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The Relationship between

Nonverbal Communication
and Conducting:
An Interview with
Rodney Eichenberger

We do not hear with our ears only; we do not see with that health professionals have determined that it even plays a
our eyes only: both these senses go together and form a role in mental health.4 For more than rwenty . .years, the topic
whole which makes human communication complete.' of nonverbal communication has received significant atten-
-Max K. Adler tion at international conferences on anthropology, sociology,
linguistics, applied linguistics, psychology, applied psychol-
Human communication is interwoven with verbal and non- ogy, cross-cultural psychology, semiotics, communication, and
verbal cues and messages. From overt actions to unconscious other discipline^.^
signals, limitless combinations are formed. T h e impact o f non- Definitions of nonverbal communication range from very
verbal behaviors on communication carries profound implica- broad to very narrow. In an effort to integrate
- various disci-
tions for the art of conducting. This article provides an overview plines and perspectives, Fernando Poyatos, a specialist in the
of literature on nonverbal communication, as well as its effects field of nonverbal communication, offers a broad definition:
on conducting, and concludes with an interview of Rodney
Eichenberger, a leading expert on nonverbal communication the emissions of signs by all the nonlexical somatic, a r t i f i d .
and conducting. and environmental sensible sign systems contained in a
culture, whether individually or in mutual constmanration.
Nonverbal Communication Research and wherher or not those emissions constitute behavior or
Peter Marler, a noted researcher on the role of genetic and generate personal interaction."
environmental factors in the development of animal commu-
nication, concludes that types
. of communication other than Adler provides a simpler definition:
language play a much more important role in human biologi-
cal makeup than is generally acknowledged.' Language is only The whole of the human body is a means by which to
one part of a large
- and complex communication system. Allen express what happens in a mnn's inner being. The way he
T. Dittman, recognized for his work in movement communi- walks, he stands or slouches, how his eye shines or is dull.
cation, points out that people communicate through words, wery f~cialexpression. every sound o f his throat. orery
tone of voice, facial expressions, body movements, proxamic movement of his mouth-rver).rhing in and on him is a
behavior, and by psychophysiological responses such as blush- continuous, ever-changing projection of his inner feelings
ing and speed or depth of b ~ e a t h i n g Nonverbal
.~ communica- in respect ro the ourside world.'
tion comprises such a significant portion of human interaction
Although the impact of nonverbal behavior on communicn-
Alan C. McClung is a Ph.D. candidate in choral music education tion has been acknowledged throu g hout much of human his-
at Florida State University, Tallahassee. ror;v, research into nonverbal behavior began with the work of
Charles Danvin in 1 872.n In TAPErpr~ssionof the Emotions in
Man and Ani~nals,~ Darwin established the causes or origins of movements and cars, eyes intently directed forward,
serious scientific study of facial and body expressions in humans. For example, Dar- bristling hair on the neck and back, a
movement patterns. He concluded that win observed the appearance of a hostile remarkably stiff p i t , and an upright and
much could be learned through the ob- dog approaching another dog. He de- rigid tail. So familiar is this physical com-
servatian of animals when considering scribed the hostile dog as having erect munication in its meaning- and intent that
an angry person is sometimes said to have
his or her "back up."
The 1 311 case study of Ciever Ham,
the Horse of Mr. von O~ten,'~ illustrates
1 "A marvelous addition to the surprising power of nonverbal mean-
ing and intent. In 1900 in Berlin, von
the choral community Osten began training his horse Hans to
Every chapter has ideas of count by tapping his front hoof. Hans
was a quick learner and was supposedly
value. The book is a must instructed in figures and the alphabet.
read for all serious choral News of the horse's abilities spread quickly
professionals." and, because of the obviously profound
scientific implications, an investigating
- ChordJouml Ocfobcr,1995 committee was assembled to decide if any
Up Front! I Guy Webb, Editor deceit was involved in Hans's perfor-
Catalog No. 4638 1 $27.95 mances. A commirree comprising a psy-
chologist, a physiologist, a veterinarian, the
E C. Schirmer Music Company
GaIaxy Music Corporation
We XU e ~ l & y fhmgh rrdprinf murkdelm.
director of the Berlin Zoo, and a circus
manager tested Hans and certified that
their investigation revealed no presence of
signs or cues of wen an unintentional na-
ture. A second committee was summoned.
Oskar Pfungst, an experienced researcher,
discovered that ~ a n s c o u l danswer a q u a -
. 1
tion only if someone in his visual field
knew the answer. Pfungst deduced that
when Hans was giien a question, the on-
lookers assumed an expectant posture and
increased their body tension. This was
Hans's cue to begin tapping. When Hans
reached the correct number of taps, the
onlookers would relax and make a slight
head movement, which was Hans's cue to
stop tapping. Hans's cleverness was not in
his ability to understand verbal commands
but rather in his response to the almost
imperceptible and unconscious movements
of those around him. Mark C. Knapp, a
noted lecrurer on interpersonal communi-
cation and nonverbal communication, ex-
plains that the case of Clever Hans is not
unlike people's awareness of nonverbal cues
when artempting to atu-act the opposite
sex, closing a business deal, laying poker,
knowing when to leave a pany,and a mul-
titude of other common situations."

