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“PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CACAO POD HUSK BRIQUETTE

USING BOMB CALORIMETER TEST AND BOILING WATER TEST”

A PROJECT STUDY

Presented to
the Department of Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering and Architecture
University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines
Cagayan de Oro City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CRUSH JOSHUA A. BAJA


March 2020
ABSTRACT

Cacao pod husk represents 70 to 75% of the whole cacao fruit weight, where all of
these becomes waste and are not utilized. The main focus of this study is the use of
cacao pod husk from waste into a source of energy. To know if cacao pod husk can be
utilized as a source of energy, the cacao pod husk was crushed and milled and then
molded in a briquetting device with both pure broken cacao pod husk and a 70:30
cacao pod husk to molasses ratio to become a cacao pod husk briquette separately.
These cacao pod husk briquettes were then dried under the sun to decrease moisture
for better combustion. After all these processes, the cacao pod husk briquette
undergone the standard test for a bomb calorimeter as per IP-12, IS-1350 (PART II),

cal
and ASTM D4809 and had an average of 4200.078 for the 70:30 ratio CPH
¿ gram
and molasses binder. The result of the calorific value of the cacao pod husk briquettes
is higher than the accepted commercial calorific value of briquettes, which is 4063

cal
via Chirchir et al.
gram
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT Page No.

TITLE PAGE i
ABSTRACT ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF FIGURES iv
LIST OF TABLES v

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION

1. Background of the Study 1


1
1. Statement of the Problem 2
2
1. Objectives of the Study 2
3
1. Significance of the Study 2
4
1. Theoretical Framework 3
5
1. Scope and Limitation 4
6

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2. Introduction 4
1

3 METHODOLOGY

3. Forming and Testing of Briquettes 7


1
3. Materials 8
2
3. Experimental Condition 9
3
3. Sample Preparation 10
4
3. Boiling Time 13
5
3. Bomb Calorimeter 14
6
3. Experimental Design 15
7

4 RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

4. Data Gathered 17
1
4.1.1 Calorific Value of Cacao Briquettes With Binder 17
cal
and Without Binder ( )
¿ gram
4.1.2 Boiling Time of Water of the Cacao Briquette with 20
Binder and without Binder

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5. Conclusions 23
1
5. Recommendations 24
2

REFERENCE 25
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Page No.

3.1 Design Flow Chart 6


3.2 Shredded Cacao Pod Husk 7
3.3 Briquetting Device 8
3.4 Shredded CPH and Molasses Mixture 9
3.5 Pressure Gauge 10
3.6 Dried Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes 11
3.7 Boiling Time of Water Setup 12
3.8 Bomb Calorimeter Setup 13
4.1 Calorific Value Graph of Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes 17
4.2 Boiling Point of Water GraphUsing Cacao Pod Husk 19
Briquettes
4.3 Trial 4 of Cacao Pod Husk with Binder 21
4.4 Top View of Actual Blade Assembly 20
4.5 Side View of Actual Blade Assembly 20
4.6 Von Mises Stress Analysis on Single Cutting Blade 21
4.7 Displacement Analysis on Single Cutting Blade 22
4.8 Strain Analysis on Single Cutting Blade 22
4.9 Actual Blade, Spacer, and Shaft 23
4.10 Actual Blade Assembly 23
LIST OF TABLES

Figure No. Page No.

3.7.1 Experimental Design for Calorific Value of Cacao Pod 14


Husk Briquettes
3.7.2 Experimental Design for Boiling Test of Water with 15
Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes
4.1 cal 16
Calorific value( )
¿ gram
4.2 Standard Deviation Of The Calorific Value Of Cacao 17
Pod Husk Without Binder

4.3 Standard Deviation Of The Calorific Value Of Cacao 18


Pod Husk With Binder
4.4 Boiling time (minutes) 19
4.5 Standard Deviation of the Boiling Point of Water Using 20
Cacao Pod Husk Without Binder
4.6 Standard Deviation of the Boiling Point of Water Using 20
Cacao Pod Husk With Binder
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study


