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ORGANIZED BY UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL, BANGI, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA; 28-30 AUGUST 2006

Condition and life assessment of transformers with specific application to power station transformers

Hannah Ahmad Rosli, Mohd Aizam Talib

TNB Research Sdn Bhd No. 1, Lorong Ayer Hitam, Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan 43000 Kajang MALAYSIA

Keywords: Transformer, diagnostic assessment, condition monitoring, life assessment

Abstract

Transformer is an important component in an electrical system. Inadvertent malfunction of this equipment will lead to undesirable repercussions on the system reliability besides entailing economic loss both to utilities and to society.

With many aging transformers in service, the concern of the utilities is inevitably focused not just on the health condition, but also on the remaining life of these transformers as this relates to the serviceability of the aged units.

The diagnostic activities for assessing the transformer condition and estimating transformer remnant life are of interest and widely practised. The present study is focused on the evaluation of transformer condition and the remaining life of the transformer with specific applications to the transformers at Sultan Ismail Power Station in Paka, Malaysia. The transformer life estimation activities are approached holistically involving a combination of physical inspection as well as the assessment of the electrical and chemical testing results. The results highlight the significance of the diagnostic tools used and are analysed as a basis of life estimation and also life extension recommendations.

1. Introduction

The health of a transformer is closely related to the health of its insulation. Failure in insulation causes faults such as short circuit between turns or windings, overheating and arcing to occur. Mineral oil and cellulose-based paper are the principal insulation components in most power transformers. These materials are organic, and despite the

excellent high voltage insulation this oil- impregnated paper system provides, it is unfortunately susceptible to degradation due to many factors namely thermal, electrical, electromagnetic and mechanical stresses, presence of water, oxygen and heat that causes chemical degradation reaction (hydrolytic, oxidative or pyrolytic) and also contamination by particles of different origins. [1, 2]

This paper features several diagnostic techniques employed to assess the insulation condition and remaining life of transformers. The estimation of the remaining life is based on the assessment of the mechanical integrity of the paper insulation which will be described further, supported by the results from the integrated diagnostic approach involving the physical inspection and several diagnostic tests.

2. Transformer diagnostic techniques

Several transformer diagnostic techniques used in the study are described in this section. They can be grouped into electrical tests applied to the transformers on-site and chemical tests conducted on the transformer oil samples. The methodology to estimate transformer life expectancy is also included in this section.

2.1 Electrical diagnostic method

Turns ratio test

Using a ratio-meter, the turns ratio test is performed on all tap positions to identify short-circuited turns, open winding circuits or failure in tap changers. The measured ratio should compare with the ratio of the rated voltages on any given tap as given on the nameplate within ±5%.

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Winding resistance

This is a DC test made using a low resistance ohmmeter. It can indicate a change in winding resistance when there are shorted turns, poor connections or joints or tap changer contact problems. When possible, the reading should be compared to the factory test data or previous test data. If this were not available, the data obtained can be compared between phases or to another identical unit. The readings of the different phases should exhibit similar value with each other at all tap positions.

Insulation resistance

The insulation resistance test is one of the least costly one to perform in terms of test equipment and is one of the oldest techniques in testing. The insulation resistance test provides useful indicator of contamination and moisture on the insulation surfaces of the winding, especially when there are cracks, pinholes or fissures in the insulation. For a new transformer, the insulation resistance for 1 minute should be greater than 200 M[3].

During the test, when dc voltage is applied, the total current flowing through and along the insulation is made up of three components; a charging component into the capacitance of the winding, a polarization or absorption current involving various molecular mechanisms in the insulation and a leakage component over the surface between exposed conductor and ground.

The polarization index is a variation on the dc insulation resistance test. This value helps to determine how dry and clean the winding insulation is. The charging current is measured at two moments, often 1 minute and 10 minute after energizing the winding with the dc voltage. A ratio of R 10 /R 1 < 1.2 indicates the presence of polarisable materials such as water [4, 5].

Insulation power factor test

Power factor is a ratio of dielectric loss (or watt loss) to the charging volt-amperes (or apparent power input). It is a property of the electrical insulation system and a measure of the electrical losses in the insulation when subjected to an applied alternating voltage. Power factor testing is the single most valuable method of obtaining data for determining insulation quality. A high loss may indicate problems in the insulation structure. Normal ageing of an insulating material will also

cause dielectric loss to increase. Contamination of insulation by moisture or chemical substances may cause losses to be higher than normal.

