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Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments (JMERD) 42(1) (2019) 01-09

Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research &


Developments (JMERD)
ISSN: 1024-1752 (Print) DOI : http://doi.org/10.26480/jmerd.01.2019.01.09
CODEN: JERDFO

REVIEW ARTICLE

A BRIEF REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS ON FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM OF


DIESEL ENGINE TO INCREASE THE POWER AND REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL
POLLUTION
Van Viet Pham*, Duc Thiep Cao

Vietnam Maritime University, Haiphong city, Vietnam


*Corresponding Author Email: phamvietmtt@gmail.com

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

ARTICLE DETAILS ABSTRACT

Article History: The regulations on emissions of internal combustion engines are becoming more stringent, while fossil fuel sources
are at risk of depleting after 100 years. That motivates researchers and engine manufacturers to constantly improve
Received 20 November 2018 new technologies on the engine to reduce emissions that pollute the environment and increase the number of
Accepted 26 December 2018
Available online 22 January 2019
engines using fuel. Replace from environmentally friendly sources. Improvements and application of modern
technologies have a profound impact on engines, increasing capacity, efficiency and environmental friendliness but
also making it more complex and difficult to access. The fact shows that the fuel system has a direct impact on the
engine's working processes, determining the engine's output power and exhaust gas quality. Therefore, the
application of new technology solutions on fuel supply system for diesel engines will create breakthroughs to affirm
the great role and competitiveness of modern diesel engines. This paper evaluates structural improvements in the
fuel system to increase engine capacity and reduce environmental pollution.

KEYWORDS

Technology solutions on fuel injection, common-rail, electronic fuel injection, intelligent injection system

1. INTRODUCTION need too much capacity, the diesel engine has a big advantage in terms of
fuel economy [4].
Unlike gasoline engines, diesel engines do not need a combustion system.
Thanks to the inherent properties of diesel, the combustion process will To solve the above problem, diesel engine manufacturers are forced to
automatically take place under certain pressure and temperature at the equip more turbochargers. Unlike a gasoline engine, the maximum power
end of the diesel cycle. Typically, this cycle requires a high compression of a turbocharger is well suited to the torque curve of a diesel engine.
ratio of about 22: 1 for a non-turbocharged motor. In addition, it is Therefore, the turbocharged diesel engine currently possesses the same
necessary to have a medium and heavy machine case and block to cope power as the gasoline engine with the same capacity but still creates great
with high fire pressure. Therefore, diesel engines are always heavier than torque and fuel economy [5].
gasoline engines equivalent in capacity. On the one hand, high pressure
and heavy pistons prevent diesel engines from rotating at high speeds like As emissions regulations continue to tighten in Europe and North America,
gasoline engines (the maximum torque of most diesel engines only stays the technology for diesel engines is more advanced and catches up with
below 4,500 rpm) [1]. On the other hand, long piston stroke due to high gasoline engines. Therefore, European engine manufacturers are
compression ratio often favored torque over power. This explains why relentless to produce more advanced and friendly diesel engines. Today,
diesel engines always give low power but great torque. from a quarter to a third of the engines sold to the market are equipped
with diesel engines. In some countries like France and Italy, the number of
The absence of a ignition system as well as a throttle valve makes the motorized vehicles using diesel engines accounts for 40%. In Germany,
process of repairing and maintaining diesel engines much simpler. Mercedes engineers expressed concern that future regulations to tighten
Because the diesel engine's power is controlled by the amount of fuel emissions will gradually "crush" large-capacity gasoline engines like V8
sprayed into the combustion chamber, the injection system always plays a and V12 . They believe that diesel engines are the only way to meet those
decisive role in the level of fuel economy [2,3]. Thanks to high pressure regulations. Not only Stuttgart, but also BMW and Audi have developed
and precision, the electronic fuel injection system has significantly their own first-ever turbocharged V8 diesel engine for high-end models.
improved fuel economy.
Technology for diesel engines is on the rise. The last problem to clarify is
Even without a direct injection system, the diesel engine is still fuel- the state of particle emissions in which mostly carbon and large
efficient with a poorer gas-fuel mixture. Meanwhile, the gasoline engine hydrocarbons cause soot and black smoke [6]. PSA has successfully
cannot burn with the mixture too poor. The feature has reduced the output designed a particle filtration device for its HDi electronic fuel injection
power but when the load is small or the load of the part which does not

