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ISTITUTO ITALIANO SALDATURA - 2010 - 642804 - eco

Prove non distruttive


NORMA Pellicole radiografiche industriali UNI EN 584-1
EUROPEA Parte 1: Classificazione dei sistemi a pellicola per radiografia
industriale

OTTOBRE 2006

Non-destructive testing
Industrial radiographic film
Part 1: Classification of film systems for industrial radiography

La norma stabilisce le prestazioni del sistema pellicola. È appli-


cabile alla classificazione dei sistemi pellicola associati a deter-
minati schermi di piombo per la radiografia industriale. È intesa
ad assicurare che la qualità dell’immagine radiografica, per
quanto possa essere influenzata dal sistema pellicola, sia con-
forme ai requisiti delle norme europee quali la UNI EN 444, la
UNI EN 1435 e la EN 12681. Non si applica alla classificazione
delle pellicole usate per rinforzo di fluorescenti.

TESTO INGLESE

La presente norma è la versione ufficiale in lingua inglese della


norma europea EN 584-1 (edizione aprile 2006).

La presente norma è la revisione della UNI EN 584-1:1995.

ICS 19.100; 37.040.99

UNI © UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano Riproduzione vietata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. Nessuna parte del presente documento
di Unificazione può essere riprodotta o diffusa con un mezzo qualsiasi, fotocopie, microfilm o altro, senza
Via Sannio, 2 il consenso scritto dell’UNI.
20137 Milano, Italia www.uni.com

UNI EN 584-1:2006 Pagina I


ISTITUTO ITALIANO SALDATURA - 2010 - 642804 - eco

PREMESSA NAZIONALE
La presente norma costituisce il recepimento, in lingua inglese, del-
la norma europea EN 584-1 (edizione aprile 2006), che assume co-
sì lo status di norma nazionale italiana.

La presente norma è stata elaborata sotto la competenza della


Commissione Tecnica UNI
Prove non distruttive

La presente norma è stata ratificata dal Presidente dell’UNI ed è en-


trata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 19 ottobre 2006.

Le norme UNI sono elaborate cercando di tenere conto dei punti di vista di tutte le parti
interessate e di conciliare ogni aspetto conflittuale, per rappresentare il reale stato
dell’arte della materia ed il necessario grado di consenso.
Chiunque ritenesse, a seguito dell’applicazione di questa norma, di poter fornire sug-
gerimenti per un suo miglioramento o per un suo adeguamento ad uno stato dell’arte
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Unificazione, che li terrà in considerazione per l’eventuale revisione della norma stessa.

Le norme UNI sono revisionate, quando necessario, con la pubblicazione di nuove edizioni o
di aggiornamenti.
È importante pertanto che gli utilizzatori delle stesse si accertino di essere in possesso
dell’ultima edizione e degli eventuali aggiornamenti.
Si invitano inoltre gli utilizzatori a verificare l’esistenza di norme UNI corrispondenti alle
norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi.

UNI EN 584-1:2006 © UNI Pagina II


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EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 584-1


NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM April 2006

ICS 19.100; 37.040.99 Supersedes EN 584-1:1994

English Version

Non-destructive testing - Industrial radiographic film - Part 1:


Classification of film systems for industrial radiography

Essais non destructifs - Film pour radiographie industrielle - Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung - Industrielle Filme für die
Partie 1: Classification des systèmes films pour Durchstrahlungsprüfung - Teil 1: Klassifizierung von
radiographie industrielle Filmsystemen für die industrielle Durchstrahlungsprüfung

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 March 2006.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official
versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 584-1:2006: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.
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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................3
1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................4
2 Normative references .........................................................................................................................4
3 Terms and Definitions ........................................................................................................................4
4 Sampling and storage.........................................................................................................................5
5 Test method.........................................................................................................................................5
5.1 Preparation ..........................................................................................................................................5
5.2 Measurement of gradient G................................................................................................................6
5.3 Measurement of granularity σD ..........................................................................................................7
5.4 Measurement of CEN speed S ...........................................................................................................9
5.5 Other equipment and procedures......................................................................................................9
6 Limiting values for classification.......................................................................................................9
Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................12

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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

Foreword
This document (EN 584-1:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 138 “Non-destructive
testing”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at
the latest by October 2006.

