Sei sulla pagina 1di 23

CHAPTER 3

Solar Cell Electrical Characteristics

A. Current Mechanisms

The voltage-current behavior of a s o l a r c e l l i n t h e dark


i s equally a s important as t h e photocurrent i n determining t h e
output o f t h e c e l l , s i n c e t h e j u n c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s deter-
mine how much of t h e e l e c t r i c a l energy developed by t h e c e l l
with l i g h t i n c i d e n t on it w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e a t t h e output ter-
minals and how much w i l l be lost as h e a t . When p o w e r is being
taken from t h e c e l l , a v o l t a g e exists a c r o s s i t s t e r m i n a l s i n
t h e forward b i a s p o l a r i t y , and a j u n c t i o n "dark c u r r e n t " e x i s t s
which is o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n t o t h e photocurrent. The cur-
r e n t being supplied t o t h e load i s t h e photocurrent minus t h i s
dark c u r r e n t , and it i s important t o have a s low a dark c u r r e n t
as possible a t t h e o p e r a t i n g v o l t a g e t o o b t a i n t h e h i g h e s t
efficiency.
I n a l l p-n j u n c t i o n s , s e v e r a l c u r r e n t t r a n s p o r t mechanisms
( t r a n s p o r t of h o l e s and e l e c t r o n s across t h e d e p l e t i o n region)
can be p r e s e n t a t t h e same time, and t h e magnitude o f each one
i s determined by t h e doping l e v e l s on t h e t w o s i d e s o f t h e
junction and by t h e presence of any added energy b a r r i e r s as
i n heterojunctions. Such t r a n s p o r t mechanisms i n t h e forward
b i a s d i r e c t i o n i n c l u d e i n j e c t i o n of carriers over t h e junction
b a r r i e r , recombination of holes and e l e c t r o n s w i t h i n t h e deple-
t i o n region, and i n j e c t i o n of carriers up a p o r t i o n of t h e
b a r r i e r followed by tunneling i n t o energy s t a t e s w i t h i n t h e
bandgap (tunneling may t a k e p l a c e through a series of s t e p s
with recombination i n between, as i n t h e "excess" c u r r e n t i n
t u n n e l d i o d e s ) . These c u r r e n t s are shown d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y i n
Fig. 2 8 ; t h e r e may be o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n s p e c i a l cases.
I n t h e absence of shunt or series r e s i s t a n c e e f f e c t s , t h e
dark I-V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s o l a r c e l l a r e given by t h e sum
of t h e c u r r e n t mechanisms t h a t a r e p r e s e n t . I n a normal S i
p-n j u n c t i o n device with 1 or 1 0 ohm-cm base m a t e r i a l , t h e
tunneling c u r r e n t i s n o t l i k e l y t o be of importance compared
A. CURRENT MECHANISMS 49

FIG. 28. T h r e e c u r r e n t transport mechanisms i n forward biased


p-n junctions: ( 1 ) i n j e c t i o n ; (2) recombination within t h e
depletion region; and (3) multistep tunneling via energy s t a t e s
caused b y defects.

t o t h e other two, but i n S i devices made with 0.01 ohm-cm


bases, t h e tunneling component w i l l probably dominate. For
0.1 ohm-cm devices (a few t i m e s 1017 ~ m - ~t h) e tunneling cur-
r e n t should be n e g l i g i b l e f o r devices with high junction per-
f e c t i o n b u t both t h e tunneling and depletion region recombina-
t i o n mechanisms w i l l be increasingly important as t h e number
of d e f e c t s (and hence energy s t a t e s ) within /the depletion region
increases. These d e f e c t s can be caused by impurities, d i s l o -
c a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from stress caused by t h e junction d i f f u s i o n ,
and o t h e r problems introduced during t h e device fabrication.
(Heterojunctions and Schottky b a r r i e r devices tend t o be sub-
j e c t t o tunneling currents more than p-n homojunctions a r e .
Tunneling has been suggested by Fahrenbruch and B u b e [551 and
by B6er and P h i l l i p s 1561 as one of t h e two major dark c u r r e n t
components i n Cu2S-CdS cells. 1
I n t h i s s e c t i o n , each of t h e s e t h r e e dark c u r r e n t compo-
nents w i l l be described i n turn. The i n j e c t e d c u r r e n t w i l l be
described f o r each of t h r e e device models: uniformly doped
regions, constant e l e c t r i c f i e l d s , and a back surface f i e l d .
The space charge l a y e r recombination c u r r e n t and t h e tunneling
component are l a r g e l y independent of t h e model assumed; they
depend mostly on t h e doping l e v e l s a t t h e edges of space charge
region.

1. INJECTED CURRENTS

The dark current-voltage r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n p-n junctions


are derived from equations very similar t o (6) and ( 7 ) . The
i n j e c t e d c u r r e n t component (1 i n Fig. 28) c o n s i s t s of electrons
50 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

injected from t h e n-side over t h e p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r i n t o t h e


p-side, where they d i f f u s e and d r i f t ( i f t h e r e i s an e l e c t r i c
f i e l d ) away from the junction and eventually recombine e i t h e r
i n the bulk o r a t a surface. The current component a l s o con-
sists of an analogous current due t o holes i n j e c t e d from the
p-side i n t o the n-side. The behavior of these minority car-
riers i s governed by the continuity equations

( l / q ) (d/dx) Jn- [ (%-%0)/?~1 = 0 (electrons on p-side) ,


(37)
(l/q) (d/dx) Jp+[ (pn-pno)/'rpl = 0 (holes on n-side) ,
(38).
and by t h e current equations

In order t o obtain an a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t , it is necessary to


assume a l l t h e parameters ( p , ? , E , D ) t o be constant; i f these
assumptions cannot be used even as a f i r s t approximation,
numerical methods can be used [391, which are more accurate
but f a r less expedient.
The boundary conditions necessary f o r t h e solution of
(37)-(40) i n an N/P c e l l a r e

where x = 0 is t h e f r o n t of t h e c e l l and x = H is t h e back.