Cite The Article: Van Viet Pham, Duc Thiep Cao (2019). A Brief Review Of Technology Solutions On Fuel Injection System Of Diesel Engine To Increase The Power And
Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments (JMERD) 42(1) (2019) 01-09

series in 2000. Hopefully, this device will bring a brighter future for diesel benefit of Common Rail injectors is to reduce the noise level, fuel is
as well as our environment. sprayed at very high pressure thanks to the combination of electronic
control, injection control, and timing [20]. Therefore, it makes engine
In the combustion chamber diesel engine always exists in areas or efficiency and fuel economy higher.
"pockets" of low temperature air. Thanks to this air component, NOx forms
in the combustion chamber of diesel engine and is cooled. In addition to Compared to the cam drive system, the Common Rail system is quite
turbocharged diesel engines, the increase in pressure leads to an increase flexible in adapting to fuel injection control for diesel engines such as:
in the combustion temperature [7]. Currently there are several application Wide range of applications (for cars, trains and ships). Spray pressure
technologies to reduce emissions of diesel engines, but the US reaches 1500 bar (150MPa). Change spray pressure according to engine
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the automobile industry operation mode. Can change the time of spraying. Spray divided into three
association are still conducting evaluation measures and Clean diesel stages: Spray primer, main spray and completed spray [21].
technology development (CDC - Clean Diesel Car), based on that, improved
some of the best technologies to design an engine that meets the 2.2 Principle of operation
requirements of clean emissions and high capacity but reasonable price
[8]. Similar to the conventional diesel fuel system, in Figure 1: The fuel is
supplied to push from the daily tank (1) on the low pressure pipe through
Diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel in 1897, operating on the principle the filter (3) to the high pressure pump (2), from here fuel pumped by high
of self-ignition. Near the end of the compression process, the fuel is pressure pump is pushed into hoses of high pressure fuel (7) (also called
sprayed into the combustion chamber to form a fire mixture, which hydraulic battery) and then sent to Common Rail injector (9) ready to
qualifies for a self-igniting mixture. By 1927 Robert Bosch invented a high- spray into cylinder muscle. The pressure and fuel injection are completely
pressure pump (Bosch Pump) and a diesel engine injector [9]. separate from each other in the Common Rail system. The injection
pressure is created independently of the speed and amount of fuel
Diesel fuel system is constantly improved, with optimal technical solutions produced. Fuel is stored with high pressure in hydraulic battery. The
to reduce pollution generation and fuel consumption, while improving amount of spraying is determined by the throttle control, the timing of the
reliability and engine power. Diesel engine scientists have come up with injection as well as the injection pressure calculated by ECU based on the
various measures such as spraying techniques and organizing combustion data charts stored on it. ECU and EDU will then control the injectors of the
processes to improve the quality of fuel injection to limit pollutants. The injectors at each engine cylinder to inject fuel thanks to the information
main measures focus on solving problems: Increase spraying speed to from the sensors (10) with injection pressure up to 1500bar. The excess
reduce soot concentration by accelerating mixing of fuel and air; fuel of the injector passes through the hydraulic battery back to the high
Increasing the injection pressure, especially for direct injection engines; pressure pump, the pressure control valve at the pump opens so that it
Adjusting the law of spraying according to the trend of quickly ending the returns to the fuel tank (1). On hydraulic batteries with pressure sensors
spraying process to reduce HC; Effectively use alternative fuels or dual fuel and terminals with safety valves arranged (8), if the pressure stored in the
systems [3,10-14]. hydraulic battery (7) exceeds the safety valve limit, the fuel will be
removed. container.
Currently, the disadvantages of diesel fuel systems have been overcome by
improving parts such as high-pressure pumps, injectors, hoses for high-
pressure fuel, automatic control applications on high pumps. Pressure and
injector thanks to the integration of advanced electronic injection
technologies [15,16]. Therefore, assessing the applicability of new fuel
systems such as common-rail system, electronic fuel injection system
(EFI), hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI),
intelligent accuracy refinement technology (i-ART) is essential and highly
practical.