This document supersedes EN 584-1:1994.

EN 584 comprises a series of European Standards for industrial radiographic films which is made up of the
following:

EN 584-1 Non-destructive testing — Industrial radiographic film — Part 1: Classification of film systems for
industrial radiography

EN 584-2 Non-destructive testing — Industrial radiographic film — Part 2: Control of film processing by
means of reference values

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland and United Kingdom.

3
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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

1 Scope
The purpose of this standard is to fix the performance of film systems.

This standard is applicable for the classification of film systems in combination with specified lead screens for
industrial radiography (non-destructive testing). This standard is intended to assure that the image quality of
radiographs – as far as this is influenced by the film system – is in conformity with the requirements of
European Standards such as EN 444, EN 1435 and EN 12681. This European Standard does not apply to the
classification of films used with fluorescent intensifying screens. The measurement of film systems in this
standard is restricted to a selected radiation quality to simplify the procedure. The properties of films will
change with radiation energy but not the ranking of film system quality.

Additional methods for evaluating the photographic process are described in EN 584-2 by which the
performance of film systems can be controlled under the conditions given in industry.

2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 584-2, Non-destructive testing — Industrial radiographic film — Part 2: Control of film processing by
means of reference values.

EN ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO/IEC
17025:2005)

3 Terms and Definitions


For the purposes of this standard, the following terms and definitions apply:

3.1
film system
combination of film and film processing which is carried out in accordance with the instructions of the film
manufacturer and/or the manufacturer of the processing chemicals.

3.2
film gradient
G
slope of the characteristic curve of a film at a specified optical density D

3.3
granularity
σD
stochastic density fluctuations in the radiograph, superimposed on the image of the object

NOTE The limiting values given in this standard are related to fixed radiation energies and specified screens.

3.4
characteristic curve
curve showing the relationship between the common logarithm of exposure logK, and the optical density D

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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

3.5
specular density
quantitative measure of film blackening (optical density) when light passing the optics of a microdensitometer
transmits the film.

3.6
diffuse density
quantitative measure of film blackening (optical density) as determined by a densitometer. It is the sum of all
transmitted and scattered light into the half sphere behind the film.

3.7
signal/noise ratio
in industrial radiography the ratio of a local film density to the granularity σD at this density level. It is
correlated to the gradient/noise ratio

3.8
CEN speed
S
reciprocal value of the dose KS measured in Gray which results in a specified diffuse optical transmission
density D of the processed film:

1
S= (1)
Ks

3.9
film system class
classification taking into account of limiting values given in Table 1.

3.10
gradient/noise ratio
ratio of the gradient G and the granularity σD. It relates directly to the signal/noise ratio. All further parameters
determining the signal, such as the modulation transfer function or the energy of the radiation, are considered
to be constant.

4 Sampling and storage


For product specification it is important that the samples evaluated yield the average results obtained by users.
This will require the evaluation of several different batches periodically under conditions specified in this
standard. Prior to evaluation, the samples shall be stored according to the manufacturers’ recommendations
for a length of time to simulate the average age at which the product is normally used. The basic objective in
selecting and storing samples as described above is to ensure the film characteristics are representative of
those obtained by a consumer at the time of use.

5 Test method

5.1 Preparation

The film samples shall be exposed to X-rays from tungsten target tubes. Inherent filtration of the tube, plus an
additional copper filter located as close to the X-ray tube target as possible shall provide filtration equivalent to
(8,00 ± 0,05) mm of copper. The potential across the X-ray tube shall be adjusted until the half-value-
absorption is obtained with (3,5 ± 0,2) mm of copper. A potential of approximately 220 kV generally meets this
requirement.

The film system shall include a front and a back screen of 0,02 to 0,04 mm lead. If single coated films are
used, the emulsion coated surface shall face the X-ray tube. Good film screen contact shall be ensured.

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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

Exercise care to ensure that the film specimen does not contain density variations arising from the exposing
equipment (such as non-uniform beam filters or damaged, or defective lead screens) or processing system.
During and after exposure, prior to processing, maintain the film specimen at the temperature of 23°C ± 5°C
and relative humidity of 50 ± 20%. The film processing chemicals and procedures shall be the same for
determining gradient and granularity, and they shall be used and described completely as specified.

