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International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmactool

Chatter in machining processes: A review


Guillem Quintana a, Joaquim Ciurana b,n
a
ASCAMM Technology Centre, Av Universitat Autónoma, 23, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valle s, Barcelona, Spain
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Civil Construction, Universitat de Girona, Av. Lluis Santaló s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: Chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during machining operations and become a common
Received 20 October 2010 limitation to productivity and part quality. For this reason, it has been a topic of industrial and
Received in revised form academic interest in the manufacturing sector for many years. A great deal of research has been carried
5 January 2011
out since the late 1950s to solve the chatter problem. Researchers have studied how to detect, identify,
Accepted 6 January 2011
avoid, prevent, reduce, control, or suppress chatter.
Available online 15 January 2011
This paper reviews the state of research on the chatter problem and classifies the existing methods
Keywords: developed to ensure stable cutting into those that use the lobbing effect, out-of-process or in-process,
Chatter and those that, passively or actively, modify the system behaviour.
Vibration
& 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stability
Machining
Review

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
1.1. Generalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
1.2. Chatter relevance in machining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
1.3. Self-excitation mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
1.4. Stability lobe diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
2. Strategies for ensuring stable machining processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
3. Out-of-process strategies for stability lobe diagram identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
4. In-process strategies for chatter recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
5. Passive chatter avoidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
6. Active chatter elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
7. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
8. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

1. Introduction Every year it is possible to observe in fairs, conferences and of


course, in the market, how production capabilities have increased
1.1. Generalities thanks to the development of new concepts, devices, materials,
tools, coatings, structures, etc. Accuracy, flexibility and produc-
Technologies involved in machining operations have advanced tivity are enhanced constantly with innovative solutions to
greatly in the recent decades and machines have experienced achieve market demands or even raise them to higher levels. In
significant changes such as the incorporation of numerical control. the end, all these improvements are possible thanks to the
generation of knowledge. Understanding metal cutting funda-
mentals has become a key factor in recent decades but this is not
an easy task due to complexities of the chip formation mechan-
n
Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 972 418265; fax: + 34 972 418098.
ism. Recent trends, thanks to advances in computers and sensors,
E-mail addresses: gquintana@ascamm.com (G. Quintana), seem to be focused on the online monitoring, measuring and
quim.ciurana@udg.edu (J. Ciurana). control of the machining process. Several kinds of sensors and

0890-6955/$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2011.01.001
364 G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376

signal processing techniques have been developed for the direct 1.2. Chatter relevance in machining
or indirect diagnosis of aspects such as the workpiece condition
(surface roughness, integrity, and dimensional accuracy), the Chatter has been and still is a very important topic in
detection of tool wear and breakage, the identification of chatter, manufacturing research. That persistent relevance over the years
the analysis of machine component conditions, etc. The develop- can be explained by two principal factors: the complexity of the
ment of science, technology and technique, and the pressure of phenomenon makes its study and understanding nontrivial; and
competitive markets have stimulated the expansion of manufac- the negative effects of chatter stimulate interest in solving the
turing frontiers. Despite of all these advances, however, chatter problem.
vibration has been, for the last sixty years, a limitation to With regard to the first factor, chatter is a highly complex
improving productivity and part quality in metal removal pro- phenomenon due to the diversity of elements that can compose
cesses. This phenomenon has been a popular topic for academic the dynamic system and its behaviour: the cutting tool, the tool
and industrial research. holder, the workpiece material, the machine tool structure and
Metal cutting processes can entail three different types of the cutting parameters. Predicting its occurrence is still the
mechanical vibrations that arise due to the lack of dynamic subject of much research, even though the regenerative effect,
stiffness of one or several elements of the system composed by the main cause of chatter, was identified and studied very early
the machine tool, the tool holder, the cutting tool and the on [5,6]. Moreover, chatter can occur in different metal removal
workpiece material. These three types of vibrations are known processes: milling [7–13], turning [14–27], drilling [28–33], bor-
as free vibrations, forced vibrations and self-excited vibrations [1]. ing [34–40], broaching [41,42] and grinding [43,44].
Free vibrations occur when the mechanical system is displaced Regarding the second point, chatter occurrence has several
from its equilibrium and is allowed to vibrate freely. In a metal negative effects:
removal operation, free vibrations appear, for example, as a result
of an incorrect tool path definition that leads to a collision  Poor surface quality.
between the cutting tool and the workpiece. Forced vibrations  Unacceptable inaccuracy.
appear due to external harmonic excitations. The principal source  Excessive noise.
of forced vibrations in milling processes is when the cutting edge  Disproportionate tool wear.
enters and exits the workpiece. However, forced vibrations are  Machine tool damage.
also associated, for example, with unbalanced bearings or cutting  Reduced material removal rate (MRR).
tools, or it can be transmitted by other machine tools through the  Increased costs in terms of production time.
workshop floor. Free and forced vibrations can be avoided,  Waste of materials.
reduced or eliminated when the cause of the vibration is identi-  Waste of energy.
fied. Engineers have developed several widely known methods to  Environmental impact in terms of materials and energy.
mitigate and reduce their occurrence. Self-excited vibrations  Costs of recycling, reprocessing or dumping non-valid final
extract energy to start and grow from the interaction between parts to recycling points.
the cutting tool and the workpiece during the machining process.
This type of vibration brings the system to instability and is the For these reasons, chatter avoidance is a topic of enormous
most undesirable and the least controllable. For this reason, interest. In workshops, machine tool operators often select con-
chatter has been a popular topic for academic and industrial servative cutting parameters to avoid chatter and, in some cases,
research. additional manual operations are required to clean chatter marks
The first investigations of machine tool vibrations and instabil- left on the part surface. This common practise usually results in a
ities appeared at the beginning of the 20th century as the result of decrease in productivity. In the automotive industry, Renault
metal removal process improvement. In the 20th century S.A.S. estimated the cost due to chatter on a cylinder block of a
machine tools experienced a considerable evolution and became Renault 2.0 l DCi to be around 0.35h per piece. As this company
more powerful, precise, rigid and automatic. This growth was produces around 3 million engines a year, chatter avoidance was
stimulated by general industry development, especially in the strategic [45]. And this interest has stimulated a great deal of
case of aerospace, mould and automotive industries with, for research. Fig. 1 shows the evolution of the number of publications
instance, the mass production of the Ford Model T [2]. But with all per year from 1966 to 2009. The word ‘‘chatter’’ was searched in
these improvements in the manufacturing sector, new limitations article titles, abstracts or keywords in a Scopuss [46] database,
and challenges also appeared. Machines and structures are not considering all document types in the subject area of physical
rigid bodies, but rather systems consisting of elastic components sciences, published during that forty-three-year period and then
that respond to external or internal forces with finite deforma- refining the search manually to define a more specific subject
tions. In addition, there are relative motions between the compo- area. The increase in research produced over the years, and
nents, giving rise to internal forces. Due to these internal and particularly during the last decade, is shown in graph.
external forces, the machine or structure moves. This motion, as a A search of the SciVerse Hub platform [47] across SciVerse
result of internal and external forces, is the subject of dynamics ScienceDirect and SciVerse Scopus contents revealed that the
and vibration [3]. In 1907, Taylor [4] stated that chatter is the authors, who report most about the chatter problem today are
‘‘most obscure and delicate of all problems facing the machinist’’. Altintas, Budak and Tlusty. Table 1 shows the 10 most prolific
Many years later, in May 1961, Tobias [1] exposed in the preface authors.
of his book Schwingungen an Werkzeugmaschinen: ‘‘Machine
tool development in recent decades has created an increasing
number of vibration problems. Machine tool designers in early 1.3. Self-excitation mechanisms
development phases are worried about vibration characteristics;
production engineers know that vibrations diminish tool life, Chatter is generally classified in two categories: primary and
generate unacceptable surface finishes on the parts and reduce secondary. Primary chatter can be caused by the cutting process
productivity’’. Nowadays, authors still refer to vibrations as a itself (i.e. by friction between the tool and the workpiece, by
limiting factor, one of the most important machining challenges thermo-mechanical effects on the chip formation or by mode
and, of course, an aspect to be improved. coupling). Secondary chatter may be caused by the regeneration
G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376 365