2. COMMON RAIL DIESEL SYSTEM

2.1 Overview

Compared to gasoline, diesel is a less quality component. Diesel particles


are larger and heavier than gasoline, so it is difficult to spray into a mist.
Incomplete spraying systems create many non-flammable particles,
creating scale on the injector head and the surface of the combustion
chamber wall, many pollutants, less fuel economy and lower capacity.
Common-rail technology is generated to improve this spraying process Figure 1: Diagram of operating principle of Common Rail fuel supply
[17]. system [22]

This means that the fuel must be sprayed at extremely high pressures that With this method, the injection pressures up to 1500 bar can be applied at
the conventional fuel injector cannot achieve. In common-rail systems, all times even at low speed. In Common Rail system, the injection process
fuel is sprayed at high pressure through a large-capacity pump instead of is divided into spraying ways: Priming (or Pre-injection or Pilot- injection),
the fuel injection. High-pressure fuel is sprayed on each sprayer thanks to Main injection and Secondary injection (Post-injection) [23,24].
a common hard tube (common-rail). In the current generation design, this
tube can withstand a pressure of about 20,000 psi. Fuel is always sprayed 2.3 Components of the system
under the same pressure even in standby state [18]. Every time the
sprayer is open, high pressure fuel will be sprayed into the combustion A Common Rail Diesel system consists of 4 basic components:
chamber in a very short time. Thus, not only improve the injection process - High pressure pump with pressure regulating valve and measuring valve;
at higher fuel pressure, but also shorten the fuel injection time and - Sensors (crankshaft speed, camshaft, pedal off, air flow and coolant, Rail
precisely control the timing [19]. pressure sensor ...);
- The actuators (Injector controlled by solenoid valves, turbochargers,
In modern diesel engines, the injection pressure is applied to each injector exhaust gas reflectors, pressure gauges ...);
separately, high pressure fuel is contained in a container (Rail) or - Electronic controller (ECU, EDU) controls precise injection volume,
"Hydraulic Battery" and distributed to each injector as required. The regulates pressure and monitors engine operating conditions.

Cite The Article: Van Viet Pham, Duc Thiep Cao (2019). A Brief Review Of Technology Solutions On Fuel Injection System Of Diesel Engine To Increase The Power And
Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments (JMERD) 42(1) (2019) 01-09

With the right time, the common-rail fuel injection system can perform a
"post-combustion" stage in which an insignificant amount of fuel is
pumped into the expansion phase to create a small-scale combustion
phenomenon before when starting the normal combustion process [29].
The purpose of this stage is to remove unburnt particles, increase the flue
gas temperature and reduce the preheating time of the catalytic converter.
In short, "post-combustion" cuts down on pollutants [30].

According to PSA's report, the company's new common-rail engine (plus


some other improvements) can save 20% of fuel consumption, double the
torque at low revs and increase capacity to 25 % In addition, this engine
significantly reduces the noise and vibration of conventional diesel
engines. In terms of emissions, greenhouse gases (CO2) decreased by 20%,
CO 40%, unburnt hydrocarbons and particles by 60% [31].

Used in automotive diesel fuel injection systems, high pressure pumps are
considered the most important part of this system. The high pressure
pump works effectively will make the system increase capacity, reduce
fuel consumption, reduce the level of environmental pollution due to
Figure 2: Components in the system [25] emissions and noise. Thus, fuel used must be sprayed at the right time, in
flow and evenly on each cylinder of the engine. According to the control
In terms of structure: The electronic fuel injection system allows to
method of fuel injection for a cycle: Use an electromagnetic valve
significantly reduce the mechanical structure of high-pressure pumps,
(Solenoid-Valve-Controlled) as in an electronically controlled diesel fuel
such as fuel-cutting grooves, speed regulators, spray timing control
injection system (Figure 5) [32].
mechanisms ... so the function of the high pressure pump only makes it
possible to create high fuel pressure, allowing optimal structure in the
direction of creating high pressure, spraying fuel [26].

However, the only drawback is the high cost, reliability depends on the
technology adapted to the environment of the manufacturer.