The power factor value of 0.5% was used as acceptance criteria for new transformers. Sudden increases in value of power factor over time are taken as a sign of deterioration of the insulation condition. The power factor on serviced-aged transformer in good condition should be in the range of 0.5% to 1.5% [5, 6]

Excitation current

The excitation current measurement provides means of detecting incipient damage to a transformer winding and core such as loose or shorted laminations, winding problems, poor joints or contacts and discontinuity of the transformer windings due to transportation or short circuit forces during a nearby external fault. The excitation current, at no load, excites the magnetic flux in the iron core. Its magnitude depends on the applied voltage and the number of turns in the winding, the dimensions, the reluctance and other conditions of the core. An excessive current may be due to a partial short circuit between one or more turns in the winding or it may be due to some defects in the magnetic circuit which alters the reluctance of the core.

For three-phase core transformers, a pattern of two similar currents and one lower current can be expected which the center leg has lower excitation current than the other two phases. The test values on the outside legs should be within 15% of each other, and the center leg should not be greater than either outside leg. Results compared to prior tests should not vary more than 5% [5, 6, 7].

2.2 Chemical diagnostic method

Oil quality analysis

This analysis comprises of six tests, aimed at evaluating the physical, chemical and electrical integrity of the oil insulation. These tests and their significance are summarised in the following Table 1 [8, 9]:

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Test

 

Significance

Moisture content

Moisture content

is

accurately determined from

Karl Fischer titration method.

Moisture in oil causes a decrease in the dielectric strength of insulation, formation of bubble under high load conditions and accelerated ageing of cellulose insulation.

Colour

A

rapidly increasing or a

high colour number (darker

colour) may be an indica- tion of oil degradation or contamination.

Acidity

Acids are products of oil oxidation. High acidity value indicates degree of oil ageing, and rate of increase in acidity indicates ageing rate.

(Neutralization

value)

Interfacial tension

Low value is related to the presence of degradation products and imminent sludge.

Dielectric

Low value indicates the presence of contaminants such as water or particles.

breakdown voltage

Power factor

The parameter is sensitive

to

the presence of soluble

polar or ionisable contaminants and ageing products. High power factor implies poor insulation resistance.

Table 1: Oil quality tests and their significance

Dissolved gas analysis

For more than 25 years, dissolved gas analysis (DGA) and its interpretation has become a reliable and widely accepted tool for the condition monitoring of oil-filled transformers [10, 11, 12]. Thermal and electrical faults in a transformer lead to insulating oil degradation, resulting in the formation of gaseous products that dissolve in the oil. By applying DGA on an oil sample, the dissolved gases could be extracted to be quantified. The important gases produced from the transformer are listed as follow:

Hydrocarbon gases and hydrogen: hydrogen (H 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) and acetylene (C 2 H 2 ).

Carbon oxides: carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

Non-fault gases: nitrogen (N 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 )

The identity and relation of the individual gases are indicative of the type of faults occurring while the rate of gas generation can indicate the severity of the fault [13, 14, 15].

Type of fault

Gases evolved

Corona of oil and cellulose

Hydrogen

Overheating (or pyrolysis) of oil

 

a. Low temperature

Methane, ethane

b. High temperature

Methane, ethane,

ethylene, hydrogen

Arcing

Acytelene, methane, ethane, ethylene

Overheating of cellulose

 

a. Low temperature

Carbon dioxide

b. High temperature

Carbon monoxide

Table 2: Gases evolved by faults occurring in a transformer

By themselves, the DGA data do not always provide sufficient information to evaluate the

integrity of a transformer. The history of the transformer in terms of maintenance, previous faults etc are an important part of the information required to make a more accurate evaluation.

Generally the following diagnostic methods are employed for the interpretation of the DGA results

[16]:

IEEE C57.104

Key Gases

Rogers Ratios

Doernenburg’s method

IEC 60599

Duval method

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Furfural analysis

The furfural analysis is an important test in the present study, as it directly relates to the estimation of the transformer remaining life. This relationship is explained further in sub-section 2.4.

Kraft paper is widely used as solid insulation in transformers [17]. The major constituent (about 90%) of the paper is cellulose. Cellulose is a linear polymer of glucose, comprising D- anhydroglucopyranose units joined together by glycosidic bonds [18] (refer Figure 1). A single cellulose fiber is formed from a number of these chains held together by hydrogen bonds.

