of ME obtained from Eqn. (13) will need to be modified.

120

Fig. 13.8 Single and double curvature bending

the beam

= First yield moment given by the product of yield stress and the Elastic Modulus

of the gross section.

When

121

= effective length

= radius of gyration of the section about the - axis.

When the calculated value of exceeds calculated by using Eqn (1 l.a), then is

limited to This will happen when the beams are "short".

In analysing column behaviour, the first step is to determine the effective area of

the cross section by summing up the total values of effective areas for all the individual

elements.

The ultimate load (or squash load) of a short strut is obtained from

= sum of the effective areas of all the individual plate elements

= the ratio of the effective area to the total area of cross section at yield stress

122

and = radius of gyration corresponding to

Fig. 13.9 shows the mean stress at failure cross sectional area) obtained for

columns with variation of for a number of "Q" factors. (The y-axis is non-

dimensionalised using the yield stress; and "Q" factor is the ratio of effective cross

sectional area to full cross sectional area). Plots such as Fig. 13.9 can be employed directly

for doubly symmetric sections.

( a ) Channel section loaded ( b ) The move of the neutral axis (due to plate

through its centroid buckling) causes an eccentricity and a

consequent moment This would cause an additional

compression on flange AR

Fig. 13.10 Effective shift in the loading axis in an axially compressed column 13.4.1

If a section is not doubly symmetric (see Fig. 13.10) and has a large reduction of effective widths

of elements, then the effective section may have changed position of centroid. This would induce

bending on an initially concentrically loaded section, as shown in Fig. 13.10 To allow for this

behaviour, the movement of effective neutral axis from the geometric neutral axis of the cross

section must be first determined by comparing the gross and effective section properties. The

ultimate load is evaluated by allowing for the interaction of bending and compression using the

following equation:

123

Where Pc is obtained from Eqn (16) and Mc is the bending resistance of the section for moments acting in

the direction corresponding to the movement of neutral axis; es is the distance between the effective

centroid and actual centroid of the cross section.

Singly symmetric columns may fail either (a) by Euler buckling about an axis perpendicular to the line of

symmetry (as detailed in 13.4.1 above) or (b) by a combination of bending about the axis of symmetry and

a twist as shown in Fig. 13.11. This latter type of behaviour is known as Torsional-flexural behaviour.

Purely torsional and purely flexural failure does not occur in a general case.

buckling

Analysis of torsional-flexural behaviour of cold-formed sections is tedious and time consuming for

practical design. Codes deal with this problem by simplified design methods or by empirical

methods based on experimental data.

As an illustration, the following design procedure, suggested in BS5950, Part 5 is detailed below as

being suitable for sections with at least one axis of symmetry (say and subjected to flexural

torsional buckling.

124

Effective length multiplication factors (known as factors) are tabulated for a number of

section geometries. These factors are employed to obtain increased effective lengths,

which together with the design analysis prescribed in 13.4.1 above can be used to obtain

torsional buckling resistance of a column.

Where is the elastic flexural buckling load (in Newtons) for a column about the

y-axis, i.e.

= torsional flexural buckling load (in Newtons) of a column given by

Where = Elastic flexural buckling load of the column (in Newtons) about the

given by

In these equations,

= polar radius of gyration about the shear centre (in mm) given

by

125

where

are the radii of gyration (in mm) about the

is the shear modulus

is the distance from shear centre to the centroid measured along the axis (mm)

all elements, where flat width of the element and thickness (both of them

measure in mm)

Cold formed sections are mainly formed with "open" sections and do not have high resistance

to torsion. Hence the application of load that would cause torsion should be avoided where

possible. Generally speaking, by adjusting the method of load application, it is possible to

restrain twisting so that torsion does not occur to any significant extent.

Compression members, which are also subject to bending, will have to be designed to take into

account the effects of interaction. The following checks are suggested for members that have

at least one axis of symmetry: (i) the local capacity at points of greatest bending moment and

axial load and (ii) an overall buckling check.

The local capacity check is ascertained by satisfying the following at the points of greatest

bending moment and axial load:

= short strut capacity defined by (Eqn. 15)

= applied bending moments about x and y axis

= Moment resistance of the beam about x-axis in the absence of

= Moment resistance of the beam about y-axis in the absence of

126

13.5.2 Overall buckling check

For members not subject to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be

satisfied:

For beams subject to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be satisfied:

Where

= axial buckling resistance in the absence of moments (see Eqn. 16)

= flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the x- axis

and for bending about the y-axis respectively.

= factors (defined in the previous chapter) with regard to moment variation

about x and y axis respectively.

= lateral buckling resistance moment about the x axis

eccentricity, the member may be designed as a simple tension member. Where a member is

connected eccentrically to its axis, then the resulting moment has to be allowed for.

Where

is the effective area of the section making due allowance for the type of member (angle, plain

channel, Tee section etc) and the type of connection (e.g. connected through one leg only or

through the flange or web of a T- section).

is design strength

127

The area of the tension member should invariably be calculated as its gross area less

deductions for holes or openings. (The area to be deducted from the gross sectional area of a

member should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross section at

right angles to the direction of applied stress).

Reference is also made to the section on "Tension Members" where provision for

enhancement of strength due to strain hardening has been incorporated for hot rolled steel

sections. The Indian code IS: 801-1975 is in the process of revision and it is probable that a

similar enhancement will be allowed for cold rolled steel sections also.

When a member is subjected to both combined bending and axial tension, the capacity of the

member should be ascertained from the following:

While it is possible to design many cold-formed steel members on the basis of analysis, the very

large variety of shapes that can be formed and the complex interactions that occur make it

frequently uneconomical to design members and systems completely on theoretical basis. The

behaviour of a component or system can often be ascertained economically by a test and suitable

modifications incorporated, where necessary.

Particular care should be taken while testing components, that the tests model the actual loading

conditions as closely as possible. For example, while these tests may be used successfully to assess

the material work hardening much caution will be needed when examining the effects of local

buckling. There is a possibility of these tests giving misleading information or even no information

regarding neutral axis movement. The specimen lengths may be too short to pick up certain types

of buckling behaviour.

128

Testing is probably the only realistic method of assessing the strength and characteristics of

connections. Evaluating connection behaviour is important as connections play a crucial role

in the strength and stiffness of a structure.

In testing complete structures or assemblies, it is vital to ensure that the test set up reflects

the in-service conditions as accurately as possible. The method of load application, the type

of supports, the restraints from adjacent structures and the flexibility of connections are all

factors to be considered carefully and modelled accurately.

mass produced components to ensure consistency of quality. The manufacturers also provide

load/span tables for their products, which can be employed by structural designers and

architects who do not have detailed knowledge of design procedures. An advantage to the

manufacturers in designing on the basis of proof testing is that the load/span tables obtained

are generally more advantageous than those obtained by analytical methods; they also

reassure the customers about the validity of their load/span tables.

Some commonly used members such as Z purlins are sometimes designed by time-tested

empirical rules; such rules are employed when theoretical analysis may be impractical or not

justified and when prototype test data are not available. (Members designed by proven

theoretical methods or by prototype testing need not comply with the empirical rules). As an

illustration the empirical rules permitted by BS 5950, Part 5 is explained below.

13.8.1 Z Purlins

A Z purlin used for supporting the roofing sheet is sketched in Fig. 13.11. In designing Z

purlins with lips using the simplified empirical rules the following recommendations are to

be complied with:

Imposed loads should be taken to be at least

• 129

• Claddings and fixings should be checked for adequacy to provide lateral restraint to the purlin and should be

capable of carrying the component of load in the plane of the roof slope.

• The purlin should be considered to carry the load normal to roof slope (and a nominal axial load due to wind

or restraint forces)

• These rules apply to purlins up to 8 m span in roof slopes up to 22.5°.

• Antisag bars should be provided to ensure that laterally unsupported length of the purlin does not exceed 3.8

m. These should be anchored to rigid apex support or their forces should be transferred diagonally to main

frames.

• Purlin cleats should provide adequate torsional restraint.

• The overall depth should not be greater than and not less than

• Overall width of compression flange / thickness ratio should not be greater than 35.