Figure 5: Structure of high pressure pump for Common rail system [32]

The distribution valve has several operating principles but is most


commonly used as a sliding core, with slots - grooves, inner movement
(tube) valve cover, with oil division lines. The shoulders on the slider core
Figure 3: Comparison of spray pressure can be generated for different
when overlapping with the shoulders of the valve cover will close the oil
injection technologies [27]
line [21]. When the core slides at different positions, the grooves above the
slider will be connected to the oil lines on the valve cover. Electromagnetic
distribution valve: Use one or two electromagnetic coils to create
electromagnetic force pushing the slider core to move [33].

There are two types of SPV on the market today: conventional SPV (used
in axial piston pumps) and direct-operated SPV (used in centrifugal piston
pumps for high-pressure applications). Commonly constructed SPV types
have two main parts: control valves and main valves. When the ECU
supplies the signal (electrical impulse) to the coil, suck the control valve to
close the main valve chamber. At this time the pressure in the main valve
chamber is higher than the external pressure. When the ECU interrupts
the signal, due to the force of the spring, the control valve is pushed up, the
pressure inside the main valve chamber decreases, the main valve is
pushed up by the oil pressure from the feed pump. Oil through the main
Figure 4: The injection pressure of a conventional fuel system and the valve is taken to the injector. Depending on the duration of the pulse signal
common rail system [28] from ECU to the control valve, the flow to the injector is adjusted
accordingly [34].

Cite The Article: Van Viet Pham, Duc Thiep Cao (2019). A Brief Review Of Technology Solutions On Fuel Injection System Of Diesel Engine To Increase The Power And
Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments (JMERD) 42 (1) (2019) 01-09

Figure 8: PCV pressure regulating valve in common rail system [37]

Figure 6: SPV power distribution valve from within the common rail
system [35]

Under normal conditions, the supplied coil pulls the closed solenoid valve.
When the power is disconnected from the coil, the magnetic field is lost,
thanks to spring spring force, so the solenoid valve is pushed to the open
state [33]. Depending on the time of switching off the electric valve, the
solenoid valve is open for a long time or so, so the flow of flow to the
injector can be adjusted.

Figure 9: Diesel Engine ECU [38]

PCV pressure regulators are installed on high pressure fuel supply pipes
for injectors. PCV valves are responsible for regulating fuel pressure
supplied to engine injectors in all cases. The fuel pressure valve has the
function of maintaining the fuel pressure in the common rail tube at a
stable value. Depending on the type of engine, this pressure is worth about
150-1350 bar. The purpose is to ensure the amount of fuel sprayed when
EUC controls the opening of the injector [25].

The adjustment capability is carried out according to many signals


provided to ECU, so the fine-tuning properties will be higher, more
accurately meeting the engine's working modes. The electronic fuel
injection system has met all the working conditions of the engine without
causing a lack of fuel. Thus allowing the engine to maximize capacity and
increase emissions [39]. The main function of the EUC is to control the fuel
injection at the right time, in the right amount, at the right pressure
according to each engine's working mode. Besides, it controls closed-loop
and open-loop as control system of exhaust, turbocharger, automatic
throttle system, ... reduces fuel consumption and toxic emissions [40].
Figure 7: Timing control valve [36]
3. ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM EFI IN DIESEL ENGINE
Control valve at the time of TCV spraying is controlled by pulse rate. When
the power is on, the valve opening time will control the fuel pressure in Electronic injection technology for diesel engines was previously
the piston of the timer. When the ECU supplies power to the coil with a considered difficult to change, today due to the pressure of emission
pulse sequence, under the force of the core is sucked to the right to open standards, this technology is making great progress [37].
the oil line between two pressure chambers of the timer. The degree of If Japanese manufacturers are leading the way in direct fuel injection
opening of this oil line changes according to the permanent ratio of the technology, the German Bosch company cooperates with European car
pulse. Therefore a quantity of pressure oil p1 through TCV valve will have manufacturers to pioneer in manufacturing electronic fuel injection
a pressure p’1 acting on both sides of the timing piston. The balance of force system for for diesel engine. In conventional diesel EFI fuel injection
between force due to pressure p1 and spring force due to force p’1 will keep system, the injection time and injection flow are electronically controlled.
the timer in a certain position [24]. Therefore the roller ring is also in a High-pressure pumps used to create pressure are also the type of pump
certain position creating an early injection angle. When the ECU stops used in conventional diesel engines [38].
supplying power, under the force of spring force, the moving core moves
to the left to close the oil line between the two pressure chambers . When The injector has an electromagnetic assist valve. It is a high-precision
the control pulse has a high permanent ratio, the pressure p’ 1 is large. component, manufactured to withstand extremely tight tightness. Valves,
Therefore the timing piston of the timer moves to the left, which rotates injectors and electromagnetic coils are positioned on the injector body.
the roller ring in the opposite direction to the rotation of the cam plate, The fuel flow from the high-pressure circuit connector passes through the
which early in the spraying time [29]. throttle valve into the control valve chamber [41]. There is pressure inside

