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THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR

Ministry of Health

National Drinking Water Quality Standards


Myanmar

September, 2014
National Drinking Water Quality Standards Myanmar
Preface
Since 1990, Environmental Sanitation Division under Department of Health
has initiated to develop the National Drinking Water Quality Standard in
Myanmar by the cooperation and collaboration of other water related agencies
both government and non-government organizations and identified the
parameters and their Maximum Permissible Limit Values by the separate
categories with the assistances of WHO country office Myanmar. In 2012,
Occupational Health Division with the assistance of UNICEF WASH sector has
done forwarding of NDWQS Myanmar by active participation of relevant
stakeholders and experts of various departments. So that, some improvements
for NDWQS Myanmar were addressed such as adoption of pesticides parameters,
getting the consensus for selection of important and relevant parameters,
specifying the laboratory procedures for each parameter, minimum frequency
and procedure of sampling for bacteriological, physical and chemical quality, and
priority parameters for routine monitoring and surveillance of Drinking Water
Quality.
The task force on Drinking Water Quality Standards was formed by Director
General of Department of Health to ensure the adoption NDWQS Myanmar as the
reference document for health purposes. Both WHO and UNICEF assist in all steps
of activities. The standards were based on the series of WHO guidelines and other
countries NDWQSs with the particular adaptation to recent problems in
Myanmar. NDWQS Myanmar was revised through the inter-ministries and inter-
agencies consultations among the sectors from all water related agencies.
Eventually the final version of Drinking water quality Standards has been emerged
through a round table discussion among the stakeholders which held at
Kaytumadi Hotel , Taungoo from 23rd to 24th July 2014 and it is on the way to step
ahead to seek adoption from national authorities.

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CONTENT
PREFACE page number
CONTENT
1. Introduction 4
2. Foreword 6
3. Objective 7
4. Scope and Coverage 7
5. Normative reference 7
6. Definition 8
7. General requirements 10
7.1 Microbiological Quality 12
7.1.1 Microbiological Indicators of drinking water quality 12
7.1.2 Microbiological Requirements 13
7.2 Physical and Chemical Quality 13
7.2.1 Requirements for physical quality 19
7.2.2 Requirements for chemical quality 20
(Inorganic chemical constituents of health significance) 20
(Inorganic chemical constituents NOT of health significance) 21
(Pesticides) 22
7.3 Radioactive substances 23
7.3.1 Requirements for Radioactive substances 23
7.4 Sampling 23
7.4.1 Sampling and Analysis for Microbiological quality 23
7.4.1(a) Volume of sample 23

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7.4.1(b) Sample container 23
7.4.1(c) Sample collection, Handling and storage 24
7.4.1(d) Identification of samples 24
7.4.1(e) Minimum frequency of sampling and analysis 25
7.4.2 Sampling and Analysis for physical and chemical quality 25
7.4.2(a) Volume of sample 26
7.4.2(b) Sample container 26
7.4.2(c) Identification of samples 27
7.4.2(d) Minimum frequency of sampling and analysis 28
7.5 Other Methods of test/determination 28
8. Priority drinking water quality parameters 28
9. Water Safety Plan 29
10. Conclusions 30
Annex. 1 Potential Health Effects of Some Parameters contaminated in 31
Drinking Water
Annex. 2 Summary of Special Sampling and Handling Requirements 34
Annex. 3 Other non reference microbiological testing methods 36
Annex. 4 Other non reference testing methods for physical quality 36
Annex. 5 Other non reference testing methods for chemical quality 36
(Inorganic chemical constituents of health significance)
Annex. 6 Other non reference testing methods for chemical quality 38
(Inorganic chemical constituents not of health significance)
Annex. 7 Other non reference testing methods for chemical quality 39
(Pesticides)

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National Drinking Water Quality Standards Myanmar

I. Introduction

There are most common use of terms applies to drinking water viz:-

Pure water is a kind of theoretical concept, it means water that has


nothing in it except H2O (hydrogen and oxygen). Absolutely pure water doesn't
really exist in nature. Water, known as the "universal solvent," always contains
traces of the substances with which it has been in contact. These may include
gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen from the air, minerals such as
calcium and silica from rocks, and organic matter such as weak organic acid from
soil and vegetation. Most of these naturally occurring substances are harmless
and, in some cases, beneficial.
Potable water contains no contaminants introduced by humans, such as
pesticides, pathogenic microbes, nitrates, metals, and other toxic chemicals.
Safe water means water that will not harm if come in contact with it. To be
safe, the water must have sufficiently low concentrations of harmful
contaminants to avoid sickening people who use it. The list of harmful
contaminants includes disease-causing microbes such as bacteria, viruses, and
protozoan; cancer-causing chemicals such as many pesticides, organic solvents,
petroleum products, chlorinated byproducts of the disinfection process, and some
metals and metalloids; nitrates and nutrients, endocrine-disrupting compounds,
strong acids, strong bases, radionuclide, and any other acutely toxic substance.
A basic human right, access to safe drinking water is essential for the
promotion and protection of human health. Drinking water or potable water is
water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low risk of immediate
or long term harm. Provision of safe water adequately can prevent the
transmission of waterborne pathogens and reduces the exposure of individuals to
chemicals and physical hazards that could be ingested through contaminated
drinking water. In the mean time water of poor quality can cause disease
outbreaks and it can contribute to background rates of disease manifesting
themselves on different time scales. Moreover providing safe and secure water to

