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Reflection Papers 2

GUZMAN, RENZ N. – TF 2:30 – 4:00

Due Sunday, March 8, 2020 – 11:59 PM

A. Globalization (Overview)
B. Effect of Globalization
 Economic expanded
 Interdependent expanded
C. Kenter’s Negative effect of Globalization
D. Cultural Literacy in the Philippines
E. Miller’s Conceptual Concept of Literacy
 Expanded View of Literacy
 Rise of New Literacy
F. Challenges for Cultural Literacy in the Philippines


Globalization is a strategy of liberalization that becomes an economic nightmare

for the poor. Is globalization an advantage or a disadvantage? How does it affect us
people in the world? What Is Globalization?
Globalization is often defined as the interaction and integration of people in
different areas of the world. This broad term groups together economic, social and
political interactions. Since antiquity, human societies have developed forms of
globalization. The Silk Road once connected China, Central Asia, Persia, and Europe,
and facilitated commercial and cultural exchange. However, the globalization we are
experiencing nowadays is the biggest and fastest in human history. Globalization is the
spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across national borders and
cultures. In economic terms, it describes an interdependence of nations around the
globe fostered through free trade. On the upside, it can raise the standard of living in
poor and less developed countries by providing job opportunities, modernization, and
improved access to goods and services. On the downside, it can destroy job
opportunities in more developed and high-wage countries as the production of goods
moves across borders. Globalization's motives are idealistic, as well as opportunistic,
but the development of a global free market has benefited large corporations based in
the Western world. Its impact remains mixed for workers, cultures, and small
businesses around the globe, in both developed and emerging nations.
According to Noam Chomsky, “The term "globalization" has been appropriated
by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one
based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental. That is why the
business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the "free trade agreements" as
"free investment agreements" (Wall St. Journal). Accordingly, advocates of other forms
of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even
accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with
ridicule. No sane person is opposed to globalization, that is, international integration.
Surely not the left and the worker's movements, which were founded on the principle of
international solidarity - that is, globalization in a form that attends to the rights of
people, not private power systems.

B. Effect of Globalization

Globalization aims to benefit individual economies around the world by making

markets more efficient, increasing competition, limiting military conflicts, and spreading
wealth more equally. We live in an interconnected world and countries' economies are
linked with each other. We have access to products from many places and locally-
produced goods are often exported. Moving freight from one corner of the world to the
other is now common and sometimes even less expensive than moving it locally.
Human interdependence and globalization have had both positive and negative effects
on economics, societies, and politics. Let's examine some of these effects.
Interdependence describes when two or more actors impact and rely on each
other. Consider the flour industry, for example. One person specializes in growing
crops, another on milling, one on packing, distributing and finally selling it. They need
each other to deliver the final product and if one day the mill stops, everyone is affected;
they are all interdependent. Think of those individuals as a country, and the flour as the
products and services we consume. This gives you an idea of the interdependence of
human societies. We fulfill our needs by relying on a massive network of other people.
Nowadays, most countries are also interdependent because they rely on other countries
for supplying local demand and for selling local products. This interdependence is
strong, and one nation's actions often have consequences on others. For example,
China's labor costs impact employment in other countries, Russia's policies on gas
affect transport costs in Europe, and air pollution generated in the United States has
global effects.

Economics, Competition is a positive effect. Domestic companies compete

with foreign firms, often raising their standards. Foreign businesses often bring
innovations and new approaches, trying to capture the consumer. This dynamic usually
increases the quality of products and services and makes them more affordable. For
example, American oil companies operate in many developing nations and have formed
alliances with local capitals, bringing technology, employment and making huge
investments. Most nations have opened to international trade, creating a global market
and directing investments into developing countries. Companies from industrialized
nations look for new markets and possibilities and sometimes open operations in new
countries, bringing investments and employment. Globalization also affects
employment. Jobs are generated in new areas but are sometimes lost elsewhere.
Imagine you own a company with 100 workers and decide to relocate to Thailand,
where labor costs are lower. There you hire 150 workers, which means 150 new
positions for Thailand, but back home 100 people just became unemployed. The world
has 50 more people earning wages, but there were also losers in this process.

C. Kenter’s Negative effect of Globalization

The role and importance of foreign direct investment for the national economy
[1] was primarily in improving the key macroeconomic indicators. FDIs are efficient form
of usage of private savings in the process of funding economic development and the in
reducing the gap between the planned investment and the local savings. Secondly, it is
significant contribution of foreign direct investment in overcoming the gap of foreign
trade of host country.

