Sei sulla pagina 1di 6

Suffixes

Área Lectura y Escritura

Resultados de aprendizaje
Identificar sufijos en inglés.
Conocer los distintos significados de palabras en base a su sufijo.

Contenidos

1. General vocabulary words

Debo saber

- Simple present
- Present continuous
- Simple past
- Past continuous
Suffixes
Suffixes can change the word – class and the meaning of the word.

Common noun suffixes


- Er is used for the person who does an activity, e.g. writer, worker, shopper, teacher.
You can use –er with a wide range of verbs to make them into nouns.
Sometimes, the – er suffix is written as –or instead of –er. It is worth making a special list of these as
you meet them, e.g. actor, operator, sailor, supervisor.
-ER / Or are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil – sharpener, bottle – opener,
grater, projector.
- Er and –ee can contrast with each other meaning ‘person who does something.’ (-er) and ‘person
who receives or experiences the action’ (-ee), e.g. employer / employee, sender / addressee, payee.
- (t) ion is used to make nouns from verbs
Complication Pollution Reduction Alteration Donation Admission
-ist (person) and –ism (activity or ideology): used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and
sometimes their profession (compare with - er / -or professions above),

E.g. Marxism, Buddhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist.

Servicios Académicos para el Acompañamiento y la Permanencia - PAIEP


Primera Edición - 2016
En caso de encontrar algún error, contáctate con PAIEP-USACH al correo: lecturayescritura.paiep@usach.cl
1
- ist is also often used for people who play musical instruments, e.g. pianist, violinist, cellist.

-ness is used to make nouns from adjectives. Note what happens to adjectives that end in – y:

Goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, happiness, sadness, weakness.

Adjective suffix
-able with verbs, means ‘can be done’.

Drinkable washable readable recognizable countable forgivable

Examples with –idle: edible (can be eaten) flexible (can be bent)

Verbs
-ise (or – ize) makes verbs from adjectives, e.g. modernize, commercialise, industrialise.

Other suffixes that can help you recognize the word class
- Ment (nouns) excitement enjoyment replacement
- Ity: (nouns) flexibility productivity scarcity
- Hood: (abstract nouns especially family terms) childhood motherhood
- Ship: (abstract nouns especially status) friendship partnership membership
- Ive: (adjectives) passive productive active
- Al: (adjectives) brutal legal (nouns) refusal arrival
- Ous (adjectives) delicious outrageous furious
- Ful (adjectives) forgetful hopeful useful
- Less: (adjectives) useless harmless cloudless
- Ify: (verb) beautify purify terrify

Note: the informal suffix –ish, which can be added to most common adjectives, ages and times
to make them less precise, e.g. she’s thirtyish. He has reddish hair. Come about eightish.

Servicios Académicos para el Acompañamiento y la Permanencia - PAIEP


Primera Edición - 2016
En caso de encontrar algún error, contáctate con PAIEP-USACH al correo: lecturayescritura.paiep@usach.cl
2
Exercises
1. The - er / - or, -ee and – ist suffixes. Use the suffixes to give the names of the following.
Example: A person who plays jazz on the piano. A jazz pianist
a. The thing that wipes rain off your car windscreen.
b. A person who plays classical violin.
c. A person who takes professional photographs.
d. A person who acts in amateur theatre.
e. The person to whom a cheque is made out.
f. A machine for washing dishes.
g. A person who donates their kidneys upon their death.
h. The person to whom a letter is addressed.

2. Each picture is of an object ending in – er, can you name them?

3. List six jobs you would like to have in order of preference. How many different suffixes are
there in your list? Do any of the job names not have a suffix? (e.g. pilot, film star)

4. Do these words mean a thing, a person or both?

a. A cooker
b. A typewriter
c. A ticket – holder
d. A record player
e. A cleaner
f. A smoker
g. A drinker

5. Spelling changes. Rewrite each sentence by changing the underlined words, using a suffix
from the left – hand page. Make any spelling changes needed.

a. Most of his crimes can forgiven


Most of his crimes are __________________________.