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people around the world and promoting sustainable use of water resources are
fundamental objectives of the Millennium Development goals.
Standards and guidelines are established to protect water for designated
uses such as drinking, recreation, agricultural irrigation, or protection and
maintenance of aquatic life etc; Selected characteristics are then compared to
numeric standards and guidelines to decide if the water is suitable for a particular
use. Standards for drinking-water quality ensure that public drinking-water
supplies are as safe as possible
Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for
drinking water. Setting standards for drinking water establishes the threshold
limits for different impurities found in drinking or potable water. These limits are
intended to minimize risk to prevent untoward health consequences resulting
from lifelong exposure to these impurities through consumption of water.
Actually there are no universally recognized and accepted international standards
for drinking water. Even where standards do exist, and are applied, the permitted
concentration of individual constituents may vary by as much as ten times from
one set of standards to another.
Where drinking water quality standards do exist, most are expressed as
guidelines or targets rather than requirements, and very few water standards
have any legal basis or, are subject to enforcement. Two exceptions are the
European Drinking Water Directive and the Safe Drinking Water Act in the USA,
which require legal compliance with specific standards. Countries with guideline
values as their standards include Canada, which has guideline values for a
relatively small suite of parameters, New Zealand, where there is a legislative
basis, but water providers have to make "best endeavors" to comply with the
standards, and Australia.
The Department of Health is mandated to formulate Myanmar National
Drinking Water Standards. After overcoming lengthy periods, heated discussions,
frequent debates and dialogues 2006 Myanmar National Drinking Water
Standards (MNDWS) that are based on guidelines or criteria that are
recommended by international institutes like WHO, US EPA, etc. has been finally
set. In addition to such tasks the government recognizes recent quality related
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concerns in the water supply sector in the country and elsewhere such as the
followings:
(1) New information on chemicals: As an outcome of deliberate use of
agrochemicals in emerging agricultural industries and even in domestic
practices, new chemicals find their ways into the environment and
contaminated water bodies.
(2) Proliferation of water filling stations as alternative drinking water
sources: The quality of processed water may require distinct standards
compared to the water from large water systems.
(3) Detection of naturally occurring hazardous substances in ground water:
The presence of chemicals such as Arsenic and Fluoride resulting from
natural geochemical process and anthropogenic causes is inevitable
constituent in some water sources
(4) The need for different approaches in supporting safe management of
water supply systems. Myanmar Drinking Water Quality Standards 2006
(MDWQS 2006) strongly considered an effective water quality surveillance
system to incorporate in order to address water quality issues since from
the very beginning. The application of Water Safety Plans has been
introduced encourage water providers to systematically monitor the quality
of water at all phases of production and distribution.

II. Foreword

This standard was formulated by Technical Committee (2)-Food stuff of the


Department of Standards of Myanmar Science Technology and Research
Department (MSTRD). It was approved by the Technical Committee in September
2014.

This standard is based on the guide line ‘Myanmar Drinking Water Quality
Standards, 2014 published by the Ministry of Health of the Government of
Myanmar.

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III. Objective

To promote public health, safety and welfare by ensuring quality standards


of drinking water

IV. Scope and Coverage

This standard is applicable to drinking water available in Myanmar. This


standard is not applicable to bottled drinking water. This standard shall apply to
all water works officials, developers and operators of water supply system both
government and private entities, all establishments and institutions that supply or
serve drinking water, drinking water laboratories, health and sanitation
authorities, the general public and all other concerned.

V. Normative references

- WHO Drinking Water Quality Guideline 3rd and 4th Edition

- Standard methods for examination of water and waste water, 21st Edition,
APHA (American Water Works Association/American Public Works
Association/Water Environment Federation)

- Drinking Water Contaminants and Drinking Water Standards of United


State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

- Drinking Water Quality Standards of Kingdom of Cambodia

- National Standards of Drinking Water, Republic of Philippines

- Drinking Water Quality in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

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VI. Definition

Aesthetic - Aspects of drinking water quality perceived by senses, including


odor, taste, color and clarity.

Coliforms(faecal) - Subgroup of coliform bacteria associated with fecal


contamination from warm blooded animals. It can an ferment lactose
at 44.5°C during analysis. It also known as thermotolerant coliforms.

Coliforms(total) - Both fecal and non-fecal bacteria from humans, animals, and
decayed organic matter that are able to ferment lactose at either 35
or 37°C within 24-48 hours.

Composite Sample - Refers to a mixture of grab samples collected at the


same sampling points at different times.

Contamination - A general term referring to the introduction of materials not


normally found in water that make the water less desirable or unfit
for its intended use.

Drinking Water - Water that is suitable for human consumption such as


drinking and cooking.

Disinfection - Water treatment processes designed to destroy disease – causing


micro-organisms. The efficacy of disinfection is often assessd by
measuring the coliform group of indicator organism.

Grab or Catch Sample- A sample collected at a particular time and place and
can represent only the composition of the source at the time and
place.

Gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity - Radio activity emanating from
radionuclides belonging to the uranium, thorium and actinium series
which are terrestrial in origin. It also includes radionuclides that
occur singly and are produced by cosmic rays and are terrestrial in
origin.

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Groundwater - Any water found beneath the surface of the ground in rock
crevices and in the pores of geologic materials.

Integrated Samples - For certain purposes, the information needed is


provided analyzing mixtures of grab samples collected from different
points simultaneously, or as nearly as possible.

Inorganic parameters - Non-carbon based chemicals

Most Probable Number (MPN) - A statistical method of determining microbial


populations. A multiple dilution tube technique is utilized with a
standard medium and observations are made for specific individual
tube effects. Resultant coding is translated by mathematical
probability tables into population numbers.

Monitoring - Routine collection of water samples for analysis to determine water


quality, usually, usually done by water supplier.

Nephelometric Turbidity - A measure of the turbidity (cloudiness) of water as


measured by a nephelometer Unit (NTU)

Organic parameters - Carbon-based chemicals

Pesticides - Agricultural chemicals used to eradicate or control pests such as


insects, weeds, snails, rodents, and mites.

Physical parameters - Characteristics of water that can be detected by the


senses including taste, odor, color and turbidity.

Raw water - Untreated, non-disinfected surface or groundwater.

Sanitary inspection - Onsite inspection of a community or facility to identify


the hazards associates with water supply. Usually includes water
sampling and analysis.

Surface water - Freshwater on the Earth's surface, such as stream, river, lake,
pond or reservoir.

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Standard Methods - Methods of analysis prescribed by APHA water and
waste water analysis or Methods accepted by authority.

Surveillance - Process of checking if monitoring of drinking water supplies


conforms to the standards. Usually conducted by government
authority and may include sanitary inspection, water monitoring,
data processing, and report.

True Color Unit (TCU) - Measure of color of filtered water sample that could
come from iron or dissolved organic substances, also quoted in
Hazen unit.

Water Quality - A description of the chemical, physical, and biological


characteristics of water, usually in respect to its suitability for a
particular purpose, such as for drinking.

Water Quality Standard - A level for a water constituent which does not result in
significant health risk and which ensures acceptability of the water to
consumers.