140

Number of publications on chatter


120

100

80

60

40

20

0
1966

1969

1971

1973

1975

1977
1979

1981

1983

1985

1987
1989

1991

1993

1995

1997
1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009
Year

Fig. 1. Chatter publications per year.

Table 1
Most prolific chatter problem authors.
1. Altintas, Y. 51 publications
2. Budak, E. 29 publications
3. Tlusty, J. 23 publications
4. Marui, E. 23 publications
5. Ismail, F. 21 publications
6. Insperger, T. 20 publications
7. Stepan, G. 18 publications
8. Schmitz, T.L. 18 publications
9. Tobias, S.A. 16 publications
10. Ota, H. 16 publications

of waviness of the workpiece surface. This regenerative effect is


the most important cause of chatter. For this reason it has become
a convention and been followed by a lot of the publications that
’’chatter’’ only refers to regenerative chatter. However, it has to be
mentioned that it is possible to distinguish between frictional
chatter, thermo-mechanical chatter and mode coupling chatter
and regenerative chatter depending on the self-excitation
mechanism that causes the vibration [48].

 Frictional chatter occurs when rubbing on the clearance face Fig. 2. Regeneration of waviness in a milling model with two degrees of freedom.
excites vibration in the direction of the cutting force Fc and Source: [56].
limits in the thrust force Ft direction [49].
dominant and build up chatter [55]. Fig. 3 shows the influence
 Thermo-mechanical chatter occurs due to the temperature and
of this phase difference on chip thickness [48]. If the relative
strain rate in the plastic deformation zone [50].
phase difference is zero, the dynamic chip thickness is also
 Mode coupling chatter exists if vibration in the thrust force
zero (Fig. 3a). If the relative phase is p, the dynamic chip
direction generates vibration in the cutting force direction and
thickness variation is maximum (Fig. 3c). Consequently, the
vice versa [1,51,52]. This results in simultaneous vibration in
force on the cutter depends, among other factors, on the
the cutting and thrust force directions. Physically, it is caused
displacement of the previous tooth.
by a number of sources such as friction on the rake and
clearance surfaces, chip thickness variation, shear angle oscil-
lations and regeneration effect [50]. 1.4. Stability lobe diagrams
 Regenerative chatter is the most common form of self-excited
vibration. It can occur often because most metal cutting The border between a stable cut (i.e. no chatter) and an
operations involve overlapping cuts which can be a source of unstable cut (i.e. with chatter) can be visualised in terms of the
vibration amplification. The cutter vibrations leave a wavy axial depth-of cut as a function of the spindle speed. This is a
surface (see Fig. 2). When milling the next tooth in cut attacks stability lobe diagram or SLD (see Fig. 4). These diagrams can be
this wavy surface and generates a new wavy surface. The chip used to find the specific combination of machining parameters
thickness and, hence, the force on the cutting tool vary due to that results in the maximum chatter-free material removal rate
the phase difference between the wave left by the previous [55]. The idea is to seek regions of stability within lobes as shown
teeth (in turning it is the surface left after the previous in Fig. 4, taking advantage of the lobbing effect and looking for the
revolution) and the wave left by the current ones [50,53,54]. best option depending on the criteria selected, such as time, cost,
This phenomenon can greatly amplify vibrations, become benefit and accuracy.
366 G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376

ε = 0 rad. ε = 1/2 π rad. ε = π rad.

Fig. 3. Effect of phase of subsequent tooth passing on chip thickness.


Source: [48].

stability boundary of the cutting process to select stable cutting


Unstable region
parameter combinations. The SLD identification is done out-of-
Lobbing effect process before the beginning of the manufacturing process. The in-
process subcategory includes those methods that detect chatter
Axial depth of cut (mm)