CH 2 OH OH CH 2 OH OH OH OH CH 2 OH OH Glycosidic
CH 2 OH
OH
CH 2 OH
OH
OH
OH
CH 2 OH
OH
Glycosidic
D-anhydroglu-copyranose
bond

monomer

Figure 1: Structural formula of cellulose

Under the combination of thermal, moisture and oxidising stress, the hydrogen bonds and other chemical bonds will break yielding breakdown products such as hydrogen, short chain hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water. Degradation also releases larger molecules known as furan into the insulation oil. Commonly, five furanic compounds are found in oil:

2-furhraldehyde (2FAL)

5 methyl-2-furaldehyde (5M2F)

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5H2F)

2-acetylfuran (2ACF)

furfuryl alcohol (2-FOL)

It has been shown that all of these compounds except 2FAL are not very stable under operating conditions found in transformers [19, 20]. These compounds apparently form and then further degrade to 2FAL over a time span of a few months. 2FAL is apparently stable for several years under the same condition. The molecular structure of this compound is shown in Figure 2.

molecular structure of this compound is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Molecular structure of 2

Figure 2: Molecular structure of 2 FAL.

Furans are currently detected by manually extracting oil samples from the transformer. Their concentration is then determined in a laboratory using techniques such as HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) of the oil [21].

The concentration of these furans gives an indication of the condition of the paper in terms of the degree of polymerization, while the rate of change of furan concentration can indicate the rate of aging of paper [22]. The types and concentrations of furans in oil sample can also indicate the occurrence of abnormal stresses in a transformer whether short duration overheating of the insulation or prolonged general overheating [23, 24, 25]

The main advantage of using this technique as a tool for diagnostics is that these furan compounds are degradation by-products specific to paper, and cannot be produced by the oil. As such, furan analysis can be used to confirm the gas chromatography analysis where the carbon monoxide present indicates problems with the solid insulation.

2.3 Advanced diagnostic test

Frequency Response Analysis

The Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) measurement is a diagnostic test that is helpful in determining possible deformations and movements in the transformer’s core and coil assembly. The deformation could result during equipment transportation, from mechanical stresses due to high through fault currents and from ageing of paper that reduces the transformer’s withstand strength due to insulation shrinkage and lost clamping pressure

[26].

Winding deformations in transformers are difficult to establish by conventional methods of diagnostic tests like ratio, impedance/inductance, magnetizing current, etc. FRA has been found to be suitable tool to recognize the deformation in a transformer [27, 28, 29]. The basis of the FRA technique is the

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modeling of transformer as a linear, bilateral, complex and passive network of impedance (resistive, inductive and capacitive) that is related to the construction and geometry of the windings. Deformation and movements have an effect on both inductance and capacitance that may be reflected in the resulting frequency response.

Recovery Voltage Measurement

The Recovery Voltage Measurement (RVM) method is a known method to assess the state of the insulation system [30-34]. RVM detects the presence of water in the oil/paper insulation, either created through ageing of the insulation system or from external sources.

The principle of the recovery voltage measurements requires a sample of discharged insulation to be initially charged with a DC voltage for a time t c . The sample is then short-circuited for a pre- determined period of time t d (usually for half the charging time) after which the short-circuit is removed and the voltage across the open-circuit terminals of the insulation sample is recorded. The charge/discharge procedure is repeated using a sequence of increasing charging times ranging from fractions of a second to thousands of seconds. Three characteristic parameters of the recovery voltage curve are of prime interest and are shown below (Figure 3):

The peak value of recovery voltage, ‘V r ’,

The time to reach the peak, ‘t peak ,’

• The initial gradient of the recovery voltage, ‘S r ’ V V c S
• The initial gradient of the recovery
voltage, ‘S r ’
V
V c
S r
V r
next
cycle
t c
t d
t peak
relaxation
t

Figure 3: The parameters of a recovery voltage measurement

The above parameters are displayed as a function of the charging time, t c , and give what is termed the polarisation spectra for the insulation system under test. A significant characteristic of the polarization spectrum is the time at which the peak occurs,

known as the dominant time constant. The value is dependent on the properties of the insulating material. More precisely, this value directly reflects the moisture content of the oil and paper insulation system. An increasing moisture or humidity level displaces the peak of the spectrum towards a smaller time constant.