VII. General Requirements

The most common dissolved substances in water are minerals or salts that,
as a group, are referred to as dissolved solids. Dissolved solids include common
constituents such as calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride; plant nutrients
such as nitrogen and phosphorus; and trace elements such as selenium,
chromium, and arsenic.
In general, the common constituents are not considered harmful to human
health, although some constituents can affect the taste, smell, or clarity of water.
Plant nutrients and trace elements in water can be harmful to human health and
aquatic life if they exceed standards or guidelines values.
Dissolved gases such as oxygen and radon are common in natural waters.
Adequate oxygen levels in water are a necessity for fish and other aquatic life.

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Radon gas can be a threat to human health when it exceeds drinking-water
standards.
The quality of water, whether used for drinking, domestic purposes, food
production or recreational purposes has an important impact on health. Water
quality can be thought of as a measure of the suitability of water for a particular
use based on selected physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. To
determine water quality, scientist first measure and analyze characteristics of the
water such as temperature dissolved mineral content, and number of bacteria.
Some aspects of water quality can be determined right in the stream or at
the well. These include temperature, acidity (pH), dissolved oxygen, and electrical
conductance (an indirect indicator of dissolved minerals in the water).

Range of standards

Although drinking water standards frequently are referred to as if they are


simple lists of parametric values, standards documents also specify the sampling
location, sampling methods, sampling frequency, analytical methods, and
laboratory accreditation AQC. In addition, a number of standards documents also
require calculation to determine whether a level exceeds the standard, such as
taking an average. Some standards give complex, detailed requirements for the
statistical treatment of results, temporal and seasonal variations, summation of
related parameters, and mathematical treatment of apparently aberrant results.
Parameters for drinking water quality typically fall under three categories:
 Physical
 Chemical
 Microbiological
Physical and chemical parameters include heavy metals, trace organic
compounds, total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity. Physical parameters
affect the aesthetics and taste of the drinking water and may complicate the
removal of microbial pathogens.

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Chemical parameters tend to pose more of a chronic health risk through
buildup of heavy metals although some components like nitrates/nitrites, fluoride
and arsenic can have a more immediate impact.
Microbiological parameters include Coliform bacteria, E. coli, and specific
pathogenic species of bacteria (such as cholera-causing Vibrio cholerae), viruses,
and protozoan parasites.
Originally, fecal contamination was determined with the presence of
coliform bacteria, a convenient marker for a class of harmful fecal pathogens. The
presence of fecal coliforms (like E. Coli) serves as an indication of contamination
by sewage. Additional contaminants include protozoan oocysts such as
Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia, Legionella, and viruses (enteric). Microbial
pathogenic parameters are typically of greatest concern because of their
immediate health risk.

7.1 Microbiological Quality


7.1.1 Microbiological Indicators of drinking water quality

Waterborne pathogens

Water systems must strive to keep their drinking water free of disease
causing organisms known as pathogens. All of these diseases are caused by
pathogenic bacteria except Hepatitis which is a virus.

Diseases caused by waterborne pathogens:

All water sources: Typhoid, Paratyphoid (Types A&B), Cholera, Dysentery,


Hepatitis

Surface water only: Protozoa such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia

Coliform group of bacteria

If coliform bacteria are present in the water supply, pathogens may also be
present. The coliform bacteria live longer in water and are easier to detect by
laboratory testing. This is the reason the coliform group has been chosen as the

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indicator organisms for waterborne pathogens. If coliform bacteria are not
present it is assumed there are no pathogens present either.
Results may reveal as either total coloiform positive (TC positive) or fecal
coliform positive (FC positive or E.coli positive ). Total coliform positive means
that no human coliform are present. Fecal coliform positive indicates the
presence of E.coli which means there is a greater chance of pathogens being
present.

7.1.2 Microbiological requirements

The water shall conform to the requirements given in Table 1.

Table 1- Microbiological requirements


Para Treated Water in Emergency
Units of Un-piped
meters Method of pipe distribution water
Measure water
Testing water system supply
ment
VALUES
Multiple Tube
Total
Fermentation MPN/
Coliforms 0 0 3 10
Technique(MTFT) 100ml
APHA 9221A

Multiple Tube
Faecal
Fermentation MPN/
Coliforms
Technique(MTFT)
0 0 0 3
100ml
APHA 9221E

7.2 Physical and Chemical Quality

Color
Water might be affected by iron, a commonly occurring constituent of
drinking water. Iron tends to add a rusty, reddish brown (or sometimes yellow)
color to water, and leaves particles of the same color. If the color is more like
black, it could be a combination of iron and manganese. Both of these metals can
cause staining of plumbing fixtures or laundry, but they are not known to cause
health problems.

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Hardness
The constituents that contribute to hardness (generally calcium and
magnesium ions) are not toxic; that is, they do not cause harmful health effects.
Instead, there is a generally accepted division of water into categories of soft,
moderately hard, hard, and very hard. Most water utilities try to provide water
that is not in the very hard category because of the unpleasant effects such as
scaling in equipment and the need for more soap and synthetic detergents. In
addition, many homeowners in hard-water areas use water softeners to further
reduce hardness by substituting sodium for calcium and magnesium.

Odor
The odors can be objectionable, but generally are not harmful to health.
A frequent cause of musty, earthy odors, especially toward the end of the
summer, odors can be caused by other constituents as well.

Acceptability Aspect
The chemicals and physical quality of water may affect its acceptability by
consumers. Problems resulting to taste, odor, turbidity, color and similar nature
may originate in raw water sources, within the treatment processes, in the
distribution system or in the plumbing systems of the consumers. Although
acceptability aspects of drinking water quality do not have adverse health
implications, standards are set to satisfy the need of consumers for a colorless,
odorless and tasteless drinking water.

Chemical Contaminants
Various forms of chemicals, which occur naturally in the environment and
in raw, water or used in agriculture, industries, and water treatment processes or
domestically may be found in drinking water supplies. There are few chemical
constituents or water that can lead to acute health problems except through
massive accidental contamination of drinking water supply. Inorganic constituents
may be present in drinking water as a result of leaching out of piping or plumbing
materials such as lead, copper, asbestos, nickel and cadmium. Organic
constituents in water could come from various sources such as the decomposition
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of organic debris, domestic, agricultural and industrial activities and
contamination that occur during water treatment and distribution. These
activities generate wastewater discharges, agricultural and urban runoff and
leachates form contaminated soils that may include pesticides, solvents, metal
degreasers and plasticizers and petroleum products. Other organic contaminants
are formed during water treatment processes such as coagulation, chlorination
and ozonation.