• Lip width should be greater than

In the above,

L =span of the purlin (in mm)

W = Normal component of unfactored (distributed dead load+imposed load)

in

T = thickness of the purlin in mm.

• The net allowable wind uplift in a direction normal to roof when purlins are restrained is taken as 50% of

the (dead + imposed) load.

130

SECTION 14: BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

14.1 General

A steel concrete composite beam made up of a steel beam, over which a reinforced concrete slab is cast with shear

connectors is covered by IS: 11384-1985. The composite beam can also be constructed with profiled sheeting with

concrete topping, instead of cast-in place or precast reinforced concrete slab. However, this is not covered by IS

11384:1985. By employing profiled steel decking in composite construction, the most effective utilisation of steel

and concrete is achieved. "Fast Track" construction developed in the West invariably utilises Composite

Construction.

14.2 Materials

All structural steels used shall, before fabrication conform to IS: 1977-1975, IS: 2062-1992, and IS: 8500-1977 as

appropriate. Some of the structural steel grade commonly used in construction are given in IS: 961-1975 and IS:

1977-1975.

14.2.2 Concrete

Concrete strengths are specified in terms of the characteristic cube strengths, measured at 28 days. Table

14.1 gives the properties of different grades of concrete.

characteristic compressive (cylinder) strength of concrete, given by

0.8 times 28 days cube strength of concrete

mean tensile strength of concrete

Note is proposed to be evaluated in accordance with Eurocodes. For lightweight concrete, the values are

obtained by multiplying the values from Table 14.1 by /2400,where is the unit mass

Reinforcing Steel grades used in construction should conform to IS 432 (1982) and IS: 1786 (1985). It should be

noted that although the ductility of reinforcing bars has a significant effect on the behaviour of continuous beams,

this property has little effect on

131

the design of composite columns. Concrete filled tubular sections may be used without any reinforcement except for

reasons of fire resistance, where appropriate.

Mechanical shear connectors are required at the steel-concrete interface. These connectors are designed to (a) transmit

longitudinal shear along the interface, and (b) prevent separation of steel beam and concrete slab at the interface. Three

types of shear connectors have been developed:

Rigid type: These connectors are very stiff and they sustain only a small deformation while resisting the shear force.

They derive their resistance from bearing pressure on the concrete, and fail due to crushing of concrete.

Flexible type: Headed studs, channels come under this category. These connectors are welded to the flange of the steel

beam. They derive their stress resistance through bending and undergo large deformation before failure.

Bond or anchorage type: These connectors derive their resistance through bond and anchorage action.

Typical shear connectors are shown in Fig 14.1 14.3.1 Characteristics of shear

connectors

The load-slip characteristic of shear connectors affects their design considerably. To obtain the load-slip curve "push-

out" tests are performed as per codal specifications. Arrangements for these tests as per and IS: 11384-1985 are

shown in Fig. 14.2 (a) and 14.2 ( b ) respectively.

• At the time of testing, the characteristic strength of concrete used should not exceed the characteristic strength of

concrete in the beams for which the test is designed.

• A minimum of three tests should be made and the design values should be taken as 67% of the lowest ultimate

capacity.

Based on the load-slip characteristics observed in the push-out tests, [see 14.3 (a)] the connector stiffness is usually

determined while ultimate strength design is based on plastic behaviour of the shear connectors, the value is needed

for serviceability considerations.

132

133

133

134

133

Fig. 14.3 (b) shows an idealised load-slip characteristic of three different types of interaction that

arise depending on the type of connectors used. Note that full interaction would occur and

when very stiff connectors are used. When there is partial interaction the load slip relationship is

assumed to be bilinear.

The design resistance of shear studs with may be determined using the following

two empirical formulae. The lower of the two values governs the design.

(14.1)

136

(14.2)

cylinder strength of concrete

Ecm = mean secant (elastic) modulus of concrete,

partial safety factor for stud connector

The design strengths of headed shear connectors as per IS: 11384-1985 are reproduced in Table

(14.2). Similar data about other shear connectors is available in that code.

It is to be noted that as per this code the design value of a shear connector is taken as 67% of

the ultimate capacity arrived at by testing.

Table 14.2: Design Strength of Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Different

Concrete Strengths

The ultimate strength of a composite section is determined from its plastic moment

resistance, provided the elements of the steel cross section do not fall (in the

semi-compact or slender category). The serviceability is checked using elastic analysis,

as the structure will remain elastic under service loading. Full shear connection ensures

that full moment resistance of the section develops. In partial shear connection, although

full moment resistance of the beam cannot be achieved, the design will have to be

adequate to resist the applied bending moment. This design is often preferred due to

economy achieved through the reduced number of shear connectors.

137

Adequacy in Serviceability Limit State is verified by resorting to prescribed span/depth

ratios. EC4 has prescribed that the following span to depth (total beam and slab depth)

ratios for which the serviceability criteria will be deemed to be satisfied.

Simply supported 15-18 (Primary Beams)

18-20 (Secondary Beams)

Continuous 18-22 (Primary Beams)

22-25 (end bays)

acts as a T-beam with the concrete slab as its

flange. For design purpose a portion of the

beam span (20% - 33%) is taken as the

effective breadth of the slab (see Fig. 14.4).

138

The effective breadth of simply supported beam is taken as on each side of the steel

web, but not greater than half the distance to the next adjacent web. For simply supported beam Therefore,

Where,

the effective span taken as the distance between points of zero

moments,

actual span

centre-to-centre distance of transverse spans for slab. For continuous

beams is obtained from Fig 14.5

Modular ratio: Modular ratio is the ratio of elastic modulus of steel to the time dependent secant modulus

of concrete While evaluating stress due to long termloading (dead load etc.) the time dependent secant

modulus of concrete should be used. This takes into account the long-term effects of creep under sustained

loading. The values of elastic modulus of concrete under short term loading for different grades of concrete are

given in Table 14.1. IS: 11384 -1985 has suggested a modular ratio of 15 for live load and 30 for dead load, for

elastic analysis of section.

Section Classifications has been dealt with in section 5 of this Design Guide. Table 14.4 lists the Partial safety

factors to be used in design.

139

SECTION 15: COMPOSITE BEAMS AND SLABS

Reinforced concrete slab connected to rolled steel section through shear connectors is the simplest form

of composite beam and has been covered in IS 11384:1985. The ultimate strength of the composite beam

is determined from its collapse load capacity. Table 15.1 gives the moment capacity of the composite

section with full shear connection.

shear interaction (according to IS: 11384 -1985)

140

140

15.2 Reinforced Concrete Slabs, with Profiled Sheeting supported on Steel Beams

A more advanced method of composite beam construction is one, where profiled deck slabs are connected to steel

beams through stud connectors. This has not been covered in any IS Code. In this case the steel sheeting itself acts

as the bottom reinforcement and influences the capacity of the section. Table 15.2 presents the equations for

moment capacity. These equations are largely restricted to sections, which are capable of developing their plastic

moment of resistance without local buckling problems. Fig 15.2 shows the stress distribution diagram for plastic

and compact sections for full interactior according to EC4. Fig 15.3 shows the stress distribution for hogging

bending moment.

141

141

142

15.3 Vertical Shear

Although the concrete slab resists some of the vertical shear in a composite T-beam,

there is no simple design model for this. It is therefore assumed that the vertical shear is

resisted by steel beam alone, as if it were not composite.

The shear force resisted by the structural steel section should satisfy:

The shear buckling of steel web can be neglected if following condition is satisfied

Where, and d is the depth of the web considered in the shear area.

The profile of the deck slab has a marked influence on strength of shear

connector. There should be a 45° projection from the base of the connector

to the core of the solid slab for smooth transfer of shear. But the profiled

deck slab limits the concrete around the connector. This in turn makes the

centre of resistance on connector to move up, initiating a local concrete

failure as cracking. This is shown in Fig 15.4. EC 4 suggests the following

reduction factor k (relative to solid slab).

(1) Profiled steel decking with the ribs parallel to the supporting beam.

(2) Profiled steel decking with the ribs transverse to the supporting beam.

143

For studs of diameter not exceeding 20 mm,

Where,

is the average width of trough

is the stud height

is the height of the profiled decking slab

Nr is the number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection (should not greater than 2).

