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8/2/2009 1

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Session
Session #
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Session
FABRIC STRUCTURE

Yarns must be united in


some way if they are to
form a cohesive structure.

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FABRIC STRUCTURE
► The transformation of individual yarns into

textile fabrics can be accomplished by and


individual with a pair of knitting needles, a crochet
hook, or a hand loom or through the use of
powerful machines that combine yarns by weaving,
knitting or stitch bonding to produce fabrics.

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Session
Types of Fabric

Woven Knitted Nonwoven Others

Warp Knitted Adhesive Braid

Needle
Weft Knitted Lace
Punching

Stitch
Net
Bonding

Thermal
Felt
Bonding

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Session
WOVEN FABRIC

► A woven fabric is composed of two basis

series of yarn called warp and weft.


► Weaving is the

interlacement of these
yarns to form a fabric.

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WOVEN FABRIC
► Warp : The threads in the fabric that run

lengthwise are called wrap. A single thread of


warp is called end.
► Weft : The threads in the fabric that run

widthwise are called weft. A single thread of wft


is called pick.

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WOVEN FABRIC
► Usually woven fabrics are made in long
lengths say 30 to 200 mts. or more and width
from 36" to 100" (or even more in case of wider
width fabrics).
► Some fabrics are produced in narrow widths
for special uses. e.g. ribbons, tapes etc.

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WOVEN FABRIC

► Woven fabrics will have a body containing the

intended design and selvedges on both the sides.


► Selvedges are the narrow woven edge portion

of the fabrics with close and strong construction


than the body to prevent unraveling.
► Woven fabrics will have two sides face & back.

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Session
KNITTED FABRICS
► Fabrics which are
constructed by
interlocking a series of
loops of one or more
yarns by hand or by
machine are called
knitted fabrics.
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KNITTED FABRICS

► Knitted fabrics are manufactured on circular

or warp knitting machines.

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KNITTED FABRICS
► Circular knitting machine are usually used for

making wearing apparels like socks, banian etc.

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NON-WOVEN FABRICS

► These are fabrics which are produced without

the process of weaving.


► It is produced by mixing fibres and making

two the form of a thick layer of web of width


corresponding to desired width of the fabric.

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NON-WOVEN FABRICS

► Then the web of fibres is compressed with

fibre to fibre bonding obtained with the aid of


added adhesive applied as a liquid or power.
► Nonwoven fabrics are made by pressing,

bonding, or interlocking fibers together directly


without using yarns.

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NON-WOVEN FABRICS

► Thus non-woven fabrics are produced by

bonding web of fibres together by adhesive. e.g.


Polishing cloths, bedsheets, doormats, fusing
cloths etc.,

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BRAIDED FABRICS

► Braiding is the process of interlacing three or

more yarns lengthwise and diagonally.


► It is a type of fabric production in which yarns

from a single source are crossed diagonally and


lengthwise to form a fabric.

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Session
BRAIDED FABRICS

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BRAIDED FABRICS

Circular Braid Flat Braid

Braid With Inlays (Triaxil Braid)


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BRAIDED FABRICS

► They are made by hand or machine. Braid is

usually a narrow fabric in the form of tape (e.g.


1/8 inches to 2 inches) or tubular made on a
machine called braider.
► Braid fabrics are used in Shoe lace,
suspenders etc.,

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LACE

► Another method of fabric making is lace

making.
► The basic principle of lace making is that the

weft threads are made to twist round warp


threads and diagonally across the fabric.

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LACE

► In lace making warp threads run crosswise

and weft yarn run lengthwise.


► Warp and weft are twisted together to form a

fabric. e.g. Laces.

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NETTING

►A fabric of thread, cord or wire, the


intersections of which are knotted to form a
mesh.
► This is done by hand or machine.

► Net is a twisted fabric. e.g. Fish nets etc.

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FELT

► Felt results when heat, moisture, agitation,

and pressure are applied to wool fibers.


► Felt is a type of fabric in which there is no

interlacing.
► It is made with loose fibres.

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FELT

► When a layer of wool or

fur is rubbed while wet or


in the presence of steam
then the fibres become
entangled and interlocked
as a result of felting.

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FELT
► This closing up of the fibres which is a natural

cohesive property of
some fibres leads to the
formation of a compact
fabric e.g. Domestic wise
cloth, hats etc
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