Particulates in water supply


Particles in water may consist of suspended finely divided solids and
colloids, clay, silt, fibrous substances as well as living organisms. Particles affect
the aesthetic quality or acceptability by the consumers. They can also be of
significant health concern since they could be toxic or could adsorb toxic
substances. Particulates could interfere with disinfection and other treatment
processes. There are no recommended standard values for floating and settled
materials, but it is suggested that no floating or settled materials should be found
in drinking water.

Solids
Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water or waste water.
Water with high dissolved solids generally are of inferior palatability and may
induce an unfavorable physiological reaction in the transient consumer. Water
high in suspended solids may be esthetically unsatisfactory for purpose such as
bathing as well. Total solid is the term applied to the material residue left in the
vessel after evaporation of a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at a
different temperature. Total solids includes “Total Suspended Solids”[TSS] the
portion of total solids retained by a filter and “Total Dissolved Solids”[TDS] the
portion that passes through the filter.

Arsenic

Severe poisoning can arise from the ingestion of as little as 100mg arsenic
trioxide; chronic effects may result from the accumulation of arsenic compounds
in the body at low intake levels. The US EPA drinking water standard is 0.05mg/L.
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Calcium
The presence of calcium in water supplies results from passage over
deposits of limestone, dolomite, gypsum and gypsiferous shale. Calcium
contributes to the total hardness of water.

Copper
Copper forms a number of complexes in natural water with inorganic and
organic legends. Some copper compounds are toxic by ingestion or inhalation.

Fluoride
Fluoride is added to water to help prevent tooth decay. The optimum
dosage for fluoride is 0.8-1.2 mg/L. However, at higher concentrations, fluoride
can create stains on teeth and lead to brittle bones in older individuals. The
average ambient air temperature for the system is used to determine the
optimum dosage for fluoride.

Iron
Elevated iron levels in water can cause staining in plumbing, laundry, and
cooking utensils and can impart objectionable taste and colors to foods.

Lead
Lead in a water supply may come from industrial, mining and smelter
discharges or from the dissolution of plumbing and plumbing fixtures. It is toxic
and is a cumulative poison.

Magnesium
Magnesium is important contributor to the hardness of water. It is an
essential element in chlorophyll and in red blood cells. Some salts of magnesium
are toxic by ingestion or inhalation. Concentrations greater than 125mg/L also can
have a cathartic and diuretic effect.

Manganese
The aqueous chemistry of manganese is similar to that of Iron. Upon
exposure to air or other oxidants, ground water containing manganese usually will

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precipitate black manganese dioxide. Elevated manganese levels can cause
staining in plumbing, laundry, and cooking utensils.

Mercury
Micro-organisms present in water transform mercury in water into methyl
mercury which is very toxic. Mercury is of concern because it accumulates in the
tissues of wildlife and humans, sometimes at tens of thousands of times the
concentrations found in the water source causing reproductive and neurological
problems.

Nitrate and Nitrite


Nitrate (NO3) is a common inorganic form of nitrogen. Chemically, it is an
anion with a single negative charge, consisting of one atom of nitrogen and three
atoms of oxygen. Because it is an anion, it is soluble in water. Plants normally use
nitrate as their source of the nitrogen needed by all living things, and so nitrate is
considered a nutrient for plants. Excessive concentrations of nitrate in lakes and
streams greater than about 5 milligrams per liter (measured as nitrogen),
depending on the water body, can cause excessive growth of algae and other
plants, leading to accelerated eutrophication or "aging" of lakes, and occasional
loss of dissolved oxygen. Animals and humans cannot use inorganic forms of
nitrogen, so nitrate is not a nutrient for human beings. If nitrate-nitrogen exceeds
10 milligrams per liter in drinking water, it can cause a condition called
methemoglobinemia or "blue baby syndrome" in infants. Some recent studies
have indicated a possible connection between elevated nitrate concentrations
and cancer.
Nitrate can get into water directly as the result of runoff of fertilizers
containing nitrate. Some nitrate enters water from the atmosphere, which carries
nitrogen-containing compounds derived from automobiles and other sources.
Nitrate can also be formed in water bodies through the oxidation of other, more
reduced forms of nitrogen, including nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen
compounds such as amino acids. Ammonia and organic nitrogen can enter water
through sewage effluent and runoff from land where manure has been applied or
stored.
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Turbidity
Turbidity refers to water clarity. Turbidity is clay, silt or mud in the water.
Although turbidity does not represent a health risk by itself, it can shield harmful
bacteria from disinfection processes. Turbidity is measured in Nephelometric
Turbidity Units (NTU). The device used to measure NTU’s is called a nephelometer
or turbidity meter. Turbidity is often expressed as Total suspended solids (TSS).

Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)


It is the proportion of solids in water. This material can include carbonate,
bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium
organic ions and other ions.

Total Hardness
Water hardness was understood to be a measure of the capacity of water
to precipitate soap. Total hardness is defined as the sum of the calcium and
magnesium concentrations.

Zinc
The concentration above 5mg/l can cause a bitter astringent taste and
opalescence in alkaline waters.

pH
The pH of the water is the measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of the
water. Practically every phase of water supply and waste water treatment is pH
dependant. Alkalinity and acidity are the acid and base neutralization capacities of
a water and usually are expressed as milligrams CaCo3 per liter. Natural waters
usually have pH values in the range of 4 to 9 and most are slightly basic because
of the presence of the bicarbonates and carbonates of the alkali and alkaline
earth metals.

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7.2.1 Requirements for physical quality

The requirements of inorganic physical constituents shall be as given in


Table 2.