Cite The Article: Van Viet Pham, Duc Thiep Cao (2019). A Brief Review Of Technology Solutions On Fuel Injection System Of Diesel Engine To Increase The Power And
Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments (JMERD) 42(1) (2019) 01-09

the injector with pressure in the hydraulic battery, so we see that the High pressure pump 3 is axial piston pump that changes flow. Oil from the
injector is designed to work at very high pressure so the details of springs, oil tank is sucked through the filtration device into the pump, the
ball valves, injectors and solenoid valves to complete the job must be operation of the pump will increase the oil pressure to the required
accurate [42]. pressure and pump to the HEUI injector [49]. High-pressure pumps in
HEUI systems are also responsible for creating high pressure for hydraulic
oil (which is lubricating oil), the spraying effect to squeeze the cylinder.
The ECM will control this high pressure oil flow into the pressing chamber
of the injection cylinder in the injector for spraying (Figure 11) [50].

The electronic control module ECM 2 acts as a computer that controls the
entire motor. The ECM receives control signals from different sensors and
switches, analyzes the processing by the installed software in the memory
and sends the control signal to the injector solenoid valve to control the
timing and volume. spray material. At the same time, ECM also sends
signals to the injection pressure control valve to control the oil pressure
to the injector. Therefore this pressure is proportional to the injection
pressure, so the ECM will control the injection pressure [43]. Thus, the
ECM will control the entire fuel injection process in accordance with the
signals sent by the sensors [51].

Injector actuation pressure control valve 4, the pressure generated by the


high pressure pump will be higher than the injection pressure, the
injection pressure control valve will discharge part of the oil back to the
Figure 10: EFI diesel fuel injection system [38]
tank to stabilize oil pressure equal to the pressure required by the ECM
signal [52].
The high-pressure syringe pump draws fuel from the tank and delivers it
to the injector through the SPV (adjusting the injection flow) while the TCV The injector 1 in HEUI is a standalone device directly controlled by ECM.
adjusts the timing of the fuel injection. ECU (Electronic Control Unit) Diesel oil with a pressure of 800 to 3000 psi is pumped to the injector. The
controls TCV and SPV operations based on input signals from sensors such piston part in the injector operates similarly to a hydraulic cylinder that
as pressure sensors, engine speeds, crankshaft position, engine elevates the oil pressure to the sprayer up to the injection pressure (from
temperature sensors… Fuel In the pump chamber, the fuel pump is 3000 to 21000 psi) [46]. The solenoid valve on the top of the injector
pumped to create a pressure of 1.5 and 2.0 Mpa [43]. A conventional EFI receives the control signal from the ECM, thereby controlling the
diesel uses one of two types of distribution pumps: axial piston pump and lubricating oil into the piston to control the timing and amount of fuel
centrifugal piston pump with higher injection pressure [44]. injection.
4. HYDRAULICALLY ACTUATED ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED
UNIT INJECTOR HEUI The system's high-pressure pump supplies an amount of hydraulic oil to
the solenoid valve of the HEUI injector. Here the solenoid valve will be
HEUI (Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector) is controlled to open this high pressure oil into the cavity below the
one of the major improvements of Diesel engines. It is also part of mushroom valve to spray [6]. A fuel pump (Diesel oil pump) is in a high-
Carterpillar's ACERT technology. The advent of HEUI has set new pressure pump and supplies a certain amount of oil to the boundary of the
standards for engines for fuel consumption, durability and emission injector assembly . Here, certain pressurized fuel will be waiting in the
standards [45]. chamber of the injector under the pump. Part of the fuel is also brought
down to the pressure-enhanced piston assembly [47]. When the solenoid
HEUI fuel technology is changing the way engineers and operators think valve opens, the high-pressure oil will be introduced into the cavity of the
about diesel engine performance. Beyond the traditional traditional fuel mushroom-shaped valve, creating a downward pressure on the pump. The
injection technology, HEUI allows precise adjustment of fuel injection into downward-pumping Ti will also create a pressure to overcome the tension
the combustion chamber in terms of time, pressure and amount of fuel of the spring in the pressure-boosting piston assembly, pushing the
injection, bringing high efficiency to the engine [46]. Traditional fuel waiting fuel under the compartment to the outside of the engine
injection technology previously depends on engine speed, when engine combustion chamber.
speed increases, the injection pressure also increases, affecting engine
durability and increasing fuel consumption. The injection pressure for
HEUI fuel system does not depend on the engine speed but the side is
electrically controlled. Therefore, the engine is equipped with HEUI
system which will save fuel and cleaner exhaust gas [46,47].

