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Boiler Design & Performance

Karthik S.C.
Sr. Engineer - BPP/FB
Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Pan India Presence

BHEL manufactures 180 products in 30 major product groups


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
BHEL – Technology & Capability

• Pulverised Coal Combustion (PCC)

• Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC)

• Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC)

• Combined Cycle Gas Turbine / Co-generation Plants

• Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Technology – through Collaborations
Products (HPBP) Collaborators
Steam Generators Skoda, Czech; Combustion Engg., USA, Alstom (now GE)
Gravimetric Feeders Stock Equipment Co., USA (now part of SPX Corporation)
Safety, Safety Relief, Y –Type Dresser Industries Inc. USA (now part of Halliburton
Valves Group)
High Pressure Valves Toa Valve Co. Ltd, Japan
Soot Blowers Copes Vulcan, USA (now part of Clyde-Bergmann)
HPLP Bypass System Sulzer Brothers Ltd (now part of CCI, USA)
Christmas Trees & Wellhead Kvaerner Oilfield Products, Singapore (now AKER
Assemblies, Subsea Well Head,
Casing support & Mudline
KVAERNER, Norway)
Suspension Systems & Block Valves
HRSG Vogt-NeM Inc.(now Vogt Power International, USA)
Circulating Fluidised Bed LLA, Germany (earlier LLB, Germany)
Combustion (CFBC) Boilers

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


PCC - Technology Development
1960s Boiler design as per Czechoslovakian technology, 30 MW, 60 MW
1970s Technology from Combustion Engineering, USA;
Unit capacities 110 MW, 210 MW – Low Pressure Steam cycle.
1980s Unit capacity of 500 MW – Higher Pressure Steam Cycle with
controlled circulation;
Indigenisation of Technology to suit high ash Indian coal;
Tower type boilers introduced for highly erosive coals.
1990s 250 MW units developed.
Boiler efficiency improvement by lowering exit gas temperatures.

2000s Technology for Super critical steam generators from Alstom.

Designs for firing Washed Coals developed.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Boiler Systems Engineered
• Two Pass / Tower Type (Single Pass)

• Box / Close Coupled

• Single / Bi-drum

• Balanced Draft / Pressurised Furnace

• Natural / Controlled Circulation / Once through

• Base Load / Cycling / Two Shifting / Trip to House Load

• Constant / Sliding Pressure

• Top / Bottom Supported


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Boiler Systems Engineered

• Tangential / Wall Firing

• Direct / Indirect Firing System


• Bowl / Ball-Tube / Ball & Race / Beater / Beater Wheel
Type Pulverizers

• Hot / Cold Primary Air / Suction Mill System

• Axial / Radial Type Fans

• Tubular / Regenerative Air heaters

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Fuels Handled

• Coal/oil/gas in any • Coal tar


combination • Black liquor
• Lignite • Bagasse
• Blast furnace gas/coke • Rice husk
oven gas • Washery rejects
• Carbon monoxide • Wheat/ rice straw

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


BHEL Utility Units - A Summary
Unit Rating, MW Contracted Commissioned
No. MW No. MW
30 4 120 4 120
60 16 960 16 960
67.5 9 607.5 8 540
70 14 980 9 630
80 14 1120 6 480
100 6 600 6 600
110 39 4290 39 4290
54 % Total 120 31 3720 30 3600
125 7 875 2 250
Installed 130 2 260 2 260
Capacity of 150 19 2850 7 1050
200 24 4800 21 4200
India is 210 116 24360 114 23940
Contributed by 250 58 14500 49 12250
270 37 9990 12 3240
BHEL Utility 300 1 300 0 0
Sets 500 85 42500 79 39500
525 7 3675 2 1050
600 21 12600 16 9600
660 30 19800 8 5280
700 1 700 1 700
800 24 19200 4 3200
TOTAL 565 168808 435 115740