Table 2- Organoleptic and Physical requirements

Para
Method of Testing Units of Measurement Value
meters
Sensory Evaluation Technique
Acceptable/
Taste (Flavor Threshold Test(FTT))
No objectionable taste
APHA 2160B

Sensory Evaluation Technique


Acceptable/
Odor (Threshold Odor Test)
No objectionable odor
APHA 2150B

Spectro-photometric -Single wavelength


Color TCU(True Color Unit) 15
APHA 2120C

NTU
Nephelometric Method
Turbidity Nephelometric Turbidity 5
APHA 2130B
Units

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7.2.2 Requirements for chemical quality

The requirements of inorganic chemical constituents shall be as given in


Table 3a, 3b, 3c

Table 3a- Requirements of Chemical Quality (Inorganic Chemical Constituents of Health Significance)
Para
Method of Testing Units of Measurement Value
meters
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Antimony mg/L 0.02
APHA 3111B
Hydride generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Arsenic mg/L 0.05
APHA 3114B
Graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Barium mg/L 0.7
APHA 3111D
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Boron mg/L 2.4
APHA 3120A
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Cadmium mg/L 0.003
APHA 3111B &C
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Chromium mg/L 0.05
APHA 3111 B&C
Colorimetric method
Cyanide mg/L 0.07
APHA 4500 CN¯E
SPADNS colorimetric
Fluoride mg/L 1.5
APHA 4500F¯ D
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Lead mg/L 0.01
APHA 3111B
Mercury Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
mg/L 0.001
(Total) APHA 3112B
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Nickel mg/L 0.07
APHA 3111B&C
Ultraviolet(UV) technique
Nitrate mg/L 50
APHA 4500 NO3¯B
Colorimetric method
Nitrite mg/L 3
APHA 4500 NO2¯B
Hydride generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Selenium mg/L 0.04
APHA 3114 B&C
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Uranium mg/L 0.03
APHA 3125
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method
Copper mg/L 2
APHA 3111B&C
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method
Manganese mg/L 0.4
APHA 3111B&C

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Table 3b- Requirements of Chemical Quality (Inorganic Chemical Constituents not of Health Significance)

Para Units of
Method of Testing Value
meters Measurement
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method mg/L
Aluminum 0.2
APHA 3111D&E
Ammonia Titri-metric method mg/L
1.5
Nitrogen APHA 4500 NH3A
Argentometric Method mg/L
Chloride 250
APHA 4500Cl¯B
EDTA Titrimetric method
Hardness mg/L as CaCO3 500
APHA 2340C
Methylene Blue Method
Sulphide 2 mg/L 0.05
APHA 4500S ¯D
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method
Iron mg/L 1
APHA3111B&C
Electrometric Method 6.5 to
pH +
APHA 4500H B 8.5
Flame emission photometric method
Sodium mg/L 200
APHA 3500 NaB
Gravimetric Method
Sulphate 2 mg/L 250
APHA SO4 ¯D
Total
Dried at 180˙C
Dissolved mg/L 1000
APHA 2540 C
Solid(TDS)
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method
Zinc mg/L 3
APHA 3111 B&C
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method
Calcium mg/L 200
APHA 3111 B, D&E
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method
Magnesium mg/L 150
APHA 3111 B

22 | P a g e
Table 3c- Requirements of Chemical Quality (pesticides)
Para Units of
Method of Testing Value
meters Measurement
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method with UV
Alachlor detector mg/L 0.02
APHA 6610 B
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method
Aldicarb mg/L 0.01
APHA 6610 B
Aldrin & Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
mg/L 0.00003
Dieldrin APHA 6630 B&C
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Atrazine mg/L 0.1
APHA 6630 B&C
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method
Carbofuan mg/L 0.007
APHA 6610 B
Gas Chromatographic method with Flame Photometric Detector
Chlorpyrifos mg/L 0.03
APHA 6630 B
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
2,4-D mg/L 0.03
APHA 6640 B
Gas Chromatographic method with Flame Photometric Detector
Dimethoate mg/L 0.006
APHA 6630 B&C
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Endrin mg/L 0.0006
APHA 6630 B&C
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Lindane mg/L 0.002
APHA 6630 B
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
DDT mg/L 0.01
APHA 6630 B&C
Gas Chromatographic method with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector
Acephate mg/L 0.01
APHA 6630 B
Imida- High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method
mg/L 0.01
cloprid APHA 6610 B
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Endosulfan mg/L 0.03
APHA 6630 B&C

23 | P a g e
7.3 Radioactive Substances Quality

7.3.1 Requirements for radioactive substances

The requirements of radioactive substances shall be as given in Table 4.

Table 4- Requirements of radioactive substances


Para
Method of Testing Units of Measurement Value
meters
Gross Alpha APHA 7110 C Bq/L 0.5

Gross Beta APHA 7110 B Bq/L 1

7.4 Sampling

7.4.1 Sampling and Analysis for Microbiological quality

To determine the safety and acceptability of drinking-water supply,


appropriate laboratory examinations should be conducted on representative
samples of water taken at all critical stages in the production and consumption of
water supply. These stages include, and not limited to: the water sources, in the
course of and after the treatment process (if any), and from a reasonable number
of points in the distribution network. Microbiological examination, i.e.
determination of fecal contamination of water supply, is conducted more
frequently than the other tests because of the high probability of microbial
contamination and the extent of public health it might cause.

7.4.1(a) Volume of sample

The volume of sample should be sufficient to carry out all tests required,
preferably not less than 200 ml.

7.4.1(b) Sample container

Collect samples for microbiological examination in 500 ml clear bottles that


have been cleansed and rinsed carefully, given a final rinse with distilled water

24 | P a g e
and sterilized as directed in the standard method of analysis for water and
wastewater. Sampling bottles should be Plastic or screwed capped boro-silicated,
autoclaved glass bottles. For that have been chlorinated, add 0.1 ml of a 3%
solution of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) to a clean sample bottle before
sterilization.

7.4.1(c) Sample Collection, Handling and storage

The sample should be representative of the water under examination.


Contamination during collection and before examination should be avoided. The
tap should be cleaned and free from attachments and fully opened with water
allowed to waste for a sufficient time to permit the flushing/ clearing of the
service lines. Flaming is not necessary. Taps with a history of previous
contamination may be disinfected with hypochlorite solution (NaOCl 100mg/L).
No samples shall be taken from leaking taps.
The sampling bottle should be kept unopened until it is ready for filling.
Remove stopper or cap as a unit; do not contaminate inner surface of stopper or
cap and neck of bottle. Fill container without rinsing, it should be filled without
rinsing and ample space (at Least 2.5 cm) must be left to facilitate mixing by
shaking. Replace stopper or cap immediately.
Water samples should be processed promptly or within six (6) hours after
collection or if not possible the use of ice coolers for storage of water samples
during transport to the laboratory is recommended. The time elapsed between
collections and processing should in no case exceed 24 hours.

7.4.1(d) Identification of Samples

Sampling bottles must be tagged with complete and accurate identification


and description. The information about the samples can be recorded in a request
form for analysis of water quality.

25 | P a g e
7.4.1(e) Minimum frequency of sampling and analysis for Microbiological quality

The minimum number of samples to be collected and examined periodically


must be based on the mode and source of water supply.