Use manufacturer certified film test strips according to EN 584-2 to test the specified developer system with
the specified immersion time and developer temperature. The speed index Sx shall be within ± 5% of the
manufacturer’s certificate. The developer temperature may differ by ± 1°C from the certified value to adjust SX
within ± 5% of the manufacturer certificate value. The obtained SX and used developer temperature shall be
documented in the test report. This test shall be done, on a daily basis, before and after the development of
the exposed films for classification with the same developer temperature and immersion time.

If a manufacturer certificate is not available, film test strips shall be manufactured and calibrated according to
EN 584-2 by the user.

5.2 Measurement of gradient G

Gradient G relates to a D versus log10 K curve. Within the scope of this standard G is calculated

dD
from the slope of a D versus K curve at density ( D − D0 ) , i. e.
dK
dD K dD
G= = ⋅ (2)
d log10 K log10 e dK

where

K is the measured dose, in Gray, required for density (D – D0);

D0 is the measured optical density of an unexposed and processed film including base (fog and base
density).

The D versus K curve is approximated by a polynomial of third order. To obtain a reliable curve, a series of
exposures are made with the same film sample to obtain at least 12 uniformly distributed measuring points
covering at least density 1,0 and 4,5 above D0. The polynomial approximation shall include all measured
values between 1,0 and 4,5. For the numerical approximation (fit procedure) no zero value shall be included.
At least six gradient measurements shall be made on different film samples to determine the mean gradient
value G. The densitometer used shall be calibrated regularly up to a diffuse density of D ≥ 4,8. For the
calibration, a certified film step tablet shall be used. This shall be generated from double sided X-ray film of C3
class or higher (C1 or C2).

NOTE Densitometers may have limited accuracy for measurements at D > 4 and need careful calibration correction
in the full range. Small deviations of the density values at D > 4 have considerable influence to the accuracy of the G at
D - D0 = 4 - value due to the properties of the polynomial approximation procedure.

The mean gradient values shall be determined with a maximum uncertainty of ± 5 % for G2 and ± 7 % for G4
at a confidence level of 95 %.

Measurement laboratories, which certify film systems, shall participate in a proficiency test on a periodical
basis. A new film, exposed in accordance with this standard, shall be used in all participating labs and for
each periodical test.

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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

5.3 Measurement of granularity σD

The granularity is measured by linear or circular scanning of a film of constant diffuse optical density with a
microdensitometer. Both emulsion layers shall be recorded; this means that the depth of focus of the
microdensitometer has to include both layers.

The granularity value shall be determined in terms of diffuse density.

If the optical density is measured as specular density, it shall be converted into diffuse optical density, using
the plot of the curve of diffuse density versus specular density at the mean density value of the granularity film
specimen. The diffuse density of each step shall be measured with the calibrated densitometer.

Determine this curve using a film having a stepped series of densities, which is prepared using the same type
of film, exposure, and processing techniques as used for the granularity film specimen. The specimen film
shall be scanned using identical microdensitometer settings. A limited range of densities can typically be
measured for a given microdensitometer gain setting. The stepped series of densities shall lie within that
range.

The calibration shall be made from the diffuse vs specular density plot with at least 5 values between diffuse
density 1,5 and 2,8 (including fog and base). The conversion can be performed on basis of a linear regression
analysis of the log(diffuse density) vs log(specular density) plot. The determined coefficients shall be used for
the conversion of the specular density into diffuse density values.

The conversion shall be performed before the numerical determination of the standard deviation σD, which is a
measure of the granularity. σD is calculated by

N
¦( )2
1
σD = ⋅ Di − D (3)
N −1 i =1

The diffuse optical density of the measured film shall be D = 2,00 ± 0,05 above fog and base. The determined
σD-value shall be corrected on the basis of the diffuse mean density D above fog and base of this film. The
corrected σD-value is calculated by

σ D−corr = σ D ⋅ (2 / D ) (4)

As an alternative, three or more samples of the film specimen at different density levels, within the range from
1,80 to 2,20, may be measured, and the granularity value at a diffuse density of 2,00, above base plus fog,
shall be taken from a linear regression analysis of the plot of granularity as a function of the square root of
diffuse density above fog and base.