Equations (41) and (42) are t h e Boltzmann r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r
carriers on t h e t w o sides of t h e junction when t h e voltage
across t h e junction is V,, i.e., V . is t h e voltage introduced
across t h e junction e i t h e r by l i g h t o r by some o t h e r means
such as a b a t t e r y .
The maximum value t h a t t h e photovoltage can t h e o r e t i c a l l y
have i s t h e "built-in" p o t e n t i a l Vd, which i s r e l a t e d t o t h e
bandgap by
A. CURRENT MECHANISMS 51

The c l o s e r t h e Fenni l e v e l s l i e t o t h e i r respective band edges


on t h e two sides, the higher t h e p o t e n t i a l vd w i l l be; f o r
degenerate conditions vd can even exceed t h e bandgap. (The
a c t u a l open c i r c u i t voltage Voc i s always l e s s than vd; Voc
i s equal t o t h e voltage a t which t h e photocurrent i s exactly
opposed by t h e t o t a l dark current, and if the dark current
components are l a r g e a t a given voltage, then Voc w i l l be cor-
respondingly small.)
The injected current component, which i s by f a r t h e larg-
e s t i n normal S i s o l a r c e l l s , can now be found by solving (37)
through (44) under various conditions. The solutions w i l l be
obtained f o r N/P c e l l s , b u t analogous expressions apply f o r
P/N devices.

a. U n i f o r m Doping

I f the doping l e v e l s on t h e two s i d e s a r e constant, then


t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d s outside t h e depletion region a r e n e g l i g i b l e
and t h e solution takes a simple form. One form of t h e solution
t o (37)-(40) can be written as

+A2 sinh [(X-(Xj+W) /%] (X,+W 5 x 5 H) (48)

and using t h e boundary conditions (41)- (441, t h e injected


current becomes
52 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

b. Uniform Electric F i e l d s

When doping g r a d i e n t s e x i s t , electric f i e l d s w i l l be


p r e s e n t o u t s i d e t h e d e p l e t i o n region. I f t h e s e f i e l d s are
assumed t o be constant a c r o s s t h e device, then t h e preexpo-
n e n t i a l Jo i n Eq. (49) f o r an N/P c e l l becomes

(Xj/Lpp) + ( (SpLpp/Dp)+EppLpp) cash (Xj/Lpp)

+EppLpp) sinh (xj/Lpp)+cosh (X j/Lpp)

as presented by E l l i s and Moss 1371. The terms Epp, Lpp, Erin,


and were defined i n Eqs. (26) and (27). The f i r s t term
r e p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t i n j e c t e d from t h e d i f f u s e d n-region i n t o
the base and t h e second term r e p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t i n j e c t e d from
t h e base i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . An i n f i n i t e s u r f a c e recom-
b i n a t i o n v e l o c i t y ( a s f o r a metallic O h m i c c o n t a c t ) was assumed
a t t h e back of t h e c e l l 1371.

c. Back Surface F i e l d

I n Godlewski's e t a l . [43] treatment of t h e c u r r e n t flow


when a back s u r f a c e f i e l d (p+-region) i s p r e s e n t (Fig. 71,
t h e t h r e e n e u t r a l regions of t h e device are uniform i n doping
l e v e l , l i f e t i m e , and mobility (no d r i f t f i e l d s ) and t h e dark
c u r r e n t component from t h e base i s then given by [43]

Dn n: PSLn/Dn) cosh (WI?/L,) +sinh (W


J o ( b a s e ) = q--
/
I.1
)
(52)

where

and Na, 41, L, are t h e properties of t h e p-base region, while


NB, D h , are t h o s e of t h e p+-region. Wp and W$ are t h e
widths of t h e l i g h t l y and h e a v i l y doped base regions, respec-
t i v e l y (Fig. 7 ) . The base c u r r e n t (52) is of t h e same form
as t h e second term i n (SO), except t h a t t h e recombination
A. CURRENT MECHANISMS 53

v e l o c i t y "seen" by t h e electrons i n t h e p-region i s S instead


of Sn, and S can be much less than Sn, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e
doping level N: is much g r e a t e r than Na ( t h e e f f e c t of t h e
BSF is l a r g e s t f o r high p-region r e s i s t i v i t i e s and f o r narrow
widths Wp r e l a t i v e t o t h e d i f f u s i o n length h). This tendency
of t h e BSF t o "confine" t h e minority carriers i n t h e p-region
and away from t h e back contact can lower t h e dark c u r r e n t
through t h e device considerably and consequently improve t h e
open c i r c u i t voltage and' f i l l f a c t o r .
The contribution t o t h e dark c u r r e n t from t h e n'diffused
f r o n t region of a BSF c e l l i s t h e same as given by t h e f i r s t
t e r m of ( 5 0 ) o r t h e f i r s t term of (51).

2. SPACE CHARGE LAYER RECOMBINATION CURRENT

When a p-n junction i s forward biased, electrons from t h e


n-side and holes from t h e p-side a r e i n j e c t e d across t h e junc-
t i o n depletion region i n t o t h e p- and n-sides, respectively,
b u t a t t h e sane t i m e some of t h e s e carriers recombine i n s i d e
t h e depletion region, r e s u l t i n g i n an increase i n t h e dark
c u r r e n t through t h e device. This "space charge l a y e r recombi-
nation current" was f i r s t discussed by S a h et a l . 1571 i n
1957, and was l a t e r extended by Choo [58]. I n t h e Sah-Noyce-
Shockley (S-N-S) theory, t h e doping l e v e l s w e r e assumed t o be
t h e same on t h e two s i d e s of t h e junction and a s i n g l e recom-
bination c e n t e r located i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e c e n t e r of t h e
gap w a s assumed a l s o . The dark c u r r e n t component under forward
b i a s was derived as

where vd is t h e b u i l t - i n voltage, W i s t h e depletion region


thickness, and a r e t h e minority carrier l i f e t i m e s on
t h e two sides of t h e junction. The f a c t o r f ( b ) i s a compli-
cated expression involving t h e t r a p l e v e l Et and t h e two l i f e -
times

