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REVIEW OF MACRO PERSPECTIVE

OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY

Prepared by: Sheila Orlina


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• Define Tourism and Hospitality
• Explain Leiper’s Tourism System Model
• Explain theories and models relevant
to the explanation of tourism
motivation and behavior.
TOURISM
• Tourism comprises the activities of
persons traveling to and staying in places
outside their usual environment for not
more than one consecutive year for
leisure, business and other purposes not
related to the exercise of an activity
remunerated from within the place
visited. (UNWTO)
COMPONENTS OF THE
DEFINITION OF TOURISM
• Activities and experiences during the travel
and stay
• Resources and facilities required
• Tourists and tourism stakeholders
• Destination (outside the usual
environment)
COMPONENTS OF THE
DEFINITION OF TOURISM
• Non-permanent stay
• Leisure, business, and other purposes
• Movement (Travel to and staying)
HOSPITALITY
• The act of kindness in welcoming and looking
after the basic needs of guests or strangers,
mainly in relation to food, drink and
accommodation.
• Derived from the Latin word “hospitare” meaning
to “receive as a guest”
• Comes from the word “hospice” , an old French
word meaning “ to provide care/shelter for
travelers”
HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
• Include the companies or organizations
which provide food and/or drink and/or
accommodation to people who are away
from home.
TOURISM SYSTEMS

System
A group of interrelated, interdependent and
interacting elements that together form a single
functional structure. (Weaver and Lawton,
2006)
TOURISM SYSTEM MODELS
Leiper’s Basic Whole Tourism System
LEIPER’S BASIC WHOLE TOURISM
SYSTEM
Primary elements in the Tourism System:
1. At least one tourist
2. At least one tourist-generating region
3. At least one transit route region
4. At least one tourist destination
5. A travel and tourism industry
TOURIST
LEIPER’S BASIC WHOLE TOURISM
SYSTEM
Primary elements in the Tourism System:
1. At least one tourist
2. At least one tourist-generating region
3. At least one transit route region
4. At least one tourist destination
5. A travel and tourism industry
TOURIST GENERATING REGION (TGR)
The places where trips begin, where people (tourists) start their
journey. (Origin)

TGR represents the generating market for tourism and, in a sense,


provides the “push” to stimulate and motivate travel.

It is from here that the tourist searches for information, makes the
booking and departs.
LEIPER’S BASIC WHOLE TOURISM
SYSTEM
Primary elements in the Tourism System:
1. At least one tourist
2. At least one tourist-generating region
3. At least one transit route region
4. At least one tourist destination
5. A travel and tourism industry
TRANSIT ROUTE REGION (TR)
An intermediate zone where the principal travel activity of tourism
occurs, distinct from visit activity in destinations.

It includes the intermediate places which may be visited “en route”.
LEIPER’S BASIC WHOLE TOURISM
SYSTEM
Primary elements in the Tourism System:
1. At least one tourist
2. At least one tourist-generating region
3. At least one transit route region
4. At least one tourist destination
5. A travel and tourism industry
TOURIST DESTINATION REGION
(TDR)
At the destination, the full impact of tourism is felt and planning and
management strategies are implemented.

The “pull” to visit destinations energizes the whole tourism system


and creates demand for travel in the generating region.
LEIPER’S BASIC WHOLE TOURISM
SYSTEM
Primary elements in the Tourism System:
1. At least one tourist
2. At least one tourist-generating region
3. At least one transit route region
4. At least one tourist destination
5. A travel and tourism industry
TRAVEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY
The sum of the industrial and commercial activities that produce
goods and services wholly or mainly for tourist consumption.

Main sectors of the tourism industry:


- Accommodation, Transport, Travel Organizers, Attraction
Destination organization

Other sectors: Food Service, other tourists facilities and services


TOURIST MOTIVATION
AND BEHAVIOR
MOTIVATION
• (n.) It is something that stimulates
interest or causes a person to act in a
certain way.
MOTIVATION MODELS
• Crompton: Push-Pull Model
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
• This model emphasizes that the choice
of destination of a tourist is driven by
two forces: push and pull.

