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Progress in Industrial Ecology – An International Journal, Vol. x, No.

x, xxxx 1

Modelling and analysis of energy conservation


in turning of lead free micro alloyed steel using
D-optimal design

S. Muniraj*
Department of Marine Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering,
Sriperumbudur-602117, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: subramani.muniraj@gmail.com
*Corresponding author

N. Muthukrishnan
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering,
Sriperumbudur-602117, Tamil Nadu, India
Email: mk@svce.ac.in

Abstract: This paper presents the experimental study of comparison on energy AQ1: Please check if the
conservation during turning of lead free micro alloy steel (MAS) of cylindrical expansion for the highlighted
rods using K20 uncoated, single layer (TiN) coated and multi-coated (TiN-
TiCN-Al2 O3-ZrCN) carbide inserts. The objective of the work is to evaluate the acronym ‘RSM’ is ‘response
optimised machining parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of surface method’ or ‘response
cut, better carbide insert among the chosen and develop a mathematical model. surface methodology’.
By using response surface method (RSM) Based D-optimal design technique
the mathematical model, the optimum cutting parameters and the best insert are
evaluated. This selected approach successfully showed that the best insert with
optimised machining parameters on power consumption. The results exhibited
the relation between the machining parameters and the power consumption for
the three types of k20 inserts. It is concluded that the experimental values and
the proposed model values are in reasonable agreement.

Keywords: D-optimal method; K20 carbide uncoated and coated insert;


micro alloyed steel; power consumption.

Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Muniraj, S. and


Muthukrishnan, N. (xxxx) ‘Modelling and analysis of energy conservation in
turning of lead free micro alloyed steel using D-optimal design’, Progress in
Industrial Ecology – An International Journal, Vol. x, No. x, pp.xxx–xxx.

Biographical notes: S. Muniraj completed his BE in Mechanical Engineering


from Bharathiyar University Coimbatore, India and ME – CAD/CAM at Anna
University Chennai, India. He has 20 years of experience in teaching at an
engineering college. He also worked as an Engineer in an industry for three
years in the field of refinery vessels construction, Baroda, India. He is a
Research Scholar at Anna University, recognised research centre Sri
Venkateswara College of Engineering. He published papers in reputed
international journals.

Copyright © 200x Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


2 S. Muniraj and N. Muthukrishnan

N. Muthukrishnan completed his PhD at JNTU University, Hyderabad. He


started his career as a Lecturer and continues as a Professor at Sri
Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur, Chennai, India. He has
received the awards like reviewer of the year 2016 by Springer in consistently,
Taylor and Francis journals. He received appreciation as best reviewer from the
Springer for the year 2016. He had received grants for two research works from
AICTE-India and finished successfully.

This paper is a revised and expanded version of a paper entitled ‘Modeling


and analysis of energy conservation in turning of lead free-micro alloyed
steel using D-optimal design’ presented at National Conference on
Evolution of Green and Materials Processing Technology (NCEGMPT2K17),
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur, India, 2–3 March,
2017.

1 Introduction

The advancements in materials technology show a vital role in overcoming the


difficulties such as machinability, energy and cost reduction of manufacturing sectors. In
addition, the materials to be processed as an eco-friendly material. Due to the progress of
new light-weight, high-performance engineering materials, micro alloy steel (MAS) is
one among them. An investigation about the development of lead free machining MAS
for crankshafts was performed. This report pertained that at the beginning, the
machinability of steel materials was improved by the addition of Lead (Pb). But the Lead
element was considered as one of the pollutants producing the worst impact on the
environment without the addition of lead, the machinability of high strength steel had
been improved by the addition of S and Mn. Moreover, the size of Mns also shown the
great role in the improvement of machinability of MAS (Hashimura et al., 2003; Taha et
al., 2012).
It was expressed about the micro alloyed steel that it is a type of alloy steel that
contains small amounts of alloying elements (0.05–0.15). They are used to refine the
grain microstructure and facilitate precipitation hardening. Micro alloyed steels have
matured during the past 40 years into an important class of high-strength structural
materials. A recent study involving an ultralight steel auto body concluded that
high-strength steels are the materials of choice for the automotive industry. These steels
constitute an important category of steels estimated to be around 12 of total world
steel production (Korchynsz, 2001). A study of machinability of multiphase
(ferrite-bainite-martensite) micro alloyed steel in a high-speed lathe which is similar to
the mechanical property of quenched and tempered steel. The results revealed that feed
rate and depth of cut had an influence on cutting force and feed rate, the only parameter
which shown that, the significant effect on the surface roughness (Sivaraman et al.,
2012).
Camposeco-Negrete (2013) brought out the optimisation of cutting parameters for
minimising energy consumption in turning of AISI 6061 T6 using Taguchi methodology
and ANOVA. This study explained the relationship between cutting parameters, energy
consumption, and surface roughness. The difference of the values of cutting parameters
needed to optimise cutting power, cutting energy, power consumed and energy consumed
Modelling and analysis of energy conservation 3