The scanning length on the radiographic film shall be at least 116 mm. The diameter of a circular measuring
aperture of the microdensitometer shall be (100 ± 5) µm. A square aperture of 88,6 µm × 88,6 µm has the
same area as a circular one of 100 µm diameter and is concerning the measured granularity equivalent to a
circular one with 100 µm diameter.

The determined σD-corr-value shall be corrected on the basis of the real (measured) aperture diameter Ad (in
µm) of a circular aperture. The corrected σD-value is calculated by

σ D−corr -a = σ D−corr ⋅ ( Ad / 100 ) (5a)

If a square aperture of the microdensitometer is used, the corrected σD-value is calculated by

σ D − corr -b = σ D − corr ⋅ ( 4 ⋅ Aa /(π ⋅ 10000 )) (5b)

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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

where Aa is the aperture area in µm2.

The scan path of the microdensitometer may be linear or circular. If circular, the radius of the path shall not be
less than 16 mm. In either case, the total scan length shall not be less than 116 mm.

In order to limit the low frequency noise the data, measured with the microdensitometer, shall be filtered after
conversion to diffuse density with a highpass filter with a cut-off spatial frequency of 0,1 line pairs per
millimetre (3 dB). This shall be performed by subtraction of the measured scan values minus the smoothed
measured scan values. The smoothing shall be performed by convolution with a rectangular window function
with a width of 6,0 mm (61 values with 0,1 mm distance). The scanning step width shall be 100 µm in that
case. The first and last 30 data points of the scan shall not be used after filtering for the further calculation of
σD. The filter is based on the following formula:

1 30 meas
Difilter = Dimeas − ¦ Di+ j (6)
61 j = −30

Due to the risks of errors in the measured data during the scan, resulting from artefacts in the film such as
dust and other sources of distortion, the filtered scan shall be divided into n groups of 1,9 mm length (20
values with 0,1 mm distance) and 0,1 mm distance between groups. σDgl shall be determined for each group,
whereby at least 55 groups shall be used. The calculated σDgl-values are rearranged in dependence on their
size and the central value (this is the 28th value in case of 55 groups) is the MEDIAN of all groups. The
median value σDM shall be multiplied with 1,0179 to get the median unbiased estimation σD.

NOTE 1 k is the number of consecutive observations within a group and C is the critical value of the chi-square
distribution for α = 0,5 with k-1 degrees of freedom. For the σD estimation the median value σDM shall be multiplied by
sqrt((k-1)/C). In case of 20 observations the median value σDM shall be multiplied with 1,0179 for statistical correction .

NOTE 2 An increased number of data points and groups yields a better (lower) uncertainty of the result. It is important
not to modify the group length of 1.9 mm (plus 0.1 mm distance between groups) and the statistical correction if using
1,0179 as correction value.

Subdivision of the scanned data in groups, determination of σDgl and median procedure have an inherent filter
effect which is equivalent to the described highpass filter of scanned data. Therefore, the highpass filtering
may be omitted, if the MEDIAN procedure is applied. Differences in the determined granularity will be less
than ± 1,5 %.

At least six measurements shall be made on different samples to estimate the mean value of granularity. The
determined granularity mean value shall not exceed an uncertainty of ± 10 % at a confidence level of 95 %.

Measurement laboratories, which certify film systems, shall participate in a proficiency test on a periodical
basis. A new film, exposed in accordance with this standard, shall be used in all participating laboratories and
for each periodical test.

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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

5.4 Measurement of CEN speed S

The CEN speed S is determined for a diffuse optical density D - D0 = 2 above fog and base D0. The CEN
speed shall be given in accordance with Table 2.

5.5 Other equipment and procedures

Measurement equipment, other than that described above, can be used for classification, if this equipment
and the corresponding procedures provide same results with an uncertainty of less than 5% and a confidence
of 95% for gradient G2, less than 7% and a confidence of 95% for gradient G4 and less than 10% and a
confidence of 95% for granularity. This shall be in accordance with EN ISO/IEC 17025 in comparison to the
test method of 5.1 to 5.4 for the film systems to be classified.

6 Limiting values for classification


The film system classes are defined by limiting values, which are determined in accordance with clause 5.