Briquettes are compressed waste materials made from combustible materials such
as paper and sawdust. Biomass briquettes, on the other hand, replace coal and
charcoal with biofuel. In countries specifically in third world countries, briquettes are
mostly used where cooking fuels are limited. Normal briquettes and biomass
briquettes are both utilized for wood kiln drying.
Cacao fruit is found to be abundant at barangay Malasag, Cugman Cagayan de
Oro city. These cacao fruits are a necessity because of their economic value in their
beans, which produces high demand products such as cocoa powder and chocolate.
Cacao fruit processing produces a large quantity of cacao pod husk that is converted
into waste.
Cacao pod husk, which is the main material for this research, represents 70 to 75%
of the whole cacao fruit weight, where each ton of cacao fruit will produce between
700 to roughly 750 kg of cocoa pod husks (Cruz et al., 2012). These husks are then
turned into waste after the processing of the cocoa beans, which is the primary
ingredient in making chocolates. Waste cacao pod husks are then left to be
decomposed without any utilization.
cal
Calorific value is expressed in Joules per kilogram ( ) and is determined by
¿g
the measured heat produced by the complete combustion of a certain material, which
in this case a cacao pod husk briquette. The calorific value of a briquette is very
significant because it will be the determining factor if it contains enough energy to be
utilized for the purpose of heating, boiling, and burning.
With respect to the chemistry behind the bonding of biomass particles in the
processing of ambient temperature, many studies have found that the external supply
of binding agents is needed. It is possible to make these binding agents from different
materials. The waste materials or materials readily available are the best options for
economic feasibility applications of this type. (Shymalee et al., 2015)
Like the rest of the world, the Philippines is facing a moment of decision
regarding the more environmentally friendly use of energy. The plan of DOE is to
introduce adaptation strategies in full awareness of the role and responsibility of the
energy sector in helping to mitigate the impact of climate change . (Department of
Energy, 2017)

1.2 Statement of the problem


There is a need to find a way to turn the cacao pod husk into waste as an
alternative biomass briquette in barangay Malasag, Cugman, Cagayan de Oro City.
By briquetting the cacao pod husk into usable biomass briquette.

1.3 Objectives of the Study


The general objective of the study is to potentially create a biomass briquette from
shredded cacao pod husk.
The specific objectives of the study are:
1. To evaluate the calorific values of the briquettes with binders and without
binders.
2. To evaluate the boiling time of water using the briquettes.

1.4 Significance of the Study


This study aims to assess the difference between a cacao pod husk briquette with
Binder and without Binder. The relevance of the study is to create a biomass
briquette out of cocoa pod husk waste that will maximize the usability of a cacao
fruit but also minimize the dumping of cacao pod husk waste in the landfills and
rivers of Cagayan de Oro City.

1.5 Theoretical Framework


In making cacao pod husk briquettes, the researcher must acquire a briquetting
machine that will have equal pressure to be loaded on the cacao pod husk briquettes
since it is necessary that the briquettes will have equal sizes. The briquetting device
should also be able to mold a cubical briquette, which will allow the researcher to
attain his objectives.

1.6 Scope and Limitation


This study will be limited in
 Assessing the calorific value of cacao pod husk briquettes in one type of
binding material such as molasses
 Have the same size of briquettes at a certain binder; the pressure and particle
size will be kept constant.
 There will only be a comparison with Binder and without for the briquettes.
 Removal of moisture, the sun drying method will be used to dry the cacao
pod husk briquettes.
CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Binders are substances included as additives in solid dosing