during the machining process. Statistical analyses were performed to conclude the levels
of the cutting parameters which were lead to minimum energy consumption and
minimum surface roughness. It was concluded that the feed rate had shown a significant
effect on minimising energy consumption the higher feed rate provided minimum energy
consumption but it resulted poor surface roughness. Muniraj and Muthukrishnan (2014)
were reported that the optimised machining parameters on surface roughness and power
consumption at the spindle of the lathe with the workpiece of MAS38MnSIVS5 with
multilayer coated K20 carbide insert. Muniraj and Muthukrishnan (2015a) were made a
research study on optimum levels of turning parameters on MAS using single layer
coated K20 Insert. The study reported that the relationship of cutting speed, feed rate and
depth of cut with the surface finish and power consumption. Muniraj and Muthukrishnan
(2015b) were studied the machining performance of MAS38MnSiVS5 using uncoated
K20 insert. The results showed the optimised cutting parameters of turning operation of
the MAS micro alloyed steel bar
Zhou et al. (2016) presented a review study carried out on energy consumption model
and energy efficiency of machine tools. In this review, the specific energy consumption
pointed to map the relationship between energy consumption and the processing
parameters. The energy efficiency of machine tools was depended upon the effective
input and output. Based on the energy efficiency, the machine tools were selected also
according to design, scheduling management, optimisation and environment assessment
of machine tools were introduced Thirdly, the existing energy consumption models were
classified into three categories in this work:
 the linear type of cutting energy consumption model based on material remove rate
 detailed parameter type of cutting energy consumption correlation models
 process oriented machining energy consumption model.
Lv et al. (2016) were published a paper on an experimental study on energy consumption
of computer numerical control machine tools. This paper revealed that the energy
characteristics and obtain the power models of computer numerical control (CNC)
machine tools through an experimental study. The energy utilisation might be varied for
different types of machine tools. This research investigated the energy characteristics and
developing the power models for CNC machines as well as CNC milling machines and
one machining centre were selected for experiments. The perspectives of power
consumption were of non-cutting motions and material removal rate for the selected
machine tools. The results showed that the power consumption of non-cutting motions
and milling is dependent on machine tools while the power consumption of turning is
almost independent of the machine tools. This observation might be used for better
machining process
From the literature point of view, researchers concerned about the surface roughness
and cutting forces effect on the machinability of the micro alloyed steel. Hence this paper
deals the comparative experimental study on optimum machining parameters associated
with the energy conservation at lathe spindle in turning of micro alloyed steel
(MAS38MnSiVS5)with uncoated, single layer coated and multi-layer coated K20 carbide
inserts with dry machining condition. By using a D-optimal design based on response
surface methodology (RSM), modelling and analysis of power consumption at the centre
lathe spindle have been carried out.
4 S. Muniraj and N. Muthukrishnan

2 Experimental procedure

The turning experiments are carried out on the micro alloyed steel (MAS38MnSiVS5)
bar of 80 mm in diameter and 350 mm in length obtained from M/s. Kalyani Carpenter
Special Steel Ltd, (a unit of M/s. Bharath forge group) Chennai, India. The micro alloyed
steel used in the manufacture of most of the forge automotive components such as crank
shaft, transmission shaft front axle, wheel hub, steering arms, connecting rod, pipeline
and pipe fittings, ship buildings and structural bridges. In particular, MAS38MnSiVS5
used in the production automobile crank shafts. The microstructure of MAS with a
magnification factor of 250X is shown in Figure 1 and the experimental setup shown in
Figure 2. The turning process was employed on a medium duty lathe with a motor power
7.5 kW and the spindle speed is 1600 rpm. The cutting tool K20 insert (WIDIA make)
employed of ISO coding CNMG 120408 and the tool holder of ISO coding PCLNR
2020M12 was used. The hardness of the raw material measured as 260HV.

Figure 1 Microstructure of lead free-MAS 38MnSiVS5 (see online version for colours)

Figure 2 Experimental arrangement (see online version for colours)

2.1 Chemical composition of MAS38MnSiVS5


The chemical composition of MAS is as follows:C-0.41%, Cr-0002%, Si-0.40%,
Mn-1.38%, Ni-0.01%, Cu-0.08%, Mb-0.02%, Zn-0.08%, Ti-0.05%, and Fe-Balance%.
Modelling and analysis of energy conservation 5

2.2 Selection of turning parameters and their levels


The experimental arrangement for turning process is shown in Figure 2. The turning
operations were performed as per the experimental layout design by D-optimal design
based on response surface methodology. The design layout for the process is shown in
Table 2. The power consumption response at the spindle was measured by using
Wattmeter with the measuring capacity 0–5 kW and responses were fed into the Design
expert software.