For studs welded through the steel decking, k, should not be greater than 1.0 when and not

greater than 0.8 when

For single span beams the total design longitudinal shear, to be resisted by shear

connectors between the point of maximum bending moment and the end support is

given by:

Whichever is smaller.

For continuous beams the total design longitudinal shear, to be resisted by shear

connectors between the point of maximum positive bending moment and an

intermediate support is given by:

144

The number of required shear connectors in the zone under consideration for full composite action is given by:

Where

is the design longitudinal shear force as defined in Eqn. (15.8) and is design resistance of the connector.

Ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connectors may be assumed if a minimum degree of shear connection is provided, as

the opportunity for developing local plasticity are greater in these cases

where is the bottom flange area and beam span in metres

Interaction between bending and shear can influence the design of continuous beam. Fig. 15.5 shows the resistance of the composite

section in combined bending (hogging or sagging) and shear. When the design shear force, exceeds (point in the Fig.

15.5), moment capacity of the section reduces non-linearly as shown by the parabolic curve AB, in the presence of high shear force.

At point B the remaining bending resistance is that contributed by the flanges of the composite section, including reinforcement in

the slab. Along curve AB, the reduced bending resistance is given by

plastic resistance of the flange alone

plastic resistance of the entire section

design shear force

plastic shear resistance as defined in Eqn. (15.2) and Eqn. (15.3).

145

Figl5.5 Resistance to combined bending and vertical shear

Shear connectors transfer the interfacial shear to concrete slab by thrust, which could

cause splitting in concrete in potential failure planes. Reinforcement is provided in the

direction transverse to the axis of the beam. Like stirrups in the web of a reinforced T

beam, the reinforcement supplements the shear strength of the concrete. Based on Truss

Analogy, the following design equation has been developed.

Where,

is cross sectional area of concrete shear surface per unit length of beam and is the

area of transverse reinforcement.

The formulae suggested by EC4 and IS: 11384 - 1985 are given in Table 15.4.

The above design formulae are applicable to simply supported beams as well as to

continuous beams. Besides these, a continuous beam necessitates the check for the stability

of the bottom flange, which is in compression due to hogging moments at supports.

15.9.1 Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beam

In order to determine the distribution of bending moments under the design loads,

Structural analysis has to be performed. For convenience, the IS: 456 -2000 lists moment

coefficients as well as shear coefficients that are close to exact values of the maximum load

effects obtainable from rigorous analysis on an infinite number of equal spans on point

supports. Table 15.5 gives the bending moment coefficients and Table 15.6 gives the shear

coefficients according to IS: 456 - 2000. These coefficients are applicable to continuous

beams with at least three spans, which do not differ by more than 75 percent of the longest.

These values are also applicable for composite continuous beams.

146

2

>

Tablel5.5: Bending moment coefficients according to IS: 456-2000

IVI

Near middle At middle of At support next At other

of end span interior span to the end interior

support supports

Dead load + Imposed + 1/12 + 1/16 - 1/10 - 1/12

load (fixed)

Imposed load (not + 1/10 + 1/12 - 1/9 - 1/9

fixed)

For obtaining the bending moment, the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design

load and effective span.

LOAD support n sup port interior

Outer side Inner side supports

Dead load + 0.40 0.60 0.55 0.50

Imposed load

(fixed)

Imposed load 0.45 0.60 0.60 0.60

(not fixed)

For obtaining the shear force, the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load

The concrete slab prevents the top flange of the steel section (connected to concrete slab)

from moving laterally. In negative moment regions of continuous composite beams the

lower flange is subjected to compression. Hence, the stability of bottom flange should be

checked at that region. The tendency of the lower flange to buckle laterally is restrained

by the distortional stiffness of the cross section. The tendency for the bottom flange to

displace laterally causes bending of the steel web, and twisting at top flange level, which

is resisted by bending of the slab as shown in Fig. 22.6.

Lateral Torsional Buckling of Continuous Beams can be neglected if following

conditions are satisfied.

1. Adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 20% of the shorter span or where

there is a cantilever, its length does not exceed 15% of the adjacent span.

i

148

3

2. The loading on each span is uniformly distributed and the design permanent load

exceeds 40% of the total load.

section

15.10 Serviceability

Composite beams must also be checked for adequacy in the Serviceability Limit State. It is

not desirable that steel yields under service load. To check the composite beams

serviceability criteria, elastic section properties are used.

IS: 11384-1985 limits the maximum deflection of the composite beam to The total

elastic stress in concrete is limited to while for steel, considering different stages of

construction, the elastic stress is limited to Unfortunately this is an error made in the

Code as the same limits are applied for steel in determining the ultimate resistance of the

cross section. Since EC4 gives explicit guidance for checking serviceability Limit State,

therefore the method described below follows EC 4.

15.10.1 Deflection

The elastic properties relevant to deflection are section modulus and moment of inertia of

the section. Applying appropriate modular ratio m the composite section is transformed into

an equivalent steel section. The moment of inertia of uncracked section is used for

calculating deflection. Normally unfactored loads are used for for serviceability checks. No

stress limitations are made in EC 4.

Under positive moment the concrete is assumed uncracked, and the moment of inertia is

calculated as:

Where

is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete taking into account creep.

Simply supported Beams: The mid-span deflection of simply supported composite beam

under distributed load w is given by

4149

Where, is the modulus of elasticity of steel and is the gross uncracked moment of

inertia of composite section.

Influence of partial shear connection: Deflections increase due to the effects of slip in the

shear connectors. These effects are ignored in composite beams designed for full shear

connection. To take care of the increase in deflection due to partial shear connection, the

following expression is used.

Where

are deflection of steel beam and composite beam respectively with proper

serviceability load.

Shrinkage induced deflections: For simply supported beams, when the span to depth ratio

of beam exceeds 20, or when the free shrinkage strain of the concrete exceeds

shrinkage, deflections should be checked. In practice, these deflections will only be

significant for spans greater than 12 m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres. The

shrinkage-induced deflection is calculated using the following formula:

is the effective span of the beam and is the curvature due to the free shrinkage

strain, given by

calculations

150

5

Continuous Beams: In the case of continuous beam, the deflection is modified by the

influence of cracking in the hogging moment regions (at or near the supports). This may

be taken into account by calculating the second moment of area of the cracked section

under negative moment (ignoring concrete). In addition to this there is a possibility of

yielding in the negative moment region. To take account of this the negative moments

may be further reduced. As an approximation, a deflection coefficient of 3/384 is usually

appropriate for determining the deflection of a continuous composite beam subject to

uniform loading on equal adjacent spans. This may be increased to 4/384 for end spans.

The second moment of area of the section is based on the uncracked value.

Crack Control: Cracking of concrete should be controlled in cases where the functioning

of the structure or its appearance would be affected. In order to avoid the presence of

large cracks in the hogging moment regions, the amount of reinforcement should not

exceed a minimum value given by,

Where

is the percentage of steel

is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section

is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in the tensile strength of concrete

adopted.

is the maximum permissible stress in concrete

Generally the span/depth ratios specified by codes take care of the shrinkage deflection.

However, a check on shrinkage deflection should be done in case of thick slabs resting on

small steel beams, electrically heated floors and concrete mixes with high "free

shrinkage". Eurocode 4 recommends that the effect of shrinkage should be considered

when the span/depth ratio exceeds 20 and the free shrinkage strain exceeds 0.04%. For

dry environments, the limit on free shrinkage for normal- weight concrete is 0.0325% and

for lightweight concrete 0.05%.

15.10.2 Vibration

Generally, human response to vibration is taken as the yardstick to limit the amplitude and

frequency of a vibrating floor. The present discussion is mainly aimed at design of an office

floor against vibration. To design a floor structure, only the source of vibration near or on

the floor need be considered. Other sources such, as machines, lift or cranes should be

isolated from the building. In most buildings following two cases are considered-

6151

i) People walking across a floor with a pace frequency between 1.4 Hz and 2.5Hz.

ii) An impulse such as the effect of the fall of a heavy object.

and Fourier component factor

The root mean square acceleration of the floor is plotted against its natural frequency for

acceptable level R based on human response for different situations such as, hospitals,

offices etc. The human response R-l corresponds to a "minimal level of adverse comments

from occupants" of sensitive locations such as hospital, operating theatre and precision

laboratories. Curves of higher response (R) values are also shown in the Fig. 15.7. The

recommended values of R for other situations are

R = 4 for offices

R = 8 for workshops

These values correspond to continuous vibration and some relaxation is allowed in case the

vibration is intermittent (see BS6472 for further information).

