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Dr. Pradeep R.

Associate Professor

GEC, Bartonhill

pradeep@cet.ac.in

What is Fuzzy logic?

Fuzzy logic is a mathematical language to express

something. ::This means it has grammar, syntax,

semantic like a language for communication.

Some other mathematical languages :

Relational algebra (operations on sets)

Boolean algebra (operations on Boolean variables)

Predicate logic (operations on well formed formulae (wff), also called

predicate propositions)

A brief history of Fuzzy Logic

University of California, Berkley, USA.

Dictionary meaning

of fuzzy is not clear,

noisy etc.

Antonym of fuzzy

is crisp

Fuzzy logic vs. Crisp logic

Yes or No

Crisp answer

True or False

Milk

Yes

Water

Crisp

A liquid

Coca

No

Sprite

Is the liquid

colorless?

Fuzzy logic vs. Crisp logic

May be

May not be

Fuzzy answer

Absolutely

Partially

etc

described with

fuzzily!

Fuzzy logic vs. Crisp logic

Score

99

Extremely honest

· Ankit

· Rajesh

75

Very

· Santosh honest

Fuzzy

55

· Kabita Honest at times

· Salmon

Extremely dishonest 35

Is the person

honest?

Concept of fuzzy system

Fuzzy element(s)

Fuzzy set(s)

I

N

Fuzzy rule(s)

P

U

T

Fuzzy implication(s)

(Inferences)

O

U

T

Fuzzy system

P

U

T

Concept of fuzzy set

To understand the concept of fuzzy set it is better, if we first clear

our idea of crisp set.

X = The entire population of India.

H = All Hindu population = { h1 , h2 , h3 , ... , hL }

M = All Muslim population = { m1 , m2 , m3 , ... , mN }

Universe of discourse X

H

M

Such a set is called crisp set.

Example of fuzzy set

Let us discuss about fuzzy set.

X = All students in M2SP.

S = All Good students.

S = { (s, g) | s ∈ X } and g(s) is a measurement of goodness of the

student s.

Example:

S = { Ancy, 0.8), (Vismaya, 0.7), (Vyshak, 0.1), (Meenu, 0.9) } etc.

Fuzzy set vs. Crisp set

1. S = { s | s ∈ X } 1. F = (s, µ) | s ∈ X and

µ(s) is the degree of s.

2. It is a collection of el- 2. It is collection of or-

ements. dered pairs.

3. Inclusion of an el- 3. Inclusion of an el-

ement s ∈ X into S is ement s ∈ X into F is

crisp, that is, has strict fuzzy, that is, if present,

boundary yes or no. then with a degree of

membership.

Fuzzy set vs. Crisp set

Note: A crisp set is a fuzzy set, but, a fuzzy set is not necessarily a

crisp set.

Example:

H = { (h1 , 1), (h2 , 1), ... , (hL, 1) }

Person = { (p1 , 1), (p2 , 0), ... , (pN , 1) }

In case of a crisp set, the elements are with extreme values of degree of

membership namely either 1 or 0.

How to decide the degree of memberships of elements in a fuzzy set?

Bangalore Bombay Hyder Madras Delhi

DoM 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.01 0.65 0.75

Few examples of fuzzy set

Weight of Mango

Sweetness of Orange

Color of Apple

Low Pressure

High Temperature

Note: Degree of membership values lie in the range [0...1].

Some basic terminologies and

Notations

Definition 1: Membership function (and Fuzzy set)

If X is a universe of discourse and x ∈ X, then a fuzzy set A in X is

defined as a set of ordered pairs, that is

A = {(x , µA(x ))|x ∈ X } where µA(x) is called the membership function

for the fuzzy set A.

Note:

µA(x) map each element of X onto a membership grade (or

membership value) between 0 and 1 (both inclusive).

Question:

How (and who) decides µA(x) for a Fuzzy set A in X ?

Example:

A = City of comfort

0.6), (Kolkata, 0.3), (Kharagpur, 0)}

Membership function with discrete

membership values

Either elements or their membership values (or both) also may be of

discrete values.

A ={(0,0.1),(1,0.30),(2,0.78)……(10,0.1)}

Note : X = discrete value

1.0

0.8

0.6

µ

0.4

0.2

0 2 4 6 8

10

Number of children

(X)

A

A = “Happy family”

Membership function with continuous

membership values

1.0

B ( x) 1

x 50

4

0.8 1

10

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 50 100

B

Age (X)

Note : x = real value

+

=R

B = “Middle aged”

Fuzzy terminologies: Support

x ∈ X, such that µA(x ) > 0

A

Fuzzy terminologies: Core

Core: The core of a fuzzy set A is the set of all points x in X such that

µA(x ) = 1

1.0

µ

0.5

x

Fuzzy terminologies: Normality

Normality : A fuzzy set A is a normal if its core is non-empty. In other

words, we can always find a point x ∈ X such that µA(x ) = 1.