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


We are currently adopting

Advanced Steam Cycles to Improve the


Environmental & Economic Performance of
India’s Power Generation

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Reference List of Supercritical Boilers
NTPC / BARH 2 x 660 MW APGENCO / Krishnapatnam 1 x 800 MW
APPDCL / Krishnapatnam 2 x 800 MW APGENCO / Vijayawada 1 x 800 MW
PPGCL / BARA 3 x 660 MW NTPC / Karimnagar 2 x 800 MW
RPCL / Yermaras 2 x 800 MW TANGEDCO/ North Chennai 1 x 800 MW
KPCL / Bellary 1 x 700 MW TANGEDCO/ Uppur 2 x 800 MW
LPGCL / Lalitpur- BHL 3 x 660 MW BIFPCL / Maitree 2 x 660MW
DB Power / Singrauli 2 x 660 MW NTPC / Patratu 3 x 800MW
NTPC / Mouda St. II 2 x 660 MW MAHAGENCO/Bhusawal 1 x 660MW
NPGCL / Nabinagar 3 x 660 MW UPRVUNL/Panki 1 x 660MW
OPGCL / Banaharpalli 2 x 660 MW TANGEDCO/Udangudi 2 x 660MW
RRVUNL / Suratgarh 2 x 660 MW
NTPC / Gadarwara 2 x 800 MW
NTPC / North Karanpura 3 x 660 MW
NTPC / Darlipalli 2 x 800 MW
TANGEDCO / Ennore 2 x 660 MW 56 Boilers
GSECL / Wanakbori 1 x 800 MW
TSGENCO / Kothagudem 1 x 800 MW
Contracted
TSGENCO / Yadadri 5 x 800 MW

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Advanced Ultra Super Critical Plants
Gearing-up to introduce Advanced Ultra
supercritical boilers (AUSC)

AUSC Boilers (300 ata, 710 C / 720 C) will be


developed based on OTSC technology

Test Facility (400 bar, 700 Deg. C) installed and


tests are on to collect critical design data

BHEL is one among the Five MNC’s to have this


facility

Member of the National Technology Mission


program to install AUSC plant by 2020

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Emerging market requirements

• Highest economically achievable Plant Efficiency


(Lowest Heat Rate)
• Suitable for different quality of fuel

• Minimum emission of Pollutants

• High Reliability & Availability

• Suitable for differing modes of operation

• Ability to operate under adverse grid conditions

• Lowest life cycle cost

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Higher Plant efficiency for

• Conservation of fuel resources


• Reduction of Atmospheric Pollutants - SOX & NOX
• Reduction in CO2 emission
• Better economics in power generation
• Fuel
• Reagent

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Environmental Benefits

Station Units MS MS/RH Efficiency Coal CO2


Capacity (No.x MW) Pressure Temp 0C (%) Consumption Emissions
(MW) (kg/cm2) (MMT/Yr) (MMT/Yr)

4000 8x500 170 537/537 38.6 15.61 22.90

4000 5x800 247 565/593 40.24 14.98 21.97

Savings in coal consumed: 0.63 x 106 Tons/Year


Reduction of CO2 emissions: 0.93 x 106 Tons/Year
At 80% PLF & HHV of 4000 kcal/kg

Source : CEA

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


CO2 Reduction through
Super Critical technology

860
850
Specific CO2 emission (gm/kWhr)

850

840

830
825

820

810
800
800

790

780

770
500 MW units SC phase-I SC phase-II
(Barh-I/ Sipat-I) (Barh-II)
(247/537/565) (247/565/595)

* Assuming 85% Boiler Efficiency; Indian Coal with 31% Carbon content & 5% Operating Margin

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Rankine cycle
 The Carnot Cycle is theoretically most efficient, but it is having practical
difficulties.
 For steam power plant, practical thermal cycle was suggested by Rankine,
called Ideal cycle or Rankine cycle.

T
T1 4 1
p1 3-3’ – BFP raises pressure from p2 to p1
3’-4 – Heating In feed heaters & economizer
3’
4 -1 – Heating In boiler
T2 2 1-2 – Work done in Turbine from p1 to p2
3 p2
2-3 – Heat reduction in condenser

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Methods of increasing
Rankine Cycle Efficiency

• Raising inlet pressure of steam

• Raising supply temperature by super heating

• Reheat Cycle

• Dropping the final pressure (or temperature)

• Regenerative Heating

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Parameters for increasing Cycle
Efficiency in PC-fired Units

• Increasing main steam pressure

• Increasing superheat and reheat temperatures

• Adopting double reheat

• Increasing the vacuum of condenser

• Increasing final feed water temperature.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Increasing Boiler Efficiency
• Minimum RH spray

• Minimum SH spray( if tapped off before feed heaters)

