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qxd 2/1/06 9:28 AM Page 95

An Introduction to Engineering Mechanics of Piping 95

At the anchor point 50, the reactions are as follows:

Fx  5759 lbf; Fy  5776 lbf; Fz  1210 lbf

Mx  15,958 ft-lbf; My  16,439 ft-lbf; Mz  18,491 ft-lbf

In Figure 2-16, the reactions for the expansion case for anchor node 10
are as follows:

Fx  2081 lbf; Fy  1595 lbf; Fz  458 lbf

Mx  1222 ft-lbf; My  3237 ft-lbf; Mz  2729 ft-lbf

In Figure 2-16, the reactions at the anchor point 60 are as follows:

Fx  2197 lbf; Fy  2734 lbf; Fz  578 lbf

Mx  6275 ft-lbf; My  8053 ft-lbf; Mz  12,403 ft-lbf

Since both systems are below the code allowable stress, the nozzle loads
differ considerably. Hence, the major concern of the piping engineer
most often is not stresses but nozzle loads. When piping is connected to
fragile equipment (e.g., rotating equipment), nozzle loads often govern.
It is quite possible for a piping system to be below the code allowable
stresses and the nozzles to be overloaded. In the next section, we will
discuss recommended situations when a formal computer analysis is
The object of this discussion is to understand how to apply the flexi-
bility criterion for situations when only a manual check is necessary in
a two-anchor system without intermediate supports.
No matter how many computer runs piping engineers perform all over
the world, if the machinery is not correctly maintained, piping is always
a central issue. Choosing the incorrect material for machinery components
(e.g., bearings and wear rings) can cause a piece of machinery to fail,
regardless of the piping loads. In one case, a hot oil pump operating at
700°F (371.1°C) seized up when the wear ring, which was supposed to
be 12–13% Cr, was replaced with a wear ring made of austenitic stainless
steel. The austenitic stainless steel wear ring had a much higher coef-
ficient of thermal expansion [9.76  106 in./in.-°F (17.57  106 mm/
mm-°C)] than the 11–13% Cr wear ring [6.60  106 in./in.-°F (11.88 
106 mm/mm-°C)], and the pump shaft seized upon thermal expansion.
The piping had been in place for 20 years and the pumps had operated
successfully. The plant was convinced that piping was the cause of
the machinery to fail. When the problems were discovered with the
wear rings, it was too late—the expensive chromium pipe and fittings had