Table 1 Selection of (numerical type) turning parameters and K20 inserts (categorical factors) AQ: Please cite
Table 1 in text.
Parameters (Numerical Factors) Categorical factors
Cutting speed Feed rate Depth of cut
Levels (m/min) (mm/rev) (mm) K20 insert
I 50 0.040 0.5 Uncoated (I1)
II 80 0.042 1.0 Single coated (I2)
III 125 0.046 1.5 Multicoated (I3)

Table 2 Experimental design layout

Numeric Factors Categorical factor Response


Cutting Depth of Power
speed Feed rate cut consumption
Run (m/min) (mm/rev) (mm) K20 Insert Type (kW)
no (s) (f) (d) (I1/I2/I3) (y)
1 1 3 3 Uncoated 0.54
2 3 1 3 Uncoated 0.54
3 2 1 1 Uncoated 0.15
4 1 1 1 Single layer coated 0.13
5 2 3 1 Single layer coated 0.29
6 1 3 3 Multilayer coated 0.18
7 1 2 2 Uncoated 0.15
8 2 2 2 Uncoated 0.23
9 3 3 1 Multi-layer coated 0.27
10 2 2 3 Multi-layer coated 0.26
11 3 1 2 Uncoated 0.31
12 1 1 3 Multi-layer coated 0.19
13 1 2 3 Uncoated 0.34
14 2 3 2 Single layer coated 0.30
15 3 2 3 Multi-layer coated 0.42
16 1 2 1 Multi-layer coated 0.10
17 1 2 1 Multi-layer coated 0.10
18 2 2 2 Single layer coated 0.21
19 3 2 2 Single layer coated 0.19
20 3 2 1 Multi-layer coated 0.27
6 S. Muniraj and N. Muthukrishnan

Table 2 Experimental design layout (continued)

Numeric Factors Categorical factor Response


Cutting Depth of Power
speed Feed rate cut consumption
Run (m/min) (mm/rev) (mm) K20 Insert Type (kW)
no (s) (f) (d) (I1/I2/I3) (y)
21 3 2 1 Multi-layer coated 0.27
22 3 3 1 Single layer coated 0.29
23 3 2 1 Uncoated 0.24
24 1 3 3 Single layer coated 0.34
25 3 3 2 Single layer coated 0.30
26 3 1 3 Single layer coated 0.15
27 1 3 2 Uncoated 0.15
28 3 1 1 Multi-layer coated 0.27

3 Results and discussions

3.1 Analysis of the mathematical model


In this work, a D-optimal method based on response surface method is applied for the
development of the mathematical model. The experimental input and output were fed into
the Design Expert software. The D-optimal method is more effective statistical
optimisation tool like RSM, Taguchi, Factorial methods. But while comparing to the
other methods, the D-optimal method required less number of experimental runs and
thereby it saves energy, material and time. The other methods require a minimum of 81
runs to assess the categorical wise performance for the selected cutting parameters
whereas the D-optimal needed only 28 runs for the three type inserts and the chosen
turning parameters and their levels. A second-order reduced quadratic model proposed
for the responses measured and the effectiveness of a selected model for the response has
been assessed through a good fit. In Table 3, R 2 value is closer to Adjusted R2 and
adequate precession (AP) is more than 4. This result confirmed the selected model is
good. Also, the significance of the model and the lack of fit are agreed and the degree of
adequacy of the model was ensured as shown in Table 3 (Chen et al., 2010: Myers and
Montgomery, 2002; Rajmohan and Palanikumar, 2013).

Table 3 Mathematical model prediction equations with actual terms

Responses Modelling equations


For uncoatedk20(I 1)
y(kW) –0.066553 + 2.31853E-003*s + 4.94671E-003*d + 0.13087*d2
For single layer coatedK20(I2)
y(kW) 0.17081+2.3185E-003*s – 0.30298*d + 0.13087*d2
For multi-layer coated K20(I3)
y(kW) +0.020017+ 2.31853E-003*s – 0.15251*d + 0.13087*d2
Modelling and analysis of energy conservation 7

