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Trexie O.


1. Rizal in the eyes of the Filipinos

 Who is the greatest hero in the Philippines?

 the greatest hero in the Philippines is Dr. Jose P. Jose Rizal.

 Who was Jose Rizal and why he was well-known among Filipinos?

 Dr. Jose P. Rizal is the national hero of the Philippines. He was the one who led
the Filipinos to start a revolution against the Spanish Government to attain
freedom and to gain control of the country. He is well-known for being a
propagandist and his way of fighting the Spanish Government through his writing
by revealing the inhumane manipulation of the Spanish Government in the
Philippines. He chose to have a silent war and not a bloody war because he thinks
that it is the only way to gain freedom. Through that, other Filipinos were
motivated to get that freedom. They started many revolts against the Spanish
Government. Personally, I admire Dr. Jose P. Rizal because he made a difference
for the country to have that freedom. And I am thankful for what he did because I
am proud to say that I am a true free Filipino.

 Why are there so many monuments in his honor and why were many streets named
after him?
 because Rizal should show that he practiced what he preached. As he wrote in “El
Filibusterismo. It is a useless life that is not sanctified to a great ideal. It is like a
stone wasted in the field without becoming part of an association and street names
reflect who society deems important and worthy of reverence. It’s why so many
things are named after Jose Rizal. They also tell us who the people naming the
streets deem important, even when they name them after themselves which is why
some streets change names over time.

2. The criteria of heroes

 Who declare if anyone is a hero?

 a person of distinguished bravery in danger, or courage in suffering; and a man

honored after death by public worship because of exceptional service to mankind.
The true heroes of Philippine history deserve to be called so for they didn’t have
any idea that one day they will be measured up, they just acted upon their
principles. The concept of honoring heroes came only to the Philippines in 1900,
when the Philippine Commission (Pardo de Tavera, Legarda, Luzurriaga (Filipino
members) and headed by William Howard Taft) approved Act No. 137 combining
the districts of Morong and Manila to be named as “Province of Rizal,” in honor
of the most illustrious Filipino. Actually, this Act was disputed by many, but the
basis of the Commission was so strong that it has surpassed the public’s question.
    Since then, heroes were celebrated here and there, citing their names in every
politician’s speeches, declaring holidays, naming streets, constructing
monuments, etc. in their honor. Until one day, realizing that so many names were
acknowledged as heroes, need to evaluate the situation was proposed. During
Marcos’ presidency, he tasked the National Heroes Commission to come up with
the criteria for national hero. On March 28, 1993, thru the President’s Executive
Order No. 75, the National Heroes Committee was created, commissioned to
study, evaluate and recommend historical figures to be declared as national
heroes. The Committee composed of worthy members, with a series of
discussions came up with the new criteria.

 How did Rizal become a hero?

Why did Rizal become the Philippine National hero?
we should clarify the meaning if a hero to make it quite simple to understand how Rizal became
a hero. A hero symbolizes goodness. Jose Rizal became the National hero because he fought
from freedom in a silent but powerful way. He expressed his love for the Philippines through his
novels, essays, articles and poems rather than a force of aggression. He was a very amazing
person at his time. He was humble, fighting for reforms through his writings instead of through a
revolution. He used his intelligence, talents and skills in a for more peaceful way. Rizal became a
National Hero because he passed the criteria during the American period: He must be Filipino
He is already dead. He displayed unconditional love for his country. He was a low temper. He
had died dramatically.    
What are the three (3) characteristics of a person to be examined before he or she could be
considered a hero set by the National Heroes Commission?
 First is the extent of a person’s sacrifices for the welfare of the country
 Second, the motive and methods employed in the attainment of the ideal (was his ideal
purely for the welfare of the country and without any taint of self-interested motives, most
of all the method of attainment should be morally valid).
 The third is the moral character of the person concerned (the person should not have any
immorality issue that affected his ideal

3. State the story of the Rizal law

 Identify the opposing groups on the issue of Rizal Law.