• Minimum flue gas temperature at AH outlet

• Minimum excess air at AH outlet

• Minimum unburnt Carbon loss

• Reduced auxiliary power consumption.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Trend in unit sizes & Cycle parameters
SHO SHO/RHO
Year of
Unit Size Pressure Temperature
Introduction
(kg/cm2(a)) (Deg.C)
60 / 70 MW 96 540 1965
110 / 120 MW 139 540/540 1966
200 / 210 MW 137 / 156 540/540 1972
250 MW 156 540/540 1991
179 540/540 1979
500 MW
179 540/568 1985
256 568/596 2008
660 MW
269 596/603 2015
256 568/596 2008
800 MW 269 596/603 2013
279 603/603 2015
Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
UTILITY BOILER TECHNOLOGY GROWTH
30 SUB CRITICAL SUPERCRITICAL
800 MW & above
NATURAL CONTROLLED CIRCULATION ONCE THROUGH
HEAT RATE IMPROVEMENT %

300 ata,
CIRCULATION 25 700°C/700°C
25 660 / 800MW
250 ata,
568°C/598°C
500 MW 20.5
210/250 MW 500 MW 170 ata,
20
150 ata, 170 ata, 540°C/568°C
540°C/540°C 540°C/540°C 17.2
110/200 MW
130 ata, 15.7
14.6
15 540°C/540°C
12.5
60/100 MW
96 ata,
10 540°C

0
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

YEAR
Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Increase of Plant Cycle Efficiency due to
Steam Parameters
Increase of efficiency [%]
10
9
6.77
5.79
8 5.74
7 4.81
4.26 3.74
6
5 3.44 2.76
3.37
4
2.64
3 2.42 1.47
2 600 / 620
1.78
0.75 580 / 600
1
566 / 566
0
0 538 / 566
300
241
Pressure [bar] 175 538 / 538 HP / RH outlet temperature [deg. C]

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Based on Construction

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Types of Boilers
Steam
Application Type Circulation
Parameters

Natural Circulation
Drum

Subcritical Controlled
Utility Drum
Circulation
(Power Generation)
Once through
Separator

Once through
Supercritical Separator

Industrial
(Process Steam Subcritical Drum Natural Circulation
Requirements)
Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
DRUM TYPE

 Natural Circulation Boiler

• Circulation thru water walls by thermo-siphon effect.

 Controlled Circulation Boiler

• Thermo-siphon effect supplemented by pumps

Choice of Circulating system depends on Operating Pressure

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Circulation Boiler – Natural Circulation
Natural Circulation Operating Pressure

Circulation through WW by Thermo-Siphon The Density difference between Water & Steam
Effect provides the driving Force for the Circulating Fluid

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Sub-critical Boilers –
Natural Circulation

Typical example of a Thermal Circulation Boiler


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Circulation Boiler –
Controlled Circulation
Operating Pressure Controlled Circulation

Higher Pressures units warrant Pumps to ensure Circulation through WW by Thermo-Siphon


Circulation (Natural Circulation not adequate) Effect supplemented by Pumps

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Sub-critical Boilers –
Controlled Circulation

Example of a Controlled Circulation Boiler


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Drum type boiler

• Steam generation takes place in furnace water walls

• Fixed evaporation end point - the drum

• Steam -water separation takes place in the drum

• Separated water mixed with incoming feed water

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


ONCE THROUGH
STEAM GENERATORS

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


The Concept

The mass flow rate thru’ all heat transfer

circuits from Eco. inlet to SH outlet is kept

same except at low loads wherein

recirculation is resorted to protect the

water wall system

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


What is Critical Pressure

• Gases converted to liquids  by compressing the gas

• Temperature increases ; kinetic energies of gas particles


increases.

• The critical temperature of a substance is the temperature at


and above which vapour of the substance cannot be liquefied,
no matter how much pressure is applied.

• The critical pressure of a substance is the pressure required to


liquefy a gas at its critical temperature.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Subcritical:
Pressure < Critical Pressure
(221 bar)
Supercritical:
Pressure > Critical Pressure
(221 bar)

Ultra Supercritical:
Supercritical with SHO
temperature > 593 deg.C

Advanced Ultra Supercritical:


Supercritical with SHO
temperature > 700 deg.C

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Why Super Critical Pressure

QUEST FOR EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

• Since the time of thermal power stations have been


engineered, there is a quest for efficiency improvement.