1.0

Fuzzy terminologies: Crossover points

Crossover point : A crossover point of a fuzzy set A is a point x

∈ X at which µA(x ) = 0.5. That is

Crossover (A) = {x |µA(x ) = 0.5}.

Fuzzy terminologies: α-cut and strong

α-cut

Aα = {x | µA(x) ≥ α }

Aα ’ = {x | µA(x) > α }

Fuzzy terminologies: Convexity

Convexity : A fuzzy set A is convex if and only if for any x1 and x2 ∈ X

and any λ ∈ [0, 1]

µA (λx1 + (1 -λ)x2 ) ≥ min(µA(x1 ), µA(x2 ))

Note :

• A is convex if all its α- level sets are convex.

• Convexity (Aα ) =⇒ Aα is composed of a single line segment only.

Membership function Non-convex

is convex Membership

function

1.0 1.0

Fuzzy terminologies: Bandwidth

Bandwidth :

For a normal and convex fuzzy set, the bandwidth (or width) is

defined as the distance the two unique crossover points:

Bandwidth(A) = | x1 - x2 |

where µA(x1) = µA(x2) = 0.5

Fuzzy terminologies: Symmetry

Symmetry :

point x = c, namely µA(x + c) = µA(x - c) for all x ∈ X.

Fuzzy terminologies: Open and Closed

A fuzzy set A is

Open left

If limx →−∞ µA(x) = 1 and limx →+∞ µA(x) = 0

Open right:

If limx →−∞ µA(x) = 0 and limx →+∞ µA(x) = 1

Closed

If : limx →−∞ µA(x) = limx →+∞ µA(x) = 0

Open right

Open left Closed

Membership Functions

Fuzzy membership functions

A fuzzy set is completely characterized by its membership function

(sometimes abbreviated as MF and denoted as µ ). So, it would be

important to learn how a membership function can be expressed

(mathematically or otherwise).

Note: A membership function can be on

(a) a discrete universe of discourse and

(b) a continuous universe of discourse.

Example:

1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

µA

µB

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 10 20 30 40 50

60

Fuzzy membership functions

So, membership function on a discrete universe of course is trivial.

However, a membership function on a continuous universe of discourse

needs a special attention.

Typical examples of membership functions.

µ

µ

x x x

µ

x x

Fuzzy MFs : Formulation and parameterization

continuous universe of discourse.

Triangular MFs : A triangular MF is specified by three parameters

{a, b, c} and can be formulated as follows.

Fuzzy MFs: Trapezoidal

A trapezoidal MF is speciﬁed by four parameters

{a; b; c; d} and be defined as follows:

Fuzzy MFs: Gaussian

be defined as below:

Fuzzy MFs: Generalized bell

It is also called Cauchy MF

.

A generalized bell MF is specified by

three parameters {a, b, c} and is defined as:

Fuzzy MFs: Sigmoidal MFs

slope at c;

Fuzzy MFs : Example

Example : Consider the following grading system for a course.

Excellent = Marks ≤ 90

Very good = 75 ≤ Marks ≤ 90

Good = 60 ≤ Marks ≤ 75

Average = 50 ≤ Marks ≤ 60 A fuzzy implementation will look like the

Poor = 35 ≤ Marks ≤ 50 following.

Bad= Marks ≤ 35

Operations on Fuzzy Sets

Union

Intersection

Complement

Products

Basic fuzzy set operations: Union

Union (A ∪ B):

µA∪B (x ) = max{µA(x ), µB (x )}

Example:

A = {(x1, 0.5), (x2, 0.1), (x3, 0.4)} and

B = {(x1, 0.2), (x2, 0.3), (x3, 0.5)};

C = A ∪ B = {(x1, 0.5), (x2, 0.3), (x3, 0.5)}

Intersection

Intersection (A ∩ B):

µA∩B (x ) = min{µA(x ), µB (x )}

Example:

A = {(x1, 0.5), (x2, 0.1), (x3, 0.4)} and

B = {(x1, 0.2), (x2, 0.3), (x3, 0.5)};

C = A ∩ B = {(x1, 0.2), (x2, 0.1), (x3, 0.4)}

fuzzy set operations:

Complement (AC ):

µA (x ) = 1-µA(x )

Example:

A = {(x1, 0.5), (x2, 0.1), (x3, 0.4)}

C = AC = {(x1, 0.5), (x2, 0.9), (x3, 0.6)}

µA•B (x ) = µA(x ) • µB (x )

Scalar product (α × A):

µαA(x ) = α · µA(x )

Sum and Difference

Equality and Power

Cartesian product

Properties of fuzzy sets

Properties of fuzzy sets

Examples:

What are the fuzzy sets representing the following?