Groups such as Catholic Action of the Philippines, the Congregation of the Mission,
the Knights of Columbus, and the Catholic Teachers Guild organized opposition to the bill;
they were countered by Veteranos de la Revolucion (Spirit of 1896), Alagad in Rizal, the
Freemasons, and the Knights of Rizal. The Senate Committee on Education sponsored a bill co-
written by both José P. Laurel and Recto, with the only opposition coming from Francisco Soc
Rodrigo, Mariano Jesús Cuenco, and Decoroso Rosales.
 State the opposing points of contention & determine the interest of the contending groups
 the Church continued to oppose the bill mandating the reading of Rizal's novels Noli Me
Tángere and El Filibusterismo, claiming it would violate freedom of conscience and religion. In
the campaign to oppose the Rizal bill, the Catholic Church urged its adherents to write to their
congressmen and senators showing their opposition to the bill; later, its organized symposiums.
In one of these symposiums, Fr. Jesus Cavanna argued that the novels belonged to the past and
that teaching them would misrepresent current conditions. Radio commentator Jesus Paredes also
said that Catholics had the right to refuse to read them as it would "endanger their salvation".
Groups such as Catholic Action of the Philippines, the Congregation of the Mission, the Knights
of Columbus, and the Catholic Teachers Guild organized opposition to the bill; they were
countered by Veteranos de la Revolucion (Spirit of 1896), Alagad in Rizal, the Freemasons, and
the Knights of Rizal. The Senate Committee on Education sponsored a bill co- written by both
José P. Laurel and Recto, with the only opposition coming from Francisco Soc Rodrigo, Mariano
Jesús Cuenco, and Decoroso Rosales. RL-56 5629 The Noli and Fili were required readings for
college students.
State the entire Rizal law (Republic Act No. House bill No. & Senate Bill No.
 also known as REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1425
 mandates all educational institutions in the Philippines to offer courses about José Rizal.
 The full name of the law is An Act to Include in the Curricula of All Public and Private Schools,
Colleges and Universities Courses On the Life, Works and Writings of Jose Rizal, Particularly
His Novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, Authorizing the Printing and Distribution
Thereof, and for Other Purposes.
 Senator Claro M. Recto was the main proponent of the Rizal Bill.
 The Republic Act was signed by the President that time, Fidel V. Ramos, on June 12, 1956

4. Discuss the religious front: Secularization of the 19th century.
Secularization refers to the historical process in which religion loses social and cultural
significance. As a result of secularization, the role of religion in modern societies becomes
restricted. In secularized societies faith lacks cultural authority, religious organizations have
little social power, and public life proceeds without reference to the supernatural. Secularization
captures a long-term societal change, but it has consequences for religion itself. In Western
countries, where it has been most pronounced, it has made the connection to their Christian
heritage more tenuous. Yet secularization is important beyond the formerly Christian West,
given that many of the forces that first sustained it there affect other societies as well. Before
1648 the term secularis had been used to denote one side of Christian distinctions between
sacred and mundane. In the Catholic Church secular priests were those serving society at large
rather than a religious order; secularization had referred to the dispensation of priests from their
vows. After the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia ended the European wars of religion, secularization
was used to describe the transfer of territories held by the church to the control of political
authorities. By the end of the nineteenth century, however, it had come to refer to the shifting
place of religion in society many scholars associated with modernization. Used in this way the
very notion of secularization has provoked contention for more than a century. Once at the
center of conflict between traditional advocates of strong public religion and secularist
intellectuals striving to reduce its role, it has more recently become the subject of scholarly
Although since the 1960s prominent sociologists of religion have charted the course of
secularization, partly guided by the work of MAX WEBER (1864– 1920), others have
questioned the validity of their interpretations. This article first conveys what secularization
means and why it happened. It then addresses the reservations of scholars. It shows how
critiques have enriched our understanding of secularization without refuting the best accounts of
the process. These continue to capture convincingly a significant historical transformation in
and of society. This transformation still reverberates across the world stage, not least because
the value and viability of secular society remains the subject of global debate.

5. Summarize & What is your Reactions/s to the following Works of Rizal.

The way José Rizal is celebrated in the Philippines as a national hero finds no match in the
world. Shrines and monuments dedicated to his figure are abundant throughout the archipelago,
and his name indicates often the most prominent street or plaza in town. Rizal is a subject in the
university as it has become a symbol of Philippine patriotism. Some historians have gained fame
and money becoming eminent "Rizalistas," and I was not surprised at all when I got to know that
there is even a small group of religious believers in Mount Banahaw called Rizalistas, who claim
Rizal is the real messiah. Rizal is the favorite among the national heroes, and the best word I find
to call the relation between Filipinos and Rizal is devotion.
Although Rizal was already esteemed as a top intellectual and writer both in the Philippines and
Spain, the making of Rizal as a national hero was a legitimate and well-intentioned operation
carried out a few decades after his cruel execution during the American period. And the problem
with having him converted into a national hero is that it has resulted in some unexpected
consequences: an exaggerated focus in his life: what I have called "chismography" about Rizal,
the oblivion of other world-class Filipino intellectuals – Sanciangco, De Los Reyes, Kalaw – and
a neglect of what it should be most valued: his writings
The state of semi-divinity achieved by his figure carries other problems: "I will not achieve what
he did in 35 years. He is a genius and he liked to work hard. I admire him, but I prefer a simple
life," another student told me. Rizal has been placed on such a high level that some young
Filipinos do not think of him anymore as a human person whose achievements could inspire.