Figure 12: Spray pressure when using HEUI system and conventional
Figure 11: HEUI fuel supply system [48] fuel system [48]

Cite The Article: Van Viet Pham, Duc Thiep Cao (2019). A Brief Review Of Technology Solutions On Fuel Injection System Of Diesel Engine To Increase The Power And
Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments (JMERD) 42(1) (2019) 01-09

When the solenoid valve is closed, the high-pressure oil stops supplying to system (Figure 14) [10]. Therefore, the filter plays a very important role
the mushroom-shaped valve compartment, the pressure on the valve in improving the durability of the system.
chamber is lost, and the chamber pressure below the thrust lever is also
dramatically reduced, the lower chamber pressure is not enough to win
over piston pressure spring booster, stop the fuel injection process. At the
HEUI injector (Figure 13), the spraying process includes pilot injection
[19].

Figure 13: Filter's clean ability in HEUI system [53]


Figure 13: Injector in HEUI system [46]
5. INTELLIGENT ACCURACY REFINEMENT TECHNOLOGY I-ART
Therefore, applying HEUI fuel system to the engine allows to improve the
performance, save fuel and minimize engine damage and noise. However, In the September 2013 Volvo Car Group for the first time introduced the
devices in HEUI systems are highly accurate, dirty fuels can cause wear new fuel injection technology i-ART for Volvo's special VEA diesel engine
and tear, and even damage parts in the system. Dirty particles with a that significantly improves fuel consumption [54].
diameter of only 1/5 of the diameter of hair fibers can be dangerous to the

Figure 14: Injector with sensor and integrated processor [55]

According to Volvo, i-ART technology is likened to the second step in the combination of higher-pressure fuel injection and i-ART technology will
revolution of diesel and far more advanced than the popular common-rail help the engine significantly improve fuel consumption and low emissions
technology today. If the common-rail system uses a common pressure while providing higher productivity (Figure 15). According to the plan,
sensor, i-ART technology uses pressure feedback from each fuel injector Volvo Car Group will introduce the VEA engine (Volvo Engine
and has the ability to continuously display and adjust fuel injection on each Architecture) typical of Volvo this fall [41]. At the same time, Volvo also
engine combustion chamber [56-60]. Each injector is fitted with a small introduced a new 8-speed automatic gearbox that provides smooth
computer that helps the i-ART system automatically adjust and ensure the operation and fuel economy.
ideal amount of fuel is sprayed during each burning cycle. The

Figure 15: Stability of cylinder pressure of i-Art engine and not used [57]

Cite The Article: Van Viet Pham, Duc Thiep Cao (2019). A Brief Review Of Technology Solutions On Fuel Injection System Of Diesel Engine To Increase The Power And
Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments (JMERD) 42(1) (2019) 01-09

investigation of the effect of hemispherical and toroidal piston bowl


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Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09
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Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.
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Cite The Article: Van Viet Pham, Duc Thiep Cao (2019). A Brief Review Of Technology Solutions On Fuel Injection System Of Diesel Engine To Increase The Power And
Reduce Environmental Pollution. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research & Developments, 42(1): 01-09.