m dx
f (b) = 1 (55)
x2+2bx+l

b = [exp(-qVj/2kT) 1 cosh[(Et-Ei)/kT+(1/2) !h(TpO/TnO) 1,

where Ei is t h e i n t r i n s i c Fermi l e v e l . The function f ( b ) has


54 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

a maximum value of n/2, which occurs a t small values of b


(forward biases > 2kT/q); f ( b ) decreases as b increases.
Choo l a t e r extended t h e S-N-S theory t o t h e more general
case where the doping l e v e l s are not t h e same on t h e two s i d e s ,
where t h e l e v e l Et can be away from t h e gap c e n t e r , and where
the two l i f e t i m e s TnO, 'c 0 can be orders-of-magnitude apart.
P
H e derived an equation v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o (54) except t h a t
t h e function f ( b ) is smaller than i n t h e S-N-S case, i.e.,
the e f f e c t of junction assymetries i s t o lower t h e recombina-
t i o n current below t h e value predicted by t h e S-N-S derivation.
Equation (54) with f ( b ) = r/2 is t h e r e f o r e t h e l a r g e s t value
t h a t t h e recombination current i s expected t o take, provided
t h a t t h e t h e o r i e s adequately describe t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n 1591.

3. TUNNELING CURRENT

A t h i r d type of dark current component t h a t can exist


under some s i t u a t i o n s is a tunneling current caused by elec-
t r o n s o r holes tunneling from t h e conduction o r valence band
i n t o energy states within t h e bandgap, followed by e i t h e r tun-
neling t h e remainder of t h e way i n t o t h e opposite band o r by
a tunneling-recombination mechanism ( t h e current marked 3 i n
Fig. 2 8 ) . Tunneling is not l i k e l y t o be important i n 10 and
1 ohm-cm S i c e l l s , but i n 0.01 ohm-cm S i devices, heterojunc-
t i o n s such a s Cu2S-CdS, and Schottky b a r r i e r s , tunneling can
be a major contributor t o t h e dark current.
Heterojunctions o f f e r a p a r t i c u l a r l y graphic method f o r
studying tunneling currents because they are very o f t e n domi-
nated by tunneling, a r e s u l t of t h e many energy states t h a t
can be introduced within t h e bandgaps by t h e l a t t i c e and ther-
mal expansion mismatches and by t h e cross-doping of one material
i n t o t h e other. These tunneling currents take t h e form 1601

where K1 i s a constant containing t h e e f f e c t i v e mass, b u i l t - i n


b a r r i e r , doping l e v e l , d i e l e c t r i c constant, and Planck's con-
s t a n t , Nt i s t h e density of energy s t a t e s a v a i l a b l e f o r an
electron o r hole t o tunnel i n t o , and B i s a constant containing
t h e doping l e v e l , d i e l e c t r i c constant, and t h e e f f e c t i v e mass,
B = (4/3ii) (m*E/WIa) li2. This tunneling dark c u r r e n t (57)
v a r i e s exponentially with voltage j u s t as J i n j and Jrg do, and
can easily be mistaken f o r one of these. The value of B ( t h e
slope of an J versus V) o f t e n l i e s i n t h e range of 20 to 30
[611; i f t h i s slope w a s mistakenly assumed t o be qVj/AkT, values
f o r A of 1.3-2 would be deduced a t room temperature. The only
A. CURRENT MECHANISMS 55

method f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g tunneling currents from thermal ones


such as J i n j and J i s by temperature measurements; tunneling
rg
currents a r e very i n s e n s i t i v e t o temperature, while t h e oppo-
s i t e i s t r u e f o r thermal currents.

4. TOTAL CURRENT

When more than one dark current component is present, t h e


I-V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e given by the sum of them

In m o s t S i , G a s , and Gal,xA1fis-GaAs s o l a r c e l l s , only t h e


f i r s t two w i l l be important, but f o r CU~S-C~S, other types of
heterojunctions, Schottky b a r r i e r s , and very heavily doped p-n
junctions, t h e tunneling current may a l s o be important.
The major differences between t h e space charge layer
recombination current and t h e i n j e c t e d current l i e i n t h e i r
voltage, temperature, and bandgap dependences. For 1 t o 1 0
ohm-cm S i devices, the value of Jin extrapolated t o zero b i a s
i s around A/cm2, while t h e value of J r g is around
A/cm2. A t the same t i m e , J i n j varies as ew(qVj/kT) while J r g
v a r i e s as exp(qVj/2kT), so t h a t t h e recombination current domi-
nates a t low forward biases and t h e i n j e c t e d current dominates
a t higher biases, with a crossover a t around to A/cm2.
Jinj has a bandgap dependence of exp(-Eg/kT), while J varies
rg
as exp(-Eg/2kT); therefore, J r g becomes increasingly unportant
r e l a t i v e t o J i n j f o r high bandgap materials and a t low tempera-
tures.
The i n j e c t i o n and recombination currents f o r a S i s o l a r
c e l l with a 1 ohm-cm base r e s i s t i v i t y and f o r t w o values of
l i f e t i m e i n t h e diffused n-region a r e shown i n Fig. 29. The
doping l e v e l i s so much higher i n the diffused region than i n
t h e base t h a t the i n j e c t i o n current is determined by electrons
i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e base alone t o a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, and
is independent of t h e top surface recombination velocity and
t h e l i f e t i m e i n t h e top region. This top region l i f e t i m e does
have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e recombination current, however,
because of i t s appearance i n t h e square-root r a d i c a l of Eq.
(54). If i s high, such as t h e s a t u r a t i o n value of 0.4 psec
suggested by Ross and Madigan 1181, J r g i s much smaller than
J i n j a t t h e operating voltage (0.4-0.5 V ) and has l i t t l e e f f e c t
on the device behavior. I f ~~0 i s very low however, as is
often measured i n conventional c e l l s a f t e r t h e phosphorus d i f -
fusion, then t h e recombination current is considerably l a r g e r ;
Jrg becomes comparable t o o r even l a r g e r than J i n j a t the
56 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

lo-' I I I I
1
N

Forward Volts

F I G . 2 9 . C a l c u l a t e d i n j e c t i o n and recombination c u r r e n t s i n
a S i N / P s o l a r cell f o r the twu c a s e s of h i g h and l o w lifetimes
i n t h e t o p r e g i o n . Parameters o f T a b l e 4 . N o d r i f t f i e l d s .
shack C o n d i t i o n s : 1 oh-cm, 450 pm t h i c k , x j = 0 . 3 w.