Foreign direct investment can bring many advantages for foreign investors [2]
among which, the most important are: savings in transport costs (both, inputs and
finished products), lower labor costs, available infrastructure, savings in customs costs
and contribution on imported goods, closer position to the customers, the possibility of
quick and efficient delivery, and availability of information about preferences and
possibility for fast adoption of products in accordance with market requirements.
In particular, it is necessary to analyze the relationship between investment and
economic growth. This interdependence can be seen by measurement of
macroeconomic aggregates, i.e. in growth rate, movement of investment, foreign
exchange level and trends and other. Changes are related to economic developments
at the national level, on the basis of which it is possible to assess the success of
development policy. When the positive elements have an increase, there are positive
structural changes. In periods of crises the negative changes are strengthening (slowing
the growth and investment, increasing unemployment rate, increasing in deficits, etc.)
[3] Investments generate significant positive effects on the economy of the host country.
Their impact is recorded in two points: the quantitative growth, measured by the balance
and the total inflow measured by gross domestic product, exports and domestic
investment: and qualitative through the transfer to the host country the investment,
trade, technology and financial flows. To determine the effects of FDI on economic
growth of the host country is not an easy task.

The effects of FDI depend on the stage of economic development of the

country, and these stages are divided in four phases [4]. In the first phase of
development, the most important role is played by natural resources, and at this stage,
no significant effects to the host country economy are visible. If the country has an
economic development at the second phase, it will be recorded increasing of domestic
investment, investing in public goods, communications and transport is present.

Scholars from the dependency tradition argue that FDI typically involves capital-
intensive production, which creates well-paying jobs but not on a large scale. Prior
research finds that the stock of FDI is associated with increased inequality, although its
effects vary by region and state context (Alderson and Nielsen 1999; Bornschier and
Dunn 1985; Kentor 2001; Lee et al. 2007).

D. Cultural Literacy in the Philippines

The term “cultural literacy” has had a rough history since 1987, not just in the
USA where its originator, E. D. Hirsch, has his advocates and detractors, but in many
other countries as well. This is probably the reason that DepEd avoids using the term.
The last part of the standard, however, clearly points to the need for every high school
graduate to attain cultural literacy.

The current definition of cultural literacy is that adopted by the American National
Council of the Professors of Educational Administration: “Cultural literacy is the ability to
be informed by beliefs and behaviors that have been shared from one generation to
another in an oral or written form. Cultural literacy can create a piece of knowledge and
awareness that brings a distinct commitment to social justice, the responsibility to
defend human dignity, and respect for cultures and languages associated with different
nations and lifestyles.”
In other words, a culturally literate Filipino knows not only how to read and write, nor
only how to survive in Philippine society, but also what it means to be a Filipino and how
to live life fruitfully in a globalized world.

Since all Filipinos have at least one relative or friend living abroad, it has become very
important that students learn what it means to interact with non-Filipinos. We can
appreciate the culture of another country, however, only if we know what our own
culture is.

All models of development are essentially cultural. They reflect a culture’s perception of
the problems faced by society, and they incorporate solutions to those problems based
on that perception, and developed from the cultural resources of the society itself, in
order to address the specific situations in particular society. - Felipe M. De Leon Jr.

The National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) has been working closely
with DepEd to ensure that all high school graduates will at least know and appreciate
the most basic elements of our culture. With DepEd Usec Vilma Labrador in charge of
both the NCCA and the programs of DepEd, the blending of the curriculum with cultural
concerns is now seamless.

Philippine Cultural Education Program (PCEP) envisions A NATION OF CULTURALLY

LITERATE AND EMPOWERED FILIPINOS by ensuring that culture is the core and
foundation of education, governance, and sustainable development.  It seeks to develop
among Filipinos greater awareness, understanding, and appreciation of their culture and
arts, towards the evolution of a consciousness that will improve the quality of their lives.
It was designed to make cultural education accessible to all sectors of Philippine
society, particularly the youth, teachers, artists and cultural workers, officials and
employees of the government, members of the media, and civil society.

Cognizant of the need to accelerate the process of integrating culture in the basic
education curriculum and mainstreaming it in national development plans, the NCCA
Board of Commissioners, in its September 2001 meeting, resolved that a Philippine
Cultural Education Plan (PCEP) be formulated and operationalized. In 2002, after a
series of year-long consultative meetings, PCEP was launched as a comprehensive
Commission flagship program that outlined goals, policies, programs, and projects on
cultural education through the formal, non-formal, and informal systems.

In the Republic act no. 10066, this is the act providing for the protection and
conservation of the national cultural heritage, strengthening the national commission for
culture and the arts (NCAA) and its affiliated cultural agencies, and for the other
purposes. With the help of this act, the cultural heritage of our country will be passed
through generation to generation.
There are, of course, innumerable details left to work out. In the area of literature, for
example, the use of only excellent texts in English and Filipino high school textbooks
has finally been assured. Based on a 1985 DepEd project entitled “The Canon of
Philippine Literature,” the requirement will force textbook writers not to use their own
works as examples of good writing. Many of the so-called literary texts done by non-
award-winning writers have grammatical and stylistic errors. No wonder students do not
learn good English or good Filipino! Starting in June 2010, first-year students will be
exposed only to well-written English and Filipino. 