formulations to improve the compactness and flowability of powders or
granules. Cement, glue, and starch are materials considered as types of
binders. (C.W. Symecko and C.T Rhodes, 1995). While all these terms are
loosely synonymous, Binder is the term commonly used and is considered to
be the most suitable general term for all bonding agents.The binders that will
be used for this research is molasses. This Binder will be the binding
materials used for this research because it is relatively cheap with the high
binding effect but also burns with less smoke. Potential of using Cacao Pod
Husk (CPH) as a source of renewable energy and concluded that CPH has a
high heating value of 17 M.J./kg and relatively high ash content as compared
with bagasse and empty fruit bunch. The airflow rate and fuel composition
have a significant impact on the burn time and the factor of carbon monoxide
emissions. The shortest burning time occurred at an airflow rate of 0.2 m/s
Increased airflow and carbonized cacao pod husk also increases the carbon
monoxide emission factor due to higher fixed carbon content, which requires
more oxygen to complete the combustion process. A lower oxygen level
causes the formation of carbon monoxide, as fixed carbon cannot fully react
to carbon dioxide. (M. Syamsiro et al. 2011). Densification process of biomass
results in briquettes with a moisture content of up to 50 percent. However, for
effective combustion and also to maximize the available usable thermal
energy, moisture content of 10 percent or less is required. Drying refers to the
evaporation of liquid from solid. This can be achieved by various methods, but
natural drying is the cheapest, most effective method for drying CPH. (Daniel
Madirya., 2015) Based on D.B. Yahaya and T.G. Ibrahim (2012), the water
boiling test is already a knowledge test and is always used before. The water
boiling test measures how long a quantity of fuel to heat and boil an amount of
water. In the research of D.B. Yahaya et al. (2012), a known quantity of
briquettes and firewood were tested. The first sample was placed in a
manufactured oven (Rice husk-gum Arabic) while the firewood was stacked in
a separate stove. The stoves were fitted with two aluminum pots containing 2
liters of water each. The stoves were ignited, and a stopwatch was activated
as quickly as the flames stabilized for 2 minutes. The water's original
temperatures were observed, and measurements were then acquired using a
digital thermometer at an interval of 3 minutes. This was stopped after the
boiling point was reached, and the residual weight was noted after the ash
was discarded. Removing of the accumulated soot, pots were then washed.
The similarity was then stacked in the stove with the known volume of the second
sample (Rice husk – starch), while firewood was stacked in the second stove, and the
process was repeated. A study published by Hatta M.Z. et., al (2013) stated that
cacao pod husk has comparable holocellullose, cellulose, and lignin with
74%,35.4%, and 14,7, respectively. The composition of cacao pod husk was
concluded to have similarities with Eucalyptus globules, which is an ingredient
for making papers or paper pulps. And since paper pulps are considered a
binder, then it came to a conclusion that a cacao pod husk without a binder is
possible and attainable. Križan et al. ( 2015) stated that the size of the input
particle also has a major impact on the densification process as larger input
particles increase the densification energy needed. A manual sun drying
method is used by the researcher in drying the cacao pod husk because it
cost nothing, and also research conducted by Vyas and Shukla (2015) found
that high content of moisture in biomass product limits its use in processes of
thermo-chemical transformation, including combustion. The quality of the
liquid determines the total calorific value. Increased biomass material
moisture content significantly reduces pellet density even at high applied
pressure. Chinyere et al. (2014) also clarified that the water levels were not
included in the briquettes analysis since liquid was dried off during the
briquettes drying process. For the study about Cacao Pod Husk with Binder,
molasses will be the Binder that will be used for the study because Yunbo
Zhai et al. ( 2018) found that molasses as Binder not only enhance the
compressive strength of the biomass fuel but also increase its density and the
International Roughness Index (IRI) due to the creation of a "solid bridge"
from recrystallization of molasses. Also, the same study by Yunbo Zhai et al.
(2018) stated that molasses as Binder showed a decrease of ignition
temperature and an advance in combustion interval with elevation in oxidation
reactivity. Chirchir et al. (2013) had a study about different types of Binder
used for briquettes and concluded that molasses as Binder had higher
calorific value compared to other binders such as cow dung and clay. Chirchir
et al. (2013) also added that the density of briquettes would increase if the
amount of Binder will also be increased, this means that bonding of adjacent
particles increases with the amount of Binder also increasing he also
indicated that because molasses had better-gluing effect compared to other
binding materials, hence this will result to stronger bonds and minimal
expansion for the briquettes after extrusion.
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Forming and Testing of Briquettes

Gathering of
materials

Mixing of CPH
and binder

Placing into the


molder

NO
Compression
process

Product Ejection of CPH


Output briquettes

Sun drying Boiling Time


YES Experiments

Bomb
Calorimeter test

Figure 3.1 Design Flow Chart


3.2 Materials
3.2.1 Base Materials

Figure 3.2 Shredded Cacao Pod Husk

In figure 3.2, cacao pod husks, which were collected from Barangay Malasag,
Cugman, Cagayan de Oro City, and was shredded and milled is the base material for
the experiment to be conducted.

3.2.2 Binding Material


Molasses - Molasses is a sugarcane production by-product. Briquettes bonded
with molasses will burn well; it will also have decreased ignition temperature
and advanced combustion interval, but during combustion will have an
unpleasant smell.
3.2.3 Briquetting Device
For the production of briquettes at different Binder, a 15-ton hydraulic jack
attachment with a pressure gage is used. This briquetting device is the
briquetting device used by graduates of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical
Engineering batch 2017-2018. In figure 3.3, the briquetting device was
refabricated by the researcher to fulfill the objective of the researcher to mold a
cubical cacao pod husk briquette.