Servicios Académicos para el Acompañamiento y la Permanencia - PAIEP


Primera Edición - 2016
En caso de encontrar algún error, contáctate con PAIEP-USACH al correo: lecturayescritura.paiep@usach.cl
3
b. The Club refuses to admit anyone not wearing a tie.
The Club refuses _____________________ to anyone not wearing a tie.

c. Her only fault is that she is lazy.


Her only fault is ______________________.

d. The firm has produced a lot in recent years.


The firm has been very _______________ in recent years.

e. I found the book very easy and pleasant to read.


I found the book very ____________________.

6. Can you think of anything in your country which should be nationalized (e.g. banks, steel
works), standardized, modernized, computerized, centralized?

7. Which word is the odd one out in each group and why?

a. Brotherhood neighborhood manhood priesthood


b. Hair – restorer plant – holder step – ladder over – cleaner
c. Appointment involvement compliment arrangement
d. Worship kinship friendship partnership

Servicios Académicos para el Acompañamiento y la Permanencia - PAIEP


Primera Edición - 2016
En caso de encontrar algún error, contáctate con PAIEP-USACH al correo: lecturayescritura.paiep@usach.cl
4
Key
1. The - er / - or, -ee and – ist suffixes. Use the suffixes to give the names of the following.
Example: A person who plays jazz on the piano. A jazz pianist
a. Windscreen wiper (s)
b. Classical violinist
c. Professional photographer
d. Amateur actor
e. Payee
f. Dishwasher
g. Kidney donor
h. addressee

2. Each picture is of an object ending in – er, can you name them?


1. Stapler
2. Grinder
3. Can – opener
4. Nail – clipper
5. Coat – hanger

3. Answers will vary.

4. List six jobs you would like to have in order of preference. How many different suffixes are
there in your list? Do any of the job names not have a suffix? (e.g. pilot, film star)

a. A cooker – a thing (the stove on which you cook); the person who cooks is a cook.
b. A typewriter – a thing (machine for typing); the person is a typist.
c. A ticket – holder – person or thing; a person who has a ticket, e.g. for a concert, or a
kind of wallet for holding tickets, e.g. a season ticket for the train / bus.
d. A record player – a thing (machine for playing records).
e. A cleaner – person or thing; person who cleans, e.g. in an office or other place of work;
a substance or instrument for cleaning, e.g. ‘this cleaner will get the grease off your
oven’.
f. A smoker – person or thing; a person who smokes; a short name for a seat in the
smoking area of a plane or train (or the whole smoking compartment on a train).
g. A drinker – person (someone who drinks alcohol, usually regularly or in large quantities)

Servicios Académicos para el Acompañamiento y la Permanencia - PAIEP


Primera Edición - 2016
En caso de encontrar algún error, contáctate con PAIEP-USACH al correo: lecturayescritura.paiep@usach.cl
5
5. Do these words mean a thing, a person or both?

a. Forgivable
b. Admission
c. Laziness
d. Productive
e. Readable

6. Answers will vary.

7. Spelling changes. Rewrite each sentence by changing the underlined words, using a suffix
from the left – hand page. Make any spelling changes needed.

a. Neighbourhood – it is a place (an area); all the others refer to human relationships.
b. Step – ladder – all the others means ‘things for doing x’, e.g. hair – restorer restores
your hair, a plant – holder holds a plant, etc.
c. Compliment – all the others are verb + ‘ment’, e.g. appoint + ment. There is no verb
‘compli’.
d. Handful – all the others are adjectives; handful is a noun, meaning a pile of something
about as big as you can hold in your hands, e.g. a handful of sand.
e. Worship – all the others are kinds of human relationships; Worship refers to paying
tribute to a God, or, figuratively, as a verb, to loving someone very much, e.g. ‘he
worships his teacher’

8. Can you think of anything in your country which should be nationalized (e.g. banks, steel
works), standardized, modernized, computerized, centralized?

9. Which word is the odd one out in each group and why?

Servicios Académicos para el Acompañamiento y la Permanencia - PAIEP


Primera Edición - 2016
En caso de encontrar algún error, contáctate con PAIEP-USACH al correo: lecturayescritura.paiep@usach.cl
6