Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Transistor

Transistor –
A Transistor is a semiconductor which is a fundamental component in almost all
electronic devices. Transistors have many uses including switching, voltage/current regulation,
and amplification - all of which are useful in renewable energy applications.

A transistor controls a large electrical output signal with a small change in input signal.
This is analogous to the small amount of effort required to open a tap to release a large flow of
water. Since a large amount of current can be controlled by a small amount of current, a
transistor acts as an amplifier. A transistor acts as a switch which can open and close many times
per second.

The most common type of transistor is a bipolar junction transistor (BJT). This is made
up of three layers of a semi-conductor material in a sandwich. In one configuration the outer two
layers have extra electrons, and the middle layer has electrons missing (holes) called N-P-N
transistor. In the other configuration the two outer layers have the holes and the middle layer has
he extra electrons called P-N-P transistor.

Page | 1
Current Components in a PNP Transistor –

Note: Also show minority current ICBO (due to both electron (C to B)


and holes (B to C) in figure above
Emitter current is given by
IE = IpE + InE (i)
IpE = Emitter Current done by Holes (Injected Holes)
InE = Emitter Current done by Electrons (Injected Electrons)
Doping Level (E > C > B)
IpE >> InE
Therefore, IE ≈ IpE (ii)

Collector Current is given by


IC = IC, majority + IC, minority
IC = IpC + ICBO (iii)
Where IPC = Collector Current done by Holes of Emitter (Collected Holes)
ICBO = Collector-Base Current with Emitter Open Circuit = IpCO + InCO

Common Base Current Gain


α=
IpC = α.IPE
IpC ≈ α.IE

Page | 2
from equation (ii) IE ≈ IPE
Now, equation (iii) becomes
IC = α.IE + ICBO
IC = α (IB + IC) + ICBO
IC = IB + ICBO (iv)

Relation between α, β and γ –


Common Base Current Gain α= (v)
Common Emitter Current Gain β= (vi)
Common Collector Current Gain γ= (vii)
We know that for every bipolar junction transistor IE = IB + IC (viii)
By substituting IE = from equation (v) and IB = from equation (vi) in equation (viii)
= + IC
= +1
α= or β= (ix)
By substituting IE = γ.IB from equation (vii) and IC =β.IB from equation (vi) in equation (viii)
γ.IB = IB + β.IB
γ=1+β or γ= (x)
By substituting the value of α in equation (iv), then we have
IC = β.IB + (1+β).ICBO (xi)

Minimum Base Current for Saturation –

It is the minimum base current required for transistor to operate in saturation region, i.e. when IB
< IB, min transistor will operates in active region and when IB ≥ IB, min transistor will now operate
in saturation region. At limiting point
IC = β.IB or IC, Sat = β.IB, min

For Silicon N-P-N transistor –


VBE, active = 0.7 V VBE, sat = 0.8 V VCE, sat = 0.2 V Cut-in voltage Vγ = 0.5 V
*** For P-N-P transistor all voltage changes their sign.

Page | 3
Current Components in a NPN transistor –

***Similarly we can draw all current equation with the help of above figure for N-P-N transistor.

CB, CC, and CE Configuration of N-P-N Transistor –


 We know that transistor has three terminals namely emitter (E), base (B), collector(C).
 However, when a transistor is connected in a circuit, we require four terminals i.e. two
terminals for input and two terminals for output.
 This difficulty is overcome by using one of the terminals as common terminal.
 Depending upon the terminals which are used as a common terminal to the input and
output terminals, the transistors can be connected in the following three different
configurations.

(1) Common base configuration


(2) Common emitter configuration
(3) Common collector configuration

(1) Common base configuration –

 In this configuration base terminal is connected as a common terminal.


 The input is applied between the emitter and base terminals. The output is taken
between the collector and base terminals.

Page | 4
a) Input characteristics

 The output (CB) voltage is maintained constant and the input voltage (EB) is
set at several convenient levels. For each level of input voltage, the input
current IE is recorded.
VBE = fcbi ( )

 IE is then plotted versus VEB to give the common-base input characteristics.

b) Output characteristics

 The emitter current IE is held constant at each of several fixed levels. For each
fixed value of IE , the output voltage VCB is adjusted in convenient steps and
the corresponding levels of collector current IC are recorded.
IC = fcbo ( )

Page | 5
 For each fixed value of IE, IC is almost equal to IE and appears to remain
constant when VCB is increased.

(2) Common emitter configuration –

 In this configuration emitter terminal is connected as a common terminal.


 The input is applied between the base and emitter terminals. The output is taken
between the collector and base terminals.

a) Input characteristics

 The output voltage VCE is maintained constant and the input voltage VBE is set
at several convenient levels. For each level of input voltage, the input current
IB is recorded.
VBE = fcei ( )
 IB is then plotted versus VBE to give the common-base input characteristics.
Page | 6
b) Output characteristics

 The Base current IB is held constant at each of several fixed levels. For each
fixed value of IB, the output voltage VCE is adjusted in convenient steps and
the corresponding levels of collector current IC is recorded.
IC = fceo ( )
 For each fixed value of IB, IC level is Recorded at each VCE step. For each IB
level, IC is plotted versus VCE to give a family of characteristics.

(3) Common collector configuration –

 In this configuration collector terminal is connected as a common terminal.

Page | 7
 The input is applied between the base and collector terminals. The output is taken
between the emitter and collector terminals.

a) Input characteristics

 The common-collector input characteristics are quite different from either


common base or common-emitter input characteristics.
VBC = fcci ( )
 The difference is due to the fact that the input voltage (VBC) is largely
determined by (VEC) level.
VBC = VBE - VCE => VBC = VBE + VEC

Page | 8
b) Output characteristics

 The operation is much similar to that of C-E configuration. When the base
current is ICO, the emitter current will be zero and consequently no current
will flow in the load.
IE = fcco ( )
 When the base current is increased, the transistor passes through active region
and eventually reaches saturation. Under the saturation conditions all the
supply voltage, except for a very small drop across the transistor will appear
across the load resistor.

Difference between CB, CE, and CC Configuration –

Characteristic Common Base Common Emitter Common Collector


Input Impedance Low Medium High
Output Impedance Very High High Low
Phase Angle
Voltage Gain High Medium Low
Current Gain Low Medium High
Power Gain Low Very High Medium
Applications For high frequency For audio frequency For impedance
applications applications matching

Page | 9