Figure 3.3 Briquetting Device

3.3 Experimental Condition


To make the compression consumption of energy lesser, it is necessary that
pressure is applied manually at ambient temperature. The removal of moisture for the
Cacao Pod Husk Briquette will be a conventional sun drying method.
3.4 Sample Preparation

3.4.1 Mixing of materials


Figure 3.4. Shredded CPH and Molasses Mixture

An important requirement for the proper binding action is the uniform


distribution of binding materials in a crushed cacao pod husk. Manually mix
molasses with the 2mm sieved crushed cacao pod husk while weighing carefully
the mixture of cacao pod husk and molasses to be a 70:30 ratio.
3.4.2 Briquetting of crushed cacao pod husk
The crushed cocoa pod husk mixed with a molasses binder is placed in the
briquetting device molder that is then be pressed with a constant pressure of
1500 psi and be ejected in a briquette form.

Figure 3.5.
3.4.3 Sun drying
Figure 3.6. Dried Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes

A three days natural sun drying is used for the removal of moisture of
the cocoa pod husk briquettes. It is essential to dry the cacao briquette properly
to have low moisture for better combustion when burning it for the boiling test
and firing it for a calorific value test.

3.5 Boiling time


Figure 3.7. Boiling Time of Water Setup

A stopwatch is a time-measuring tool.


The following processes have been done in conducting the boiling of water
experiments:
1. Use the materials on the experiment to collect and check if they are in
good condition and working well.
2. In a kettle provided, place the half liter of water.
3. Place the sawdust briquettes on the clay stove by adding a very tiny
quantity of approximately 10 ml of kerosene per three briquettes to
accelerate the original combustion rate.
4. Place the kettle at the top of the pot of clay.
5. Light the briquettes while recording the water and the original
temperature.
6. Start by using the stopwatch to evaluate the time of a water boiling point.
7. Record the time of the boiling water temperature and its time range when
the water reached the temperature of 100℃
8. Proceed to another set of experiments.
9. Clean the stove after the experiment and inspect the remaining possible
heat residues from the briquettes. For safety measures, put some water on
it.

3.6 Bomb Calorimeter

Figure
3.8. Bomb Calorimeter Setup

A-Bomb Calorimeter Apparatus owned by the University of Science and


Technology of Southern Philippines is very important for this research. The bomb
calorimeter is used to get the calorific value of Cacao Pod Husk briquette with Binder
and without Binder of molasses having a ratio of 70:30. Figure 3.8. shows a photo of
the Bomb Calorimeter Apparatus that will be used by the researcher. The standard test
for a bomb calorimeter will be performed as per IP-12, IS-1350 (PART II), and
ASTM D4809.

W x (T 2−T 1)
Calorific Value of Sample (PER GRAM) = (Eq. 3.1)
gram of sample taken
Where:
W = Water equivalent of calorimeter
T1 = Initial temperature before firing
T2 = Highest temperature after firing
Water equivalent
Benzoic acid x gram of sample weight is taken cal/gram
in ′G′ = (Eq. 3.2)
T 2−T 1
Notes: Benzoic acid calories = 6318 cal

3.7 Experimental Design

3.7.1 Experimental Design for Calorific Value of Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes
NUMBER OF TRIALS WITH BINDER WITHOUT BINDER
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial 4
Trial 5
Average

In table 3.7.1, the table represents the data that will be gathered by the researcher
in getting the calorific value of both Cacao Pod Husk briquettes with Binder and
without Binder.

3.7.2 Experimental Design for Boiling Test of Water with Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes
NUMBER OF TRIALS WITH BINDER WITHOUT WITHOUT
BINDER
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial 4
Trial 5
Average
In table 3.7.2, the table represents the time gathered by the researcher in the
Boiling Test of Water with both Cacao Pod Husk briquettes with Binder and without
Binder.
CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section of the study presents the researcher's result throughout the

experiments taken. This section also includes a detailed discussion of the results of the

calorific value and boiling test experiments of the Cacao Pod Husk(CPH) briquettes.

