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he design and creation of products can require: the extraction of natural resources;

manufacturing; transportation; waste disposal at the end of life.As a product goes through these
stages energy and water are used, and waste, pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions are
created.  The impacts are outlined below:-

 Resource extraction and manufacturing:- The extraction of natural resources –

whether through mining, harvesting or land clearing – generates carbon dioxide (CO2)
emissions, uses water and land, and produces waste products that have to be disposed
of in the environment.
 Transport:- Transportation is vital – but it also causes environmental impacts.The
biggest impact on the environment is the production of carbon dioxide, which contributes
to climate change. In most cases, products distributed by road or air have a larger impact
than those transported by sea or rail. One issue with transportation is weight and wasted
 Product use:- Additional energy, fuel, water, cleaners, covers, attachments or other
materials required for a product to achieve its function (for example, razors are pointless
without blades) must be included in eco-design considerations.If a product needs
services or other extras during its life, these must be considered as they'll contribute
further to the product's environmental impact.
 End of life:- Eco-design can make recycling easier and landfill less damaging. If all or
part of your product has to be thrown away (for example the packaging), make sure it's
more likely to be recycled.
By investigating the potential impacts of your product – and then finding ways of reducing these
issues through eco-design – you can create functional, aesthetically pleasing and successful
designs without locking in unnecessary environmental impacts.

There are a number of ways you can design sustainable products:

 Materials: Think eco-fibre; Make it last- Try not to design fads as these will inevitably
end up in landfill; Enhance recyclability; Reduce your VOCs (Volatile Organic
 Process:- Less is more-reduce the ecological footprint of your product by designing
patterns to use up as much of the fabric as possible; Think life cycle- try to find innovative
ways of reducing the impacts of your product throughout its life, from packaging to the
washing and care, and end of life; Be efficient- select manufacturers and production
processes that are energy efficient, use green, renewable energy and make efforts to
reduce inputs such as water and chemicals; Zero waste-find ways of using off cuts,
scraps and damaged stock so that it minimizes waste to landfill
 Marketing:- Label it-an essential part of a garment and a great way to communicate
eco-options to consumers such as ethical construction; Look for certification- ask your
suppliers, manufacturers and contractors to provide you with independently verified
certifications for environmental management and ethical practices; Offer a service-why
not take your product back or let customers trade it in when they're finished with it? Then
you can re-construct it into something new or donate it to charity.