maximum p o w e r p o i n t (Fig. 2 ) and reduces both t h e open c i r c u i t


voltage and f i l l f a c t o r . (Whenever t h e d e f e c t d e n s i t y i s high
i n t h e d e p l e t i o n region, and hence t h e l i f e t i m e i s low t h e r e ,
J r g can be expected t o be unusually high. This could p a r t i c u -
l a r l y be a problem i n ribbon S i devices and p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e
t h i n f i l m c e l l s , as suggested by S t i r n 1621 .)
F e recombination c u r r e n t i n GaAs i s much l a r g e r r e l a t i v e
t o t h e ' + i n j e c t i o n c u r r e n t t h a n it i s i n S i , a s can be seen by
comparing Fig. 30 with Fig. 29. The i n j e c t i o n c u r r e n t i n GaAs
c e l l s i s s t i l l determined mostly by t h e base region due t o t h e
much lower doping level t h e r e .
The high value of t h e recombination c u r r e n t i n GaAs de-
v i c e s is l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of t h e very low l i f e t i m e s i n t h e two
regions. J r g i s o f t e n much lower i n LPE-grown devices, where
t h e carrier l i f e t i m e s can be around sec on both s i d e s of
t h e j u n c t i o n , than i n bulk or vapor grown material where t h e
l i f e t i m e s a r e u s u a l l y smaller.

B. Equivalent C i r c u i t

The simplest equivalent c i r c u i t o f a solar c e l l i n t h e


o p e r a t i n g mode i s shown i n Fig. 31. The photocurrent i s repre-
sented by a c u r r e n t generator I@,and i s opposite i n d i r e c t i o n
t o t h e forward bias c u r r e n t of t h e diode I i n j + I r g . Shunt re-
s i s t a n c e p a t h s are represented by %h; they can be caused by
s u r f a c e leakage along t h e edges of t h e c e l l , by d i f f u s i o n
B. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 57

Forward Volts

F I G . 30. C a l c u l a t e d i n j e c t i o n and recombination c u r r e n t s i n


GaAs P/N cells f o r b o t h l o w losses ( S f r o n t = l o 4 cm/sec, Tn
lXlO-’ sec, T~ = 1.6X10-8 sec; s o l i d l i n e s ) and h i g h losses
(Sfront = l o 6 cm/sec, Tn = l X l O - ’ sec, Tp = 2XlO-’ sec; dashed
l i n e s ) . No d r i f t f i e l d s . s h c k = CQ. C o n d i t i o n s : 0.01 ohm-cm;
H = 20 Vm-ac; x j = 0 . 5 Vm.

spikes along d i s l o c a t i o n s o r g r a i n boundaries, o r possibly by


f i n e metallic bridges along microcracks, g r a i n boundaries, o r
c r y s t a l d e f e c t s such as stacking f a u l t s a f t e r t h e contact
m e t a l l i z a t i o n has been applied. Series r e s i s t a n c e , represented
by Rs, can arise from c o n t a c t r e s i s t a n c e s t o t h e f r o n t and back
( p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r high r e s i s t i v i t y bases, 1 t o 10 ohm-cm), t h e
r e s i s t a n c e of t h e base region i t s e l f , and t h e s h e e t r e s i s t a n c e
of t h e t h i n diffused o r grown s u r f a c e layer. More complicated
equivalent c i r c u i t s can be formulated t o account more accu-
r a t e l y f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t e d n a t u r e of both t h e series r e s i s t a n c e
and t h e c u r r e n t generator 1631.
The dark c u r r e n t s Iin and Irg are equal t o t h e c u r r e n t
d e n s i t i e s Jin, and J r g m u d i p l i e d by t h e total device area A t .
The photocurrent i s equal t o t h e photocurrent d e n s i t y multi-
p l i e d by t h e a c t i v e device area A,, i.e., t h e t o t a l area minus
t h e area masked by t h e f r o n t contacts. The equivalent c i r c u i t
and t h e r e s u l t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s must be w r i t t e n i n terms of
c u r r e n t s , n o t c u r r e n t densities. The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e
t o t a l area and t h e a c t i v e area should be kept i n mind, although
the d i f f e r e n c e i s usually only 6-8% and i s o f t e n neglected t o
a f i r s t approximation.
From t h e equivalent c i r c u i t of Fig. 31, a r e l a t i o n can be
w r i t t e n between c u r r e n t output Iout and voltage output Vout.
Assuming t h e dark c u r r e n t t o be I i n j + I r g as given by (49) and
(54) multiplied by t h e t o t a l area, t h i s r e l a t i o n i s
58 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

FIG. 31. Equivalent c i r c u i t of a solar cell, including series


and shunt r e s i s t a n c e s .

1. RELATIONSHIPS FOR NEGLIGIBLE %, Rsh LOSSES


I n order t o use t h e equivalent c i r c u i t t o p r e d i c t s o l a r
c e l l output and efficiency and t o make t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ana-
l y t i c a l l y manageable, t h e approximations a r e often made t h a t
s e r i e s and shunt r e s i s t a n c e e f f e c t s are n e g l i g i b l e and t h a t
the dark current can be w r i t t e n as

where the "junction perfection f a c t o r " A0 and t h e new value


of t h e preexponential f a c t o r 1 0 0 have been used t o approximate
the sum of Iin, and I r g by a s i n g l e term (a glance a t Fig. 2 9
w i l l show t h a t such an approximation i s j u s t i f i e d i f t h e minor-
i t y carrier l i f e t i m e s a r e high but not i f they a r e low). The
advantage of these approximations i s t h a t (59) takes a very
simple form

Iout = Iph-100 [exP(qVout/A~kT)-ll - (61)

A p l o t of (61) has already been shown i n Fig. 2 f o r A0 = 1;


the e f f e c t of higher values of A. i s t o round out t h e "knee"
i n t h e curve near t h e maximum p o w e r point.
The s h o r t c i r c u i t current i s given simply by

'SC = 'ph
and the open c i r c u i t voltage by (1)
B. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 59

voc
1.00 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
\ I l l 1 1

-
I l 1 I I I
0.60
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
NOC1AOK-I-
FIG. 32. The r a t i o o f the maximum power p o i n t v o l t a g e t o t h e
open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e a s a f u n c t i o n o f the normalized open cir-
c u i t v o l t a g e (unmarked curve), v a l i d for a l l Voc, A O , and T .
Also shown a r e f o u r curves for A0 = 1-2.5 and 298OK; t h e ab-
s c i s s a for t h e s e c u r v e s is a t the t o p .