1. Not cold climate

2. Not hold climate

3. Extreme climate

4. Pleasant climate

Note: Note that ”Not cold climate” 6 = ”Hot climate” and vice-

versa.

Ans

Fuzzy Resolution Principle

Example

Generation of MFs

Linguistic variables and values

EXTENSION PRINCIPLE

FUZZY RELATIONS

To understand the fuzzy relations, it is better to discuss first

crisp relation.

Suppose, A and B are two (crisp) sets. Then Cartesian

product denoted as A x B is a collection of order pairs, such

that

Ax B = {(a,b)|a €A and b € B}

Note :

(1) Ax B≠ B x A

(2) |A x B| = |A|x |B|

(3)A x B provides a mapping from a € A to b € B.

The mapping so mentioned is called a relation.

Crisp Relation

Example:

Consider the two crisp sets A and B as given below. A ={ 1, 2, 3, 4} B

= {3, 5, 7 }

Then, A x B = {(1; 3); (1; 5); (1; 7); (2; 3); (2; 5); (2; 7); (3; 3); (3;

5); (3; 7); (4; 3); (4; 5); (4; 7)}

Let us define a relation R as R = {(a; b)|b = a + 1; (a; b) € Ax B}

Then, R = {(2; 3); (4; 5)} in this case.

We can represent the relation R in a matrix form as follows.

Fuzzy relations

Fuzzy relation is a fuzzy set defined on the Cartesian product of crisp set

X1,X2,…,Xn

Here, n-tuples (x1, x2,… xn) may have varying degree of memberships

within the relationship.

The membership values indicate the strength of the relation between the

tuples.

Example:

X = { typhoid, viral, cold } and Y = { running nose, high temp, shivering }

The fuzzy relation R is defined as

Binary (Fuzzy) relation

A special fuzzy relation called a binary (fuzzy) relation plays an

important role in fuzzy set theory.

A binary fuzzy relation is a fuzzy relation between two sets X

andY and is denoted by R (X,Y).When X ≠Y, binary relations

R (X,Y) are referred to as bipartite graphs.

When X =Y, R is a binary fuzzy relation on a single set X, and

the relations are referred to as directed graphs, or digraphs, and

are denoted by R (X, X) or R (X2).

Operations on Fuzzy relations

Eg:

Eg2:

Fuzzy rule

A fuzzy implication (also known as fuzzy If-Then rule, fuzzy

rule, or fuzzy conditional statement) assumes the form :

If x is A then y is B

where, A and B are two linguistic variables deﬁned by fuzzy

sets A and B on the universe of discourses X and Y,

respectively.

Often, x is A is called the antecedent or premise, while y is B

is called the consequence or conclusion.

Fuzzy implication : Example 1

If pressure is High then temperature is Low

If road is Good then driving is Smooth else traffic is High

If mango is Yellow then mango is Sweet else mango is Sour

The fuzzy implication is denoted as R : A B

In essence, it represents a binary fuzzy relation R on the

(Cartesian) product of A x B

Suppose, P and T are two universes of discourses

representing pressure and temperature, respectively as

follows.

P ={1,2,3,4} and T ={10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 }

Let the linguistic variable High temperature and Low

pressure are given as

THIGH={(20; 0:2); (25; 0:4); (30; 0:6); (35; 0:6); (40; 0:7);

(45; 0:8); (50; 0:8)}

PLOW = {(1; 0:8); (2; 0:8); (3; 0:6); (4; 0:4)}

Then the fuzzy implication If temperature is High then

pressure is Low can be defined as

R :THIGH PLOW

T-norm operator

Zadeh’s Max-Min rule

Example

Operations of fuzzy sets

Let A and B be fuzzy sets in universal sets U and V respectively.

Fuzzy inferences

Two important inferring procedures are used in fuzzy systems :

If x is A Then y is B

x is A’

————————————

y is B’

If x is A Then y is B

y is B’

————————————

x is A’

Example: GMP

Example: GMT

Example:GMT

Fuzzy logic controller (FLC)

Fuzzy logic control (FLC), initiated by the pioneering work

of Mamdani and Assilian [1975]

To incorporate the "expert experience" of a human operator

In the design of the controller

Input-output relationship is described by a collection of fuzzy

control rules (e.g., IF-THEN rules)

Comprised of four principal components: a fuzzifier, a

fuzzy rule base, an inference engine, and a defuzzifier.