2.4 Evaluation of transformer remaining life

Many factors contribute to the degradation of transformer insulation system. Acting singly or in combination, the degradation agents further accelerate the natural ageing process of the insulation. Ageing is said to occur when the properties of the insulation system experience irreversible negative changes. The end of life of the insulation is technically reached when these properties have changed beyond the acceptable limits. [1]

Manifestations of insulation ageing process include the weakening of the mechanical strength of the cellulosic materials. This is due to the scission of the long molecular chains of the cellulose polymer. Over time, the weakened paper will not be able to provide the insulation and mechanical strength it is designed for, and transformer could malfunction when this stage is reached.

Therefore, the cellulose paper is the most critical component of the insulation system. The oil, although important, is not as critical because it can be easily reconditioned to remove water and particles, reclaimed to remove degradation products or replaced. Paper, once has been destroyed, is not easily and economically replaceable. As such, the actual life of a transformer is governed by the life of the paper insulation. The mechanical strength of the paper is the determining factor for assessing

remaining life of a transformer [35].

Paper derives its mechanical strength from its fibrous nature, which arises from intro- and inter- molecular hydrogen bonding within and between the cellulose chains and the formation of micro

crystalline structure [2]. This strength is critically dependent on the degree of polymerisation (or DP) of the cellulose.

DP refers to number of monomer units in a polymeric cellulose chain. New Kraft paper has an average chain length of 1000 to 1500. After a long period of service at high temperature with high moisture content and oxygen, the paper becomes

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brittle, changes colour to dark brown and has a reduced DP of 200 to 250.

The furan analysis results can be used quantitatively to evaluate the rate and degree of ageing of a transformer’s solid insulation, which is directly related to the assessment of a transformer’s remaining life. This method uses the 2FAL or the total content of furanic compounds to calculate a predicted degree of polymerisation (DP).

The following is the equation used to predict DP from 2FAL content [35]:

DP= [log 10 (2FAL x 0.88)-4.51] / -0.0035

(1)

The percentage of life used is then estimated from the calculated DP:

% Life Used = [log 10 (DP)-2.903] / -0.006021] (2)

In a different study [36], the formula of elapsed life (in years) of a transformer is given by the following empirical formula:

Elapsed life (in years) = 20.5 x ln [1100/DP]

(3)

3. Equipment under study

Seven transformers at the Sultan Ismail Power Station (SJSI) in Paka were involved for the life assessment study. These units are summarised in Table 3.

Transformer

Unit

Rating

Age

type

designation

(MVA)

Station

ST-B

24

22

transformer

Generator

GT-3B

138.3

22

transformer

GT-3C

124

21

Unit

UT-3B

0.8

22

transformer

UT-3C

5

21

Excitation

ET-3A

1.2

22

transformer

ET-3B

1.2

22

Table 3: Summary of the transformer fleet at SJSI

With the transformers ageing up to 22 years old, the study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the condition and remaining life of the transformers and hence to establish a plan for the continued operation of these equipment.

4. Results and discussion

The life assessment of the transformers in the present study is based on the comprehensive evaluation of the external physical condition via visual inspection and the internal condition from the electrical and chemical diagnostic test results. The expected remaining life of the transformers is subsequently estimated from the calculated degree of polymerisation of the paper insulation obtained via furfural analysis.

4.1 Physical inspection

Physical inspection was done covering the main tank including the wall and top cover, tap changer, bushing, cooling radiators and accessories. From the observation, presence of rust spots were noted on the top cover of the main tank and on the radiator cooling fins of some units. Minor oil leakages were also detected on connecting valves and top covers of the tap changer compartments (Figure 4).

a)

b)

covers of the tap changer compartments (Figure 4). a) b) Figure 4: a) Corrosion on cooling
covers of the tap changer compartments (Figure 4). a) b) Figure 4: a) Corrosion on cooling

Figure 4: a) Corrosion on cooling fins b) Oil leaking from tap changer compartment

Old anti-corrosive protective paint and marine ambience due to the station’s proximity to the sea are some of the factors that encourage the corrosion activity. Although generally these physical defects are not severe, remedial actions should be taken to prevent further corrosion and leakage which could

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introduce moisture into the units that will

consequently harm the insulation. Repainting the units with new protective layer and replacing corroded parts are some steps that could be adopted

as part of the life extension initiatives.