(It might be thought from (1) that high values of A. would be


desirable in obtaining high open circuit voltages, but this
is actually not the case, since high A. also requires high 100
to approximate the two currents Iinj and Irg by the one term
(60);Voc for p-n junctions is always higher for low values
of A. than the opposite [641. I
Since the power output is VoutxIoUt, the maximum power
output can be found by differentiating the product and setting
the result equal to zero 164,651
60 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

"0 c
1-00 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
I ! , ,

0.70
0.75
0.65'
0
iI '
5
'
10
'
15 20
' '
25 30
' '
35
Wo,lA,KT

F I G . 3 3 . The r a t i o of the maximum power p o i n t c u r r e n t t o


the s h o r t c i r c u i t c u r r e n t a s a f u n c t i o n o f the normalized open
c i r c u i t v o l t a g e , v a l i d f o r a l l Voc, Ao, and T . Also shown
a r e f o u r c u r v e s f o r A. = 1- 2. 5 a t 298OK.

is the current output at maximum power and

= ( (JscAa/Jo($it)
+1) (6%)

allows the voltage at maximum power output to be calculated.


The f i l l factor (FF), which is V m I ~ I s c V o c , measures the
"squareness" of the I-V curve, and is found to be [661
B. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 61

voc, Volts

FIG. 34. F i l l f a c t o r a s
a function of normalized
open c i r c u i t voltage, valid
for a l l Voc, A g , and T.
Also shown a r e four curves
for A0 = 1-2.5 a t 298OK.

The relationships contained i n (64) t o (66) a r e shown i n


Figs. 32-34, assuming t h a t t h e t o t a l and a c t i v e areas are equal.
(It should be kept i n mind t h a t these relationships are only
useful i n the idealized case where t h e r e a r e no s e r i e s o r shunt
r e s i s t a n c e e f f e c t s and where t h e current can be represented by
t h e s i n g l e exponential of Eq. (60).)
The two r a t i o s Vm/Voc and I&IScand t h e FF a l l improve
with increasing values of Voc and with decreasing values of A0
and T. Higher bandgap materials y i e l d higher r a t i o s and f i l l
f a c t o r s because of t h e i r higher open c i r c u i t voltages (provided
s e r i e s and shunt resistances are not a problem).
The nearer t h e value of A. i s t o unity, t h e b e t t e r t h e
device performance i s , other things being equal. In S i , f o r
example, with a Voc of around 0.58 V , FF is equal t o 0.82 f o r
A. = 1 but only 0.72 i f A0 = 2. For GaAs with Voc = 0.9 V , FF
decreases from a p o t e n t i a l value of 0.87 f o r A0 = 1 t o 0.79
i f A. = 2.

2. EFFECTS OF Rsh AND Rs

When s e r i e s and shunt resistance problems become important,


t h e relationships of (64)-(66) no longer apply; the two r a t i o s
VnJvoc and Im/Iscand t h e FF are a l l reduced below the values
shown i n Figs. 32-34. The r e l a t i o n s h i p i n (59) between V o u t
and Iout becomes almost impossible t o solve a n a l y t i c a l l y , a l -
though a numerical solution can be r e a d i l y obtained. The
e f f e c t s of s e r i e s and shunt resistances on s o l a r c e l l behaviot
62 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

FIG. 35. The effects of series


resistance on measured Si solar
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 cell curves. Tungsten light,
Volts 100 mw/cm2. Cell area = 2 an2.

can be seen easily by placing various resistors alternately


in series and in parallel with an otherwise normal solar cell.
Figure 35 shows the effect of series resistance on the output
of a comnercial Si cell illuminated with tungsten light at
100 mW/cm2 intensity. The open circuit voltage is not changed
but the fill factor is seriously reduced. There can also be
a reduction in the short circuit current below the value of the
photocurrent due to the forward bias across the diode caused
by the voltage drop across the series resistance (even though
the total output voltage is zero) which results in appreciable
dark current in opposition to the photocurrent. Even small
values of series resistance, in the 0.5 to 1.0 ohm range for
2 cm2 cells, are enough to cause serious effects.
Figure 36 shows the effect of shunt resistances in parallel
with the solar cell (same device as in Fig. 35); in this case
the short circuit current is not affected, but the fill factor
and open circuit voltage are reduced as the shunt resistance
decreases.
In practical devices, the shunt resistance is usually
large enough to have a negligible effect at 1 solar intensity
or above. At low intensities however, and to some degree at
low temperatures, the shunt resistance takes on increasing
importance [23]. On the other hand, the series resistance
becomes increasingly important at high intensities and tempera-
tures. The need to minimize the series resistance suggests
high doping levels and deep junctions which are just the oppo-
site of the necessary conditions for high current collection
efficiency. The compromise has been reached to make the dif-
fused region thin but very highly doped, and at the same time,
to optimize the design of the Ohmic contact grid pattern [67,
681 for the lowest sheet resistance consistent with covering
only 5-10% of the surface. With the comPnonly found six-finger
C. EXPERIMENTAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR 63

60

50

P
ci
5 30
5
020

F I G . 36. The e f f e c t s of shunt 10


r e s i s t a n c e on measured Si solar
cell curves. Same conditions 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
a s F i g . 35. Volts

g r i d p a t t e r n used so much i n t h e p a s t , t h e series resistance


can be a s much as 0.5 ohm f o r a 2 cm2 Si c e l l ; a t the operating
current of 60 t o 65 mA, 30 t o 33 mV can be l o s t across t h i s
resistance. Increasing the number of fingers while decreasing
t h e f i n g e r width and the distance between fingers lowers the
series r e s i s t a n c e and t h e voltage l o s s 141. This has become
p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r devices such a s t h e " v i o l e t c e l l "
t h a t have 1000-2000 f( junction depths and lower doping l e v e l s
i n t h e diffused region. Violet c e l l s a r e designed with 30
fingers/cm [41, with a f i n a l contact area equal t o 6-7% of the
t o t a l . The r e s u l t i n g series resistance i s around 0.05 ohm f o r
a 4 cm2 device, considerably l e s s than t h e 0.2-0.25 ohm of more
conventional S i devices, i n s p i t e of t h e higher sheet r e s i s -
t i v i t y and narrower width of t h e diffused region.