4.1 Data Gathered

4.1.1 Calorific Value of Cacao Briquettes With Binder and Without Binder

cal
( )
¿ gram

cal
Table 4.1 Calorific Value( )
gram
NUMBER OF TRIALS WITH BINDER WITHOUT BINDER
Trial 1 4237.33 3701.84
Trial 2 4120.92 3771.69
Trial 3 4214.05 3655.28
Trial 4 4167.48 3678.56
Trial 5 4260.61 3794.97
Average cal/gram 4200.078 3720.468
Calorifi c Value of Cacao Pod Husk Briquett es
(cal/gram)
Without Binder With Binder
4400
cALORIFIC VALUE (CAL/GRAM)
4237.33 4260.61
4214.05
4167.48
4200 4120.92

4000
3771.69 3794.97
3800
3701.84 3678.56
3655.28
3600

3400

3200
1 2 3 4 5

number of trials

Figure 4.1. Calorific Value Graph of Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes

(x-
Without Binder x-mean mean)²
Trial No.
1 3701.84 -18.628 347.0024

2 3771.69 51.222 2623.693

3 3655.28 -65.188 4249.475

4 3678.56 -41.908 1756.28

5 3794.97 74.502 5550.548

Sum 18602.34 9.09495E-13 14527

Count(n) 5 5 5

Average(mean) 3720.468

Variance(s²) 3631.75

Standard deviation 60.264

Table 4.2 Standard Deviation Of The Calorific Value Of Cacao Pod Husk Without
Binder
With Binder x-mean (x-mean)²
Trial No.
1 4237.33 37.252 1387.712

2 4120.92 -79.158 6265.989

3 4214.05 13.972 195.2168

4 4167.48 -32.598 1062.63

5 4260.61 60.532 3664.123

Sum 21000.39 1.81899E-12 12575.67

Count(n) 5 5 5

Average(mean) 4200.078

Variance(s²) 3143.917

Standard deviation 56.07065

Table 4.3 Standard Deviation Of The Calorific Value Of Cacao Pod Husk With
Binder

The result gathered by the researcher shown in Table 4.1 showed that Cacao Pod

cal
Husk without Binder garnered an average calorific value of 3720.468 and had a
gram
standard deviation of 60.264, which means that there is consistency all throughout the
trials. The other result showed the calorific value of the cacao pod husk with cacao to

cal
molasses binder ratio of 70:30, having an average calorific value of 4200.078
gram
with a standard deviation of 56.07065 this result also had the consistency of the

cal
calorific value from the five trials. The result of 4200.078 for cacao pod husk
gram

cal
with Binder is greater than 4063 (Chirchir et al.), which is the accepted
gram
commercial calorific value for briquettes.
4.1.2 Boiling Time of Water of the Cacao Briquette with Binder and
Without Binder

Table 4.4 Boiling Time (minutes)


NUMBER OF TRIALS WITH BINDER WITHOUT WITHOUT
BINDER
Trial 1 4.56 11.07
Trial 2 4.52 11.26
Trial 3 4.45 11.31
Trial 4 4.50 11.14
Trial 5 4.48 11.11
AVERAGE 4.502 11.178

BOILING TIME OF WATER USING CACAO POD HUSK


BRIQUETTES(MINUTES)
Without Binder With Binder
12.00
11.07 11.26 11.31 11.14 11.11

10.00

8.00
TIME (MINUTES)

6.00
4.56 4.52 4.45 4.5 4.48
4.00

2.00

0.00
1 2 3 4 5

NUMBER OF TRIALS

Figure 4.2 Boiling Point of Water using Cacao Pod Husk Briquettes graph

Trial No. Without Binder x-mean (x-mean)²


1 11.07 -0.108 0.011664
2 11.26 0.082 0.006724
3 11.31 0.132 0.017424
4 11.14 -0.038 0.001444
5 11.11 -0.068 0.004624

Sum 55.89 -3.55271E-15 0.04188


Count(n) 5 5 5

Average(mean) 11.178

Variance(s²) 0.01047
Standard 0.10232301
deviation 8
Table 4.5 Standard Deviation of the Boiling Point of Water Using Cacao Pod Husk
Without Binder