Whether one interprets the case history of
Clever Hans as an example of cause-and-
effect or a reciprocal exchange of nonver-

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information among those assembled, it
illustrates how nonverbal communicanon
produce surpririnb r&ts.
The abilir). to code and decode non- controlling nonverbal messages readily music moves "up or away," rather than
-- . *
3ehaviors is subject to a number of apply to the task of conducting. He asserts "down or toward." Dickson warns, "Xme
,-s. The Profile of Nonverbal Sensi- that freeing the body to perform effectively beating implies an imagery that is anti-
tlvlty (PONS) test, an ongoing research as an instrument of communication is a thetical to the music-making process."'*
project started in 1971, sought to dis- difficult task. At the beginning one faces the Failure to monitor psychomotor skills can
cover if a given expressive movement problem of social conditioning, including lead to flawed techniques or bad habits
would be decoded similarly within and muscle memory and learned habits. As that are difficult to change.'"
across several populations. Administered awareness increases, tension is more easily
to more than two hundred different popu- detected, allowing one to retrain muscle
lations in the United States and other movement." ~ e s d t of s research by Albert
countries, the results revealed that people Mehrabian indicate that in Western culture
translate the same nonverbal cues in dif- body tension is primarily associated with
ferent ways. The nonverbal decoding abil-
ity of an individual or a defined group is
not equally distributed."
fear and a lack of control." Unproductive
body tension can be obvious or subtle. Only
a trained eye with kinesthetic sense, as was
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When nonverbal variablesare combined demonstrated in the story of Clever Hans,
with verbal components, the possibility of can adequately recognize the subtle de-
sending mixed or conflicting messages is grees of tension and its impact.
quite understandable. A form of mixed Conductors must become aware of the
communication is nonverbal leakage. Adler effects various nonverbal cues and mes- CHOIR W3WN co.
explains that although people exercise a sages have on musical performance. John
reasonable amount of control over the Dickson, in an on kinesthetics and P.O.Box 16954-AZ
Jacksonville, FL 32245
words they choose, their capacity . . to re- conducting, points out that a conductor
main aware of their nonverbal cues is more must reprogram earlier learned gestures in
limited. Nonverbal information that is un- order to recognize that the vast majority of
consciously leaked by a speaker can con-
t- - --ate and confuse the intended
.e.13 For example, while reflecting a
-11 face, a speaker may show anxiety by
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feet shuffling, rodcing back and forrh, or
awkward use of the hands. Any of these
unconscious cues will conflict with the The Annual Summer
calm facial expression, creating a confus-
ing message for the receiver. T h e results of Choral Holiday
a study on nonverbal leakage indicate that
when actions contradict words, people rely
more heavily on the acrions to interpret
another's communication. Conversely,
July 14-20,1996
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when both words and expressions are in
synchronization, the redundancy of the
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When communication components or
channels contradicr each other, the receiver
Sir David Willcocks, Conductor, London Bach Choir
must decide which message to believe. Jonathan Willcocks, Junior Department, Royal Academy ofMusic
Should the receiver respond primarily to Paula Rockwell, Mezzo soprano,VocaZ Clinician, Nova Scotia
the words, the posture, the facial appear-
ance, or the tone quality of the voice? Ef- The Psalms of David in Plainsong, Anglican Chant and Anthem
fective communication uses nonverbal Conducting Techniques - Children's Choirs - Vocal Techniques
messages that reinforce rather than con- Workshop participants will sing choral evensong and
fuse the verbal message.'5 with the Green Lake Festival Choir, Orchestra
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Nonverbal Communication Howard Blake's Benedictus and Vaughan Williams' Hodie
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MAY 1996 PAGE 19