• And supercritical parameters (Pressure above 225 Kg/cm2 and


temperature above 374.15 ºC) is an effort in that direction.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Definition of “Supercritical Design“
Evaporator pressure (MCR) > 221 bar

Source: Siemens

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


DRUM vs ONCE THROUGH
STEAM TO STEAM TO
TURBINE SH TURBINE
SH
ECO
DRUM

HEAT HEAT
DOWN Water Wall
COMER Water Wall
ECO
ORIFICE
CIRC. PUMP

Pressure Sub critical Sub & super Critical


Steam Separation Drum Separator (Low loads)
Types Natural / Assisted (Sulzer) / (Benson)
Burner Panel Straight tube Spiral Tube / Straight (MHI)
Load Change Base Faster
Cold Start 4-5 Hours 2 Hours
Hot Start 1-2 Hours 0.5 Hours
Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design
Pressure and Enthalpy Variations vs. Type of Circulation Design
Economiz SUPERCRITICAL FLUID
er
Waterwall
s Superheater
SuSUPERCRITICAL
percritica FLUID
l Boiler
CRITICALPRESSURE
CRITICAL PRESSURE
PRESSURE K g /cm 2 (ps ia )

226
(3208)

Economiz
er
201 Eco omizer Waterwalls
(2865) Wa Superheater
A TER Controlleterwalls
d Circulati Superheat e

SAT U
on r
T ED W

STEAM &

RATE
WATER WATER
STEAM & STEAM

D STE AM
SATURA

WATER
MIXTURE
127 MIXTURE
Waterwalls
(1800)
Economiz Examples of Steam by Weight
er
Thermal C
25%
irculati on Superheater
100%
0%

Increasing Enthalpy ( h )
Enthalpy Kj/Kg (BTU/lb)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design
Enthalpy Variations vs Pressure and Boiler Load
SUPERCRITICAL FLUID
Full Load
Operation
Economiz
er SUPERCRITICAL FLUID
Waterwalls
Superheater
CRITICALPRESSURE
CRITICAL PRESSURE
PRESSURE K g /cm 2 (ps ia )

226
(3208)

Economiz
er
201 Eco omizer Waterwalls
(2865) Waterwalls Superheater
A TER
Middle Lo Superheat e

SAT U
ad r
Operation
T ED W

STEAM &

RATE
WATER WATER
STEAM & STEAM

D STE AM
SATURA

WATER
MIXTURE
127 MIXTURE
(1800) Waterwalls
Economiz Examples of Steam by Weight
er
Low Load
25% Operatio n
Superheater
100%
0%

Increasing Enthalpy ( h )

Enthalpy Kj/Kg (BTU/lb)


Presentation
Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Departure from Nucleate Boiling

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Features of
Once Through Steam Generator
• To ensure adequate mass flow rates through water wall, spirally wound

water wall tubes are used.

• Start-up and low load system up to 30-40% BMCR required.

• Feed water quality requirements are very stringent.

• Can be designed for both sub-critical and super-critical pressures.

• Suited for sliding pressure operation due to the absence of thick walled

components.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SUB CRITICAL Vs SUPER CRITICAL
Material Comparison

Section Sub critical Super critical

Economiser SA 210 Gr A1 SA 210 Gr C

Water wall SA 210 Gr C SA 213 T12 /T22 / T23

SA 213 T11, T22,T23, T91,


Super heaters and SA 213 T11, T22,T91 and T92, Super 304H, and TP 347H
Reheaters TP 347 H

SA 106 Gr B, Gr C, P11, SA 106 Gr B, Gr C, P11, P12,


Headers and piping P22 and P91 P22, P91 and P92

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Tubes in Boiler Applications
Material OD (mm) Thickness (mm)

SA 210 Gr A1 38.1 to 51 4 to 6.3

SA 210 Gr C 38.1 to 76.1 5 to 12.5

SA 192 51.0 to 76.1 4.5 to 5.6

SA 213 T11 38.1 to 63.5 4.0 to 10.0

SA 213 T22 , T23 38.1 to 76.1 4.0 to 12.5

SA 213 T91, T92 44.5 to 63.5 4.0 to 12.0

SA 213 TP 347H
47.63 to 76.1 4.0 to 12.5
S304H

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SUB CRITICAL Vs SUPER CRTICAL
Particulars Sub critical Super critical
Type Drum type Once through Once through

Operating pressure Below 221.1 bar Below 221.1 bar Above 221.1 bar

Boiling (Two No boiling process.