Table 5. Minimum Frequency of Sampling and Analysis for Microbiological quality

Sr. Type of water source Minimum frequency of sampling and analysis

<5000 population - 1sample/month


5000-100,000 population-1sample/month
1 Treated piped water
>100,000 population - 20samples + 1 /10,000
population / month
<5000 population - 1sample/month
5000-100,000 population-1sample/month
2 Water in the distribution system
>100,000 population - 20samples + 1 /10,000
population / month
3 Un-piped water supplies once initially
4 Emergency water supplies Before delivery to users

7.4.2 Sampling and analysis for physical and chemical quality

The actual collection of the water sample is a matter of considerable


importance. It is impossible to state unequivocally how much time should be
allowed between the time of collection of a sample and its analysis. This depends
on the character of the sample, the particular analyses to be made and the
conditions of storage. For sampling, the following procedures should be observed:

Collect samples from wells only after the well has been pumped sufficiently
to ensure that the samples represent the quality of groundwater that feeds the
well. Sometimes it will be necessary to pump at a specified rate to achieve a
characteristic drawdown as part of the sample record. New wells will require
sufficient utilization and abstraction before sampling. Collect samples from open
shallow wells by taking a composite sample.

When samples are collected from surface water sources such as river or
stream, it is best to take a composite sample from three depths (top, middle and
bottom). In this way, the sample becomes representative. If only a grab or catch

26 | P a g e
sample can be collected, it is best to take in the middle of the stream and at mid-
depth.

When sampling lakes and reservoirs, which are naturally subjected to


considerable variations from normal causes, the choice of location, depth, and
frequency of sampling will depend on the local conditions and the purpose of the
investigation.

Before samples are collected from distribution systems, flush the lines
sufficiently to ensure that the sample is representative of the supply, taking into
account the diameter and length of the pipe to be flushed and the velocity of
flow.

Sample of oil films recovered from the surface of stream or other bodies of
water will be almost impossible to evaluate in relation to the total volume of
water, the total film area, and the thickness involved. A method commonly
container washed with solvent and air – dried before use. The glass-stopped
container should not be completely filled, as a loss of floating oil may occur in
stopper ring. It is advisable to collect the desired quantity of sample in an
oversized bottle that has previously been marked at the desired volume.

7.4.2(a) Volume of Sample

One (1) Liter of sample should suffice for physical and chemical analysis.

Note: No attempt should be made to use the sample for microbiological


and microscopic examination because collection and handling methods are quite
different for these analyses.

7.4.2(b) Sample Container

In all cases, the container should be chosen so that it will not contaminate the
sample.

Chemically resistant glass (Pyrex), Polyethylene, or hard rubbers are


suitable materials for containers. For samples containing organics, avoid plastic
containers except those made of fluorinated polymers such as
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Glass containers generally are preferred for
27 | P a g e
volatile organics. Sample containers must be carefully cleaned to remove all
extraneous surface dirt, thoroughly rinsed with distilled water and drained before
use.

For glass bottles, rinsing with chromic acid cleaning solution is necessary. An
alternative method is with the use of alkaline permanganate solution followed by
an oxalic acid solution. For polyethylene bottles, detergents or concentrated
hydrochloric acid can be used. Stoppers, caps an plugs should be chosen to resist
the attack of material contained in the vessel or container. Cork stoppers
wrapped with a relatively inert metal foil are suitable for many samples, or
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

The sample containers should be such that when filled with the desired
amount of sample of sample, space roughly equivalent to 1 percent of the
volumetric capacity of the containers is available for expansion of the liquid.

7.4.2(c) Identification of Samples

Sample containers must be properly labeled. A gummed label, or cardboard


or tag securely affixed to the container should be provided with the following
information.

- Date and time of sampling


- Source of sample
- Point of sampling (designed in sufficient detail to enable anyone to collect
a second sample from the identical sport from which the first sample was
taken)
- Temperature of the sample
- Sampled by: (name of collector)

7.4.2(d) Minimum Frequency of Sampling


The minimum frequency of sampling for drinking water supply systems for
physical and chemical analysis is provided in Table 6.

28 | P a g e
Table 6. Minimum Frequency of Sampling for Drinking-Water Supply Systems for Physical and
Chemical Analysis

Sr. Type of water source Minimum frequency of sampling and analysis


1 Treated piped water
2 Water in the distribution system Two times per year
3 Un-piped water supplies
4 Emergency water supplies

7.5. Other Methods of test/determination

The other methods of test/determination are given in Annex. 3 to Annex. 7

VIII. Priority drinking water quality parameters

Department of Health in collaboration with World health Organization and


UNICEF had been conducted series of workshops since 1999 to identify the list of
parameters that will be examined in assessing the portability of drinking water. To
achieve this, National Health authority through the Drinking water Quality
Assessment Task Force this consists of the professionals, relevant responsible
persons form concerning divisions, experts from various government
departments and consultants from WHO and UNICEF shall undertake a systematic
assessment and thorough review and revised repeatedly all the parameters listed
in the 2006 Myanmar National Drinking Water Standards in consultation with the
following authorities: Health, Water resources, Public works, Yangon City
Development Committees, Mandalay City Development Committees, Nay Pyi Taw
City Development Committees, Agricultural and Irrigation, Environment, Rural
Development, Mining, Industries, Science and Technology, etc;
Water quality is usually determined by analyzing samples of water collected
by teams of personal visiting monitoring stations at regular intervals. The cost
associated with monitoring the many parameters that influence water quality,
usually means that water quality monitoring is not undertaken as frequently as
water quantity monitoring although the results of water quality monitoring are
vital to being able to track both spatial and temporal trends in surface and ground

29 | P a g e
waters. Therefore as a matter of prudent public health concern, particularly in
situations where resources are limited to give priority to ensuring availability and
accessibility of water supply, based on its health significance and acceptability,
the following parameters shall be examined.

No: Priority Parameters


1 Total Coliforms
2 Faecal Coliforms
3 Taste
4 Odor
5 Color
6 Turbidity
7 Arsenic
8 Lead
9 Nitrate
10 Manganese
11 Chloride
12 Hardness
13 Iron
14 pH
15 Sulphate
16 Total Dissolved Solids [TDS]

IX. Water Safety Plan

The application of an extensive risk assessment and risk management


approach that encompasses to all steps ion water system from sources,
production, storage, and conveyance to consumers will ensure safety of drinking
water supply. Such approach is termed as Water Safety Plans. Three key
components of Water Safety Plan are viz:
System assessment- to determine whether the drinking water supply chain
as a whole can deliver water of quality that meets health –based targets.