Natural frequency of beam and slab: The most important parameter associated with

vibration is the natural frequency of floor. For free elastic vibration of a beam or one way

slab of uniform section the fundamental natural frequency is,

Where,

for simple support; and

for both ends fixed.

= Flexural rigidity (per unit width for slabs)

= span

= vibrating mass per unit length (beam) or unit area (slab).

152

7

The effect of damping (being negligible) has been ignored.

Un-cracked concrete section and dynamic modulus of elasticity should be used for

concrete. Generally these effects are taken into account by increasing the value of by

10% for variable loading. In absence of an accurate estimate of mass (m), it is taken

as the mass of the characteristic permanent load plus 10% of characteristic variable

load.

The frequencies for slab and beam (each considered alone) and are given by

Where is the Fourier component factor. It takes into account the differences

between the frequency of the pedestrians' paces and the natural frequency of the floor.

This is given in the form of a function of in Fig. (15.7):

= magnification factor at resonance

To check the susceptibility of the floor to vibration after finding from Eqn.15.22 and

the value of R from Eqn. 15.23 compare the result with the target response curve as in

Fig. (15.7).

153

8

16.1 General

hot-rolled steel section or a concrete filled tubular section of hot-rolled steel. Typical cross-sections of

composite columns with fully and partially concrete encased steel sections are illustrated in Fig. 16.1. Fig.

16.2 shows three typical cross-sections of concrete filled tubular sections. Supplementary reinforcement in

the concrete encasement prevents excessive spalling of concrete both under normal load and fire conditions.

The design method described below is formulated for prismatic composite columns with doubly

symmetrical cross-sections, and generally follows the guidelines prescribed in EC4.

Encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular/square tubular sections: The plastic resistance of

an encased steel section or concrete filled rectangular or square section (i.e. the so-called "squash load")

is given by

Where,

154

9

are the areas of the steel section, the concrete and the reinforcing

steel respectively

compressive strength (cylinder) of the concrete, and the yield strength of the

reinforcing steel respectively.

is strength coefficient for concrete, which is 1.0 for concrete filled tubular

sections, and 0.85 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections.

to compression of an encased I section

Concrete filled circular tubular sections: The ductility performance of this type of columns

is significantly better than rectangular types. Also, there is an increased resistance of

concrete due to the confining effect of the circular tubular section. However, this effect is

significant only in stocky columns. For composite columns with a non- dimensional

slenderness of (where is defined in Eqn.16.5, in section 16.2.2J, or where the

eccentricity, of the applied load does not exceed the value d/10, (where d is the outer

dimension of the circular tubular section) this effect has to be considered.

The plastic compression resistance of concrete filled circular tubular sections is calculated

by using two coefficients and as given below.

where

t is the thickness of the circular tubular section, and and two coefficients given by

155

10

In general, the resistance of a concrete filled circular tubular section to compression may

increase by 15% under axial load only when the effect of tri-axial confinement is considered.

Linear interpolation is permitted for various load eccentricities of The basic

values and depend on the non-dimensional slenderness which can be

read off from Table 16.1.

If the eccentricity e exceeds the value d/10, or if the non-dimensional slenderness exceeds the

value 0.5 then

Table 16.1: Basic value to allow for the effect of tri-axial confinement in

concrete filled circular tubular sections, as provided in EC 4 applicable for concrete

grades

For convenience, column strength curves are plotted in a non-dimensionalised form as shown in

Fig. 16.4. The buckling resistance of a column is expressed as a proportion of the plastic

resistance to compression, where is called the reduction factor. The horizontal axis is

non-dimensionalised similarly by

Fig.16.4 Non-dimensionalised

column buckling curve

The European buckling curves have been drawn after incorporating the effects of both residual

stresses and geometric imperfections. They form the basis of column buckling design for both

steel and composite columns in EC 3 and EC4. For using the European

11

156

buckling curves, the non-dimensional slenderness of the column is first evaluated as

follows:

Where

plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression, according to Eqn (16.1) or

Eqn. (23.2) with 1.0; and is the elastic buckling load of the

column.

Both Eqns. (16.1) and (16.2) are valid provided that local buckling in the steel sections

does not occur. To prevent premature local buckling, the width to thickness ratio of the

steel sections in compression must satisfy the following limits:

For fully encased steel sections, no verification for local buckling is necessary as the

concrete surrounding it effectively prevents local buckling. However, the concrete cover to

the flange of a fully encased steel section should not be less than 40 mm, nor less than

one-sixth of the breadth, of the flange for it to be effective in preventing local buckling.

Local buckling may be critical in some concrete filled rectangular tubular sections with

large h/t ratios. Designs using sections, which exceed the local buckling limits for semi-

compact sections, should be verified by tests.

157

16.2.4 Effective elastic flexural stiffness

The value of the flexural stiffness may decrease with time due to creep and shrinkage

of concrete. Two design rules for the evaluation of the effective elastic flexural stiffness

of composite columns are given below.

Short term loading: The effective elastic flexural stiffness, is obtained by adding

up the flexural stiffness of the individual components of the cross-section:

Where

are the second moments of area of the steel section, the concrete(assumed

uncracked) and the reinforcement about the axis of bending considered

respectively

are the moduli of elasticity of the steel section and the reinforcement

multiplier (determined by a calibration exercise to give good agreement

with test results). Note is the moment of inertia about the centroid of

the uncracked column section.

concrete

Note: Dividing the Modulus of Elasticity by is unusual and is included here to obtain

the effective stiffness, which conforms to test data.

Long term loading: For slender columns under long-term loading, the creep and

shrinkage of concrete will cause a reduction in the effective elastic flexural stiffness of

the composite column, thereby reducing the buckling resistance. However, this effect is

significant only for slender columns. As a simple rule, the effect of long term loading

should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column

exceeds 15.

If the eccentricity of loading is more than twice the cross-section dimension, the effect

on the bending moment distribution caused by increased deflections due to creep and

shrinkage of concrete will be very small. Consequently, it may be neglected and no

provision for long-term loading is necessary. Moreover, no provision is also necessary

if

158

the non-dimensional slenderness, of the composite column is less than the limiting values

given in Table 16.2

Table 16.2: Limiting values of for long term loading

However, when exceeds the limits given by Table 16.2 and e/d is less than 2, the effect of

creep and shrinkage of concrete should be allowed for by employing the modulus of

elasticity of the concrete instead of in Eqn. 16.8, which is defined as follows:

Where P is the applied design load; and the part of the applied design load

permanently acting on the column.

The effect of long-term loading may be ignored for concrete filled tubular sections with

provided that is greater than 0.6 for braced (or non-sway) columns, and 0.75 for

unbraced (and/or sway) columns.

Composite columns may fail in buckling. The elastic critical buckling load (Euler Load),

is defined as follows:

is the effective length of the column, which may be conservatively taken as system

length L for an isolated non-sway composite column.

159

16.2.6 Resistance of members to axial compression

For each of the principal axes of the column, the designer should check that

Where is the plastic resistance to compression of the cross-section, from Eqn. (16.1) or

Eqn. (16.2) and is the reduction factor due to column buckling

The European buckling curves illustrated in Fig. 16.5 arc proposed to be used for

composite columns. They are selected according to the types of the steel sections and the

axis of bending:

Curve b for fully or partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the strong

axis of the steel sections

Curve c for fully and partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the weak

axis of the steel sections (y-y axis)

1

The factor allows for different levels of imperfections and residual stresses in the

columns corresponding to curves a, b, and c. Table 16.3 gives the value of for each

buckling curve. Note that the second order moment due to imperfection, has been

incorporated in the method by using multiple buckling curves; no additional

considerations are necessary.