Steam generation Boiling (Two phase
phase heat Phase change is
process heat transfer)
transfer) gradual.
Thick walled Thick walled drum is
Smaller vertical separators provided
component provided
Start up and load
Base Better start up and load change rates
change rates
Water wall Generally spiral wall.
Vertical
construction Vertical wall for higher capacity
Higher loads: Once through
Circulation Circulation at all loads
Lower loads : Circulation

Water quality Base More stringent requirements

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Basic Data For Design

Boiler Parameters
Fuel Data
Site Data

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Heat Balance Diagram
190.0 814.7
505.344 535.0

HPT LPT LPT

BOILER
31.07 736.2 27.89 844.8
459.544 335.7 459.544 535.0

0.0890 580.9
360.130 (0.9384)

C
234.0
241.7

D
505.944

HPH HPH LPH LPH LPH LPH


CP
-

FP

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Implications of Steam
Parameters on Boiler Design

• Boiler type

• Materials

• Reliability and Availability

• Proper selection ensure safe metal temperature under all operating


conditions
• Proper selection helps in reducing the installation cost.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Fuel Data

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Fuel Analysis

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


CHARACTERISTICS OF
TYPICAL INDIAN COAL
• High ash (35 – 50%)

• Highly abrasive (55 – 65%)

• Medium moisture (10 – 15%)

• Medium volatile matter (18 – 24%)

• Lower heating value (HHV kcal / kg) (3000 – 3500)

• Low sulphur (0.2 – 0.5%)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


INDIAN COALS
Vs
COALS OF OTHER COUNTRIES
INDIA GERMANY USA CANADA AUSTRLIA
Coal A B C RUHR WESTERN ALBERTA NSW

MOISTURE % 15.0 12.0 12.0 8.5 16.0 4.0 8.0

VOL. MATTER % 20.0 18.0 30.0 20.5 33.0 18.0 29.0

ASH % 40.0 40.0 30.0 8.0 8.0 8.5 15.7

SULPHUR % 0.5 0.3 0.2 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.69

HHV kCal / kg 3200 3500 4500 6700 5730 7600 6200

COAL ASH Kg/MkCal 125 114 67 12 14 11 25

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Coal properties affecting boiler design

• Type of coal ( anthracite, bituminous, lignite)

• Higher heating value

• Volatile matter

• Moisture content

• Ash content

• Ash characteristics

• Hard Grove Index ( HGI)


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Problems associated with INDIAN COALS

• Inconsistent coal properties

• Presence of extraneous matters in coal

• High quantum of ash with high percentage of quartz

• Highly abrasive nature of coal ash

• Due to low sulphur content - extremely high electrical


resistivity of ash

• Low heating value of the coal

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


FUEL QUALITY AFFECTING THE
PERFORMANCE
• Slagging

• FEGT variation

• SH / RH Spray variation

• Flue gas temperature leaving boiler

• Mill loading

• Aux. Power Consumption

• Boiler efficiency
Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
FOR INDIAN COALS
• Conservative Furnace Heat Loadings

• Lower Flue Gas Velocity Over Tube Banks

• Plain Tube In – Line Arrangement Of Heat Transfer Surface

• Optimum End Gaps To Avoid Preferential Gas Flow

• Erosion Shields / Cassette Baffles

• Erosion Allowance For Leading Tubes

• Cast Steel PF Bends & Ceramic Lined PF Bends


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Design Aspects

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Challenges in Boiler Design

• Fuel Flexibility

• High Ash Indian Coals

• Blending of coals

• Materials for high temperature applications

• Fabrication techniques for new materials

• Pollution Control

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


FURNACE SELECTION CRITERIA
• NHI / PA

• NHI / EPRS

• Q FIRED / VOLUME

• BURNER ZONE HEAT RELEASE RATE

• FURNACE RESIDENCE TIME

• Distance between furnace bottom-hopper & lower most fuel nozzle

• Distance between upper most fuel - nozzle & bottom of SH

• FURNACE OUTLET TEMPERATURE

• ASPECT RATIO

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


FURNACE HEAT LOADINGS

• EPRS LOADING

• PLAN AREA LOADING

• VOLUMETRIC LOADING

• BURNER ZONE HEAT RELEASE RATE

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Furnace Sketch

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


DEFINITION IN FURNACE DESIGN

• Furnace width –Distance b/w centerlines of opposing side wall tubes.

• Furnace depth – Distance b/w cernterlines of front and rear wall tubes.

• Plan area - Furnace width X Furnace depth

• Furnace volume- cubage of furnace within the walls and planes defined
under EPRS.

• Gross heat input- m x HHV.+Sensible heat(fuel,PA,RG)

• Net heat input- gross heat input – losses

• Net heat release rate- NHI / EPRS

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Effective Projected Radiant Surface
(EPRS)
It includes total projected area of followings:-
• Planes which passes through the centres of all walls
tubes.
• Plane which passes through perpendicular to the gas
flow.
• Surfaces of both sides of the superheater and reheater.
• The EPRS heat loading can be related to the gas
temperature leaving the furnace.
Coal fired Boiler = 0.20 – 0.325 MK.Cal/hr/m2.
Oil & Gas fired Boiler = 0.55 MK.Cal/hr/m2 (max.)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


PLAN AREA HEAT LOADING
• PA Heat Loading = NHI/PA
• Effects on –
• Maximum localised heat absorption rate
• Maximum temperature of products of combustion

• High PA heat loading Results -:


• Increase slag in coal fired Boilers
• Increase furnace wall temperature in Oil & Gas fired Boilers.