30 | P a g e
Operational monitoring- to identify control measures in drinking water
system that will collectively control identified risks and ensure that the health
based targets are met .
Management Plans- to describe actions to be taken during normal
operations or incidental conditions.

X. Conclusions

Eventually after a lengthy period that last about more than two decades
the 2006 Myanmar National Drinking Water Standards has been developed. It can
be served as a national icon, assist as basic essential limits in monitoring the
quality of potable water extracted from various water resources in order to
minimize the water borne diseases burden especially for vulnerable population
throughout the way to achieve millennium development goals and at last but not
at least it can be foster as reference values of our nation particularly for the
academics who are willing to generate scientific studies on monitoring,
surveillance and evaluating the quality of drinking water , to conduct review and
revise of existing prioritized parameters and to analyze the currently practicing
Standard operating procedures, Standard method of detection and so on and so
forth. At present finalization process is in progress. Adoptions of National
Drinking Water Standards stay just adjacent to the National Standardization body.
Sooner or later it is ready to render its service for the genuine stake holders, real
dispensers and pure beneficiaries.

31 | P a g e
Annex. 1 Potential Health Effects of Some Parameter contaminated in
Drinking Water

Potential Health Effects from Long-


Term Exposure Above the Maximum Sources of Contaminant
Contaminant
Contaminant Level (unless specified as in Drinking Water
short-term)
Coliforms are naturally
Total Coliforms present in the environment;
Not a health threat in itself; it is used to
(including fecal as well as feces; fecal
indicate whether other potentially harmful
coliform and E. coliforms and E. coli only
bacteria may be present.
Coli) come from human and
animal fecal waste.
Turbidity is a measure of the cloudiness of
water. It is used to indicate water quality and
filtration effectiveness (such as whether
disease-causing organisms are present). Higher
turbidity levels are often associated with
Turbidity Soil runoff
higher levels of disease-causing
microorganisms such as viruses, parasites and
some bacteria. These organisms can cause
symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea,
and associated headaches.
Discharge from petroleum
Increase in blood cholesterol; decrease in
Antimony refineries; fire retardants;
blood sugar
ceramics; electronics; solder
Erosion of natural deposits;
Skin damage or problems with circulatory
runoff from orchards, runoff
Arsenic systems, and may have increased risk of
from glass and electronics
getting cancer
production wastes
Discharge of drilling wastes;
discharge from metal
Barium Increase in blood pressure
refineries; erosion of natural
deposits

Corrosion of galvanized pipes;


erosion of natural deposits;
Cadmium Kidney damage discharge from metal
refineries; runoff from waste
batteries and paints

32 | P a g e
Discharge from steel and pulp
Chromium
Allergic dermatitis mills; erosion of natural
(total)
deposits
Short term exposure: Gastrointestinal distress

Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage Corrosion of household


Copper plumbing systems; erosion of
People with Wilson's Disease should consult natural deposits
their personal doctor if the amount of copper
in their water exceeds the action level
Discharge from steel/metal
Cyanide (as
Nerve damage or thyroid problems factories; discharge from
free cyanide)
plastic and fertilizer factories
Water additive which
promotes strong teeth;
Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the
Fluoride erosion of natural deposits;
bones); Children may get mottled teeth
discharge from fertilizer and
aluminum factories
Infants and children: Delays in physical or
mental development; children could show
Corrosion of household
slight deficits in attention span and learning
Lead plumbing systems; erosion of
abilities
natural deposits
Adults: Kidney problems; high blood pressure
Erosion of natural deposits;
Mercury discharge from refineries and
Kidney damage
(inorganic) factories; runoff from landfills
and croplands

Infants below the age of six months who drink


Runoff from fertilizer use;
Nitrate water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL
leaking from septic tanks,
(measured as could become seriously ill and, if untreated,
sewage; erosion of natural
Nitrogen) may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath
deposits
and blue-baby syndrome.

Infants below the age of six months who drink


Runoff from fertilizer use;
Nitrite water containing nitrite in excess of the MCL
leaking from septic tanks,
(measured as could become seriously ill and, if untreated,
sewage; erosion of natural
Nitrogen) may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath
deposits
and blue-baby syndrome.

33 | P a g e
Discharge from petroleum
Hair or fingernail loss; numbness in fingers or refineries; erosion of natural
Selenium
toes; circulatory problems deposits; discharge from
mine
Alachlor Eye, liver, kidney or spleen problems; anemia; Runoff from herbicide used
increased risk of cancer on row crops
Cardiovascular system or reproductive Runoff from herbicide used
Atrazine
problems on row crops
Problems with blood, nervous system, or Leaching of soil fumigant
Carbofuran
reproductive system used on rice and alfalfa
Runoff from herbicide used
2,4-D Kidney, liver, or adrenal gland problems
on row crops
Endrin Liver problems Residue of banned insecticide
Runoff/leaching from
Lindane Liver or kidney problems insecticide used on cattle,
lumber, gardens

Erosion of natural deposits of


certain minerals that are
Alpha particles Increased risk of cancer radioactive and may emit a
form of radiation known as
alpha radiation
Decay of natural and man-
made deposits of
Beta particles
and photon
Increased risk of cancer certain minerals that are
emitters
radioactive and may emit
forms of radiation known as
photons and beta radiation
Uranium Increased risk of cancer, kidney toxicity Erosion of natural deposits