E. Miller’s Conceptual Concept of Literacy

In modern days, the concept of literacy has become more and more difficult to define
due to multiple meanings, interpretations, and perceptions associated with it. "It is
common today to pick up a newspaper or news magazine and read about literacy levels
or a number of illiterate people in the country" (Smith, 1977:135).

The complex nature of literacy was also observed by United Nations Educational
Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO, 2006), where it was indicated that
literacy as a concept has proved to be both complex and dynamic, continuing to be
interpreted and defined in a multiplicity of ways. Due to its multiplicity of meanings,
several definitions of literacy exist. This view agreed with UNESCO (2006:149) where it
was indicated that “the most common understanding of literacy is that it is a set of
tangible skills, particularly the cognitive skills of reading and writing”.

Miller (1973) subdivided literacy into three categories; Basic literacy, Comprehension,
and functional or practical literacy. Basic literacy, according to Miller, means the ability
to use correspondences of visual shapes, to spoken sounds, in order to decode written
materials and to translate them into oral language. Miller (1973: 3) noted that
"comprehension literacy means having the ability to understand the meaning of verbal
materials. Functional or practical literacy means the ability to read (decode and
comprehend) materials needed to perform everyday vocational tasks". Miller's views
and definitions are all centered on conventional skills of reading and writing. While
conventional literacy is used to measure academic success in a school set up, its
definitions in most cases exclude literacy as knowledge, competence or expertise in a
specialized area. It is important to note that the definitions cited in this article were
merely to situate and substantiate the context of the paper. Language, on the other
hand, has also evolved in meaning and definition. Several scholars such as Bloch and
Trager (1942) and Crystal (1987) defined language from a narrow perspective limiting it
to human oral language. Lyon (1990) argues that language is a broader concept as it is
not restricted to the oral version only as alleged by early scholars. While there are
several ways of defining a language, many of the definitions are centered on human
language as a tool for communication. Similarly, although most definitions of literacy are
centered around reading and writing skills, there is no universal standard definition of
good and effective literacy fluency (Lawton and Gordon, 1996: 138).
G - Challenges for Cultural Literacy in the Philippines

Globalization and Multicultural Literacy is knowledge of cultures and languages.

We live in multicultural societies, teach in multicultural settings, and our students
interact with those who come from a different place. Awareness of and sensitivity to
culturally determined norms promote understanding. In fact, when students embrace the
principle that difference does not an equal deficiency, they gain an appreciation for the
wealth of diversity that surrounds us.

In recent decades, Europe has developed responses to the increasing

presence of immigrant students in schools. In particular, “Intercultural Education” is now
considered by the European Union as the official approach to be used for the integration
of immigrant students and minority groups into their new culture. However, despite the
attempt of the EU to define common policies and practices, each European Country has
developed its own approach. In this chapter, the different approaches attempting to
define policies and practices will be outlined. In particular “Assimilationism,” and
“Differential exclusion” will be addressed as forebears of the Intercultural model.
Moreover, there is a significant gap between the EU “official” educational model for
national policies. Another gap is between the official education policies and what
teachers and schools actually practice. Finally, the pros and cons of the mainstream
European intercultural approach will be discussed and compared with the model
prevailing in North America.

Multicultural Education is an idea, which has reached its time. Carrying the legacy o f
the 1960's and 1970's, a period of profound social change when the
p e o p l e o f t h e United States were forced to re-examine their cultural
heritage, multicultural education has emerged in the 1990's to address the
educational needs of a society that continues to struggle with the realization that it is not
monocultural, but is an amalgamation of many cultures.

Multicultural education is a field of study and an emerging discipline

w h o s e major aim is to create equal educational opportunities for students
from diverse racial, social- class, and cultural groups. Its goal is to help all students
to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to function well in a democratic
society. It helps students to interact and communicate with people from other
groups. It facilitates the learners to understand and appreciate cultural similarities
and differences from other races.

The Philippines is a nation of different races, cultures, traditions, and religions. Of its
one thousand one hundred seven islands, people within speak different dialects. There
are those who speak Tagalog, Ilocano, Ibanag, Ilonggo, Chavacano, but, all
are called Filipinos. Indeed, there is diversity in the Philippines in terms of its race,
ethnicity, social– class, and cultural groups. P h i l i p p i n e e d u c a t i o n c o m p r i s e s
students from different races. In an average classroom with fifty
s t u d e n t s , s e v e r a l o f w h o m c a m e f r o m t h e T a g a l o g r e g i o n , t h e Ilocano
region, and some from the Visayas and Mindanao regions.