• PA Heat Loading value for:-


• Coal fired Boiler = 3 – 4 MK.Cal/hr/m2.
• Oil & Gas fired Boiler = 5 MK.Cal/hr/m2 (max.)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


VOLUMETRIC HEAT LOADING

• Volumetric Heat Loading = NHI/ VOLUME

• Especially for fuel criteria about stabilisation for combustion


and low heating value gases.

• Low value indicates an increase residence time for combustion

• Values for normal fuels - 0.13-0.3 MK.Cal/hr/m2

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


BURNER CLEARANCE

To obtain proper retention time.

To avoid flame impingment on the walls.

 Values ranges from 15-20 m for large utility boilers.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Furnace design
Furnace for Burning Pulverised Coal are Designed

• To allow complete combustion by providing adequate retention


time.
• To prevent formation of slag deposits
• Temperature at entry to closely spaced SH/ RH sections is
brought down well below the lowest of the ash softening
temperatures.
• Adequate mass flow through water wall tubes so that tube metal
temperatures are well within allowable limits.
• Ensuring the above in design stage will lead to high boiler
availability

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Furnace Design ( contd…..)
The furnaces of BHEL boilers are conservatively sized
with low heat release rates to ensure maximum output all the
times.

 The possibility of slagging and fouling of heat


transfer surfaces is minimised even while firing worst type of
fuels.

 Furnace design accommodates wider range of coals


normally experienced by Indian utilities.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SH / RH / ECONOMISER

Design criteria
• Adequate heating surface to get rated SHO / RHO
temperature over control load for the range of coals.
• Low gas velocity to minimise pressure part erosion
• Proper tube spacing to prevent plugging and fouling of heat
transfer surfaces
• Proper pressure part support and alignments

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Pressure Part Design

 Pressure part design – as per ASME**


 IBR check done accounting for Internal & Customer allowances
 Apply good design practices
 Use Proven materials

Avoid Thick components

 Avoid Stress concentration

 Oxidation limit (Gas & Steam)

 Limited Ramp rates


 Standard Start-up frequency (benchmarked with international
requirements)

**In ASME Boiler construction, creep resistance/protection comes from the values of the allowable stresses published in
ASME Section II, Part D, Table 1A, Materials for Boiler Construction. No calculations are necessary for creep.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Start up rates(BHEL)

Sub-critical

Super-critical

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Start up rates(BHEL)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Failure Mechanisms in Cycling Boilers

1. Creep: is a high temperature, time dependent


phenomenon which becomes significant when the
temperature approaches half of the melting point of the
material.
It is a function of
 temperature
 load
Results in material deformation that can lead to rupture.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Failure Mechanisms in Cycling Boilers

2. Fatigue: The process of progressive localized permanent


structural changes occurring in a material subjected to conditions that
produce fluctuating stresses at some point or points.
It is a function of
Environmental Conditions (temperature,
corrosion)
Range of Stress
Frequency of Loading
Surface Finish
May culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number
of fluctuations.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Failure Mechanisms in Cycling Boilers

3. Creep-Fatigue: The main mechanism is the


acceleration of fatigue damage (crack initiation and growth) due
to reduction of ductility caused by creep damage.
It is a function of
 temperature (external)
 strain range (external)
 strain rate (external)
 hold time (external)
 creep strength (material)
 creep ductility (material)

Creep-Fatigue (CF) damage can be evaluated using the rules and guidelines provided in the existing design codes for
nuclear vessels, such as ASME III NH, RCC-MRx(French) and BS-R5.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Site Data

• Ambient conditions –Temp & RH

• Site elevation

• Seismic data

• Wind velocity

• Rain fall

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Boiler Structural Design

Seismic Zone II III IV V

Hard Soil

Medium Soil

Soft Soil

Wind 33 39 44 47 50 55
Speed(m/s)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Typical Boiler Structure

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018
Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Selection Of Auxiliaries

• Air-heaters

• Fans

• Mills

• Electrostatic precipitator

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Air-heater Selection Parameters

• Quantity of Air/Gas handled.