3.2 D-optimal methodology


The mathematical model is developed by using D-optimal, a multi-response optimisation
technique. The methodology is explained as follows. The relationship between the input
variables and the output responses can be expressed as the following:
y  f ( X 1, X 2, X 3, X 4), (1)

where f is the response function (response surface and y is the desired response. The
output response y proposed with a quadratic model in order to evaluate the interaction
terms effects on the performance. The quadratic model for y can be expressed as follows:
4 4
y  a0  ai X i   aii X i2   aij X i X j , (2)
n 1 n 1

where a0 is constant ai,aii and aij are the coefficients for linear, quadratic and interaction
respectively. By using the model of f, the desired region is identified. In which the
response attains the optimum or closer to the optimum. The general form of the model
can be expressed as below:
y  xa   . (3)

In the above equation, X is a matrix model terms evaluation the data points. ɛ is the error.
The unbiased estimator ɛ of the regression coefficient vector α is evaluated by the
least-squares error method as follows:
  ( X T X ) 1 X T y, (4)
T
where X is the transpose of matrix X. The experimental work plan as per the D-optimal
design was conducted with 28 runs and the power consumption responses also recorded
in Table 3. From the selected quadratic model, 18 minimum model points were selected
as a set of design points five among them used to perform the lack of fit test as well as
replicates.
In this experimental study, the actual term of the power consumption response of the
model is ‘y’. This response had been presented by the results of ANOVA (with 95%
confidence interval) in Table 4.

3.3 Optimisation on the selection of K20 inserts and the responses


In Figure 3, the interaction plot for power consumption by the three inserts, It shows that
the predominant objective of producing optimised power saving during the turning
operation of the component was achieved by the Multilayer coated K20 insert (I3).
During the turning operation single layer coated insert (I2) resulted in the burning effect
at second level feed rate (0.042 mm/rev) and an increase of cutting speed. This was
occurred due to the high temperature generation in between the tool-work interface. The
aroused temperature effect caused the burning of coated material. Also the I2 insert lost
its cutting edge and resulted in a poor performance in subsequent machining of the
MAS component.
8 S. Muniraj and N. Muthukrishnan

Table 4 ANOVA results for the model

Quadratic response Response (y)


surface reduced Power consumption (in kW)
Model Significant
Lack of fit Not significant
Total 27
F-value 47.33
P > F-value 0.0001
2
R value 0.9431
Adj-R2 0.9232
Predicted R2 0.8594
Adequate precision(AP) 28.630

Figure 3 Interaction plot for the categorical factors (K20 inserts) uncoated I1, single layer
coated -I2 and multi-layer coated-I3 effect on power consumption (at level 2 of cutting
speed and feed rate depth of cut is 1.0 mm)

In this study, the insert I3 selection is validated by the ramp report as shown in
Figure 3. The ramp report by optimal methodology with the desirability of 0.866 value
showed that the level 3 of cutting speed(s) m/min, level –1 of feed rate(f) mm/rev and
level 1 depth of cut(d)mm, produced the optimum power consumption by the tool
treatment No. 3. It is agreed that the multi-coated K20 insert must be the best one.
Figure 5 showed the effect of cutting speed and the feed rate on power consumption
by the three types of inserts as 3D surface plots and the these surface plots revealed that
the feed rate had no significant effect on power consumption since the chosen range
is very low. Power consumption increases as the cutting speed increases at mid depth
of cut.
Modelling and analysis of energy conservation 9

Figure 4 Ramp report for selection of insert I3 effect on power consumption (y) and optimised
machining parameters for power consumption (see online version for colours) AQ: Please cite
Figure 4 in text.

Figure 5 3D surface plot for the effect of feed rate and cutting speed on power consumption:
(a) uncoated K20 insert (I 1); (b) single layer coated insert (I2) and (c) multicoatedk20
insert (I3)
10 S. Muniraj and N. Muthukrishnan

4 Conclusions

In this study, the turning of (MAS38MnSiVS5) micro alloyed steel with uncoated, single
layer coated and multilayer coated K20 inserts have been executed in accordance with
response surface method based D-optimal design. The turning parameters as numerical
factors each at three levels and the insert as a categorical factor with three levels have
been taken for the work. The power consumption at the lathe spindle was analysed by a
mathematical model. The inferences are as follows:
 Among the three type of K20 inserts, uncoated and single layer coated inserts are not
suitable for the optimised power consumption. The multi-layer coated insert only
showed reasonable power consumption under the unique condition higher cutting
speed 125 m/min, low feed rate:0.040 mm/rev and depth of cut:0.1 mm. By the
D-optimal method, it is understood that the multilayer coated (I3) showed
comparatively high desirability value 0.866 than the other inserts.
 Feed rate has no significant effect on power consumption. This is due to the selected
range is too low.
 The results of the experimental and mathematical model for power consumption has
shown reasonable agreement. The experimental data are well correlated and the
technique is being good for the prediction of performances.

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