The isolated non-sway composite columns need not be checked for buckling, if anyone of

the following conditions is satisfied:

(a) The axial force in the column is less than where is the elastic

buckling

load of the column

determined using an interaction curve. Fig. 16.6 represents the non-dimensional

interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending for a composite cross-section.

Fig. 16.7 shows an interaction curve drawn using simplified design method suggested in

the UK National Application Document for This neglects the increase in

moment capacity beyond discussed above, (under relatively low axial compressive

loads). The method of locating neutral axis for rectangular and circular filled tubular

sections is given in Appendix E.

Fig. 16.8 shows the stress distributions in the cross-section of a concrete filled rectangular

tubular section at each point, A, B and C of the interaction curve given in Fig. 16.7.

• Point A marks the plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression (at this point

the blending point is is zero).

axial compression is zero).

2

Where are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement, steel section,and

concrete about their own centroids respectively and are plastic section

moduli of the reinforcement, steel section, and concrete about neutral axis respectively.

• At point the compressive and the moment resistances of the column are given as

follows;

Fig. 16.7 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method

3

Fig. 16.8 Stress distributions for the points of

the interaction curve for concrete filled

rectangular tubular sections

4

16.3.2 Analysis of bending moments due to second order effects

The second order moment, or 'imperfection moment', does not need to be considered

separately, as its effect on the buckling resistance of the composite column is already

accounted for in the European buckling curves.

For slender columns, the 'first order' displacements may be significant and additional or

'second order' bending moments may be induced under the actions of applied loads. As a

simple rule, the second order effects should be considered if the buckling length to depth

ratio of a composite column exceeds 15.

The second order effects on bending moments for isolated non-sway columns should be

considered if both of the following conditions are satisfied:

Where is the design applied load, and is the elastic critical load of the composite

column.

In case the above two conditions are met, the second order effects may be allowed for by modifying the

maximum first order bending moment (moment obtained initially), with a correction factor which

is defined as follows:

Where is the applied design load and is the elastic critical load of the composite

column.

(1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both

(2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compression and

uni-axial bending

5

Where is the design bending moment, which may be factored to allow for second

order effects, if necessary is the moment resistance ratio obtained from the interaction

curve and is the plastic moment resistance of the composite cross-section.

using the simplified method

Moment resistance ratio can be obtained from the interaction curve (Figl6.10) or may be

evaluated

In accordance with the UK NAD, the moment resistance ratio for a composite column

under combined compression and uni-axial bending is evaluated as follows:

is axial resistance ratio due to the concrete, ; is the design axial resistance

ratio,

The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the

6

(2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compressionand

bi-axial bending

The interaction of the moments must also be checked using moment interaction curve as

shown in Fig. 16.11

The moment resistance ratios and for both the axes are evaluated as given below:

7

Where

and are the reduction factors for buckling in the and directions respectively.

When the effect of geometric imperfections is not considered the moment resistance ratio

is evaluated as given

below:

8

APPENDIX A: Terminology

service or buckles in a load test.

Characteristic load is that value of the load, which has an accepted probability of not

being exceeded during the life span of the structure. Characteristic load is therefore

that load which will not be exceeded 95% of the time.

value of resistance below which not more than a prescribed percentage of test results

may be expected to fall. (For example the characteristic yield stress of steel is usually

defined as that value of yield stress below, which not more than 5% of the test values

may be, expected to fall). In other words, this strength is expected to be exceeded by

95% of the cases.

across it, without local buckling in any of the component members but not capable of

developing ductility.

Dead Loads - The self weights of all permanent constructions and installations

including the self weights of all walls, partitions, floors and roofs.

perpendicular to the plane of bending to restrain the compression flange of a loaded

strut, beam or girder from buckling to either side at the point of application of the

restraint.

Elastic Critical Moment - The elastic moment which will initiate yielding or cause

buckling.

Factor of Safety - The factor by which the yield stress of the material of a member is

divided to arrive at the permissible stress in the material.

Imposed (Live) Load - The load assumed to be produced by the intended use of

occupancy including distributed, concentrated, impact and vibration and snow loads

but excluding, wind and earthquake loads.

Limit States- Limit States are states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the

design performance requirements and fulfils the purpose for which it is built.

Load Factor - The numerical factor by which the working load is to be multiplied to

obtain an appropriate design ultimate load.

9

Main Member - A structural member that is primarily responsible for carrying and

distributing the applied load.

Plastic Section - A cross section capable of developing full plasticity across it and

exhibit considerable ductility. (Plastic cross-sections when used as beams, will fail by

formation of plastic hinges)

Secondary Member - Secondary member is that which is provided for stability and or

restraining the main members from buckling or similar modes of failure.

extreme fibres, without buckling of any of the component elements (e.g. with a

triangular stress distribution in a beam) but not capable of developing redistribution of

stresses.

which the criteria for service are no longer met and include deformations and

deflections, which adversely affect the appearance or its proper functioning and

include vibration that causes discomfort to people or damage to the building

Slender Section - In a slender section, local buckling of one of the components will

occur before the attainment of yield stress in extreme fibre.

Welding Terms - Unless otherwise defined in this standard the welding terms used

shall have the meaning given in IS: 812-1957.

Ultimate Limit States - Ultimate Limit States are those associated with collapse or

other forms of structural failure, which may endanger the safety of people. This

includes the loss of equilibrium of the structure (or any part of it), failure by excessive

deformation, rupture etc.

Yield Stress - The minimum yield stress of the material in tension as specified in

relevant Indian Standards.

10

APPENDIX B: Symbols

Cross-sectional area ( used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place)

Respectively the greater and lesser projection of the plate beyond column

Length of side of cap or base

Width of steel flange in encased member

Coefficient

The distance centre to centre of battens Distance

between vertical stiffeners

Respectively the lesser and

greater distances from the sections

neutral axis to the extreme fibres

Overall depth of beam

Depth of girder - to be taken as the clear distance between the flange angles or where there

are no flange angles the clear distance between flanges ignoring fillets

Diameter of the reduced end of the column

i) For the web of a beam without horizontal stiffeners - the clear distance

between the flanges, neglecting fillets or the clear distance between the

inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate.

ii) For the web of a beam with horizontal stiffeners - the clear distance

between the horizontal stiffener and the tension flange, neglecting fillets

or the inner toes of the tension flange angles as appropriate.

Twice the clear distance from the neutral axis of a beam to the compression flange,

neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate.

The modulus of elasticity for steel, taken as Mpa in this Guide.

Yield stress

Elastic critical stress in bending

Elastic critical stress in compression, also known as Euler critical stress. Gauge

Outstand of the stiffener Moment of

inertia Flexural stiffness

Coefficients

Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet of member to be stiffened

Span/length of the member Effective

length of the member Bending moment

Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section

Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section subjected to bending and axial loads.

Lateral buckling strength in the absence of axial load Number of

parallel planes of battens

11

Coefficient in the Merchant Rankine formula, assumed as 1.4 Axial force, compressive

or tensile Calculated maximum load capacity of a strut Calculated maximum load

capacity as a tension member Euler load

Yield strength of axially loaded section The

reaction of the beam at the support Radius of gyration

of the section

Transverse distance between centroids of rivets groups or welding Staggered pitch

Mean thickness of compression flange used with subscripts has been defined at

appropriate place) Thickness of web Transverse shear Longitudinal shear

Calculated maximum shear capacity of a section Total load

Pressure or loading on the underside of the base Plastic

modulus of the section Ratio of smaller to larger moment

Stiffness ratio

Slenderness ratio of the member; ratio of the effective length to the appropriate radius of

gyration

bending

Maximum permissible tensile stress in an axially loaded tension member not subjected to

bending

Maximum permissible compressive stress in slab base

Maximum permissible compressive stress due to bending in a member not

subjected to axial force.

Maximum permissible tensile stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial

force

Maximum permissible stress in concrete in compression

Maximum permissible equivalent stress

Maximum permissible bearing stress in a member

Maximum permissible bearing stress in a fastener

Maximum permissible stress in steel in compression

Maximum permissible stress in axial tension in fastener

Calculated average axial compressive stress

Calculated average stress in a member due to an axial tensile force

Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a

principal axis

12

Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis

Calculated tensile stress in a member due to bending about both principal axes

permissible shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress

in fastener

Ratio of the rotation at the hinge point to the relative elastic rotation of the far end of the

beam segment containing plastic hinge angle of twist (in a beam subjected to torsion)

Coefficient

Ratio of total area of both the flanges at the point of least bending moment to the

corresponding area at the point of greatest bending moment Ratio of moment of inertia of

the compression flange alone to that of the sum of the moments of inertia of the flanges each

calculated about its own axis parallel to the y-y axis of the girder, at the point of maximum

bending moment.