Trial No. With Binder x-mean (x-mean)²


1 4.56 0.058 0.003364 Table 4.6
2 4.52 0.018 0.000324 Standard
3 4.45 -0.052 0.002704 Deviation
of the
4 4.5 -0.002 4E-06
Boiling
5 4.48 -0.022 0.000484
Point of
Water
Sum 22.51 8.88178E-16 0.00688 Using
Count(n) 5 5 5 Cacao Pod
Husk With
Average(mean) 4.502 Binder
Variance(s²) 0.00172
Standard 0.04147288
deviation 3 The

result in

Table 4.2 showed that boiling time of water using cacao pod husk without Binder had

an average boiling water time of 11.18 minutes and had a standard deviation of

0.102323018 that showed consistency all throughout the five trials and the average

boiling time of water using cacao pod husk with Binder had a significant decrease in

time with an average of 4.502 minutes having a standard deviation of 0.041472883 all

throughout the five trials. The decrease of boiling time from cacao pod husk

briquettes without Binder to cacao pod husk briquettes with Binder proved that using

molasses as Binder with a 70:30 cacao pod husk to binder ratio has a significant

effect.
Figure 4.3 Trial 4 of
Cacao Pod Husk with Binder

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusions
The results of this study showed that cacao pod husk briquette with a binder ratio

of 70:30 cacao pod husk to molasses ratio showed a greater calorific value of up to

cal
4260.61 compared to the maximum calorific value of cacao pod husk briquette
gram

cal
without Binder that only garnered 3794.97 which means that cacao pod husk
gram

with molasses binder had significant improvement when it comes to calorific value.

Having the result of the calorific value of cacao pod husk briquette, we can conclude

that it is commercially accepted as a biomass briquette because it surpassed the

amount of calorific value for a biomass briquette which is 17MJ/kg or 4060.382

cal/gram. Also, the results of boiling a 500 ml water under normal conditions proved

that the cacao pod husk briquette with a 70:30 ratio of cacao pod husk to molasses had

a significant effect in the boiling time of the 500 ml water with results of cacao pod

husk briquette without Binder having an average of 11 minutes and 18 seconds and

the cacao pod husk briquette with Binder averaging time of 4 minutes and 50

seconds. This result proves that the cacao pod husk with a 70:30 ratio of cacao pod

husk to molasses really had a significant effect on decreasing the boiling time of 500

ml water.

5.2 Recommendations

The following are recommended for future studies;


1. Further drying of the briquettes or drying it in a drying machine is

recommended to lessen the amount of moisture in the briquette and to achieve

better combustion.

2. Getting the proximate and ultimate analysis is required to have wider

knowledge and data on the composition of the cacao pod husk briquette.

3. A briquetting machine that can press higher pressure is required to have

stronger and more compact briquette.

4. A study of other binding agents and biomass to binder ratio will be a great

upgrade to further improve the findings of the study.

5. Consider mixing the binding agent with water to reduce cost and maximize

Binder.