• Hot air temperature requirements - Fuel moisture
• Mill Outlet Temperature – Volatile Matter
• Gas temperature leaving the Airheater –Boiler efficiency
• Airheater leakage
• Draft loss air/gas side

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Regenerative Tri-sector Airheater
REGENERATIVE TRISECTOR AIRHEATER

4
3

1.PRIMARY AIR IN
5 2.SECONDARY AIR IN
3.PRIMARY AIR OUT
4.SECONDARY AIR OUT
5.GAS IN
6.GAS OUT

1
6 2 404

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Regenerative Bi-sector Airheater
AIR PREHEATER ASSEMBLY- BISECTOR

OUT
AIR
GAS
IN
OUT
GAS

AIR
IN

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Fan Selection Parameters

• Volume & Head to be handled

• Type of fans

• Temperature & Density

• Constant / Variable speed

• Auxiliary power consumption

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Axial Fans (1- Stage)
AIR SUCTION CHAMBER IMPELLER

• Axial OUTLET BLADE

SHAFT

SERVO MECHANISM DIFFUSER


(FOR BLADE PITCH CONTROL)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Axial Fans (2- stage)
SUCTION CHAMBER IMPELLER BLADE

SHAFT IMPELLER IMPELLER DIFFUSER

Boiler Design & Performance AXIAL REACTION FAN 11th October 2018
Mill Selection Data

• Mill capacity & no.of mills – HGI/Moisture

• No. of spare mills required

• Mill inlet / outlet temperature

• Wear life required - YGP

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Mills

• Low speed (Tube)


• Medium speed ( Vertical Spindle – Bowl / Balls & Race)
• High speed (Beater Wheel)

Performance Variation
• Mill outlet / inlet temperature
• Fuel quality like moisture / HGI / HHV
• Mill wear

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Tube Mill Arrangement (Typical)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Bowl Mill (General Arrangement)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


ESP Selection Parameters
• Flue gas volume
Performance Variation
• Inlet dust concentarion
• Due to Air-heater leakage
• Dust resistivity • Due to higher gas
temperature leaving air
• Outlet Dust concentarion heaters

• No. of fields woking/standby

• Coal & ash analysis

• Ash particle size distribution

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Electrostatic Precipitator

Selection Criteria Performance Variation


• Gas volume to be handled • Due to Air-heater leakage

• Gas temperature • Due to higher gas


temperature leaving air
• % moisture in flue gas heaters

• % Sulphur in flue gas

• Inlet dust concentration in gm/Nm3

• Outlet dust concentration in mg/Nm3

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Electrostatic Precipitator

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Environmental Gazette Notification
Water Requirement : 3.5 m3/Mwh (max.) (current)
(with cooling
tower) : 2.5 m3/Mwh (> 2017)

Technology Options : (i) Air-cooled condenser (North Karanpura 660 MW)


(Boiler) (ii) Dry bottom ash handling system (Durgapur 250 MW)

Particulate matter : 100 mg/Nm3 (vintage plants before 31.12.2003)


: 50 mg/Nm3 (2003 – 2016)
: 30 mg/Nm3 (> 2017)
Technology options : Already available
Sulphur Di-oxide : 200 mg/Nm3 (upto 2016)
: 100 mg/Nm3 (> 2017)
Technology options : BAP-Ranipet having collaboration with MHI
NOx : 600 mg/Nm3 (vintage plants)
: 300 mg/Nm3 (2003 – 2016)*
: 100 mg/Nm3 (> 2017)**
Technology options : *Modification of firing system (to be checked based on existing
layout and structural arrangement)
** Separate De NOx Plant

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Mercury Emission

 Mercury content in Indian coals - <0.34ppm

 Corresponding Mercury in flue gas - <0.03mg/Nm3

 This is within the revised MoEF norms.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Presentation Summary

• BHEL - Technology & Capability


• Emerging Market Requirements
• Trends in Cycle parameters
• Boiler Types
• Sub Critical vs Super Critical Boilers
• Boiler Design Basis
• Selection of Auxiliaries
• Present Emission Requirements
• Technologies to meet the Emission standards

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


NOx Reduction Techniques

In – Furnace Technique

Post - Combustion Technique

Remarks:
Both In-furnace and Post combustion technologies are being practiced by almost
all the developed countries.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


NOx abatement Methods

IN FURNACE TECHNIQUE

 Low NOx Tangential Firing System (LNTFS)


(Vertical – OFA, Horizontal – CFS)

 Other Methods

POST COMBUSTION TECHNIQUE

 Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR)