NOTE - The subscript x, y denote the x-x and y-y axes of the section respectively. For

symmetrical sections, x-x denotes the major principal axis whilst y-y denotes the minor

principal axis.

13

APPENDIX C: Relevant Indian Standards

IS:

practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision) 696-1972 Code of practice for

general engineering drawings (second revision) 786-1967 (Supplement) SI supplement

to Indian Standard conversion factors and

conversion tables (first revision) 800-1984 Code

of Practice for General Construction in Steel

801-1975 Code of Practice for the use of cold-formed light gauge steel structural

members in general building construction 812-1957

Glossary of terms relating to welding and cutting of metals 813-1961

Scheme of symbols for welding

814 Covered electrodes for metal arc welding of structural steels:

(Part 1) - 1991 Part 1 for welding products other than sheets

(Part 2) - 1991 Part 2 for welding sheets 816-1969 Code of practice for

use of metal arc welding for general construction in

mild steel (first revision) 817-1966 Code of practice for training and

testing of metal arc welders (revised) 819-1957 Code of practice for resistance spot

welding for light assemblies in mild

steel

875-1987 Code of practice for structural safety of buildings: Loading standards

919-1963 Recommendations for limits and fits for engineering (revised) 961-1975

Structural steel (high tensile) (Second revision)

962-1967 Code of practice for architectural and building drawings (first revision)

1024-1992 Code of practice for use of welding in bridges and structures subject to

dynamic loading

1030-1982 Carbon steel castings for general engineering purposes (second revision)

1148-1973 Hot-rolled steel rivet bars (up to 40mm diameter) for structural purposes

(second revision) 1149-1982 High tensile steel rivet bars for structural

purposes 1261-1959 Code of practice for seam welding in mild steel 1278-1972 Filler

rods and wires for gas welding (second revision) 1323-1962 Code of practice for

oxy-acetylene welding for structural work in mild

steel (revised)

1363-1967 Black hexagon bolts, nuts and lock nuts (diameter 6 to 39mm) and black

hexagon screws (diameter 6 to 24 mm) (first revision) 1364-1967

Precision and semi-precision hexagon bolts, screws, nuts and lock nuts

(diameter range 6 to 39 mm) (first revision) 1367-1967 Technical supply

conditions for threaded fasteners (first revision) 1393-1961 Code of practice for training

and testing of oxy-acetylene welders 1395-1982 Molybdenum and chromium

molybdenum vanadium low alloy steel

electrodes for metal arc welding (third revision)

1477 Code of practice for painting of ferrous metals in buildings:

(Part 1) - 1995 Part 1 Pre-treatment

173

(Part 2) - 1995 Part 2 Painting 1893-1991 Criteria for earthquake resistant

design of structures (third revision) 1929-1961 Rivets for general purposes (12 to 48 mm

diameter) 1977-1975 Structural steel (ordinary quality) (second revision) 2062-1992

Weldable structural steel (third revision) 2155-1982 Rivets for general purposes (below 12

mm diameter) 3613-1974 Acceptance tests for wire-flux combinations for submerged-arc

welding of

structural steels (first revision)

3640-1967 Hexagon fit bolts

3757-1972 High-tensile friction grip bolts (first revision)

4000-1967 Code of practice for assembly of structural joints using high tensile friction

grip fasteners

5369-1975 General requirements for plain washers and lock washers (first revision)

5370-1969 Plain washers with outside diameter 3 times inside diameter 5372-1975

Taper washers for channels (ISMC) (first revision) 5374-1975 Taper washers for I-beams

(ISMB) (first revision)

6419-1971 Welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc welding of structural

steel

6560-1972 Molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel welding rods

and base electrodes for gas shielded arc welding 6610-1972 Heavy

washers for steel structures 6623-1972 High tensile friction grip nuts 6639-1972

Hexagon bolts for steel structures 6649-1972 High tensile friction grip washers.

7205-1973 Safety code for erection of structural steel work 7215-1974 Tolerances for

fabrication of steel structures 7280-1974 Bare wire electrodes for submerged arc welding

of structural steels 7307 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welding procedures: Part I Fusion

welding of

steel

7310 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders working to approved welding procedures:

Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 7318 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders

when welding procedure is not required:

Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 8500-1977 Weldable structural steel

(medium and high strength qualities) 9595-1980 Recommendations for metal arc welding

of carbon and carbon manganese

steels.

SP6 - 1972 Handbook for Structural Engineers - Application of Plastic theory in the

Design of Steel Structures

174

APPENDIX D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis 1.0 An

Due to the complexity of the Torsion analysis, a simple approach often adopted by structural

designers for rapid design of steel structures is known as the bi-moment method and is

sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. The applied torque is replaced by a couple of

horizontal forces acting in the plane of the top and bottom flanges as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

When a uniform torque is applied to an open section restrained against warping, the member

itself will be in non-uniform torsion. The angle of twist, therefore, varies along the member

length. The rotation of the section will be accompanied by bending of flanges in their own

plane. The direct and shear stresses caused are shown in Fig. 3.

For an section, the warping resistance can be interpreted in a simple way. The applied

torque is resisted by a couple comprising the two forces equal to the shear forces in each

flange. These forces act at a distance equal to the depth between the centroids of each flange.

Each of these flanges can be visualised as a separate beam subjected to bending moments

produced by the forces This leads to bending stresses in the flanges. These are termed

Warping Normal Stresses.

The magnitude of the warping normal stress at any particular point in the cross section is

given by

16

176

An approximate method of calculating the normalised warping function for any section is

described in by Nethercot etal. The in-plane shear stresses are called Warping shear stresses.

They are constant across the thickness of the element. Their magnitude varies along the length

of the element. The magnitude of the warping shear stress at any given point is given by

where = Warping statical moment of area at a particular point Values of warping normal

stress and in-plane shear stress are tabulated in standard steel tables produced by steel makers.

1.1 The effect of Torsional Rigidity (GJ) and Warping Rigidity (ET) on the

Design of Sections

The warping deflections due to the displacement of the flanges vary along the length of the

member. Both direct and shear stresses are generated in addition to those due to bending and

pure torsion. The stiffness of the member associated with the former stresses is directly

proportional to the warping rigidity,

When the torsional rigidity is very large compared to the warping rigidity, then the

section will effectively be in "uniform torsion". Closed sections (e.g. rectangular or square

hollow sections) angles and Tees behave this way, as do most flat plates and all circular

sections. Conversely if is very small compared with the member will effectively be

subjected to warping torsion. Most thin walled open sections fall under this category. Hot

rolled sections as well as channel sections exhibit a torsional

behaviour in between these two extremes. In other words, the members will be in a state of

non-uniform torsion and the loading will be resisted by a combination of uniform (St.Venant's)

and warping torsion.

The end support conditions of the member influence the torsional behaviour significantly; three

ideal situations are described below. (It must be noted that torsional fixity is essential at least in

one location to prevent the structural element twisting bodily). Warping fixity cannot be

provided without also ensuring torsional fixity.

The following end conditions are, therefore, relevant for torsion calculations

• Torsion fixed, Warping fixed: This means that the twisting along the longitudinal (Z) axis

and also the warping of cross section at the end of the member are prevented. =0

at the end). This is also called "fixed" end condition.

177

• Torsion fixed, Warping free: This means that the cross section at the end of the member

cannot twist, but is allowed to warp. This is also called "pinned" end

condition.

• Torsion free, Warping free: This means that the end is free to twist and warp. The

unsupported end of cantilever illustrates this condition. (This is also called "free" end

condition).

which provides fixity for bending about both axes. It is also necessary to restrain the

flanges by additional suitable reinforcements. It may be more practical to assume "warping

free" condition even when the structural element is treated as "fixed" for bending.