Fuzzy logic controller (FLC)

Input-Output Spaces

Typically, the input variables in a FLC are the state, state

error, state error derivative, state error integral, and so on.

The input vector x which includes the input state linguistic

variables xi form a fuzzy input space U = U1x U2x . . . .x Xn

The output state vector y which includes the output state (or

control) linguistic variables yi form a fuzzy output space

V=V1xV2x . . . .xVn

For example, if xi, indicates real numbers,

then T(xi) ={ T1 xi.,T2 xi.,T3xi} may be “N-negative,”,“ZE-zero,” and “P-

positive.” The size (or cardinality) of a term set | T(xi) |= ki is

called the fuzzy partition of xi

Fuzzifier

It is mapping from an observed input space to labels of fuzzy

sets in a specified input universe of discourse.

A simple fuzzification approach is to convert a crisp value x0

into a fuzzy singleton A.

The membership function of A, µ(x), is equal to 1 at the point

x0 , and zero at other places.

Here a specific value xi(t) at time t, it is mapped to the fuzzy

set T1xi with degreeµ1xi (xi(t)) and to the fuzzy set T2xi with

degree µ2xi (xi(t)) and so on.

Complex cases require both probabilistic and possibilistic

modes of characterization.

Fuzzy Rule Base

a collection of fuzzy IF-THEN rules

collection of fuzzy control rules characterizes the simple

input-output relation of the system.

The general form of the fuzzy control rules of multi-input-

single-output systems (MISO) is:

Ri: IF x is Ai,…., AND y is Bi, THEN z = Ci i=1,2,…, n

Inference Engine

It is the kernel of the FLC

The generalized modus ponens GMP (forward data-driven

inference) widely used

Various Fuzzy Implication Rules

Among the various fuzzy implications, Mamdani's fuzzy implication method Rc associated

with the max-min composition is the most frequently used in fuzzy logic control.

Let us assume that we have two fuzzy control rules as follows:

R1: IF x is A1 AND y is B1, THEN z is C1

R2: IF x is A2 AND y is B2, THEN z is C2

Then the firing strengths α1 and α2 of the first and second rules

may be expressed as

between the user-supplied data and the data in the fuzzy rule

base.

Mamdani's minimum fuzzy implication rule, Rc :The ith fuzzy

control rule leads to the control decision

Illustration

Defuzzifier

In many practical applications crisp control action is required

to actuate the control

Defuzzification is a mapping from a space of fuzzy control

actions defined over an output universe of discourse into a

space of nonfuzzy (crisp) control actions.

It is aimed at producing a nonfuzzy control action

No systematic procedure for choosing a defuzzification

strategy

Two commonly used methods of defuzzification are :

center of area (COA) method

mean of maximum (MOM) method.

Center of area (COA) method

It generates the center of gravity of the possibility

distribution of a control action.

levels of the output and for continuous cases

Mean of maximum (MOM) method.

This strategy generates a control action that represents the mean

value of all local control actions whose membership functions

reach the maximum

For a discrete universe, the control action is:

reaches the maximum value µC(zj) and m is the number of such

support values

Example:

Given a fuzzy logic control system with the following two fuzzy control rules

Rule 1: IF x is A1 AND y is B1, THEN z is C1

Rule 2: IF x is A2 AND y is B2, THEN z is C2

Suppose x0 and y0 are the sensor readings for linguistic input variables x and y and the

following Membership functions for fuzzy predicates A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2 are given:

Further assume that at time t1, we are reading the sensor values at x0 (t1) = 4 and

y0(t1) = 8. How the final control output is computed?

DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEMS

1. Defining input and output variables,

2. Deciding on the fuzzy partition of the input and output spaces

and choosing the membership functions for the input and

output linguistic variables,

3. Deciding on the types and the derivation of fuzzy control rules,

4. Designing the inference mechanism, which includes choosing a

fuzzy implication and a compositional operator, and the

interpretation of sentence connectives AND and ALSO, and

5. Choosing a defuzzification operator.

Derivation of fuzzy control rules

There are four methods for the derivation of fuzzy control rules and these methods are not

mutually exclusive.

1. Expert experience and control engineering knowledge

2. Modeling an operator's control actions

3. Based on a fuzzy model or behavior analysis of a controlled process

4. Based on learning (or self-organizing)

EXERCISES:

Try do some problems given in text….

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