C. Experimental Current-Voltage Behavior

Measured S i devices almost always show t h e e f f e c t s of both


series and shunt resistances and have higher recombination cur-
r e n t s than predicted by theory [23,69]. Figure 37 shows t h e
dark I-V measurement of a 10 ohm-cm N/P S i s o l a r c e l l . The
current a t low voltages (less than 0.1 V) i s due t o shunt r e s i s -
tance (around lo5 ohms). Two exponential regions can be seen
s t a r t i n g a t 0.2 V , with slopes of qV/2.lkT and qV/l.lkT, respec-
t i v e l y . The decreasing slope of t h e current around 3 mA/cm2
i s a r e s u l t of t h e s e r i e s r e s i s t a n c e of the device, around 1 ohm.
A t t h e short c i r c u i t current value of 30 mA/cm2, 30 mV a r e l o s t
across t h i s resistance.
Nearly a l l large-area S i c e l l s show some shunt resistance
e f f e c t s , a f a c t which i s d i f f i c u l t t o explain from ordinary
theories. Edge leakage i s one source of low shunt resistances.
64 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

I l I I I 1

0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7


Fomard Voltage

FIG. 3 7 . Dark I - V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c o m e r c i a l S i Solar


c e l l ( a t 3OO0K), showing t h e t m exponential regions and the
e f f e c t o f series r e s i s t a n c e . (The dashed l i n e i s t h e charac-
t e r i s t i c a f t e r correcting f o r t h e s e r i e s r e s i s t a n c e . )

I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o etch t h e edges of a large-area S i device


and f i n i s h off t h e etching by a technique t h a t r e s u l t s i n a
low density of surface states a t t h e device edges; contamina-
t i o n from t h e chemicals used and water vapor included i n t h e
oxide t h a t forms on t h e edges can both r e s u l t i n leakage. With
proper passivation, though, edge leakage can be minimized.
S t i r n has pointed out [ 2 3 ] t h a t shunt r e s i s t a n c e problems
can a r i s e from small scratches and imperfections on t h e device
surface which become p a r t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y covered by t h e con-
t a c t metallurgy during t h e device f a b r i c a t i o n ; "sintering" t h e
contact s t r i p e s t o minimize contact r e s i s t a n c e can cause small
metal p a r t i c l e s t o enter t h e s c r a t c h and r e s u l t i n leakage
across the p-n junction. Since t h e scratches (and possibly
other imperfections such a s stacking f a u l t s ) a r e random along
the surface, c e r t a i n areas of t h e device should be b e t t e r i n
e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s than others. S t i r n [ 2 3 ] has demonstrated
t h i s by comparing t h e I - V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a 2x2 cm commer-
c i a l c e l l with t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of small mesas etched on
the same device (Fig. 38); m o s t small mesas show almost negli-
g i b l e shunting compared t o t h e f u l l device, while some mesas
e x h i b i t much higher leakage than t h e average. The leakage
current of t h e f u l l c e l l i s sometimes increased by up t o a
hundredfold a f t e r contact s i n t e r i n g compared t o before s i n t e r -
ing, f u r t h e r establishing t h e r o l e of t h e metallization i n
causing shunt r e s i s t a n c e problems.
C. EXPERIMENTAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR 65

I I l ’ , 1 I I
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
VOLTAGE, volts

F I G . 3 8 . Dark I - V characteristics o f S i solar c e l l s ( 2 ohm-cm


N/P, 192OK), showing the high leakage current measured i n
complete ( 4 cm2) c e l l s compared t o mesas etched on the same
c e l l s . The A refers t o the slope, from qV/AkT. (After S t i r n
1231; courtesy of the I E E E . )

Most S i and GaAs s o l a r c e l l s e x h i b i t several exponential


regions i n t h e dark forward I - V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as seen i n
Fig. 37 f o r a S i device and Fig. 39 f o r a GaAs device; t h i s
strongly suggests t h e presence of several current components
such as J i n j and Jrg- Very seldom do t h e slopes of these expo-
n e n t i a l s ( t h e value of A i n qV/AkT) equal 1 o r 2. For good S i
devices, values close t o unity a r e observed (1.1-1.3) a t high
voltages and close t o 2 (1.6-1.8) a t lower voltages, with t h e
smallest values corresponding t o t h e b e s t devices. For poor
devices A values of 3 o r even 4 a r e observed. Values of t h e
saturation current J O O(Eqs. (60)(61)) a r e around to
A/Cm2 when t h e high current (low A) p a r t of the I - V curve i s
estrapolated t o zero v o l t s , and to A/cm2 f o r t h e
A Q, 2 portion. According t o theory, these should be around
to A/cm2 f o r J i n j and A/cm2 f o r Jrg, f o r
10 ohm-cm cells.
Values of A close t o 1 are almost c e r t a i n l y due t o a
dominance of t h e injected current J i n . (of a l l the possible
current components, t h i s seems t o be $he only one capable of
66 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

mE 10
3
€ 1
s
4d
'is
P
si 0.1
E
t
3 0.01

0.OolI 1 1 . 1 I
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Forward Voltage
F I G . 3 9 . Dark I-V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f GaAs solar c e l l s (P/N,
3OOOK). (1) Device w i t h l o w lifetimes and d i f f u s i o n l e n g t h s ;
( 2 ) d e v i c e w i t h high lifetimes and d i f f u s i o n l e n g t h s . Both
curves have been c o r r e c t e d for series r e s i s t a n c e .