Process damping during the metal cutting process, allowing the parameters to be
corrected so that the cut migrates to stable zones. In the first case the
stability frontier must be calculated before the beginning of the
machining operation. In the second one, it is necessary to identify
chatter occurrence in-process, as soon as the phenomenon arises, to
modify the cutting parameters until a stable cut is achieved.
In the second group it is possible to distinguish between
passive and active methods. The first include strategies based
Stable region Chatter free operation Chatter occurrence on modifying certain machine tool elements to passively change
the behaviour of the system composed of the machine tool, the
Spindle Speed (rpm) cutting tool and tool holder. The active methods are based on
certain elements capable of modulating the quantity of work
Fig. 4. Stability lobe diagram. provided, absorbing or supplying energy with the aim of actively
raising or at least changing, the stability frontier.
At high speeds, the stabilizing effect of process damping In the following sections the proposed chatter research lines
diminishes, making the process more prone to chatter. Process are presented in more detail. However, in some cases, researchers
damping usually occurs at low spindle speeds and provides the blend or combine different strategies into a single approach or
stability due to the short undulations left on the part’s surface by contribution. Therefore, classifying methods into one of the
high-frequency vibrations. These surface waves interfere with the above-described groups is not an easy task because certain
cutting tool flank face and dampen the cutting tool vibration. methods are not strictly followed but rather combined to develop
The construction of an SLD requires previous information new approaches. Taking that into account, the four major cate-
about, for example, the frequency response function, FRF, of the gories considered are explained in the next sections.
cutting tool, tool holder, machine tool and workpiece material
combination. But modelling the process to identify the SLD is not
an easy task because the multi-degree-of-freedom structures, the 3. Out-of-process strategies for stability lobe diagram
multiple cutting teeth, and the variable cutting forces and chip- identification
load directions complicate the analysis and the calculation. Thus,
once the frequency response function (FRF) of the machine tool This research line is focused on avoiding chatter phenomena
system has been identified, the SLD can be calculated for a without modifying the characteristics of the system composed by
specified cutter, workpiece material and radial immersion, and the machine tool structure, the tool holder and cutting tool. The aim
the workshop operator can select combinations of axial depth-of- is to select optimal cutting parameters by seeking stable regions
cut and spindle speed that ensure chatter-free operations. between the lobes of the stability chart. At low spindle speeds the
stabilizing effect of the process damping is dominant and chatter does
not usually appear. At higher spindle speeds, the effect of process
2. Strategies for ensuring stable machining processes damping diminishes and it is necessary to analyse the lobbing effect
in order to optimise the material removal process. To carry out this
Researchers generally talk about detecting, identifying, avoiding, strategy the complete SLD or, at least, the SLD in the working speed
preventing, reducing, controlling, or suppressing chatter. A review of range, must be identified. During the many years of chatter research,
the great deal of literature regarding the chatter problem leads to investigators have proposed several models for chatter prediction in
a classification of the existing methods into two main groups. different manufacturing processes. In [57], Altintas and Weck review
The first group is composed of all those methods that ensure a the fundamental modelling of chatter vibrations in turning, boring,
stable machining process by selecting cutting parameter combi- drilling, milling and grinding processes. Research production is more
nations in the stable zone of the SLD and making the most of the prolific when using technologies, such as turning or milling, which
lobbing effect. The second group includes those methods that are more conventional, relevant and widely used in the industry. For
avoid chatter by changing the system behaviour and modifying this reason there is much more literature on the chatter problem in
the stability frontier. Fig. 5 presents the main lines of research on milling or turning than in other less common processes, such as
chatter vibrations. boring or broaching.
Regarding the first group, it is possible to distinguish between out- The first approaches were presented by Tobias and Fishwick
of-process and in-process methods. The out-of-process subcategory [5] and Tlusty and Polacek [51]. They identified the regeneration
includes those methods that aim to predict the location of the mechanism and developed mathematical models in the form of
G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376 367

Fig. 5. Research lines focussed on chatter vibration.

delay differential equations (DDEs). Merrit [58] present a feed- electromagnetic or electrohydraulic shakers are more effective
back model of the system, explaining it as a closed-loop interac- in exciting the structure than the impact hammer as the can
tion between the structural dynamics and the cutting process. provide force at random frequencies and amplitudes [54]. It is
Minis et al. [7] present a general mathematical model that important to select the hammer and the tip material considering
described the milling dynamics to predict the limit of axial depth the mass and rigidity, of the structure. It is very common to use
of cut for chatter-free milling. The zeroth order approximation, accelerometers for measuring the resulting vibrations. It is also
ZOA, method of Altintas and Budak [56] is an indispensable important to select the adequate mass and frequency range of the
reference. Presented in 1995 in the Annals of CIRP, this work accelerometers. Also, the interface material between the structure
has become the most referenced paper dealing with the chatter and the accelerometer must be carefully selected to be able to
problem (more than 300 citations). The authors suggested making perform accurate measurements. Non-contact sensors are useful
stability predictions using the zeroth order Fourier term to in order to avoid the effect of the accelerometer mass on the
approximate the cutting force variation and achieve reasonably measurement but it can be difficult to mount them on machine
accurate SLD predictions for processes, where the cutting force tool. Laser displacement transducers are more practical to mount.
varies relatively little, i.e. considerable radial immersions and Fig. 6 shows a schematic representation of the impact hammer
large number of teeth. This analytical method to predict stability testing procedure. Once the transfer function of the system is
lobes was enhanced by Altintas [59] to a three dimensional identified, it is necessary to evaluate the cutting coefficients for
model. Other researchers have attempted to predict the SLD using specified cutting conditions. Cutting coefficients can be obtained
analytical methods. Insperger and Stépán [60,61] applied the from measurements of forces in feed and normal directions of
semi-discretization (SD) method to convert the DDE into a series cutting. As instantaneous chip thickness and vibration depend on
of autonomous ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with cutting forces and modal parameters the problem leads to a
known solutions. Henninger and Eberhard [62] propose methods closed-loop representation. The identification of the eigenvalues
to increase the computational efficiency of the semi-discretiza- of the closed-loop dynamic system equation permits to obtain the
tion method for the general case of interrupted and non-inter- SLD defined as the maximum stable axial depth of cut as a
rupted processes and their corresponding DDEs, reducing the function of spindle speed. Once the transfer function of the
method’s computational cost and increasing its accuracy. structure at the cutting point and the cutting constant are
Improvements are demonstrated in 2-DOF milling. Gradišek identified or measured, the SLD can be calculated following
et al. [63] compare the stability boundaries predicted by ZOA several steps: (1) Selecting a chatter frequency around a domi-
and SD methods and conclude that the two methods obtain nant mode; (2) Calculate the phase angle of the structure at the
similar predictions of SLD for high radial immersions but that, chatter frequency selected; (3) Calculate the critical depth of cut;
for low radial immersions, the predictions present considerable (4) Calculate the spindle speed for each stability lobe; and (5)
differences. Analytical investigations led to implementation of Repeat the procedure by scanning the chatter frequencies around
bifurcation methods, i.e. Hopf bifurcation and period doubling or all the structure natural frequencies. [56]. Some commercial
Flip bifurcation, for stability prediction [64,65]. solutions, such as the CutPros software package, simplify the
To identify the SLD, the system behaviour must be predicted or test and offer automatic predictions of the SLD [66]. Sims et al.
modelled by characterizing or simulating the response of the [67] describe the use of piezoelectric sensors and actuators to
machine tool, tool holder and cutting tool system. The transfer predict milling SLDs. This approach offers more control over the
function of a multi-degree-of-freedom system can be identified excitation signal than an impact hammer and is more suitable for
by structural dynamic tests. The structure is excited with an small tools, where it is impossible to accurately strike the tool tip.
impact hammer instrumented with a piezoelectric force transdu- Substructure coupling techniques allow the dynamics of the
cer and the resulting vibrations are measured with displacement, spindle and the tool to be studied separately, then combined to
velocity or acceleration sensors [54]. Usually an impact hammer obtain the system’s global response. Consequently, once the
is used. The impact force that the hammer provides has a short spindle dynamics have been studied theoretically or experimen-
duration and can be analysed as a narrow pulse with a flat tally, it is possible to estimate the response at the tool tip for
frequency spectrum. Thus it is excited a wide frequency range, different tools [68,69]. Given the importance of both the tool
which contains the natural modes of the system. However, diameter and overhang on the dynamic behaviour, this technique
368 G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376

data and interpret frequency response functions. In most of cases,


Accelerometers workshops are not able to acquire this additional equipment and,
Hammer even if they could, operators would not be able to use these
complex SLD generation systems. This could be the reason they
are still not widely used in small and medium-sized workshops.
Nevertheless, this line, principally focused on modelling the
cutting process and understanding the chip formation and chatter
PC occurrence mechanisms, is the most powerful line when it comes
to generating knowledge about the metal removal process and
the phenomena taking place in the cutting zone.
However, some aspects in milling are still difficult to model,
for instance, the spindle dynamic behaviour variation at high
rotational speeds, where the centrifugal force on the bearings, the
gyroscopic effect and thermal effects change the performance of
FRF XX (Real part) the spindle. Over the years, researchers have added more factors
-4
x10 to the models, increasing their complexity but also, considering
2 other process phenomena and specificities that would improve
1.5
their accuracy. Movahhedy and Mosaddegh [73] included the
1
mm/N

0.5 gyroscopic effects of the rotating spindle to obtain the FRF. At


0 high rotating speeds, the gyroscopic effect on the spindle
-0.5 dynamics becomes more relevant, affecting the stability borders
-1 of the system. Zatarain et al. [74] analyse the influence of mill
helix angle on stability. Insperger et al. [75] took into considera-
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
tion the role of the tool run-out on process stability. Vela-
Hz
Martı́nez et al. [76] present a multi-degree-of-freedom model
FRF YY (Real part)
for chatter prediction in turning, based on compliance between
x10 -4
2 the cutting tool and the workpiece, but also considering the effect
1.5 of the dynamic characteristics of the cutting tool. Process damp-
1 ing increases stability in machining at low cutting speeds and is
mm/N

0.5 usually ignored in chatter analyses as process damping coeffi-


0 cients are difficult to identify. Budak and Tunc [77] present a
-0.5
practical identification and modelling method, where process
-1
damping coefficients are obtained from chatter tests. Filiz et al.
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 [78] present a tool-holder model that incorporates a spectral-
Hz Chebyshev technique with the Timoshenko beam equation to
obtain a completely parameterized solution to effectively model
Fig. 6. Schematic representation of impact hammer testing.
the tool-tip dynamics for arbitrary tool-holder combinations
using the receptance coupling substructure analysis (RCSA) tech-
is very useful for machine tool users. If spindle and machine nique. Tang and Liu [79] study the effect of helix angle and
manufacturers integrate the dynamics of each of their products in normal rake angle on stability in end milling under the same
a software utility, the final user can introduce the specific milling parameters, and plot three-dimensional stability lobes to
geometry of the tools to obtain the frequency response. This FRF show that milling stability is increased with the increment of
is input for the stability lobe calculation, which leads to the helix angle and normal rake angle. Zatarain et al. [80] analyse the
selection of highly productive conditions. At 0 rpm, excitation and concept of directional factors for chatter stability in milling,
response measurement is the method typically used to obtain the focusing on the importance of multi-frequency calculation and
FRF and can be easily made by tap testing the tool tip with an including the effect of the helix angle to select the best cutting
impact hammer and an accelerometer. However, at higher speeds conditions. Shamoto and Akazawa [81] focus on ball-end milling
tap testing is not possible. Therefore, alternative procedures have processes. The authors developed an analytical method to predict
been proposed for both non-contact excitation and response chatter stability that considers the tool inclination to compute the
measurement. Abele et al. [70,71] used an active magnetic directional milling force coefficients. Ahmadi and Ismail [12]
bearing (AMB) to identify the spindle tool system’s FRF. This present a dynamic model to study chatter in the flank milling of
method allows a non-contact measurement to be made while the curved surfaces on a five-axis machine. The authors calculated
spindle is running. Moreover, impact tests involving acceler- feed rate by post-processing the tool path and perform chatter
ometers are commonly used in FRF measurements and although simulation in the time domain. Henninger and Eberhard [82]
the mass of a typical accelerometer used in these measurements propose modelling techniques that compute stability diagrams for
is extremely small compared with the cutting tool, it can have a milling processes with parallel kinematic machine tools. Garitao-
significant effect on the FRF measurement. Özs- ahin et al. [72] nandia et al. [83] presents a method to solve the roots of the
demonstrate the effect of the accelerometer’s mass on tool point characteristic equation of the centreless grinding process based
FRFs and stability diagrams for several cases with different tool- on the root locus method. Sajjadi and Movahhedy [84] focus on
to-accelerometer mass ratios using laser velocity measurements. reaming processes. The authors used a time domain approach to
The authors also present a structural modification method that simulate the cutting conditions in reaming processes that lead the
can be used to correct the FRFs measured with accelerometers, system to regenerative chatter vibrations. The dynamic analysis
and thus the resulting stability diagrams. Methods used nowa- of the proposed system includes inertia of the tool, centripetal
days for FRF identification require the use of additional equip- and Coriolis terms, damping and the first mode bending of the
ment such as impact hammers, piezoelectric transducers, reamer. Beside analytical models, other techniques have been
software, sensors and qualified staff to perform tests, validate used to identify the SLD of the system. Modelling approaches are
G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376 369

usually very sophisticated and operators are not trained well geometric milling simulation to compute regenerative workpiece
enough to apply them, interpret them and make decisions. The vibrations in five-axis milling of turbine blades. Seguy et al. [99]
modelling itself includes some simplifications that entail errors or also propose the use of the FEM to calculate 3D stability lobes for
inaccuracies, which make the predictions differ from the reality. the milling of thin walls and thin floors. That chatter is almost
Stability lobes are very sensitive to the model’s input parameters: unavoidable, especially in those cases, where long slender end
modal parameters and the cutting coefficients that quantify the mills or highly flexible thin-wall parts, such as air-frame or
resistance of the material to being cut. An error in the estimation turbine engine components, are involved [50]. The FEM permits
of the stiffness or the damping coefficient increases the limiting estimation of the dynamic stiffness to calculate stability lobes
depth of cut in approximately the same proportion. An error in under working conditions prior to spindle manufacturing. Thus,
the cutting coefficients lowers the depths in the same proportion. spindle models make it possible to observe the effect of every
Hence, in spindle-tool chatter, the SLD obtained is only valid for change in design on the spindle performance, saving time
one combination of these elements: machine tool, spindle, tool and money.
holder and tool with a given overhang. Changes in the shape or Workpiece vibrations in thin-walled parts have an important
the mechanical properties of the tool or the tool holder require influence on the process and the quality of the resulting surface.
new stability lobes. In the same way, the same tool and tool Their machining can become a critically difficult problem due to
holder do not have the same performance on different spindles. the variable dynamics of the parts, and has become a topic of
As an alternative to modelling approaches, other methods special interest and research. Gonzalo et al. [100] focus their work
based on experimental, probabilistic or artificial intelligence on the simulation of thin-walled part machining in aluminium.
approaches have been proposed to calculate real stability lobe Campa et al. [101,102] solved the problem of the variable
diagrams. Approaches based on experiments do not present dynamics of a thin-walled part through the calculation of 3D
inaccuracies due to the consideration of simplifications and do stability lobes, where the third dimension is the tool position
not require extra know-how. However, they are limited to one along the part. Song et al. [103] describe a method for predicting
specific system: machine tool, spindle, tool holder, tool, material. the stability of thin-walled workpiece milling taking into account
Quintana et al. [85] propose an experimental method for identify- that the dynamic characteristics of the workpiece vary with tool
ing SLDs in milling operations based on empirical tests where the positions. Tang and Liu [104] studied the machining stability in
workpiece, thanks to its inclined plane shape, permits a gradual milling of the thin-walled parts and develop a three-dimensional
increase of the axial depth of cut in the feed direction, which lobe diagram of the spindle speed, axial, and radial depth of cut to
represents the y coordinate of the SLD, while the spindle speed choose the appropriate cutting parameters according to the
(the x coordinate of the SLD) is increased between passes. The dynamic behaviour of the chatter system and find the maximum
cutting process is interrupted as soon as chatter is detected and material removal rate through optimal pairs of the axial and
the frontier between stable and unstable cutting, i.e. the stability radial depths of cut.
lobe diagram, is physically machined onto the workpiece. In More recently micro-machining has emerged as a new topic of
another experimental approach, Quintana et al. [86] propose the interest. In this process, miniature cutting tools at high rotational
sound mapping technique for SLD identification in milling pro- speeds modify the cutting phenomena, the dynamics and the
cesses. Later on, Quintana et al. [87] propose a predictive experi- cutting coefficients of the operation and affect the stability lobes
mental method to identify real stability lobe diagrams using the [105]. In micro-machining the tool tip dynamics and cutting
inclined plane experimental procedure and simplifying the num- coefficients are required to predict chatter stability, but measure-
ber of experiments for the complete SLD prediction. Totis [88] ment of the tool tip dynamics is not possible through direct
proposes a probabilistic algorithm, the robust chatter prediction impact hammer testing due to the small tool shape. Rahnama
method (RCPM), for chatter prediction in milling. The method is et al. [106] propose the use of the equivalent volume interface
based on the analysis of an uncertain dynamic milling model, between the tool and the workpiece to determine the process
which is defined as the family of deterministic models obtained damping parameter and obtain the dynamics at the tool tip
by varying model parameters within their confidence intervals. indirectly with the receptance coupling method, and the mechan-
Stable regions are identified by applying a new stability criterion istic cutting coefficients are obtained from experimental cutting
based on level curves and the gradient of the probabilistic lobes tests. Biermann and Baschin [107] analyse the influence of cutting
obtained. Kotaiah et al. [89] propose a neural network-based edge geometry, the cutting edge radius and the feed per tooth on
optimisation scheme for predicting localised stable cutting states the tool vibration trajectories and the stability of micro-milling
in inward turning operations, where cutting parameters are processes. The authors present the results of experimental
predicted using binary-coded genetic algorithms. Khachan and research with microend-milling cutters (d ¼1 mm). Novakov and
Ismail [90] developed a graphical approach for time-domain Jackson [108,109] present an overview of chatter vibration and
simulation of chatter in multi-axis milling. The graphical chatter chatter suppression in drilling and micro-machining.
simulation approach shows agreement with the traditional
numerical simulation method. However, there are limitations of
the graphical method due to the pixel size in relation to the 4. In-process strategies for chatter recognition
vibration amplitude and frequency.
Some researchers have used finite element analysis (FEA) or The estimation of lobes explained above is the off-line
the finite element method (FEM) for stability simulation and approach to prevent unstable machining through stability frontier
prediction [46,91–95]. With this method it is possible to predict identification. If the lobes are carefully calculated, the operator
the machine tool behaviour or the behaviour of some components can optimise cutting conditions for stable machining by seeking
in the design stage, before they are constructed, with the regions between lobes. This permits a large axial depth of cut to
advantages that entails. Mahnama and Movahhedy [96] present be machined and increases the material removal rate. However,
an approach for the prediction of machining chatter based on FEM this approach implies a complete analysis of machine dynamics,
simulation of chip formation under dynamic conditions. Garitao- which is difficult for industrial users to carry out, and requires in-
nandia et al. [97] propose a dynamic model of a centreless depth knowledge of the machining process and material [110].
grinding machine based on FEM. Biermann et al. [98] developed Moreover, in some cases (e.g. where there are more than three
a finite element (FE) model for the workpiece coupled with axes or for thin-walled workpieces), the SLD of the system cutting
370 G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376

tool, machine tool and workpiece is continuously changing and it detection and avoidance, called Machining Navi. This application
is difficult to make predictions in advance and schedule the can be implemented in the company machine tools through the
correct parameters to ensure stable operations [111]. The meth- use of a microphone connected to a USB port or a piezoelectric
ods based on chatter recognition do not need SLD identification. accelerometer integrated in the machine tool spindle. The soft-
For such cases, researchers have developed methods consisting of ware is fully integrated in the NC screen and suggests improved
online chatter detection, by monitoring a certain signal such as parameters for stable cuts, ensuring that the operator can auto-
vibration, sound, power, etc. (as shown in Fig. 7) with different matically modify them online. The use of microphones for
types of sensors or instruments to obtain process information. capturing and analysing the cutting sound has been demonstrated
Rahman and Ito [112] propose a method to determine the to be an efficient and cheap solution. Perhaps one of its draw-
onset of chatter through the in-process measurement of the backs is that the sound coming from other machines of the factory
horizontal deflection of the workpiece. Liao and Young [113] can introduce noise to the signal. However, there are several
propose an online spindle speed regulation method to control signal treatment techniques to filter the sound and extract the
chatter when it starts to occur. The dynamic cutting force signal is correct information. On the other hand, accelerometers, for
collected with a dynamometer, the fast Fourier transform is example, are more expensive than microphones and can also be
calculated, and a new spindle speed is computed with the goal affected by the vibrations coming from other machine tools
of disturbing the regeneration mechanism. through the workshop floor.
The milling sound emerging from the mechanical vibrations Faassen et al. [124] propose detecting chatter online at its
produced in the interaction zone between the cutting tool and the onset, before it is completely developed. Early chatter detection
workpiece has also been used to detect chatter and control its allows operators to interfere in the process and avoid chatter
occurrence [114–118]. It has been demonstrated that a micro- occurrence. Faassen et al. claim that the method presented can be
phone is an excellent sensor to be used with this objective and applied using various sensors, but for practical reasons they
comparisons made with other sensors, such as dynamometers, prefer accelerometers. Doppenberg et al. [125] used the detection
displacement probes and accelerometers, have given good results algorithm presented in [124] to suggest a chatter controller that
regarding unstable milling identification [114]. Schmitz et al. forces the machining process into a region of chatter-free opera-
[115,116] and Schmitz [117] propose a method for chatter tion by adjusting the spindle speed when the onset of chatter is
recognition through statistical evaluations of the milling sound identified. Tansel et al. [126] propose the use of index-based
variance with a synchronously sampled (one sample per spindle reasoning (IBR) for chatter detection and tool wear estimation
TM
revolution) signal. A software programme called Harmonizer by through the torque signal data of rotary dynamometers during
s
Metalmax [119] scans the sound of the cutting process with a end milling operations. The IBR is a simple reasoner that classifies
microphone and chatter is detected if the energy of the measured the incoming signals with the help of a lookup table after the
sound signal exceeds a certain threshold. Ismail and Ziaei [120] most descriptive features are identified through pre-processing.
combined several strategies into one, focusing on the cutting of Tangjitsitcharoen and Moriwaki [127] and Tangjitsitcharoen
flexible aluminium turbine blades on a five-axis machine. They [128,129] proposes an in-process monitoring method of chip
implemented an algorithm that combines off-line scheduling of formation and chatter for turning processes using power spec-
parameters and online spindle speed ramping based on process trum density (PSD). Kuljanic et al. [130,131] developed a multi-
sound analysis data. Tsai et al. [121,122] present real-time chatter sensor chatter detection system for application in industrial
prevention carried out by feedback of an acoustic cutting signal conditions. First, they compared several sensors, such as rotating
and propose a spindle speed compensation strategy. Recently, dynamometers, accelerometers, acoustic emission and electrical
Okuma [123] has presented a commercial solution for chatter power sensors, to determine which signals are most sensitive to

Chatter freemiling operation


Microphone
FFT (RMS)
Accelerometers 0.007
0.006
Dynamometer
Amplitude

0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

Miling operation with chatter


FFT (RMS)
0.140
0.120
Amplitude

0.100
0.080
0.060
0.040
0.020

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000


PC

Fig. 7. Use of sensors for chatter recognition.


G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376 371

chatter onset. Suprock [132] and Suprock et al. [133] developed a are based on improving the design of the machine tool to change
low cost wireless vibration sensor system for non-invasive inte- its performance against vibration or on the use of extra devices
gration into end milling tool holders. This device system can be that can absorb extra energy or disrupt the regenerative effect.
used among others to detect the onset of regenerative chatter. Examples of these are passive damping devices installed in
Subrahmanya and Shin [134] propose a systematic approach that machine tool elements with lower rigidity: friction dampers,
allows the development and deployment of an online process- mass dampers or tuned dampers. This research line is focused
monitoring system based on several sensors and its application to on ensuring chatter-free operations by using passive strategies to
plunge grinding. The authors use different sensors to measure damp, reduce and control the phenomena.
acoustic emission, spindle power, and workpiece vibration sig- Wang and Lee [140] propose changes in the dynamic behaviour
nals. Vela-Martı́nez et al. [135] developed a method to monitor of the machine tool system by redesigning the weakest compo-
and predict the emergence of chatter based on the rescaled range nent of the structure. They performed several cutting tests and the
(R/S) analysis, which provides a statistical measure of the varia- analysis of the process vibration showed that the spindle was the
bility of a time series. The method is validated experimentally weakest component. Marui et al. [141] increased the damping
with acceleration signals. Later on, Vela et al. [136] considered capacity of a cutting tool system with inner friction plates.
accelerometer signals to detect chatter instabilities under differ- Semercigil and Chen [142] suggested a passive vibration controller
ent spindle speed and depth-of-cut ratio conditions using – an impact damper – to reduce the excessive vibrations of an
detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), adapted for the time-fre- end-mill cutter. Kim et al. [143] introduced a mechanical damper
quency domain, to monitor the evolution of cutter tool dynamics. into a cylindrical hole in the centre of a standard end-milling
The DFA offers an advantage over traditional spectral analysis: it cutter to dissipate chatter energy in the form of friction. Miguélez
can deal with non-stationary, nonlinear data. The method pro- et al. [144] focus on the behaviour of boring bars with a passive
posed can identify instability dominance in the machine vibra- dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) for chatter suppression.
tions. Yao et al. [137] propose an online chatter detection and The use of a non-standard cutting tool, i.e. with variable pitch
identification method based on wavelet and support vector and variable helix milling tools (shown in Fig. 8), has been
machines. The method permits chatter identification before it is proposed to increase the stable limit depth of cut by disrupting
fully developed, avoiding the harmful effects of the self-excited the regenerative effect [145–151]. Yusoff et al. [152] experimen-
vibration with an accuracy of 95%. Zhang et al. [138] propose a tally evaluated role of tool geometry in-process damped milling
hybrid approach for chatter monitoring based on the hidden by considering different cutting tool edge radii, rake and relief
Markov model (HMM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). angles, and variable helix and pitch angles. The authors show that
The hidden Markov model allows the temporal modelling of variable helix/pitch angles can significantly increase process
features extracted from time varying signals, and the artificial damping performance; the cutting edge radius moderately
neural network integrates the inputs. Eppel et al. [139] intro- improves process damping performance; and rake and relief
duced an optical device for measuring and recording the vibra- angles present a smaller effect. However, in industrial environ-
tions in milling processes. The apparatus discriminates between ments, the use of these non-conventional tools is still not very
stable cutting and chatter vibration. extensive. This can be explained by a lack of knowledge about
The main drawback of online techniques is that they wait for their existence and the providers of conventional tools outnum-
the problem to appear and then take action, so the damage to the bering the providers of variable helix/pitch tools, reasons that do
part and the machine tool components is already done. In not contribute to increase the offer of and demand for non-
roughing operations it might not be a problem, but it is not a conventional tools.
good solution in finish milling. Also, additional equipment is In industrial environments it is possible to find tools with
usually required for them to detect and take action, so they can integrated dampening like the Sandviks Coromant’s CoroMill
be expensive. These factors make the predictive analytical solu- 390. Also, the dynamic behaviour of the spindle system can be
tions more interesting in comparison, although they also face enhanced by reducing the tool overhang/diameter ratio, a very
some problems. common practise in workshops, or using monoblock tools, where
One of the principal objectives of this research line is chatter
identification as soon as possible – when chatter just begins and
is not completely developed – with the aim of reducing all its
negative effects. It is important to obtain relevant and useful
signals and to find efficient signal processing algorithms. Sensor
assistance is indispensable in this technique. However, external
sensors (dynamometers, accelerometers, power sensors, etc.) α α α α
typically used for process monitoring and chatter identification
have to be placed in the machine structure, in a fixed place near
the process, in order to obtain reliable signals and diminish the
information dissipation. Also, the signal treatment and chatter
recognition algorithms usually work in parallel in a separate
computer, not on the NC screen. It seems that solutions should α β γ δ
be more integrated in the machine tool-operator environment.

5. Passive chatter avoidance


α β γ δ
In contrast to those methods that aim to avoid chatter by
situating the machining process in the stable zone of the SLD, high
MMRs can be obtained using another research line whose the aim
is to enlarge the stable zone of the SLD by expanding the stability Fig. 8. (a) Conventional cutting tools; (b) Variable pitch cutting tools; (c) Variable
frontier or simply changing the system behaviour. These methods helix cutting tools.
372 G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376

the shank and the tool holder are the same body [110]. The use of [16] present a method for programming spindle speed variation
passive techniques or methods for chatter avoidance, reduction or for chatter suppression. They propose a sinusoidal spindle speed
suppression is, in great part, related with machine tool design, variation, S3V, to disrupt the regenerative effect. Zatarain et al.
and for this reason machine tool manufacturers do not produce [159] present a general theory for the analysis in frequency
many publications about their core activities. domain of any speed variation strategy. Zhang et al. [160] present
a systematic stability analysis of SSV based on a machining
chatter model of a nonlinear delay differential equation, verify
6. Active chatter elimination the results with numerical simulations and experiments, and
propose a formula for selecting the SSV amplitude. Seguy et al.
Active systems for chatter elimination are distinguished from [161] analysed the effect of SSV on the high-speed domain for
the passive methods basically by their ability to monitor the spindle speeds corresponding to the first flip (period doubling)
dynamic state of the machine tool system, diagnose a certain and to the first Hopf lobes, and show that period doubling chatter
occurrence and actively execute those decisions that change, if can be effectively suppressed by SSV, although, the technique is
necessary, the system to a more adequate situation. Active not effective for the quasi-periodic chatter above the Hopf lobe.
vibration reduction systems are usually composed of monitoring, Stable and unstable tests in terms of amplitude vibration and
diagnosis and execution elements. This strategy is becoming more surface roughness degradation provided in [162] validate the
important thanks to advances in recent years in fields such as analysis. The continuous variation of rotation speeds provides a
computers, sensors and actuators. With these strategies the SLD is means of avoiding chatter instability in different machining
actively expanded or, at least, modified. Implementing them processes. Bediaga et al. [163] developed a strategy that detects
requires the use of certain elements capable of modulating the chatter emergence and, in accordance with SLD, determine
quantity of work provided, absorbing or supplying energy. whether to take the machine to a stable spindle speed or change
Olgac and Hosek [23] present a practical approach to chatter it to continuous spindle speed variation. Industrial implementa-
elimination based on root locus plot analysis and use a device – a tion of the strategy, to detect chatter and run the diagnosis
delayed resonator – for active vibration suppression. Dohner et al. algorithm, is carried out using a portable digital assistant (PDA).
[153] took an active control approach to mitigate chatter actively But, in general, the practical application of S3V, is not simple
by expanding the stability lobes diagram. Chiou et al. [154] because frequency and amplitude variation of the spindle speed is
propose an algorithm to control machining chatter by changing critical: in some cases it is not easy to select cutting parameters
the response function of the structure and its modal properties within the working limits of the cutting tool and guarantee a
using active electrostatic and piezoelectric spindle bearing sup- stable process. It seems that S3V is more suitable in flip bifurca-
port. Huyanan and Sims [155] investigated the active control of tion chatter. In grinding, Barrenetxea et al. [164] present a model
workpiece-induced chatter, with an active electromagnetic proof- based on practical applications to avoid chatter with continuous
mass actuator. Moradi et al. [156,157] applied tunable vibration workpiece speed variation.
absorbers (TVA) as semi-active controllers to suppress chatter Other researchers propose the use of active elements for
vibrations in boring processes. chatter suppression. Active damping devices inject energy into
Another method for active chatter suppression is varying the the system in order to compensate the current vibrations pro-
spindle speed to disrupt regenerative effects [158]. The concept is duced in flexible machine tool elements. These devices can
similar to the use of variable pitch mills but spindle speed deliver forces or displacements by computer controlled actuators
variation (SSV) is more flexible. It is a well-known technique to that have to be able to provide enough stroke or force to cover the
suppress regenerative machine tool vibrations, but it is usually major range of machine tool structure modes. Ganguli et al.
considered to be effective only for low spindle speeds. Fig. 9 [165–168] propose the use of an active damping system, based
graphically shows two types of spindle speed variation (in on an accelerometer to measure the machine tool vibrations and
contrast with constant spindle speed): triangular spindle speed an electromagnetic proof-mass damper, also called an active mass
variation and sinusoidal spindle speed variation. Al-Regib et al. damper (AMD), to enhance the stability limits of the system.
Wang et al. [169] used a nonlinear tuned mass damper (TMD) for
chatter suppression in machining. The authors compare its
rpm performance with the common linear TMD showing that the
nonlinear damper can improve stability by suppressing the
vc magnitude of the real part of the FRF of the damped system.
Shamoto et al. [170] present a method to machine flexible plates
t using simultaneous double-sided milling. This technique solves
the difficulties of flexible plate milling but causes regenerative
chatter vibration. To suppress chatter, the authors propose rotat-
rpm ing the two milling cutters at different speeds to cancel the
vmax regenerative effects on both plate sides. Sathianarayana et al.
vmin [171] studied chatter suppression with a magnetorheological
(MR) fluid damper in boring operations. The authors used FEM
t
for the design and optimisation of the MR fluid damper and then
fabricated and tested the damper to show that MR damper
rpm
application reduces the possibility of chatter and increases the
vmax stability of boring processes. Mei et al. [172,173] developed a
vmin magnetorheological (MR) fluid-controlled boring bar for chatter
suppression. The MR fluid can change stiffness by varying the
t strength of an applied magnetic field. Brecher et al. [174] present
a chatter suppression approach based on the integration onto a
Fig. 9. (a) Constant spindle speed; (b) Triangular spindle speed variation; milling machine of an active workpiece holder with two high
(c) Sinusoidal spindle speed variation, S3V (c). dynamic axes controlled by piezoelectric actuators.
G. Quintana, J. Ciurana / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 363–376 373

7. Discussion problem. This paper reviews the great amount of literature


regarding the chatter problem and classifies several methods
Due to its complexity, the chatter problem is still not com- developed to ensure stable cutting into those that take the most
pletely solved. Further improvements should come with complete of the lobbing effect, out-of-process or in-process, and those that,
understanding of the chip formation process. In coming years passively or actively, modify the system behaviour. The next
models will become more sophisticated and accurate, including, paragraphs briefly summarise the principal research lines:
for instance, process damping, part behaviour, changes in struc-
ture or system dynamics along the tool path. A possible new i) Out-of-process strategies are focused on predicting, estimat-
important focus of interest will study micro-machining processes ing or identifying the SLD through machining process model-
in depth. And advances in computers and sensors will undoubt- ling and analytical-experimental methods.
edly play an important role in this field. Computers will increase ii) In-process strategies are focused on identifying or recognising
the calculation capacity and no simplifications will be assumed chatter through the use of several sensor technologies, pro-
due to computing time constraints. Sensors will obtain in-process cess monitoring and signal treatment.
data to verify new models through experimentation. A useful idea iii) Passive strategies are focused on the use of passive elements,
would be to identify the SLD of a given system composed of a devices, methodologies or techniques that change or modify
certain machine tool, tool holder, cutting tool and workpiece the system behaviour and improve its performance against
material system in the primary stages of design and development chatter.
of new machine tools. This will be possible by applying techni- iv) Active strategies are focused on the use of elements, strate-
ques such as finite element modelling. Then, it would be possible gies, devices or actuators that actively modify the system
to include these models in a CAM application and use the lobbing behaviour to suppress chatter as soon as it occurs.
effect to improve process parameters and tool paths before
starting the metal removal process. The advantages of detecting, identifying, avoiding, preventing,
When it comes to avoiding chatter in some complex processes reducing, controlling or suppressing chatter are obvious from the
such as five- (or more) axes milling, it will be more useful and negative effects avoided: poor surface quality, unacceptable
efficient, also from an economic point of view, to use a monitoring inaccuracy, excessive noise and tool wear, machine tool damage,
system to identify chatter as soon as it arises, before the vibration reduced material removal rate (MRR), increased costs in terms of
is fully developed, and stop the process to modify, in-process or time, materials and energy, environmental impact and costs of
out-of-process, the parameters and ensure a stable process. Of recycling, reprocessing or dumping non-valid final parts to
course, changing the process parameters in-process is a better recycling points.
solution, as stopping the process and redefining process para-
meters and tool paths is more time consuming and decreases
productivity. Improvements in sensors and signal processing Acknowledgements
techniques will contribute to the development of this branch.
Control development will permit efficient online modifications of The authors thank Proffessor Luis Norberto López de Lacalle
the process parameters. and Fran Campa, from the University of the Basque Country who
Due to the great variety of metal removal processes, machine helped on understanding chatter in milling processes and moti-
tool structures, configurations and capabilities, tool holders, vation to do research in this field and Mikel Zatarain and Jokin
cutting tools and materials, etc., and observing the general trends Muñoa from Ideko IK4 Technological Centre for their support and
of the manufacturing sector, in the coming years advances will help on discussions about chatter. Finally authors thank Anna
result in more intelligent machines able to perform auto-diag- Ymbern for her help on preparing the figures in this paper.
nosis of incidences in order to evaluate cutting process efficiency
and to make decisions adapting the current cutting parameters to References
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