CROMPTON’ • The first force, push, pushes a tourist


S PUSH- away (from home) and the second one,
PULL MODEL pull, is a region-specific lure that pulls a
tourist towards a destination.
Motivations for travel
(Push and Pull Factor)

The ‘push’ factors are a number of perceived negative factors about


the context in which the potential tourist currently finds himself or
herself. (Internal to an individual)

Ex. Desire for escape, rest and relaxation, prestige,, adventure,


social interaction, exploration and evaluation of self, enhancement
of kinship relationships
Motivations for travel

The ‘pull’ factors are perceived positive factors of a potential or


real destination. (Aroused by the destination)

Pull factors emerge due to the attractiveness of a destination,


including beaches, recreation facilities and cultural attractions
(Uysal and Jurowski, 1994).

Ex. Ease of access, scenic beauty, budget


• This theory by Abraham Maslow in
his 1943 work, “A Theory of Human
Motivation,” explains that as
MASLOW’S humans meet basic needs, they
HIERARCHY seek to satisfy successively higher
OF NEEDS needs that occupy a set of
hierarchy.
Description of the Different Human Needs by Maslow

Physiological Needs Need to breath, need for water, need to eat, need to dispose of bodily
wastes, need for sleep, need to regulate body temperature, and need
for sexual activity, body comfort, and exercise, etc.

Safety Need for security of employment, revenues and resources, need for
physical security (safety from violence, delinquency, aggression), need
for moral and physiological security, need for familial security, need for
security of health

Love / Belonging Need for friendship, sexual intimacy, having a family and need to belong
in a group.

Esteem Need to be respected, need for self-respect and need to respect others,
need for recognition, need for activity that gives the person a sense of
contribution and self-value.

Actualization Need to make the most of one’s unique abilities and need to strive to be
the best.
The hierarchy of needs is used in the tourism industry
in several ways.

Physiological
• Easily accessible food outlets in theme parks.
Safety
• Cruise ship providing medical facilities as part of their
standard services
Belongingness
• Group tours with people having similar interests.
Esteem
• Elite status in frequent-user programs such as gold,
silver, or bronze
Self-actualization
• Learning the language and culture before traveling to
another country
TOURIST TYPOLOGY
• Plog’s Psychocentric-Allocentric
Model
• Cohen’s Tourist Typology
• Stanley Plog classifed tourists
along a continuum with
allocentrics on one end and
Stanley Plog’s psychocentrics on the other end.
Psychocentric-
Allocentric • Generally, allocentrics seeks
adventure while psychocentrics
Model seek the comfort of familiar
surroundings in their tourism
experiences.
• Eric Cohen categorized tourist
into:
1. Organized mass tourist
2. Individual mass tourist
3. Explorer
Cohen’s 4. Drifter
Tourist
Typology • This is similar to Plog’s model
wherein psychocentrics are
further divided into organized
and individualized and the
allocentrics into explorers and
drifters.
Cohen’s Tourist Categories
The organized mass tourist
•package tour fixed itineraries, planned stops, guided organizers making
the decisions
•Familiarity at a maximum and novelty at a minimum
The individual mass tourist
•Tour not entirely planned by others
•Tourist having some control over his/her itinerary and time allocations
•Major arrangements made through travel intermediary
•Tourist remaining largely within the environmental bubble of home
country ways and mixing little with locals
•Dominant familiarity
Cohen’s Tourist Categories
The explorer
•Tourist usually planning his/her own trips and trying to avoid developed
tourist attractions
•Desire to mix with locals but still protected within the environmental
bubble.
•Dominant novelty, tourist not fully integrating with locals
The drifter
•Tourist plan their trip alone
•Tourists avoid tourist attractions and live with the locals
•Almost entirely immersed in the host culture, sharing its shelter, food and
habits
•Novelty is dominant and familiarity disappears.
References
• Page, Stephen (2011) Tourism Management, An introduction
4thedition. Uk:Elsevier Ltd.
• Goeldner, Charles (2012) Tourism: Principles, Practices and
Philosophies. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley and Sons
• LPU-DTC (2014) Principles of Tourism 1. Bangkok: Dusit Thani College
• Weaver, David and Lawton, Laura (2015) Tourism Management 4th ed.
Australia: Wiley