4.2 Assessment of electrical testing

Transformers GT-3B and GT-3C are in satisfactory conditions as the electrical test results fall within the acceptable limits. The winding resistance measurement detects a sign of abnormal condition of the tap changer in UT-3C. As shown below in Table 4, the readings for connection H1-H3 are found to be approximately 30% lower than the corresponding readings in the other 2 phases at tap position 4 and 5. Tap changer contact problem is the most probable explanation for this observation. Based on this, it is recommended for the diverter and tap selector switch to be serviced.

Tap

Test Lead Connection

position

H1-H3

H2-H1

H3-H2

(m)

(m)

(m)

1

124.9

126.3

122.4

2

122.2

122.4

121.0

3

118.3

118.0

114.5

4

115.3

162.3

162.5

5

110.5

160.1

157.1

Table 4: Winding resistance results of UT-3C

The FRA result plots of high voltage (HV) windings for two identical units of ET-3A and ET- 3B are shown in Figure 5. Comparing the two plots reveals a deviation in the red phase of the HV winding of ET-3A. This deviation is observed at the low frequency range. Theoretically variation at low frequency is associated with the problem in the magnetic core structure within a transformer.

To further confirm this finding, the results of the excitation current for ET-3A and ET-3B are studied. The following Table 5 shows the results from the excitation test of these two units:

Transformer

Test Lead Connection

H1-H0

H2-H0

H3-H0

(mA)

(mA)

(mA)

ET-3A

104.4

106.7

109.9

ET-3B

102.7

99.7

103.3

Table 5: Excitation current of ET-3A and ET-3B

A pattern of two similar (within 15%) values on the

outer windings which are higher than the centre

winding value for a 3-core transformer is a sign of a fault-free unit. However, the H1-H0 connection reading for ET-3A, even though is well within the 15% tolerance limit with H3-H0 reading, is lower than the measured excitation current of the centre leg. A possibly deformed core is thus detected for ET-3A. Unit UT-3B also displays similar result pattern, which similarly suggests abnormality to its core. A refurbishment of the core assembly of these affected units is recommended and careful monitoring of any further deterioration must be done in the mean time.

f
f
any further deterioration must be done in the mean time. f Figure 5: Frequency response of

Figure 5: Frequency response of high voltage winding of ET-3A and ET-3B

Comparatively, the frequency response of ET-3B is consistent with each other for all phases in the low frequency range, which corresponds well with the results from the excitation current measurement. These indicate that the core for this unit has not experienced any defect or deformation.

From the RVM, the percentage by dry weight of moisture in the paper insulation could be estimated. The winding insulation for both GT-3B and GT-3C are found to be dry at 1.5% and 1.4% respectively.

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The moisture levels of other units fall in the 2-3% range, indicating that the paper insulation appears to be wet. However, it is pertinent to also assess the quality of the insulation in terms of its dielectric loss and insulation resistance. The power factor measurement results indicate that the insulation system of all tested units is in good condition since the loss factor value of the high and low voltage winding to ground as well as the inter-winding insulation is below the specified limit. In addition, the polarization index of insulation resistance of these configurations is observed to be more than 1.25 for all transformer units.

4.3 Assessment of oil testing

The oil samples were sent to the transformer oil lab of TNB Research for analysis. The tests were conducted to determine the quality of the oil in service, detect any incipient faults and determine the ageing condition of the transformers.

The oil quality analysis shows that all the units are in satisfactory condition as the physical, chemical and electrical properties of the oil are within the specified limits. Both the generator transformers and the station unit have undergone oil reclamation in the recent years. The moisture, acidity, interfacial tension (IFT) and dielectric breakdown voltage are maintained at acceptable values since the reclamation process.

The DGA data of ST-B reveals that the concentration of ethylene and carbon monoxide is slightly above the specified limit. Table 6 lists the current and previous fault-gases data obtained via DGA for ST-B. The rate of rise of ethylene and carbon monoxide from the previous reading is 0.388 and 0.911 ppm/day respectively.

Fault Gases

     

(Specified

22/9/04

2/3/05

8/9/05

limit)

H 2 (100)

ND

1

3

CH 4 (120)

ND

ND

8

C 2 H 6 (65)

ND

1

3

C 2 H 4 (50)

1

13

83

C 2 H 2 (35)

ND

ND

ND

CO (350)

5

189

353

CO 2 (5000)

225

744

2171

Table 6: DGA results obtained for ST-B

The presence of carbon monoxide in transformer oil is associated with the overheating of the cellulose material at high temperature. This is confirmed by the detection of high concentration of ethylene gas that is usually related to the thermal fault at high temperature.