y i e l d i n g a value of 1). A t high i n ' e c t i o n l e v e l s , amperes p e r


an2 r a t h e r than milliamperes per cm3, A approaches 2 , even f o r
t h e i n j e c t e d component, b u t t h i s c u r r e n t l e v e l i s not reached
i n solar cells u n l e s s they a r e operated a t s e v e r a l hundred
solar i n t e n s i t i e s . Values of A close t o 2 a t l o w i n j e c t i o n
l e v e l s are most l i k e l y due t o space charge region recombination
Jrg o r t o recombination a t t h e edges of t h e device within t h e
space charge region 1701; both of t h e s e mechanisms can e x h i b i t
A ' s i n t h e range o f 1 t o 2 under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s [70]. Sah
[70] has measured t h e I-V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a number of d i f -
fused S i j u n c t i o n s with small areas and found t h r e e well-defined
regions when series r e s i s t a n c e is absent; a t low v o l t a g e s A
values of 1.2-1.4 are observed and a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e presence
of both Jin, and Jrg. A t m e d i u m v o l t a g e s (0.3-0.5 V i n Sah's
devices) t h e i n j e c t e d c u r r e n t becomes dominant and A f a l l s t o
around 1. A t high v o l t a g e s (0.7-0.8 V i n Sah's devices) high
i n j e c t i o n l e v e l s are reached and A rises t o 2. The higher t h e
doping l e v e l i s i n t h e base, t h e h i g h e r t h e v o l t a g e "threshold"
is a t which high i n j e c t i o n level e f f e c t s begin t o t a k e p l a c e .
High values of A ( > 2 ) are n o t p r e d i c t e d by t h e S-N-S theory
[57], b u t could be due i n p a r t t o shunt r e s i s t a n c e e f f e c t s 1231
( s i n c e a l o w value of shunt r e s i s t a n c e causes a shallow s l o p e
i n t h e I - V curve which can be mistaken f o r a recombination cur-
r e n t with a high v a l u e of A) and i n p a r t t o modifications i n
t h e S-N-S theory which account f o r nonuniformities i n t h e d i s -
t r i b u t i o n of recombination c e n t e r s [70,71]. Shockley and
C. EXPERIMENTAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE BEHAVIOR 67

1o3

102

N
kc! 10
a
E
U
-I

lo-’
L 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9
Forward Bias Volts

FIG. 40. Dark I - V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a t h i n f i l m Cu2S-CdS


solar cell a s a f u n c t i o n o f temperature. The c o n s t a n t s l o p e
and small change i n magnitude w i t h temperature i m p l y t u n n e l i n g .
( A f t e r Martinuzzi e t a l . [771; c o u r t e s y of the I E E E . )

co-workers 171,721 attributed high values of A in their Si


junctions to a reduced density of recombination centers at the
middle of the space charge region compared to points away from
the middle. Nakamura and co-workers 1731 have found that re-
distribution of heavy metal impurities (gettering) can take
place during device processing with strong increases of impurity
densities near the surface; this would tend to increase measured
recombination currents and measured values of A above values
predicted by theory. Sah has postulated that high A values can
arise in planar p-n junction devices due to surface channels
caused by surface states. In solar cells these channels would
lie along the device edges and extend into the base.
G a s solar cells tend to be dominated by recombination
currents and most devices exhibit a qV/2kT dependence over much
of their current range. The dominance of the recombination
component is most likely due to low values of lifetime and dif-
fusion lengths; if lifetimes corresponding to 4 pm diffusion
lengths are used in E q s . (50) and ( 5 4 ) , theory predicts that
Jrg will dominate at low voltage (c0.8 V) and Jinj will dominate
at higher values. Figure 39 shows the dark I-V curves of two
GaAs p-n junction solar cells (pGal,xA1fis-pGaAs-nGaAs devices)
68 3. SOLAR C E U ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

FIG. 4 1 . Dark I - V character-


istics of a s i n g l e - c r y s t a l Cu2S-
CdS s o l a r cell a f t e r normal heat
t r e a t m e n t , 1 min a t 25OOC. ( A f t e r
G i l l and Bube [74]; c o u r t e s y of
t h e American I n s t i t u t e of P h y s i c s . )

produced by liquid-phase epitaxy. Device #1 is known t o have


d i f f u s i o n l e n g t h s of around 1 pm and e x h i b i t s a qV/2kT v a r i a -
t i o n over t h e e n t i r e range of measured c u r r e n t s . Device #2
i s estimated from s p e c t r a l response measurements t o have d i f f u -
sion l e n g t h s of 3 pm o r more; it e x h i b i t s recombination c u r r e n t
with A = 1.9 a t v o l t a g e s less than 0.9 V and i n j e c t i o n c u r r e n t
with A = 1.17 a t h i g h e r v o l t a g e s . Device #1 i s t y p i c a l of
vapor d i f f u s e d GaAs cells and device #2 is t y p i c a l o f good LPE-
produced u n i t s .
The dark current-voltage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h e t e r o j u n c t i o n
devices a r e n e a r l y always dominated by tunneling. Many experi-
menters have observed tunneling c u r r e n t s i n Cu2S-CdS s o l a r c e l l s
i n both t h e forward and reverse-biased d i r e c t i o n s [55,74-781.
Figures 40 and 41 show dark forward I-V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of such
c e l l s a s a f u n c t i o n of temperature; t h e independence of t h e
slope of t h e Iln J versus V and t h e s m a l l change i n t h e c u r r e n t
magnitude w i t h temperature are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f tunneling-
l i m i t e d c u r r e n t s . The I-V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a f f e c t e d s t r o n g l y
by the h e a t treatment normally employed during t h e device pro-
cessing; t h e c u r r e n t a f t e r h e a t treatment measured a t room
temperature and below is decreased by s e v e r a l orders-of-magni-
tude below i t s preheated value. G i l l and B u b e [741 have sug-
g e s t e d t h a t deep acceptor imperfections (probably Cu i o n s )
have d i f f u s e d f o r a s h o r t d i s t a n c e i n t o t h e normally n-type
CdS during t h e h e a t t r e a t m e n t , widening t h e d e p l e t i o n l a y e r
and lowering t h e t u n n e l i n g p r o b a b i l i t y . I n l a t e r papers, Fahren-
bruch, Lindquist, and B u b e [55,75,76,781 suggest t h a t t h e dark
c u r r e n t a f t e r h e a t treatment c o n s i s t s of both a thermal i n j e c -
t i o n component and a t u n n e l i n g component. The i n j e c t i o n c u r r e n t
D. SUMMARY 69