34 | P a g e
Annex. 2 SUMMARY OF SPECIAL SAMPLING AND HANDLING REQUIREMENTS*
Minimum Maximum Storage
Sample
Determination Container† Sample size Preservations
Type ‡ Recommended Regulatory
(mL)
Boron P(PTFE) or 1000 g,c HNO3 to pH<2 28 d 6 months
quartz
Chloride P,G 50 g,c None required N.S. 28 d
Chlorine, P,G 500 g Analyze immediately 0.25 h 0.25 h
total, residual
Color P,G 500 g,c Refrigerate 48 h 48 h
Specific conductance
Cyanide P,G 500 g,c Refrigerate 28 d 28 d
Total P,G 1000 g,c Add NaOH to pH>12, refrigerate in 24 h 14 d; 24 h if
Dark # Sulfide present
Amenable to P,G 1000 g,c Add 0.6 g ascorbic acid if chlorine Stat 14 d; 24 h if
Chlorination is present and refrigerate sulfide present
Fluoride P 100 g,c None required 28 d 28 d
Hardness P,G 100 g,c Add NHO3 or H2SO4 to pH<2 6 months 6 months
Metals, general P(A), G(A) 1000 g,c For dissolved metals filter 6 months 6 months
immediately add HNO3 to PH<2
Chromium VI P(A), G(A) 1000 g Refrigerate 24 h 24 h
Copper by g,c
Clorinmetry*
Mercury P(A), G(A) 1000 g,c Add HNO3 to pH <2, refrigerate 28 d 28 d
Nitrogen
Ammonia P,G 500 g,c Analyze as soon as possible or add 7d 28 d
H2SO4 to pH<2, refrigerate
Nitrate P,G 100 g,c Analyze as soon as possible; 48 h 48 h (28 d for
refrigerate chlorinated
samples)
Nitrate + Nitrite P,G 200 g,c Add H2SO4 to pH<2 refrigerate 1-2 d 28 d
Nitrite P,G 100 g,c Analyze as soon as possible; None 48 h
refrigerate
Odor G 500 g Analyze as soon as possible; 6h N.S.
refrigerate
Pesticides* G(S), PTFE- 1000 g,c Refrigerate, add 1000mg ascorbic 7d 7 d until
lined cap acid/l if residual chlorine present Extraction; 40
d after
extraction
pH P,G 50 g Analyze immediately 0.25 h 0.25 h
§
Soilds P,G 200 g,c Refrigerate 7d 2-7 d; see cited
refrigerate
Sulfate P,G 100 g,c Refrigerate 28 d 28 d
Sulfide P,G 100 g,c Refrigerate; add 4 drops 2N zinc 28 d 7d
acetate/100ml; add NaOH to pH>9
Turbidity P,G 100 g,c Analyze same day; store in dark up 24 h 48 h
to 24 h, refrigerate

35 | P a g e
*For determinations not listed, use glass r plastic containers; preferably refrigerate during storage and
analyze as soon as possible.

†P = Plastic (polyethylene or equivalent)


G = glass
G(A) = rinsed with 1 + 1 HNO3
G(B) = glass, borosilicate
G(S) = glass, rinsed with organic solvents or baked
‡g = grab
c = composite
§ = Refrigerate = storage at 4˚C ± 2˚C; in the dark; analyze immediately = analyze
usually within 15 min of sample collection II see citation 10 for possible differences
regarding container and preservation requirements.
N.S = not state in cited reference
Stat = no storage allowed; analyze

# If sample is chlorinated, see text for pretreatment.

36 | P a g e
Annex. 3 Other non reference Microbiological testing methods

Parameters Method of Testing Units of Measurement

Total Coliforms Chromogenic Substrate Test present/absent


Membrane Filter(MF) Technique Total coliform colonies/100ml
Chromogenic Substrate Test present/absent
Faecal Coliforms
Membrane Filter(MF) Technique Faecal coliform colonies/100ml

Annex.4 Other non reference testing methods for physical quality

Parameters Method of Testing Units of Measurement


Color Visual Comparison Colorimetric (Pt-Co) TCU(True Color Unit)

Turbidity Turbidimetry Nephelometric Turbidity Units(NTU)

Annex.5 Other non reference testing method Chemical Quality (Inorganic Chemical
Constituents of Health Significance)

Parameters Method of Testing


Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Antimony Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma method
Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method (Graphite furnace AAS)
Silver Diethyl-dithio-carbamate method
Arsenic
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma method
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Barium Inductive Couple Plasma method
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Boron Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Cadmium Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma method
Dithizone method
Colorimetric Method
Chromium Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method (Graphite furnace AAS)
Inductive Couple Plasma method
Titrimetric method
Cyanide
Cyanide selective electrode method
37 | P a g e
Ion selective electrode method
Complexone method
Fluoride Ion Chromatographic method
Capillary ion electrophoresis method
Flow Injection method
Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method with extraction procedure
Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Lead
Inductive Couple Plasma method
Anodic Stripping Voltammetery
Dithizone method
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Mercury
Plasma Emission Spectroscopic method
(Total)
Dithizone Method
Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Nickel Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma method
Cadmium reduction method
Nitrate Nitrate electrode method
Colorimetric(diazothization) method
Ion Chromatographic method
Nitrite
Flow injection analysis method
Colorimetric method
Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Selenium
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma method
Uranium Inductive Couple Plasma method
Turbidimetric method
Colorimetric method
Copper
Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Inductively coupled plasma method
Persulphate method
Colorimetric method
Manganese Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma and Mass Spectrometric method
Inductive Couple Plasma method

38 | P a g e
Annex.6 Other non reference testing method Chemical Quality (Inorganic Chemical
Constituents not of Health Significance)

Parameters Method of Determination


Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Aluminum Inductively coupled plasma method
Eriochrome cyanine R colorimetric method
Ammonia
Ammonia selective electrode method using known addition
Nitrogen
Colorimetric technique
Mercuric nitrate method
Chloride
Potentiometric method
Ferricyanide method
Colorimetric Method
Hardness
Hardness by calculation
Antimony test
Silver-silver sulphide electrode test
Sulphide Lead acetate paper and silver foil test
Potentiometric method
Iodometric Method
Phenanthroline colorimetric procedure
Iron Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Inductively coupled plasma method
Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method
Inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometric method
Sodium
Inductively coupled plasma method
ISE ( Ion selective electrode) method
Turbidimetric Method
Sulphate
Methylthylmol blue method
Total Gravimetric
Dissolved
Solid(TDS) Electrode method
Inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometric method
Zinc Inductively coupled plasma method
Colorimetric Method
Inductively coupled plasma method
Calcium
EDTA titration method
Inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometric method
Magnesium
Inductively coupled plasma method

39 | P a g e
Annex.7 Other non reference testing method Chemical Quality (Pesticides)

Parameters Method of Testing


Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Alachlor Gas Chromatographic method with Flame Ionization Detector
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Gas Chromatographic method with Flame Photometric Detector
Aldicarb
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Aldrin & Dieldrin Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Atrazine Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Carbofuan
Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC
Gas Chromatographic method with Flame Photometric Detector
Chlorpyrifos Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
2,4-D Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Dimethoate
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Endrin Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Lindane Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
DDT Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Acephate
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Gas Chromatographic method with Electron Capture Detector
Imida-cloprid
Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method
Endosulfan Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric method

40 | P a g e