 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


In – Furnace Technique

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Low NOx Tangential Firing System
(LNTFS) Furnace Air Staging
Off-setting the air streams

Sub stoichiometric combustion zone and air rich burnout zone

Horizontal Staging

 Off-set streams at different angle to the furnace diagonals


 Form the two different firing circle
 Circles are identical & Concentric

Vertical Staging

 Fuel Streams ( Coal+Pri. Air+ Aux.Air ) – Combustion zone


 Air Streams (End air + CCOFA +SOFA) – Burnout zone
Remarks:
Air Staging is suitable for tangential fired boiler.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Tangential Firing System

Coupled Overfire Air compartments

Separated Overfire Air compartments

30% of the total combustion air to a


burning zone above the windbox.

Concentric firing - Yaw control

Reduced slagging / Cleaner furnace walls

Reduced Left Right Unbalance – SOFA


Yaw control

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Concentric Firing System (CFS) Furnace Air Staging - Horizontal
Furnace plan view

Remarks:
CFS technology in a LNTFS does what Low NOX does in a Opposed /front wall fired boiler

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Furnace Air Staging - Vertical

REHEATER

FINAL SH
LTRH
Sec. Over Fire Air LTRH

ECO
ECO

Burners
Hot Sec. Air

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


FURNACE AIR-STAGING
• Well proven commercially available technology.
• Applicable to both wall-fired and tangentially-fired
boilers.
• 70–90% being supplied to the burners (primary air)
• Remaining air at a level above the burners (overfire
air).
• The over-fire air is injected above the primary
combustion zone.
• The primary air + fuel, produces low-temperature,
oxygen-deficient, fuel-rich zone. This helps to reduce
the NOX.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Furnace Fuel Staging
Primary zone - NOX forms in the primary combustion zone

Re-burning zone - reacts with hydrocarbon in the re-burning zone

 form HCN and then N2

and finally

Burnout zone - un-reacted fuel

completes combustion,

 additional air is injected.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


FLUE GAS RECIRCULATION

• 20–30% of the flue gas is extracted from the boiler outlet


• Upstream of the air heater (usually at 300–400°C).
• Returned through a separate duct and a hot gas fan to the
combustion air duct that feeds the windbox.
• Decreases the peak flame temperature and oxygen
concentration.
• Reduces thermal NOx formation.
• No significant effect on fuel NOx formation.
• Most effective method for gas and oil fired boilers.

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


FLUE GAS TREATMENT – POST COMBUSTION

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR)
Injection at Multiple Levels (SNCR)
Injection

FINAL SH
REHEATER
Level 3
Injection
Level 2
LTRH
Ammonia/Urea
LTRH
Injection Storage Tank
Level 1 ECO

ECO

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SELECTIVE NON CATALYTIC REDUCTION

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SELECTIVE NON CATALYTIC REDUCTION
Injection of Aqueous Urea Droplets / Aqua. or Anhy. Ammonia

Many Injection options :


Compressed Air

Mechanical

Multiple Nozzle Lances – water cooled

Low Capital Cost

Fast Implementation

System can be turned on/off as needed

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION
In an SCR system, vaporised ammonia (NH3) is injected into the flue-gas stream at
about 300–400°C, which is then passed over a catalyst. The catalyst promotes
reactions between NOx and NH3 to form molecular nitrogen and water vapour.

NOX NH3 Basic Reactions


4 NO + 4 NH3 + O2  4 N2 + 6 H2O
2 NO2 + 4 NH3 + O2  3 N2 + 6 H2O

Undesired Parallel Reactions


SO2 + 1/2 O2  SO3
NH3 + SO3 + H2O  NH4HSO4
N2 H2O

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SCR Reactor

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


SCR CONFIGURATIONS
NH3
AIR FLUE GAS
HEATER DESULFURIZATION
BOILER
OPTION 1 SCR

STACK
HOT-SIDE, HIGH DUST SCR ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATOR

NH3
AIR
HEATER

OPTION 2 BOILER
SCR

STACK
HOT-SIDE, LOW DUST SCR ELECTROSTATIC FLUE GAS
PRECIPITATOR DESULFURIZATION

GAS TO GAS HEAT


AIR FLUE GAS EXCHANGER
HEATER DESULFURIZATION
BOILER
OPTION 3

STACK
COLD-SIDE SCR, TAIL END ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATOR

DUCT BURNER
SCR
NH3

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Flue Gas Desulfurisation

Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018


Boiler Design & Performance 11th October 2018