When a conductor verbally instructs and maximizes rhe musical results, how- study by Roberr Grechesky examines the
ensemble musicians, that conductor can ever, when successfully coordinating ver- verbal and nonverbal behaviors exhibited
demonstrate insight and knowledge of the bal directions with nonverbal behaviors. by a random selection ofhigh school band
score. If nonverbal leakage in Some musicians maintain that success conductors in cenrral O f the
conflictswith rhe verbal instructions given in the conducting profession is totally de- eleven variables he identifies as affecting
in rehearsal, however, the con- pendent on innate factors, and they refuse performance, eight are nonverbal. His
sciously or unconsciously, musr decide to engage in a scientific approach to con- highest ranked bands experienced rehears-
how much of each message - to foIlo\v. ducting education. They argue that con- als in which verbal explanations were
Some performers may choose to follow ducting talenr is inborn and, therefore, complemented by nonverbal communi-
one of the verbal messages, while orhers cannot be taught; their educational ap- carion skills. "The point is," Grechesky
may choose to follow one of the many proach is one of coaching rather than stares, "if the essence of music is nonver-
nonverbal messages. Probably, the con- teaching.'' Based on scienrific research in bal, the essence of conducting also should
ductor will have to stop the ensemble and nonverbal communication, however, an be n~nverbaf."'~
again give verbal instructions, selecting objective approach to teaching elemenrs
words more carefully. When a conductor such facial expressions, gestures, and The Interview
depends primarily on verbal information, movem7nt in conducting is entirely pos- Rodney Eichenberger is a conductor,
the conductor is implying, "Ignore my sible. A literarure review conducted by lecturer, and clinician who has focused
gestures--do as I say, not as I do." Some- William Fredrickson suggests that one much of his life's work on investigating the
times frustration creeps in, and a conduc- learnable behavior and an effecrive con- effects of a conductor's nonverbal commu-
tor unknowingly shiks the responsibility ducting skill is the development of eye nication o n music ensembles. H e has lec-
onto the ensemble by asking the question, contact?' A study of collegiate choral di- tured, taught conducting masterdasses, and
"Why can't you people follow me!" Some rectors byThomas J. Stauch indicates that guest conducted extensively in Europe, .
conductors have become so effecrive in primary nonverbal qualities such as gaze1 Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the
using verbal directions that they overcome facial behaviors, proxemic behaviors, and United States. A member of the Florida
any lack of coordination with their non- postural behaviors are consciously devel- State University music faculty since 1990,
verbal cues. A conductor is more eficient oped by most successful c o n d u c t ~ r s ?A~ Eichrnberger holds degrees from St. Olaf