For this unit, it is recommended that the oil is sampled again within 6 months instead of 12 months as scheduled to monitor the rising rate of the fault gas production.

To gauge the extent of this overheating in degrading the paper insulation, it is insightful to look at the result of the furfural analysis. For ST-B, the furan level is found to be below the maximum specified limit. This suggests that the overheating does not severely affect the cellulose. The high carbon dioxide level could be formed by general oxidation of the oil and by the action of partial discharges in the oil [37].

High level of 2FAL is detected for GT-3B. This is indicative of general overheating and significant ageing of the paper insulation [35].

4.4 Assessment of transformer life expectancy

The application of the calculations presented in section 2.4 enables the remaining life of the transformers under study to be estimated. Table 7 shows the life assessment of UT-3B and GT-3B. The percentage of the remaining life and the knowledge of the estimated transformer design life as given by the manufacturers can be used to estimate the number of years the transformers can be expected to be operational.

Transformer

Furanic

DP

% Life

unit

compounds

used

GT-3B

3171 ppb

304

70%

UT-3B

44 ppb

835

3%

Table 7: Life assessment results of 2 units with the

least and highest life expectancy

Based on this result, it is reasonable to conclude

that in the case of GT-3B, the transformer paper insulation has badly deteriorated and aged. The DP gives a sign that the life expectancy and thus the

serviceability of this unit are questionable. In the case of UT-3B, the high DP suggests that this unit is free from any advanced or abnormal aging of the cellulosic insulation which can limit its life expectancy. It is essential to note that the degradation rate of the paper insulation increases

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with the increase in moisture, oxygen, acidity and temperature in a transformer. Since the solid insulation of UT-3B is considered wet from the RVM, the estimated life expectancy may not be reached. Thus, the proper maintenance actions should be employed to monitor the presence of the harmful ageing factors.

5. Conclusion

Assessment of transformer condition and remaining life is very useful in safeguarding the reliability and availability of supply, planning of replacement or refurbishment of the aged units and also optimizing the utilization of the equipment economically. The use of integrated diagnostic approach has been shown to yield results that are used as a basis for life-extension initiatives recommended to ensure that life expectancy of the units are met.

6. References

[1] CIGRE WG 12.09, ‘Lifetime Evaluation of Transformers’, Electra, no. 150, 1993 [2] A. M. Emsley, G. C. Stevens, “Review of chemical indicators of degradation of cellulosic electrical paper insulation in oil-filled transformers”, IEE Proc.-Sci. Meas. Technol., vol. 141, no. 5, 1994 [3] IEC 60076-1 (2000) clause 10.1.3: Power transformer-Part 1 “General” [4] M. J.Heathcote, The J & P Transformer Book, 12 th Edition, Newnes Publication, 1998 [5] IEEE Standard, ‘IEEE Guide for Diagnostic Field Testing of Electric Power Apparatus-Part 1: Oil Filled Power Transformers, Regulators and Reactors’, IEEE 62: 1995 [6] Doble Test Data Reference Book, Transformer Insulation Power Factor [7] William H. Bartley, “Failure Analysis of Transformers”, International Association of Engineering Insurers 36 th Annual Conference, Stockholm, 2003 [8] IEC 60422 (2005) ‘Mineral insulating oils in electrical equipment-supervision and maintenance guidance’ [9] Nynas Napthenics, “Transformer Oil Handbook”, 2004 [10] M. Duval, Dissolved Gas Analysis: It Can Save Your Transformer, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, 1989 [11] W.D.Halstead, Transformer Fault Diagnosis by Oil Decomposition Product Analysis, Central Electricity Research Laboratories, 1970

[12] M.Duval, F.Langdeau, “Acceptable Gas- in-oil Levels in Generation and Transmission Power Transformers”, Electrical Insulation and

