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Health Education

FEBRUARY 10, 2020 / Prof. Ros


I. II. NEED TO KNOW Learn what the Need to know why
teacher wants them they need to learn
to learn something
SELF-CONCEPT Perception of being Feel responsible for
FEB10, 2020 dependent on the their own learning
OTHER THEORIES teacher for learning
ROLE OF The teacher’s Adults learn from
Relates to memory activity children’s is what experience
3 STAGES counts
1. Sensory Memory READINESS TO Must be ready Ready to learn when
2. Short-term Memory LEARN when the teacher they feel the need
3. Long -term Memory says they must, or to know
they will not be
Transfer of learning promoted
◼ The ability to take information learned in one situation and ORIENTATION Subject-centered Life-centered or
apply it to another orientation task-centered
Successful transfer depends on several factors orientation
1. Extent to which material was originally learned MOTIVATION Externally Primarily internally
2. The ability to retrieve information from memory motivated motivated with
3. The way in which the material was taught and learned some external
4. The setting in which the material was taught and learned motivation
5. The similarity of the new situation to the original
Needed for information to be transferred UPLOAD A LINK
1. Common sense THEN THE OUTPUT
2. Responsibility of the educator INDIVIDUAL
3. Training setting and general similarity of the original and new
Feb 14, 2020
Model of Adult Learning
Malcolm Knowles is the best-known scholar to write about adult TYPES OF LEARNING
learning concepts Gagne’s conditions of learning
Adopts the term Andragogy 1. Signal learning (language learning)
1. Adults are motivated to learn information for which they 2. Stimulus-response learning (500 on the floor would you
understand the purpose and application respond on the floor)
2. They take some control of their learning process and be self- 3. Chaining (you would try to understand)
directed 4. Verbal association (would related to medical
3. They learn through life experiences form self and others terminologies…mention term then what that cranio cran-
skull io open )
Characteristics Adult Learners 5. Discrimination learning (architecture they do many they are
Adults are busy what is the term toxic but engineering it would be
◼ Adults are autonomous and self-directed different so that is discrimination
◼ Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and 6. Concept learning (how would you have a concept when you
knowledge say its positive ..fever..cough..china…that is how it is
◼ Adults are goal-oriented conceptualized )
◼ Adults are relevancy-oriented 7. Rule learning (if and then if you are going to pass then read it
◼ Adults are practical well then it would be easier to answer exam questions
◼ Responds to motivation 8. Problem solving (improving and testing the hypothesis)

David A. Kolb
◼ An American educational theorist whose interests and
publication focus on experiential learning
◼ He provided one of the most useful descriptive models
available of the adult learning process


◼ Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created
through the transformation of experience
◼ Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and
transforming experience
Kolb’s Theories of experiential learning
Learners need four abilities to be effective
1. Concrete experience (CE) abilities
2. Reflective Observation (RO) abilities

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3. Abstract conceptualization (AC) abilities Theory of Reasoned Action

4. Active Experimentation (AE) abilities ◼ Proposes that adoption of new behavior results from individual
This occurs in two continuums: intention to engage in the behavior
Abstract conceptualization to Concrete continuum (Thinking vs. Feeling) ◼ Intentions is the extent to which a person is ready to engage in
Active Experimentation TO Reflective Observation Continuum (External particular behavior and this comes from people’s attitude toward
vs Internal) the behavior
◼ Behavior change will result is a person intends to change
Most people tend toward a pattern of preference of one end of the
continuum over the other resulting in their unique learning style Self-efficacy theory
Four Learning Style based on Kolb’s concepts ◼ Used a s a means to predict or explain behavior
1. Converger: abstract and conceptualize and active ◼ Self-efficacy is a determinant pf motivation
experiementation : good decision makers) ◼ Behavior change occurs due to expectations
2. Diverger Four sources of self-efficacy
3. Accommodator: someone who would like all things to be 1. Performance accomplishments (personal mastery, respi
done assessment =accomplishment)
4. Assimilator: those who reason every time 2. Vicarious experience (learn through demonstration)
Kolb’s experiential learning cycle 3. Verbal persuasion
4. Physiological state (state of being healthy because you are
efficient for yourself)

Attribution Theory
Concrete Experience ◼ Predicts that when people have an emotional reaction, they will
try to figure out why it happened
◼ People want to understand what causes events in their lives so
Active experimentation
(doing) Reflective Observation that they may either repeat them if the outcome was positive
(Watching) change or avoid them
Abstract Conceptualization
Causes or Attributions have 3 dimensions
(thinking) 1. Locus of causality (pool water dirty)
Converger 2. Controllability (you did not know you would have period the
next day, some control like takin in meds or going to beach
Concrete Experience which is dirty …have a shower right away)
◼ Concerned with something that has happened to you or that 3. Stability (consistent, allergy with meds so you avoid the med..
you have done allergic to food so you avoid that food)
Reflective Observation
◼ Concerned with reviewing the event or experience in your Domains of Learning
mind and exploring what you did and how you, and others, ◼ Cognitive
felt about it  Deals with knowledge and develop intellectual abilities and
Abstract Conceptualization skills
◼ Concerned with developing an understanding of what  Ex. To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve. etc
happened by seeking more information and forming new idea ◼ Psychomotor
about ways of doing things in the future  Manipulative and motor skill area; concerned with physical
Active Experimentation that require coordination
◼ Concerned with trying out the new ideas as a result of the  Ex. To dance, swim, drawing, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike
learning from earlier experience and reflection etc.
◼ Affective domain
 Describes interest, attitudes and values
Gregorc’s Cognitive Style Model  Ex. To like, something or someone, love appreciate, fear
The mind has the mediation abelites of perception and ordering hate, worship
Everyone processes information in all four of the dimensions, but they
have a preference for one end or the other on the perception and 5levels of the affective domain
ordering continuums ◼ Receiving
The preferences fall into the four mediation channels  The lowest level of the student passively pays attention
1. Concrete sequential (CS) ◼ Responding
2. Concrete random (CR) ; already in front of you from SB but  The student actively participates in the learning process
you don’t know what coffee it is ◼ Valuing
3. Abstract Sequential (AST): Virus is what we know that we have  The student attaches a value to an object phenomenon or
treatment bacteria doesn’t that is why polio has virus and it piece of information
will cause muscle ◼ Organizing
4. Abstract Random (AR)  The student can put together different values, information,
and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own
Transtheoretical Model/Stages of Change Theory scheme comparing, relating, prioritizing, and elaborating on
This is useful when the targeted behavior is the discontinuation of an what has been learned
unhealthy behavior (smoking cessation, weight management) ◼ Characterizing
For change to occur individuals undergo different stages  The student holds a particular value a belief that now exerts
1. Precontemplation influence on his/her behavior, internalizing the value
2. Contemplation
3. Action Levels of the cognitive domain
4. Maintenance ◼ Knowledge
5. Termination  Exhibits memory of previous learned materials by recalling,
facts, terms, basic concepts and answers
Feb 28, 2020 ◼ Comprehension

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 Demonstrates and illustrates understanding of facts and

◼ Application
 Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by
applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and riles in a
different way
◼ Analysis
 Examine and break information into parts by identifying
motives or causes. Compare contrast and separate

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