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College in Northfield, Minnesota, and the some very experienced conducrors came RE.: Jerry Blunt. in his book The C0171-
Univ-rsiry of Denver, with advanced stud- to study there. Each had developed n con- posire A n ofAninYi writes, "First the hu-
.e Universiry of Washington
- and ducting style that was locked into man organism felt. Then he moved. When
~nlversityof Iowa. This interview was he moved. he moved for a purpose, and his
conducted on May 11, 1995, in Tallahas- movement revealed what the purpose\ms."
see, Florida. If the essence of There are numerous studies on nonverbal
Alan McClung: Looking back on your communication; unfortunately, few deal
career, what events influenced your is nonverbdl, specifically with conducting. A conductor
present philosophy of conducting? can step in a room and in nvo seconds win
Rodney Eichenberger: T h e University the essence of con~ucting or alienate the whole ensemblc; the uq he
ofwashington was my first collegiate po- or she looks, where the eyes go, and how
sition. I started with a newly formed group be the nose tips are messages being sent to the
called the University Chorale. At the same
Robert GrechesLy 'i
time, I was a student at the university, Music for the small church choir
studying voice and teaching undergradu-
ate choral conducting. The relationship his or her muscle memory. I discovered
We s;e:ize in
between my voice study and my choral that the sound of the choir changed with Couenant House
conducting was very close. My voice each conductor. O n c e again my ap- 108 E. South St., tarnoni. la..50140
teacher, Edison Harris, believed in the proach to teaching changed. Cueing and Phone:(51 5) 784-6836
use of movement to teach certain things prescribing- -procedures were not my pri-
about the voice. Similarly, I became con- bary focuses. Instead I investigatedthe
vinced that a conductor's movements and personal qualities a conductor uses to
nonverbal messages directly affect the re- make music and how those qualities af-
sponse of a choir. fect the performance. I began to mentally
Ted Norman, head of the music edu- catalogue things that conductors d o that
cation department, came up to me after get in the way of their intent. As I staned
the first concert of the University Chorale to isolate those things, I would watch a
id, "I think that the sopranos conductor and ask myself, "What is the
,n't be quite so strident if you didn't most alterable trait that will make this
have so much tension in your shoulders." conductor more effective?"
That comment hit hard, and so I started A.M.: In conducting classes 1 have
paying attention to my shoulder tension. heard you make the following - comment:
I discovered that I could get a much bet- "There is nothing wrong with telling sing- QUALITY
ter sound if I did relax my shoulders. ers what you want; I just w a i t you also to
That experience started me on a long show them what you say you want." How
. .
study of conducting. do these ideas connect? CONCERT TOURS
In those early yeirs I taught under- R.E.: Virtually all conductors I know at
graduate conducting the old tried-and- have developed conducting habits that REASONABLE PRICES
tested way, in which you start with a are sometimes antithetic to the desired
pattern and then fit the music into it. At effect. Those habits are usually reactions
times, my students became frustrated with to some kind of frustration. As a result
my instruction. It worried me, so I read- they start pawing for the music; their
justed my method. I started with making motions get bigger, and their control is Call or write today
music. T h e students' assignment was to decreased. They start telling the choir
teach a simple song and perform it within what they want over and over again; how-
for our
a five-minute rehearsd. We came to the ever, they are unconsciously showing the personalized service!
conclusion that the conducting pattern choir something contradictory. Conduc-
was a useful and important tool, but that tors should coordinate intent with ver-
it was effective only if it worked within balizations and gestures
- in order to give
the context of each piece of music. This consistent messages to the choir. A great
discovery completely changed my out- number of conductors give good verbal MARK FOSTER
look on conducting. Instead of superim- messages, but then the choir has to ig-
nore the visual messages conveyed by
pr music on a conducting pattern, I
d first on the music and found ways the conductor's body. = (800) 869-1406
t~ .,lake it come alive. A.M.: To what degree do you believe P.O. Box 2760, Santa Clara
When the doctoral program was intro- nonverbal behaviors actually affect con- California 95055-2760
duced at the University of Washington, ducting skills?

M A Y 1396 PAGE 21
performers. 1 think that we don'r teach stage, to calk your way into a performance, like a singer, tall and without tension in
conducting adequately if we don't care- but in the performance the conductor's the body, an ideal model is being pro-
fully investigate all the possibilities that movements bring about the final results. jected to the performer. Not wery piece
nonverbal language brings to the commu- There is little question in my mind that ofmusic is tall, so the posture might need
nication berween conductor and performer. conducting is basically a nonverbal art. to change to fit the qualiry and character
Conducting is about getting a message A.M.: Perhaps you could focus on three of the music, bur the posture of the con-
across through movement without words. or four of the primary areas that relate to ductor is number one. Posture includes
The more effective the nonverbal commu- the dwelopment of nonverbal conduct- the placement of the feet, the movement
nication, the more you can get done. The ing skills. of the knees, the movement of the head,
more you talk, the less time h e choir sings. R.E.: The first thing is the posture of and body balance.
You can use all sons of words to set the the conductor. If the conducroi stands When teaching conducting I begn by
looking for an alterable habit thar can be
. . isolated. Do the knees bend habitually dur-
ing the phrase? Moving the, knees on a
regular basis shifcs the posture, creating its
own rhythmic character. If that rhyrhmic
characteris not in keeping with the rhyrhm
of the hand, interference takes place. When
thc conductor's knees are moving, one of
h e first things 1do is stop the conductor. I
demonstrate what happens with just a
single note while bending the knees: the
pitch sags. That nonverbal message im-
plia sitring down, which in rurn results in
a downward direcuon in pitch.
*Enjoyf d 9 i Sari Anto Similarly, if the foot, elbows, head, or
a, rhc~RiPcmalk,the wrists are keeping time, the primary rhyrhrn
u disturbed. It crearcs an extra focus point
for the singers' eyes. The performer must

decide which to follow, the foot, the el-

bow, the head, the wrist, or the hand.
Musicians watch the conductor and
mimic what the conductor is doing.
When the conductor's head is raised.
singers change their posture dramaucally.
I check to see how much the conducror'
s head is moving. Is the head moving out
of frustration? Doer the conductor's head
s h ~ t ~ w iover250
fh move up and down with a raised chin
while he or she breathes wirh the choir?
For regihtion info If so, tension is being created in the
.. T W A 2550 S M 3 5 , Soitc 201-= Audn,.TX5?87 occipital joint region, and the result is
, . vocal tension. Every summer I do a cho-
ral conductin g workshop in Oregon;
. ,..
. . ..> .
. nuenry participanrs conduct ~ i e c e wirh
the choir. As some conductors display
-.- ..~. . ... .:. . ~

tense conducung habits, I can see sopra-

nos doing things like holding their
throats and rubbing their necks.
. - Finally, I look for tension in the arms,
, , ..:(:.., . ~,_' ~ ~ .> 0 8 , II)
shoulders, wrists, and hands. I am par-
$," ,*,.;<; 8.: ticularly concerned with the degrees to
... ., which the arms reach and the hands re- ,!
I.$. . d:, .
: " . lax. Conduning in a reaching position
-. sends an entirely different message than
conducting with the upper arms hanging
freely to one's side, and I can hear a
mT-l-, d difference in the choral sound lifting the conductor's torso to a talIer Of course there are various levels and
.g from each. The same point can and relaxed position, the intonation pIanes of conducting. The quality of each
nade about the cocked wrist locked in usually improves. Because of the amount beat determines the placement of each
an upright position. of muscIe memory associated with out- beat. Conductors should listen to the
A.M.: If posture and its subsets are first of-tune singing, the tuning won't be per- differences in timbre, pitch, and rhyth-
on the list of concerns, what is second? fect, but it will be improved. mic accuracy as those elements are af-
R.E.: It is all linked together. If I ask a The conductor's nonverbal messages fected by arm position, ictus placement,
student to notice that a leg is moving ha- affect wery musical facet of a perfor- and the character of a beat's approach
bitually, the student starts concentrating mance. My premise is that nothing is and departure. The conducting pattern
on the moving leg, and suddenly the face right and nothing is wrong, but wery- should be used to allow the music to
goes blank. Although facial effects contrib- thing you do has an effect. Whether con- come alive. Every downbeat does not
ute a great deal to what a conductor com- ducting a choral or an instrumental have the same amount of "down" qual-
municates, I'm not concerned if a student's ensemble, I'm convinced that a conduc- ity. The quality of each beat should be
face goes dead as he or she deals with other tor can use certain nonverbal mwages to determined by the music, and it is up to
things that are getting in the way. achieve a particular sound.
I am convinced that the more one is A.M.: "Nothing is right and nothing
drawn into the visual aspects of another is wrongn doesn't fit the traditional view
person's movement, the more one will of the standard conducting pattern. I have
heard you say that every musical beat has
BOOK and
imitate rhat action. When an actor is in a
very intense scene, the audience is caught a specific point, but those beat points can
in the action, mirroring what the actor is have different qualities.
doing. I remember my first experience RE.: The incredible importance of be-
Send books, octavos, and dLcs
with a Cinerama movie that had a scene ing able to conduct steady beats shouldn't
(two copies, if possible) for rmicw to: _
involving a roller coaster ride. As the roller be questioned. The beat must mive at and
Chorul/ountal-P.O. Box 6310
coaster went around a corner, the entire depart from a singIe defining point.
Lawron, Oklahoma 73506
audience, sitting in absolutely stationary Rounded beats with circles or smudges - Telephone: 4051355-8161
, went around rhe corner in their give performers options to decide where
~rs.They moved backwards and for- the beat .is.
wards, then up and down. I was intrigued
with the degree of empathy that the audi-
ence had simply because of the visual
stimuli around them.
That experience demonstrated how
8th Annual International
people can be so completely absorbed rhat
they are unaware of the visual message.
Music Festival of Sydney
When an ensemble is absorbed in perfor- Open for audition with six of twenty-stx performing
+ *ez*:
mance, it is entirely caught up with the
conductor. This degree of concentration
groups selected frdm North f h e r i c a .
is one of the basic qualities of the choral 1337: Berlioz ~ e ~ u i e m - gfestival
th chorus, Pacific Rim
experience. concert band event, Youth Orchestra series;-The Pacific
A.M.: If singers unknowingly empa-
thize with a conductor's nonverbal mes-
Summit Jazz Fesfival and choral gi-fo"iances at the
sages, would you agree that a conductor . i-FsydneyOpera.' guuse. @- .\*-"s$;:
bL -1
" " ;;mr:p
can unknowingly affect all aspects of the
- ~ t t e n & % hfeatures grd$s from a 8o v ~ ~;@h' ~ a
music-making process?
--Eurojk and the South PacSc. re-feaval and