When a torque is applied only at the ends of a member such that the ends are free to warp,

then the member would develop only pure torsion.

= Torsional Rigidity

When a member is in non-uniform torsion, the rate of change of angle of twist will vary

along the length of the member. The warping shear stress at a point is given by

= Warping statical moment at a particular point S chosen.

The warping normal stress due to bending moment in-plane of flanges (bi-moment) is

given by

There will be an interaction between the torsional and flexural effects, when a load

produces both bending and torsion. The angle of twist caused by torsion would be

amplified by bending moment, inducing additional warping moments and torsional

178

shears. This is analogous to the checks for buckling effects in columns due

to effects.The following design checks are suggested in the SCI publication "Design of

members subject to combined Bending and Torsion' by Nethercot, Salter and Malik.

The maximum stress at the most highly stressed cross section is limited to the design

strength Assuming elastic behaviour and assuming that the loads produce

bending about the major axis in addition to torsion, the longitudinal direct stresses will

be due to three causes.

is dependent on which itself is dependent on the major axis moment and the

twist

conditions are given in the SCI publication referred above.

Whenever lateral torsional buckling governs the design (i.e. when is less than the

values of and will be amplified. The SCI publication has suggested a simple

"buckling check" along lines similar to BS 5950, part 1

179

3.3 Applied Loading having both Major axis and Minor Axis Moments

When the applied loading produces both major axis and minor axis moments, the "capacity

checks" and the "buckling checks" are modified as follows:

Capacity check:

Torsional shear stresses and warping shear stresses should also be amplified in a similar manner:

This shear stress should be added to the shear stresses due to bending in checking the adequacy

of the section.

180

APPENDIX E: Location of Neutral Axis

axis bendins

181

Note: is the sum of the

Note:

For minor axis bending the same equations can be used by

interchanging and as well as the subscripts and

182

INSDAG'S ACTIVITIES AND PUBLICATIONS

During the past three and half years, INSDAG has undertaken some important projects and already published

some valuable documents. Some of the projects are currently on going and the publications will be available in

appropriate times.

The Institute compiled and printed 'Directory of Steel Supply Chain' for improving interaction among

professionals engaged directly or indirectly in the business of steel. It contains contact details of more than 5000

architects, builders, designers, consultants, fabricators, steel producers, re-rollers, importers etc. The directory

fulfills long-standing need of professionals in the country.

The professionals in the steel supply chain have also been in need of a source book for obtaining ready

reference for their steel product needs. The 'Buyer's Manual' brought out by the Institute is a very useful

document, which has a listing of about 220 steel companies/traders/importers etc. The manual contains details

of products, grades of steel and marketing procedure including lead time, minimum order quantity etc. The

manual is also available in the form of user-friendly CD version.

Price Rs 350/- for hardcopy and CD ROM version separately, and Rs 550/- for a complete set of hardcopy and

CD ROM together.

Since the existing BIS Structural Engineers Handbook (last revised in 1964) does not contain information about

sectional properties of all the presently available sections from the producers and import as required by

designers, INSDAG has prepared and published up-to-date "Reference Manual for Structural Engineers". In

addition to sectional properties, the Manual also contains brief extract from important codes, details of producers

etc.

Steel-concrete Composite Construction is widely used in the advanced countries. Their popularity is largely due

to the speed with which bridges / flyovers can be constructed in busy metros. In

8

order to provide guidance to the professionals to use this technology for design of bridges and flyovers, one

handbook, based on Indian codes, has been prepared, printed and widely circulated. This handbook is user

friendly and contains 4 sample calculations for 16 metre and 24 metre spans along with properties of Composite

Sections to help in designing similar problems quickly and accurately.

Corrosion has been told to be the major problem for application of steel in construction sector. In order to

provide the engineers proper technical write-up about occurrence of corrosion and ways to overcome it as being

done in the developed countries, a comprehensive corrosion protection guide publication has been published.

Pre-engineered buildings and space frames are widely employed in the advanced countries in view of their

multifarious benefits such as: significant saving in time of designing, construction, erection and cost apart from

being aesthetically elegant. With a view to popularize their use in India, nine case studies of such constructions

recently executed in the country have been prepared and published.

INSDAG has carried out a techno-economic study on life cycle cost assessment of elevated viaducts for the

proposed Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System Limited with the steel intensive construction route. It has been

observed that though the initial cost of the concrete intensive option was 10 percent lower than the steel

intensive option, the life cycle cost of the steel option is economical to the owner by 49 percent as well as the

BOOT partner by 28 percent. Further detailed analysis has also been made. The study was made in April 2000.

Though presently steel intensive construction is not able to compete with concrete construction on the initial cost

basis, life cycle cost (LCC) is generally favourable. In the advanced countries, LCC is often used an important

tool for decision- making. Keeping this in view, an interesting life cycle cost assessment study has been made

fore a typical urban flyover for two city locations. The work has been done in association with two leading

consultants: M/s STUP Consultants Ltd and M/s CES (I) Pvt. Ltd.

9. Welding Guide for Structural Steel

Various steel products—sections in the form of joists, channels, angles, SHS/RHS and plates of different

thicknesses are now available in the domestic market. Though different steel companies and welding suppliers

have published some information on welding aspects of their specific products using proprietary consumables,

this welding guide will provide consolidated information covering structural steel grades, which could serve a

useful reference for the Supervisors/Practicing Engineers engaged in steelwork. The guide is broadly divided

into seven chapters namely: Structural steel and welding; Welding process and joints; Electrodes and

Equipment; Welding defects, controls and care; Weld economics and cost calculations; Inspection and

acceptance criteria; and other useful information.

With the same objective of Composite Construction: Bridge and Flyover handbook, design guidebooks are also

being prepared on Car Parks (Part 2) and Buildings (Part 3) under the steel intensive composite construction

route. The outcome of this study indicates that initial direct cost of 5 level & 7 level steel intensive Carpark is

lower than that of RCC option.

It had been planned to conduct survey of about 100 important rail bridges to ascertain the performance of steel

bridges vis-a-vis RCC and pre-stressed concrete bridges. With the help and support from ED (B&S), RDSO and

railway officials in different zones, about 50 rail bridges were visited for data collection, and relevant data for

another about 50 bridges have been collected. It has been observed that bridges with steel superstructure

constructed even more than 100 years ago are still functioning well.

To simplify the fabrication process by bringing about uniformity in detailing as also to reduce the risk of corrosion

and to provide technical aid to small fabricators and designers, a Handbook on Steel Detailing is have been

prepared. It is spread over 12 chapters and 6 Appendices namely: Joining; Splices; Trusses; Beam to Beam

Connection; and Ladders, Stairs and Hand Railings etc. The book is comprised of about 230 pages including

180 figures and 37 tables.

INSDAG brought out this publication to promote steel-concrete composite construction in Multi-Storey Building.

Write-up on design aspects of composite beams, columns & composite

10

slabs using profiled deck. This design handbook also covers the complete detail design of a typical G+3 &

B+G+9 storeyed Residential & Commercial Buildings.

14. Economics of Two Steel Framed Commercial Buildings: Under Initial Cost and Life Cycle

Cost Assessment Route

Steel intensive construction for buildings is gradually becoming a subject of interest in India, though its cost

effectiveness is often questioned. The sustainability of construction is also another important modern concept for

buildings. Keeping this in view, a study on the construction cost, total initial cost and life cycle cost assessment

of two typical urban commercial buildings has been done in association with leading consultants like M N Dastur

& Co Private Ltd. and Development Consultants Private Ltd.

Rolled/fabricated beams are commonly being used as the structural members of medium span

structures.Moreover for longer spans, use of steel truss as the structural member of composite section is most

desired. Use of steel-concrete composite truss is ideally suited for applications in community halls, industrial

buildings, office buildings, conference halls etc. where large column free spans are a necessity. The publication

mainly covers framing, analysis and connection details followed in advanced countries. It also contains a

detailed example covering all important aspects of design by limit state method.

16. Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement

Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways

Rigid pavement is widely used in the developed countries. Some beginning has been made in our country also.