becomes dominant above 320°K and i s due t o t h e i n j e c t i o n of


electrons from t h e CdS i n t o t h e Cu2S conduction band; the a c t i -
vation energy of 1 . 2 eV f o r t h i s current corresponds t o t h e
b a r r i e r height between t h e two conduction bands. The tunneling
current i s dominant below 320°K (as shown by Fig. 41) and i s
assumed t o be caused by t h e tunneling of electrons from t h e
CdS i n t o i n t e r f a c e s t a t e s where they recombine with holes which
have tunneled t h e r e from t h e Cu2S. The observed a c t i v a t i o n
energy of 0.45 e V f o r t h e tunneling i s due t o t h e need f o r t h e
electrons t o thermally surmount a portion of t h e energy b a r r i e r
before the remainder of the depletion region i n t h e CdS becomes
t h i n enough f o r appreciable tunneling t o occur.
The current i n t h i s tunneling regime can be described by
[55,76,78]

J = J o exp(BV) (67)

where t h e Jo term is highly dependent on processing because of


the v a r i a b i l i t y of defect s t a t e s ( N t i n Eq. (57)) while t h e
exponent B i s dependent on t h e doping l e v e l s , d i e l e c t r i c con-
s t a n t s , and number of intermediate tunneling steps. The con-
s t a n t B i s not strongly affected by processing as is Jo [78];
t y p i c a l values f o r B f o r non-heat-treated devices ( f o r voltages
above 0.35 V) range from 24 t o 30, while J o varies from
A/cm2 t o a h s t l o m 6 A/cm2 [761. For heat-treated u n i t s (sev-
e r a l minutes t o several hours a t 10O-25O0C), B i s again about
24 t o 30, while J O has decreased by 2 t o a s much a s 5 orders-
of-magnitude 1741. The thermal component with 1 . 2 e V a c t i v a t i o n
energy which i s present i n heat t r e a t e d devices above 320°K i s
not observed i n non-heat-treated units 1741 due t o t h e much
higher tunneling current i n these u n i t s t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y “swamps
out” any i n j e c t i o n current t h a t might be present.

The current-voltage behavior of a s o l a r c e l l i n t h e dark


is j u s t as important as i t s behavior i n t h e l i g h t , since t h e
dark behavior l a r g e l y determines t h e voltage output and f i l l
f a c t o r . The dark I-V c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e determined by t h e
combined e f f e c t s of t h e current transport mechanisms which may
be present and any s e r i e s and shunt r e s i s t a n c e problems t h a t
may arise. The two current components of most importance a r e
t h e i n j e c t e d component due t o the i n j e c t i o n of minority car-
riers from t h e top region i n t o t h e base, and t h e depletion
region recombination current due t o t h e recombination of par-
t i a l l y injected holes and electrons within t h e depletion region.
70 3. SOLAR CELL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

In cases of high doping l e v e l s i n both t h e base


and top regions, a t h i r d component due t o tunneling may be
present.
The i n j e c t e d c u r r e n t is determined mostly by conditions
i n t h e base, and has been calculated f o r t h e three models of
uniform base doping, constant electric f i e l d i n t h e base, and
a back surface f i e l d . The depletion region recombination cur-
r e n t and t h e tunneling current a r e determined by conditions
within t h e depletion region, and depend strongly on t h e width
of t h i s region, t h e l i f e t i m e within i t , and t h e number of de-
f e c t states a v a i l a b l e f o r tunneling.
Experimental I-V measurements i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e depletion
region recombination current i s considerably higher i n S i and
GaAs s o l a r cells than expected from theory. This might be
a t t r i b u t e d t o a poor l i f e t i m e i n the depletion region due t o
unwanted impurities introduced during t h e d i f f u s i o n , or it
might i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e present theory of depletion region
recombination requires revision t o bring it c l o s e r t o t h e ex-
perimental r e s u l t s . Shunt r e s i s t a n c e problems can add t o t h e
d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g I-V d a t a , but t h e s e problems can
be minimized with proper c a r e during contact s i n t e r i n g and
with care i n preventing scratches and other d e f e c t s from being
introduced during processing.
The equivalent c i r c u i t of a s o l a r c e l l c o n s i s t s of a
photocurrent generator i n p a r a l l e l with a diode and a shunt
r e s i s t a n c e , and a series r e s i s t a n c e leading t o t h e output ter-
minals. From t h i s equivalent c i r c u i t , t h e power output from
t h e c e l l can be calculated under various conditions. The
series r e s i s t a n c e lowers t h e s h o r t c i r c u i t current without
a f f e c t i n g t h e open c i r c u i t voltage, while t h e shunt r e s i s t a n c e
does j u s t t h e opposite. Both r e s i s t a n c e s degrade t h e f i l l
factor.
Analytical expressions can be derived for t h e f i l l f a c t o r
and f o r t h e voltage and current operating points i f t h e s e r i e s
and shunt r e s i s t a n c e e f f e c t s can be ignored and i f t h e I - V
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can be represented by a s i n g l e exponential in-
stead of t h e sum of several exponentials. F i l l f a c t o r s of 0.75
t o 0.82 f o r S i c e l l s and 0.79 t o 0.85 f o r GaAs c e l l s are pre-
dicted t h i s way. Usually series r e s i s t a n c e (and sometimes
shunt r e s i s t a n c e ) e f f e c t s cannot be ignored, and several cur-
r e n t mechanisms a r e present. This leads t o s l i g h t l y lower
f i l l f a c t o r s and operating voltages, i n agreement with experi-
mental r e s u l t s .