R.E.: Yes! You can listen to a group

under one conductor, then put another post-festival concert touring available.
conductor in front of it, and it will have a Official s&nsors: The City of Sydney; ~ a r l i r @
different quality because of the way the
- Qantas Airways, Cairns City Council.
conductor stands and gestures. When I
work with a choir that has a bad intona- For application information, please contact
problem, I watch carefully what the The Executive Director-
.ductor is doing. I can usually relate
me out-of-tune singing directly to the
conductor's gestures. Often a conductor's
heavy downward movements encourage
the choir to sing under pitch. By simply
International Musk Festival of Sydney
G.P.O.Box 4392 Sydney,2001 A\rstralla
W o r n 61-2-5W0532Fac~milie61-2-580-6316
Projects 800-922-3976
North AmerJcan contact:W O ~ M
1397 Dates June 29-July 5 1398 Dates.June &July 4
the conductor to discover and to dem- in the development of a conductor's non- Adler. I .
onytrate visually that quality. verbal vocabulary. " Adam Kendon, '.Did Gesrure Have the -
A.M.: Besides the qualiry of each beat Happiness to Escape the Curse ar the . ')
point, what other aspects of conducting NOTES Conhsion of Babel?" in h'onverb~fBPhnlim
se\tures influence the musical results? ' 1
M ax K. Adler, h'on- l'ocnl Lntrgrrnge nnd Perspectives, Applrcnriorrs, Inrerculrrr rnl
R.E.: Music-making is determined not Longrrnge Subsrirrrres: A Sorioli~~gz~isrir Insighrs, ed. Aaron Wolfgang (Toronto:
just at the point of the beat but through- Srrtdy (Hamburg: Buske, 1979). 55. Hogrefe. 1984). 76.
out the pulse of the note prior to that ' Peter Marler, "The Evolution of Cornmuni- 9
Charles Darwin. The Exprrssion o f rhe
beat. What happens benveen the beats cation,' in How Animnlj Cotnrnunicnrr. Emorions in Mnn ntrd Animalr 2d ed.
determines whether I want to listen or ed. Thomas A. Sebeok (Bloomington: (New York: D. Appleron. 1876; repr..
not. There is n o slighting the importance Indiana Universiry Press. 1977). 66. New York: AMS Press, 1772). 1 16.
of the point of the beat, but if the dura- ' Allen T. Dirtrnan. *The Role of Body Move-
Oskar Phngst, CIer~erHntrs. rbr Horsr ofMr.
tion of the note is slighted and you get ment in Communication," in Nonuerbol von Osrm, ed. Robert Rosenthal (New
too concerned with beats, you lose track Behuior and Commrcnicarion,ed. Aaron W. York: Henry Holt & Co.. 171 1. trans.
of the music. You lose track of the qualiry S i p p a n and Stanley Feldstein (Hillsdale, Carl L. Rahn; repr., Now York: Holt,
of the pulse. Is the pulse going sorne- NJ: Lawrence Edbaurn k i a t a , 1987). 47. Rinehart and Winston. 1965).
4 I I Mark L. Knapp, Nonverbnl Communicnrion
place? T h e tension-free motion of arriv- Herben Marlowe, jr., and Ann Marcotte.
ing at and departing from the beat gives 'Non-Verbal Decoding," jorrrnal o f in Hurnnn Jnreraction (New York: Holt,
music that specific quality. Psychosocinl Nursing nnd Menral Healrh Rineharr and Winston, 1772), 1-2.
To sum up, I believe that virtually all Services 22 (I 784): 14. Robert Rosenthal et al.. eds., Smsiriviq to
gestures can help a conducror, so 1 en- Fernando Poyatos, "lntroducrion." i n Nonverbal Comrntrnicarion (Baltimore:
courage students to isolare each move- Advatrres in Nonverbal Conrrnrmicarion,ed. Johns Hopkins University Pras. 1977). 361.
ment and then to discover its effect o n Fernando Poyatos (Philadelphia: John l 3 Adler, 34.
the musical performance. These move- Benjamins Publishing, 1972). xvii. l4Albert Mehrabian, Silcnr Mcssagn (Belrnont.

ments can then become effective elemenrs Ibid.. xviii. CA: Wadswonh, 1971). 56.
15 John W. Keltner. E h m a of lntmpmonaf