On life cycle cost basis rigid pavements are very cost effective due much lower vehicle operating cost &

maintenance cost. In order to assess the most cost effective pavement solution for National Highways &

Expressways INSDAG carried out a study on CRCP and published a document entitled "Life Cycle Cost

Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways

and Expressways". The outcome of the study reveals that the LCC cost of CRCP is much lower than flexible

pavement. An analysis, based on the applicable Indian, AASHTO and British Standards as well as based on the

published literature, shows that LCC cost of CRCP is lower than jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP).

Accordingly CRCP is the best long-term pavement solution both on cost as well as maintenance point of view for

National highways & expressways.

17. Guidebook on Steel Doors and Windows for Domestic Use

Traditionally wooden doors and windows have been used in places like homes, offices, hotels, flats, factories

and hospitals. With the developments taken place in advanced countries, steel doors and windows are now

being preferred for various applications. This publication provides general and technical information concerning

steel doors & windows. Users of windows, doors and related accessories will find it very useful in terms of

design, manufacturing process, sourcing and application of these products. This guidebook is broadly divided

into seven chapters namely: Introduction; Steel windows; Steel Doors; Standards for Manufacturing; Corrosion

Protection & Maintenance; Cost Index & Practices and Bibliography. The beneficiaries of this publication are

buyers, specifiers / procurement officers, manufacturers, distributors/ retailers, architects, designers, builders

and suppliers, policy-workers and government officials.

In India residential buildings are coming up in numbers with a height of 20 storied and above to accommodate

the influx of population to Metros which are facing severe space constraint. This publication covers a study on

the cost effectiveness of the fast-track Steel -Concrete Composite construction in comparison with the RCC

option based on the same type plan of a (B+G+20) storied residential building which has been collected from a

live example. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter

cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc., which has indicated substantial savings over its

RCC option. The design of the structural elements have been carried out following relevant Indian/foreign

standards in Limit State Method of Design both for RCC and Composite construction, this book helps the

builders, designers, Architects to selects an econoimic and safe Technical option for their projects.

19. (G+3) & (G+6) Storied Residential Buildings with Steel -Concrete Composite Option

In the publication the modern trend of Steel-Concrete Composite construction has been considered. It also

includes a study of the cost effectiveness of the steel-Concrete Composite options vis-a-vis RCC option based

on the type plan of (G+3) & (G+6) storied residential buildings collected from a live example. The Composite

options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2

Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc., which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option. The design of

the Structural elements has been carried out in Limit State Method of Design following Indian/foreign standards

both for RCC & Composite options.

Housing is considered as one of the major problems in the world. The habitation conditions of the Indian

villagers particularly need to be improved. This publication includes a Housing scheme with Steel in frame

having colums, beams & trusses with SHS sections and Ferro-Cement

12

panels used for roofing and cladding. The housing scheme has been developed with doubled-layered

Ferro-Cement cladding having an air-gap in between and with sufficient openings for ventilation, which makes

habitation comfortable for the villagers, and it is designed to take care of the effects of Earthquake & Wind.

Elevated units also take care of water clogging during monsoon.

At the instance of JPC - one of the major stakeholders, INSDAG had prepared a steel intensive design for a

raised two-storey school building (15 m X 15 m X 8 m) with required wind loading to be used as a cyclone/flood

relief center in Paradeep, Orissa.

INSDAG has prepared a design of an exquisite inverted pyramid (top: 16 m X 16 m; height: 8 m) of tubular

structure displaying steel application in a typical road island.

Steel is globally used for earthquake resistant structures. In view of the need for speedy rehabilitation and

reconstruction of earthquake affected areas in Gujarat and based on interaction made with various agencies, the

Institute had prepared general arrangement drawings of 7 variants (260 sq. ft. for rural areas; 435 sq. ft., 640

sq.ft. and 840 sq.ft. in G+1 and G+3 modules) with the help of a leading consultant and submitted to concerned

authorities in Gujarat. Later on, the Institute has also developed detail-engineering drawings for the

single-storeyed building and the G+3 building (640 sqft appartments) and submitted to the concerned authorities

in Gujarat. These drawings are available for sale.

4. Teaching Resource for Structural Steel Design for Faculty of Civil/Structural Engg.

The project on Teaching Resource for Structrual Steel Design for the Faculty of Civil/Structural Engineering has

been pursued by the Expert Team (Dr V Kalyanraman, Dr A R Santhakumar, DrS.R. Satish Kumar, DrS.

Seetharaman, Mr A. Jayachandran and others) under the leadership of Dr. R. Narayanan, expert from Steel

Construction Institute, UK. Preparation of all the 45 chapters for one semester course had been completed after

expert reviews.

Six Workshops for the university faculty have been organized at six different places namely IIT-Chennai,

IIT-Mumbai, BE College(DU)-Howrah, Delhi College of Engineering-Delhi, Malviya National Institute of

Technology-Jaipur and IIT-Roorkee with total involvement of the expert team to train approximately 220

teachers from 173 engineering colleges using the state-of-art teaching material. All the 45 chapters are available

in the INSDAG website www.steel-insdag.org.

Technical volumes are available for sale. Price Rs 2500/- for full set (Rs 3000/- with CD). Only CD ROM is

available at Rs 800/- only.

Improving knowledge and skill of professionals in design using composite construction has been identified as an

important area of activity. Twelve refresher courses had been conducted till December 2002. These consist of

two at Calcutta, two at Chennai, one each at Delhi, Bhubaneswar, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Ranchi and

IITGuwahati.

About 250 professionals and 50 faculties have been exposed to composite construction technology. Considering

the importance of ductile design of steel structures, concept of earthquake resistant design had also been

included in the lecture material of some refresher courses.

The technical volumes are available for sale. Price Rs 800/- (for each course)

The Institute has published five attractive promotional/ awareness brochures for free distribution to target

customers such as designers, consultants, architects, builders at various conferences and other forums:

• Pre-engineered Buildings

E. Other Activities

In the fourth year (2002 - 03) for the "Student Award Scheme for the Innovative Use of Steel in Architecture", an

exciting brief entitled "World Class Shopping Plaza" had been prepared and circulated to more than 100 Schools

of Architecture / Engineering Colleges. The last date of recipt of entries is 30th January 2003 The entries will be

evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April 2003. The final selection will be done in June 2003.

14

2. Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative

Structural Steel Design

In the third year (2002 - 2003) for the "Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best

Innovative Structural Steel Design", an exciting brief on the theme of "Elevated Light Rail Transit System" has

been prepared and circulated to more than 240 Engineering Institutions. The last date of receipt of entries is 31 st

March 2003. The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April-May 2003. The final

selection will be done in July 2003.

The Institute has prepared technical documents/Vision Paper for consideration/perusal by concerned authorities:

o Input paper on National Steel Policy with particular focus on construction sector

o Justification for adoption of steel scaffolding in place of bamboo/wood based on life cycle costing and

safety requirement

4. Review of Relevant Documents for Modification of IRC 22, IRC 24 and some IS codes.

Advances on knowledge of structural behaviour resulting from research need to be adopted in design practice

for innovative / efficient design techniques. This necessitated modification of Codes of Practices (BIS/IRC Codes

which have not kept pace with the technological improvements in latest design methodologies), pertaining to

construction in steel as well as steel-concrete composite.

INSDAG has been involved in IRC B-7 Committee engaged in revision of IRC 22, 24 pertaining to construction

of composite, steel bridges respectively, and a Committee on IS 800 engaged in modifying the Code of Practice

for use of structural steel in general building construction to limit state method. Also, INSDAG has been included

in a sub-committee entrusted to preparation of "Guidelines for design of Composite / Steel Box Girder bridges"

considered to be cost effective for relatively higher spans where composite bridges using steel plate girders are

not economical compared to other competitive options.

To make the design of steel bridges as well as steel-concrete composite bridges economical and rational based

on the state-of-the-art methodologies, modifications have been suggested to clauses pertaining of deflection

stipulation, modular ratio and shear connector capacity in the present design environment (working stress

method). It has been estimated that amended clause on deflection stipulation itself will reduce the weight of

bridge girder to the tune of 13 percent.

In addition to the above, INSDAG has published 20 important documents under copyright from the steel

Construction Institute, UK on steel intensive design of structures. A list of such publications is provided below: