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Pile Reaction Calculation

Density of Backfill soil = 1.8 T/m3


Density of Concrete of wall = 2.5 T/m3
Earth pressure coefficient (Ka) = 0.568
Seismic earth pressure coefficient(Ca) = 0.69
Dynamic increment percentage = 0.21
Horizontal seismic coefficient = 0.1
Vertical seismic coefficient = 0.067
Number of Piles to be considered = 3
Length of Pile cap to be considered = 4.5 m

(a) Loads and moments about heel of the wall

vertical Distance Moment


Item no force from heel about heel
(Tonne) (m) (T-m)
w1 (Stem Rectangular portion) 11.25 3.275 36.84
w2 (Pile Cap) 42.75 1.9 81.23
w3 (Earth on Pile Cap) 102.06 1.58 160.74
W4 (Stem Triangular Part) 1.58 3.07 4.83
W5 (Earth in Triangular part) 20.09 1.05 21.10
Pav (Earth Pressure Vertical) 44.45 0 0.00
SUM 222.18 304.74
Moment about C.G of pile cap = -117.40379

(b) Seismic force and Moments about base

vertical Hor seismic Ver seismic Distance


Item no force F Force from heel
(Tonne) (Tonne) (Tonne) (m)
w1 (Stem Rectangular portion) 11.25 1.13 0.75 3.00
w2 (Pile Cap) 42.75 4.275 2.85 0.50
W4 (Stem Triangular Part) 7.5 0.75 0.5 2.33
SUM 61.50 6.15 4.10

(c) Earth Pressure

Total Earth Pressure at base(Pa)= 99.45 T


Pav (Earth Pressure Vertical)= 44.45 T
Pah (Earth Pressure Horizontalal)= 88.96 T
Moment about base= 194.97 Tm
Force due to dynamic increment of earth pressure= 21.36 T
Dynamic moment= 70.22 Tm
Summary of forces and moments about the base

(1)Under normal case

Vertical load= 222.18 T


Horizontal force= 88.96 T
Moment= 77.57 Tm

(2)Under seismic condition

Vertical load= 226.28 T


Horizontal force= 116.47 T
Moment= 155.05 Tm

Load on Pile

Pile Distance from Σ(Xi)2


C.G(xi)
P1 1.25 1.5625
P2 1.25 1.5625
P3 1.25 1.5625
SUM 4.6875

(a)Normal case

Pmax= ΣV + ΣM
n z

= 74.06 + 20.68
= 94.74 T < 193.38 T(Safe Pile load Capacity)

Pmin= ΣV - ΣM
n z

= 74.06 - 20.68
= 53.38 T

(b)Seismic case

Pmax= ΣV + ΣM
n z

= 75.43 + 41.35
= 116.77 T < 241.73 T(Safe Pile load Capacity)

Pmin= ΣV - ΣM
n z

= 75.43 - 41.35
= 34.08 T
(4.0 m height)
DESIGN M35
X 2.985 Dist from Heel end
B = 4.475 Base width
=
Y 5.3 m Depth from top
Max Y= H2 = 5.3 m
wall slope = in 20 =
Thick at wall top 1 0.25 m
Trian thick = 0.265 m =
Thick at wall bott at Y =D= 0.515 m
Thick at wall bott at Max Y=H2= 0.515 m
Slab thick 0.45 m = 450
b1 (toe length) 0.975 m
b (heel length) 2.985 m

Found Depth = 1.75 m


H= 4m
H1 5.3 m (upto top of base slab)
Slope of earth = 26.56 deg = 0.463746
Top earth slpoe base (b')= 2.985 + 1 in 20 of

ht of top slpoe earth (H11) = 3.25 tan 26.56


H111 6.92539986
H1111 7.37539986 m

ɸ 42
Ka = 0.28
Kp 9.6
Density soil 18 Kn/m3
Density Conc 25 Kn/m3
Angle(α+δ) 16.86 0.294381
σst 240 N/mm2
j 0.907 M35
R= 1.511 N/mm2 M35
Cover 50
rod dia 20
Aɸ 314.285714
deff base slab = 390 mm =

Active EP Pa= 137.0792383 Kn/m


1/2x kax gamax(H1111 )2 =
PH = = 131.1823555 Kn/m
Pacos (α+δ)
Pv = = 39.77319669 Kn/m
PaSin(α+δ)
Passive Pp = 264.6 Kn/m

1/3rd. Pp = 88.2 Kn/m

Earth Pressure due to Surcharge on Return Walls :

P1 = ( + V )
(( (S + 60 )
S= 137 Kn/m
V= 137 Kn/m
D= 60 6.85 - 0
= ( m
h1= 1.925 - 1.925 =
B= 5.3 m
P1= 3 KN/m
M1= 27.177372 KN-m/m
45.861816

Item

1) x 0.265 x
0.5
2) x 5.3 x
0.25
3) x 0.45 x
4.475
4) x 5.3 x
2.985
5) x 0.265 x
0.5
6) x 3.25 x
0.5
7) x 1.3 x
0.975
8)
Pv =

Stability Check

Distance of resultant vertical force from heel end = x

Stabilisinh Moment abou toe end = MR = W x(B-x) =

Overturning Moment = Mo = M1+ PHx(H1111 )/3 =

FOS MR /MO =
=
Sliding Check

Sliding Force = PH = 158.35973


P1+
Angle of friction = Mu = 0.5

1/3rd. Pp = 88.2 Kn/m

Resisting Force = MuxW + 1/3rd. Pp =

FOS 342.482821 / 158.35973


=
= #REF!
Pa
Base pressure Check

CG dist of from heel end ( x )= (M+ Mo)/W (

eccentricity = 2.4670624
e=
B/6 = / 6=
4.475

4.475 m x
A=
Section Modulus= 1/6 x (1x B2 ) = 1
Z=

Pmax/Pmin = W/A + W x e/Z =

=
Pmax =
=
Pmin
Design of Toe slab

Slab wt intensity (Si) = 0.45 x 1

P1 (intensity at wall face) = 78.6665116 + (

P1net (intensity at wall face) = 133.382957 - 11.25

P2(intensity at deff from wall face) = 78.6665116 + (

P2 net(intensity at deff from wall face) = 139.4799327 -

p1i = 148.625396 - 11.25


Pmax- Si =
pi2 = 78.6665116 - 11.25
Pmin- Si =

BM = M = ( x 0.975 x
122.13296
+ ( 137.3753957 -
0.5
= + 4.829947682
58.051321
= Kn-m
62.881269
d eff reqd= Sqrt.{ ( 62.881269
Sqrt. (M/Rb) =
Ast = 62.88126895 x
M/(σst*j* deff) = (
Spacing of rod 424.3131384 mm c/c
20
Provide 240 mm c/c
20

Shear Check

V = SF at deff = x ( 137.3753957 +
0.5
Shear stress 77.6895586 x 1000
(
20 240 C/c
Nos in 1.0m = Tor 4.16666667 = 4

% 0.4029304 % steel
=

0.25 = 0.23 N/mm2


%
0.5 = 0.31 N/mm2
0.75 % = 0.37 N/mm2
Therefore % % = 0.2789377
0.4029304
% = 0.2867033
0.4029304
0.25
w5

w3
4 w1

w4

0.25 3.15
1 w2
Moment
about heel
(T-m) 3.8
3.38
2.14
1.75
7.26 2.5

1
P1
1.25

1.25

P3

4.5

ad Capacity)
ad Capacity)
(4.0 m height)

Base width

Depth from top

0.05

265 mm at 5.3 m depth

mm

(upto top of base slab)

5.3 m (H1)= 3.25 m

deg = 1.6254 m

upto bottom of slab

rad
0.39 m

X h1 x ka ) / ( B + 2D
X 3.375 X 0.28 ) / ( 3+ 3.85

X 2 - 3) / 2

3.375 m

Weight LA Moment about Heel e

5.3 x 25 = 17.55625 Kn/m 3.161667 m 17.55625 x

1 x 25 = 33.125 Kn/m 3.375 m 33.125 x

1 x 25 = 50.34375 Kn/m 2.2375 m 50.34375 x

1 x 18 = 284.769 Kn/m 1.4925 m 284.769 x

5.3 x 18 = 12.6405 Kn/m 3.073333 m 12.6405 x


1.6253999 x 18 = 47.54295 Kn/m 1.083333 m 47.54295 x

1 x 18 = 22.815 Kn/m 3.9875 m 22.815 x

= 39.7732 Kn/m 0 39.7732 x

Total = W= 508.57 Kn/m

= M / W =- 886.2939 / 508.5656 = 1.742733 m

508.5656 ( 4.475 - 1.742733 )= 1389.537 kn-m

PHx(H1111 )/3 = 45.86182 + 131.1824 x 7.3754 / 3= 368.3693

1389.5374 / 368.3693 = 3.772132 > 2.0 SAFE

0.5 x 508.5656 + 88.2 = 342.4828 Kn

= 2.162689 > 1.5 SAFE

886.2939 + 368.3693 )/ 508.5656 = 2.467062 m from heel end

- 4.475 x 1/2 = 0.229562 m


0.74583 m > 0.2296 Ok

1m = 4.475 m2

/ 6x 1x 4.475 x 4.475 = 3.337604

508.56564 / 4.475 + /- ( 508.5656 x 0.229562 )/ 3.337604

113.64595 + /- 34.97944

113.646 + 34.97944 = 148.6254 Kn/m2

113.646 - 34.97944 = 78.66651 Kn/m2

x 25 = 11.25 Kn/m2

148.6254 - 78.66651 )( 3.5 )/ 4.475 = 133.383

= 122.133 Kn/m2

148.6254 - 78.66651 )( 3.5 + 0.39 )/ 4.475 =

11.25 = 128.23 Kn/m2

= 137.3754 Kn/m2

= 67.41651 Kn/m2

0.975 ) x 0.5 +

122.13296 )x 0.975 x ( 2/ 3)x 0.975


x 1000000 ) / ( 1.511 x 1000 ) } = 203.9992 mm <
SAFE
1000000 ) / ( 240 x 0.907 x 390 ) = 740.6929 mm2

('b bar)

128.22993 ) x ( 0.975 - 0.39 ) = 77.68956 Kn/m

)/ ( 1000 x 390 ) = 0.199204 N/mm2

+ 1= 5

> 0.2 % SAFE

From old CBC M35

N/mm2 > 0.199204 N/mm2 (0.25% -0.50%)

N/mm2 > 0.199204 N/mm2 (0.50% -0.75%)


SAFE
1.575

6.575

Pa
P2

3.8
)
)

Moment about Heel end

3.161667 = 55.50701 kn-m

3.375 = 111.7969 kn-m

2.2375 = 112.6441

1.4925 = 425.0177

3.073333 = 38.84847
1.083333 = 51.50486

3.9875 = 90.97481

0 = 0

Total = M= 886.29 kn-m

kn-m
m3

139.4799 Kn/m2
390 mm
Stiffness calculation

Grade of concrete = M30 = 30000 kPa


Diameter of Pile(D) = 1m
C/S Area of Pile = 0.785 m2
Average Cohesion in top layers = 18 kN/m2
Unconfined Compressive strength = 36 kN/m2
Modulous of elasticity of concrete (E) = 27386.13 MN/m2
Moment of inertia of pile (I) = 0.049 m4
k1(Table 4, IS 2911, Part 1, Sec 2) = 6.48 MN/m2
Horizontal force(Normal Condition) = 30.00 T (Per Pile)
Ult Horizontal force(Normal Condition) = 51.00 T (Per Pile)
Horizontal force(Seismic Condition) = 39.00 T (Per Pile)
Ult Horizontal force(Seismic Condition) = 62.56 T (Per Pile)
K = K1 x 0.3
1.5 B(Dia)

= 4.32 X 0.3
= 1.296

R = 5.67

Length of short pile should be upto = 2R


= 11.35 m

Design of short pile (Ref: Poulos and Davis)

Consider fixed end pile


Seismic condition
Hu = 9xCuxD(L-1.5D)

L = Hu + 1.5D = 5.29 m
9xCuxD
Mu = Hu(0.5L+0.75D) = 2082.97 kNm

Mu = 0.069
fckD3

And
Pu = 0.012
fckD2

A/c to SP16: Percentage of steel = 2.1 %

Area of Reinforcement = 16485 mm2


Dia of Bar Provided = 25 mm
Area of Bar provided = 490.625
No of 25mm bars 33.60
Provide no bars of 25 mm dia = 34
Percentage of steel provided = 2.125
Normal condition

Hu = 9xCuxD(L-1.5D)

L = Hu + 1.5D = 3.29
9xCuxD

Mu = Hu(0.5L+0.75D) = 1199.05

Mu = 0.040
fckD3

And
Pu = 0.024
fckD2

A/c to SP16: Percentage of steel = 1.5 %

Area of Reinforcement = 11775 mm2


Dia of Bar Provided = 25 mm
Area of Bar provided = 490.625
No of 25mm bars 24
0.25
w5 1.575
26.565

4 w3 5.575
w1
B B

Pa
w4
A A
0.25 3.15
1 w2
0.5

3.8

2.5

Height of vertical stem (h) = 4m


Clear cover in stem = 0.075 m
Tensile Reinforcement provided = 0.02 m
Effective Deptth at section AA = 0.415
Earth pressure coefficient = 0.568
Seismic earth pressure coefficient = 0.69
Density of soil = 1.8 T/m3
Seismic condition

Reinforcement at section AA
Total Earth Pressure at stem per meter = 0.5 x Ka x γ x Z2

= 8.18 T/m
Horizontal Earth Pressure = 7.32 T/m
Dynamic increment = 1.57 T/m

Ultimate moment (Mu) = 21.30 Tm/m

Ast = Mu = 1241.9188 mm2


0.87fy x J x D

Area of 16 mm bar = 200.96

Spacing of 16 mm dia bar = 161.81 mm


Provide spacing = 160 mm
%Area of steel provided = 0.30

Nominal Reinforcement
= 0.0012 x 1000 x 415
= 498 mm2
Area of 12 mm bar = 113.04 mm2
Spacing of 12 mm dia bar= 226.99 mm
Provide spacing of bars = 200 mm
Percentange of steel (%) = 0.136

Reinforcement at section BB
Total Earth Pressure at stem per meter = 0.5 x Ka x γ x Z2
Tm/m
= 2.04
Horizontal Earth Pressure = 1.83 mm2

Dynamic increment = 0.39

Ultimate moment (Mu) = 2.66 mm


mm
Ast = Mu = 171.79876
0.87fy x J x D

Area of 16 mm bar = 200.96


Spacing of 16 mm dia bar = 1169.74
Provide spacing = 300
%Area of steel provided = 0.16
Shear Check MN/m2
Horizontal Earth Pressure = 14.80
Hence Safe
Horizontal Shear Stress = 0.296

Percentange of steel p(t) in % = 0.299


For M 30 Concrete
Shear Strength τc = 0.50

Normal condition
Reinforcement at section AA
Total Earth Pressure at stem per meter = x Z2 2
0.5 x Ka x γ mm

= 8.18
Horizontal Earth Pressure = 7.32

Ultimate moment (Mu) = 16.58


mm
Ast = Mu = 967.01618
0.87fy x J x D mm2

Area of 20 mm bar = 314

Spacing of 20 mm dia bar = 324.71


T/m
Provide240 mm spacing = 1308.3333 T/m

Tm/m
Reinforcement at section BB
Total Earth Pressure at stem per meter = x Z2 2
0.5 x Ka x γ mm

= 2.04
Horizontal Earth Pressure = 1.83

Ultimate moment (Mu) = 2.07


mm
Ast = Mu = 179.16
0.87fy x J x D

Area of 16 mm bar = 200.96


T/m
Spacing of 16 mm dia bar = 1121.70
MN/m2
Provide 220 mm spacing

Shear Check
MN/m2
Horizontal Earth Pressure = 7.32

Horizontal Shear Stress = 0.146

Percentange of steel p(t) in % = 0.262


For M 30 Concrete
Shear Strength τc = 0.37
p(t) % Shear S
0.2 0.334
0.3 0.4
P1 P2
1.25
2.25

1.25 critical section

P3

4.5

0.25
w5 1.575

w3 7.325
4.75 w1
2.9

Pa
w4

0.25 3.15
1 w2

3.8

2.5

1
No of Piles considered = 2
Pile Reaction (Maximum) = 84.00 T
Distance from critical section = 2.25 m
Moment pile reaction(Ult) = 567.00 Tm

Self wt of Pile cap upto critical section = 32.625 T


Distance of CG from critical section = 1.45 m
Moment due to pile cap(Ult) = 70.96 Tm

Self wt of Earth on Pile cap upto critical section = 111.5775


Distance of CG from critical section 1.45
Moment due to pile cap(Ult) 161.79

Resultant Moment = 334.25

Ast = Mu = 1964.40 mm2


0.87fy x J x D

Area of 20 mm bar = 314

Spacing of 20 mm dia bar= 159.85 mm

Provide150 mm spacing = 2093.33 mm2


Percentange of steel p(t) in % = 0.229

Shear check

No of Piles considered = 2
Pile Reaction (Maximum) = 84.00 T
Total upward force(ult) = 168.00 T

Self wt of Earth on Pile cap upto critical section = 32.625 T


Self wt of Earth on Pile cap upto critical section = 111.5775 T
Resultant load = 91.485
Upward force per meter(ult) = 20.33 T

Shear Stress = 0.22 N/mm2

Shear Strength of M30 concrete with .2% tensile reinforcement

= 0.334 N/mm2

Hence safe
Nominal Reinforcement = 0.0012 x 915x1000
= 1098 mm2
Area of 16 mm bar = 200.96 mm2
Spacing of 16 mm dia bar= 183.02 mm

Provide 16 mm bars @160 mm C/C


Percentange of steel p(t) in % = 0.017
critical section
Pile Capacity Calculation

Diameter of Pile(D) = 1m
Length of Pile(Df) = 13.5 m
Surface Area for skin friction(As)= 36.11 m2
Pile Tip area(Ab) = 0.785 m2

11.5
C= 36.24
γ= 8
α= 1

Nq = 40
φ= 34 2
Nγ= 42.9

Ultimate Pile Load Capacity


Qu= (γDf+0.5γBNγ)xAb + αCAs

= 3525.906 + 1308.626
= 4834.532 kN

Safe Pile Load Capacity

Qs = Qu
F.O.S
Qs = 1933.81 kN
= 193.38 T

Seismic Case
Qs = Qu x 1.25

Qs = 241.73 T
Angle of internal fiction(φ) = 30 0.52 0.52
Angle of wall fiction(δ) = 10 0.17 0.17
Angle of incined back wall(α) = 3.58 0.06 0.06
Angle of inclination (i) = 26.565 0.46 0.46

k(a) = 0.568
0.10
0.25