In order to assign a film system class, the determined parameters of the film system shall meet all the limiting
values of the gradient, the granularity and the gradient/noise-ratio of the system class according to Table 1.

For classification of film systems the following procedure shall be applied:

All determined mean values of G at D - D0 = 2 and 4 shall exceed or equal the minimum values of a system
class according to Table 1. The mean value of G at D - D0 = 2 and 4 may fall short below the values of
Table 1 by less or equal to 5 %, if the mean value of (G/σD)min at D - D0 = 2 is greater than or equal to the
minimum value of Table 1.

The mean value of the measured granularity may exceed the values of Table 1 by 10% to account for
measurement uncertainty, if the mean value of (G/σD)min at D = 2 above D0 is greater than or equal to the
minimum value of Table 1.

NOTE 1 The value (G/σD)min at D - D0 = 2 determines the human perceptibility of flaws shown by the radiograph as
seen on an illuminator. Increased G-values compensate increased granularity and vice versa decreased granularity
compensates low G-values in a certain range. Furthermore, (G/σD)min at D - D0 = 2 is chosen in Table 1 to be always
greater than the quotient of G/σD at D - D0 = 2..

NOTE 2 Changes of the developer activity cause a systematic error due to the shift of the values of G at D - D0 = 2 and
4 and σD . But, the effect of the developer does not influence the quotient G/σD at D - D0 = 2 as much as the values G at
D - D0 = 2 and 4 and σD . In consequence, the uncertainty for G/σD at D - D0 = 2 is less than the uncertainty of σD.

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EN 584-1:2006 (E)

Table 1 — Limiting values for gradient, gradient/noise-ratio and granularity

Minimum gradient Gmin at Minimum Maximum granularity


Film gradient/noise-ratio
system
σD max
(G/σD)min
class D = 2 above D0 D = 4 above D0 at D = 2 above D0
at D = 2 above D0

C1 4,5 7,5 300 0,018


C2 4,3 7,4 230 0,020
C3 4,1 6,8 180 0,023
C4 4,1 6,8 150 0,028
C5 3,8 6,4 120 0,032
C6 3,5 5,0 100 0,039

The classification is only valid for the complete film system. In general, the classification for X-rays as
described under 5.1 can be transferred to other radiation energies and metallic screen types as well as films
without screens and single coated films.

A certificate shall contain the following information:

⎯ reference to this standard

⎯ date

⎯ measured values of gradient at D = 2 and D = 4 above fog and base

⎯ measured granularity at D = 2 above fog and base

⎯ calculated value of (G/σD) at D = 2 above fog and base

⎯ Dose KS for D = 2 above fog and base

⎯ Processing conditions:

⎯ Manual or automatic

⎯ Type of chemistry

⎯ Developer immersion time

⎯ Developer temperature

⎯ Classification according to Table 1

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Table 2 ʊ Determination of CEN speed S from dose KS (in Gray) needed for a film density D = 2 above
D0

log10KS CEN Speed S


From To
-3,05 -2,96 1000
-2,95 -2,86 800
-2,85 -2,76 640
-2,75 -2,66 500
-2,65 -2,56 400

-2,55 -2,46 320


-2,45 -2,36 250
-2,35 -2,26 200
-2,25 -2,16 160
-2,15 -2,06 125

-2,05 -1,96 100


-1,95 -1,86 80
-1,85 -1,76 64
-1,75 -1,66 50
-1,65 -1,56 40

-1,55 -1,46 32
-1,45 -1,36 25
-1,35 -1,26 20
-1,25 -1,16 16
-1,15 -1,06 12

-1,05 -0,96 10
-0,95 -0,86 8
-0,85 -0,76 6
-0,75 -0,66 5
-0,65 -0,56 4

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Bibliography

[1] EN 444, Non-destructive testing — General principles for radiographic examination of metallic
materials by X- and gamma rays

[2] EN 1435, Non-destructive examinations of welds — Radiographic examination of welded joints.

[3] EN 12681, Founding — Radiographic examination.

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ISTITUTO ITALIANO SALDATURA - 2010 - 642804 - eco

UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 Nº 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.
di Unificazione
Via Sannio, 2
20137 Milano, Italia

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