Communication(Belrnont, CX Wabworth.
1973), 1 15-
Keltner. 1 15-1 7.
Mehrabian, 29.
Thac n m mlc+ur Lnrrr rhm mlumcs of organ muJc wrincn in rhe p r
John Dickson. "The Training of Conductors
mdirion of Ehch and Bnhnu. Thca aquuirc prduda upmrr rhe spirit through the Methodology of Kinesthedcs,"
of rhc r u u md d o d i a md a n be used as mlunruia md hymn i n d u n i o w
Their wrnpan and upmrive channcr also &s rhcm accllcnr zr tmhing p i a a Choral Journd 3 2 (March 1972): 17.
ChodcworkS. Set I Tm Uwmlr RrIr,dnfi Orpn G,erald NNN
Kenneth H. Phillips, 'Psychornotor Problems
I . hiir Fr~dudcn7.7" 5. Nun b m m Dcr Hrldrn 8. O W r . k h M m D i i of Beginning Conductors n Cbmaljournnl
2. U'cr~min,trrA&? HcilanJ Luvn
3. Nun Dankn rUlr C a t 6. In Dulci Juhiln 9. H c r ~ l k b s ~
k cu~ 27 (February 1789): 23.
4. Mmcm. 7. Erhalt unr H m (Spirn) 10. bhbua 20
Acton Ostling, Jr.. "Research on Nonverbal
Communication with lmplicarions for
Chonleworks, Set 11 72" ~ ~ m m h ~ f r l u d nO
f m~ P I Gerald NN
Conducton,"joumal ofBand Research 12.
1. C a r n n h u ~ 5. St. Drnio 9. M n l i i h Mich
2. Lconi G. Frcu Dirh Schr (him 42) Vcrbqn no. 2 ( 1977): 30.
3. Hnr h5u Chriir
i. Licbrter)ou. UCTu SisJ H i
7. .kin G i n
8. Atu Tieicr X n
10. Pucr N o k h'sirur
" William E Fredrickson, 'Research on Eye
Mai orp",d.s15.00 Contact with implications for the Con-
Saint Auguaine's Organbook G, ~b rn-'L o*nm~&&&+m Gnld b ductor. A Review of Literature." Updbtc 11
1. Imt. 1)skk hkm,ri, 4. R ~ y u i r n A
l frrnarn 8. Arc. bbrk Stdh
2. .\h~ l c Ih w c 5. la h r d b u m 9. Uhi Cariru Er h
( F a l W n t e r 1792): 25-30.
I I \'rim! 6. .\vc h i a i i 10. .A\- Cdcn& 'liinira '- Thomas J. Srauch, "An b i n a d o n of Non-
3. Avc Vkunt Corpus 7 . 0 S.icrtlrn Comiriurn
~ k l ( thp
l ,.A S I I I . ~ I
verbal Communication Behaviors o f
Covcnlalc~Psalm 121 A Pny-cr of Three Purrcll Songs Selmed Collegiate Choral Dirmors" (Ph.D.
I.@,: a k,;k. c. St. Augustinc Hmy I'lnrdl rd. lnhn BmJa diss.. Arizona Sure Univmiry. 1986).
Iulm R - r r . 6 ~
AkIIiS 1.65
Rurulrl .\. Ycirkon
:\~tthrmtua Cbn.
I I T B . Flwr .nd O ~ N
I. hirnr LJc
?. b b s i f.n n rhilc
3. Harp tihuiq air
" Robert N. Grechesky. 'An Analysis o f
Magnificat and .Aka1 211) 11.hS .b(u liiir nr [ b i
Nonverbal and Verbal Conducring Behaviors
Nunc Dirnit~is
Tlh P,,w<,*,,
Most Glorious AE- ~1.9s and Their Relationship to Exprarive Musical
~ ; L ~ N
.$.4 I X
/Aorax.!! 40d,r,iOF~ 'Lord
''' of Lifc! Performance" (Ph.D. diss.. Universiry of
AD5 .MI> s2.z~ &I- f&vnr
dEr6 1 1.95 W~onsin-Madison. 1785).

'4 ibid., 153-
?i Jerry Blunt, The Cornposirc A n of Acting

P.O. B O X 1568 O R L E A N S , M A 0 2 6 5 3 (New York: Macmillan.1766), 45.