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APPENDICES
Appendix A

A.1 Procedure of Bomb Calorimeter

1. Open the S.S. bomb by unscrewing the flanged lid.


2. Remove the head of the bomb and place it on the small stand provided.
3. Unscrew the valve cap from the oxygen inlet valve at the head of the bomb.
4. Tie the nichrome wire (provided) tightly between (around) the two electrodes
of the bomb. The electrodes are coming down from the head of the bomb.
5. Nichrome wire should be fastened in the tiny slots made on the electrodes.
Fasten the nichrome wire with the sliding wire fasteners. Make sure that there
are no loose ends of the nichrome wire. The wire should NOT touch the walls
of the bomb when the head is placed back on the bomb.
6. Weigh the fuel cup (crucible). Put the sample in the crucible. Now again,
weight fuel cup (crucible)+sample.
7. Place the crucible (provided) in the ring on one of the electrodes.
8. Place cotton thread (provided) on the nichrome wire such that it touches the
middle of the sample.
9. With the help of a pipette pour one ml-distilled water into the bomb for
vapors.
10. Put very little water in the gasket ring on the top wall of the bomb where the
flanged lid is tightened/screwed. This is to prevent any leakage. A rubber
gasket is placed in this ring. An extra rubber gasket is provided for future
replacement.
11. Slowly lift the head of the bomb from the stand and place it on the bomb.
12. Tightly screw the flanged lid of the bomb. Make it as tight as possible.
13. Connect the pressure gauge (provided) with an oxygen cylinder (not
provided).
14. Connect the other end of the pressure gauge to the oxygen inlet valve of the
bomb. Do not shake the bomb. Do not spill the sample.
15. Supply oxygen in the bomb at 30kg/cm2.
16. Disconnect the pressure gauge from the bomb and screw back the valve cap to
the oxygen inlet valve of the bomb.
17. Fill the water jacket/cylinder with distilled water up to the overflow mark
(outlet valve).
18. Fill the Calorimeter vessel (placed inside the water jacket/cylinder) with a
standard quantity of distilled water derived from the National Test House.
19. The total weight of the Calorimeter vessel and distilled water should be 2300
grams.
20. Place the prepared bomb in the calorimeter vessel with the lifting hook
(provided) and make the appropriate electrical connection. Place the bomb in
the slots provided in the calorimeter vessel. Connect the wires from the lid of
the water jacket/cylinder to the electrodes of the bomb. Electrode terminals are
present on the head of the bomb near the oxygen inlet valve. Connect the two
wires to these terminals.
21. Connect the terminals of the firing unit to the terminals on the lid of the water
jacket/cylinder using the connecting wires (provided).
22. Put the lid (with stirrer) of the water jacket/cylinder in such a position that the
stirrer does not touch the bomb & the vessel.
23. Insert the Digital Thermometer sensor (from the firing unit) into the slot
provided on the lid of the water jacket/cylinder.
24. Connect the stirrer wire to the back of the firing unit.
25. Connect the three-pin plug of firing unit to AC 220 volt. Put on the main
switch, and the red LED indicator will glow, and simultaneously, a green LED
will also glow, and the voltmeter will show the voltage. Put on the stirrer
switch, and stirrer will start running. The digital thermometer will show the
temperature.
26. The temperature will increase slowly. After 5 minutes of starting the stirrer,
record a series of a temperature reading at a 1-minute interval for 5 to 15
minutes. When the temperature becomes steady, the unit is ready for firing.
Note the steady temperature before firing (T1).
27. Press the firing switch (Fire Push). The green LED will go off, and the
voltmeter will 'O' reading. Note the temperature at a 1-minute interval and
note the highest temperature (T2).
28. If the bomb does not fire (no temperature change after 3 minutes), or when the
temperature has stabilized, switch off all electrical circuits and dismantle the
bomb. Do this with internal-threaded metal fitting shaped cap that screws
down on the bomb over the oxygen inlet. Screw this down before the gas
begins escaping the blast. Wait until atmospheric pressure hits the bomb, then
uninstall the blast. Clean the bomb with distilled water and dry it; they repeat
the procedures.

Appendix B

Water Equivalent of Calorimeter

Table B.1 Water Equivalent of Calorimeter


No. of T1 (oC) T2 (oC) Water Equivalent 'G' = (Benzoic acid
Trials calories*gram of sample weight is taken
cal/gr)/(T2-T1)
1 25.2 28.11 2377.32 cal ./℃

2 26.94 29.79 2216.842 cal. /℃

3 27.05 29.88 2232.862 cal. /℃

4 27.55 30.39 2224.628 cal ./℃

5 27.67 30.11 2589.344 cal ./℃

Average Water Equivalent 2328.202 cal. /℃

In Table B.1, it shows the result of water equivalent of calorimeter from


first(1st) to third (3rd) trial using this equation: G = (Benzoic acid calories*gram of
sample weight is taken cal/gr)/(T2-T1)
Appendix C

Initial and Final Temperature of Cacao Pod Husk (CPH) With Binder and
Without Binder
Table C.1 Temperature difference of CPH briquette without Binder

No. of trials T1 T2 Difference


1 25.99 27.58 1.59
2 26 27.62 1.62
3 29.18 30.75 1.57
4 29.12 30.70 1.58
5 27.61 29.24 1.63
Average 27.58 29.422 1.598

Table C.2 Temperature difference of CPH briquette with Binder

No. of trials T1 T2 Difference


1 24.53 26.35 1.82
2 24.78 26.55 1.77
3 24.67 26.52 1.85
4 25.04 26.85 1.81
5 24.72 26.55 1.83
Average 24.748 26.564 1.816

Appendix D
Initial and Final Temperature of Different Binding Material

Table D.1 Initial and Final Temperature of CPH briquettes with and without molasses
binder
No. of Without Molasses With Molasses Binder
Trials Binder
Initial Final Initial Final

1 29℃ 100℃ 29℃ 100℃

2 29℃ 100℃ 29℃ 100℃

3 29℃ 100℃ 29℃ 100℃

4 29℃ 100℃ 29℃ 100℃

5 29℃ 100℃ 29℃ 100℃

In Table D.1, The natural boiling point of water is 100 ° C, where the water
vapor pressure is 760 mmHg or 1 atm. Under normal conditions, the gathered ambient
temperature was atmospheric at about 29 ° C and reached its final temperature at 100
° C.