Dielectric Phenomena, Annual Report Conference

1990

[13] IEEE C57.104 – 1991, ‘IEEE Guide for the Interpretation of Gases Generated in Oil- Immersed Transformers’ [14] IEC 60599 – 1999, ‘Mineral Oil Impregnated Electrical Equipment in Service – Guide to the Interpretation of Dissolved and Free Gases Analysis’ [15] CIGRE TF 15.01.01, ‘New Guidelines for Interpretation of Dissolved Gas Analysis in Oil- Filled Transformers’, Electra no.186, 1999 [16] A. Mollmann, B.Pahlavanpour, New Guidelines for interpretation of DGA in oil-filled

transformers, Electra no. 186, 1999 [17] M. Horning, J. Kelly, S. Meyers, Transformer Maintenance Guide, Transformer Maintenance Institute, Div. S. D. Myers, Inc., 2001 [18] D. H. Shroff and A. W. Stannett, "A Review of Paper Aging in Power Transformers", IEE Proc., vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 312-319, 1985 [19] ASTM International, Committee D27, ‘D923 Standard Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids’, 1997 [20] P. J. Griffin, L. R. Lewand, B. Pahlanvanpour, “Paper Degaradation By-products Generated Under Incipient Fault Conditions”, 61 st International Conference of Doble Clients, 1994. [21] J. Unsworth and F. Mitchell, Degradation of Electrical Insulating Paper Monitored with High Performance Liquid Chromatography, IEEE Trans. Elec. Insul., vol. 25, no. 4, p. 737-746,1990 [22] P. J. Burton, M. Carballeira, M. Duval, C. W. Fuller and J. Graham, Applications of Liquid Chromatography to the Analysis of electrical insulating Materials, CERE Paper, no. 15-08, 1988. [23] M. Ali, C. Eley, A.M.Emsley, R.J. Heywood, Measuring and Understanding the Ageing of Kraft Insulating Paper in Power Transformers, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, 1996 [24] R.D. Stebbins, D.S. Myers, A.B. Shkolnik, “Furanic Compounds in Dielectric Liquid Samples:

Review and Update of Diagnostic Interpretation and Estimation of Insulation Ageing”, IEEE International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials, June 1-5,

2003

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[25] John R.Sans, K.Muge Bilgin, J.J.Kelly, “Large Scale Survey of Furanic Compounds in Operating Transformers and Implications for Estimating Service Life”, IEEE International Symposium on Electrical Insulation, USA, June 7- 10, 1998 [27] T. Leibfried, K. Feser, “Monitoring of power transformers using transfer function method”, IEEE Transactions on power delivery PWRD-14, no. 4, pp. 1333- 1339, 1999 [28] J. Christian, K. Feser. U. Sundermam, T. Leibfried, “Diagnostic of power transformers by using transfer function method”, 11 th ISH, London, vol. l, no. 467, pp 37-40, 1999 [29] A.J. Vanderm, “Transformer condition monitoring by frequency response analysis” 10 th ISH, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1997 [30] R.S. Brooks and G.S. Urbani, “Using the recovery voltage method to evaluate aging in oil- paper insulation,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Conduc. and Breakdown in Solid Dielec., Vasteras, Sweden, pp. 93-97, 1998 [31] G. Csepés, et al., “Recovery voltage method for oil/paper insulation diagnosis,” in Proc. CEIDP, Atlanta, GA, vol. 1, pp. 345-355, 1998 [32] A. Bognar, et al, Diagnostic tests of high voltage oil-paper insulating systems (in particular transformer insulation) using dc dielectrometrics, International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRÉ), 1990.

[26] Pradeep M. Nirgude, B. Gunasekaran, Channakeshava' A. D. Rajkumar, B. P. Singh, “Frequency Response Analysis Approach for Condition Monitoring of Transformer”, Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, 2004 [33] E. Nemeth, Measuring voltage response: A non-destructive diagnostic test method of HV

insulation, IEE Proc. Sci., Meas. Technol., vol. 146, no.5, pp. 249-252, 1999 [34] Polarisation spectrum analysis for diagnosis of insulation systems”, Haefely Trench AG, Tettex Instruments division, Dietikon-Zurich, Switzerland. [35] R.D. Stebbins, D.S. Myers, A.B. Shkolnik, “Furanic Compounds in Dielectric Liquid Samples:

Review and Update of Diagnostic Interpretation and Estimation of Insulation Ageing”, IEEE International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials, Japan, June 1- 5, 2003 [36] M. K. Pradhan, On the Estimation of elapsed Life of Oil-immersed Power Transformers, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1962-1969, 2005 [37] R. Blue et. Al., Infrared Detection of Transformer Insulation Degradation Due to Accelerated Thermal Aging, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 5 no. 2,

1998

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