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Master Thesis

Topology, shape, and size


optimization of transmission towers
Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers
Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 2
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Motivation

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 3
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Motivation

Development of transmission lines


in Germany (2019 – 2030)
[Clean Energy Wire, 05 Feb 2019, Kerstine Appunn ]

• 1600 km new lines


• 2900 km of lines to update
• 52 billion euro estimated
• Transmission tower part is 35-45%
[Kiessling, 2003]

• 10% cost reduction of transmission


towers saves up to 2 billion euro

[Bedarfsermittlung 2019-2030
Bestätigung, Netzentwicklungsplan Strom]

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 4
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Motivation

• Items of a production line • European building codes


• Explicit geometrical layout • Industry limitations
• Sameness acceptable • Reasonable time

[Western Transmission (Gujarat) Ltd.]

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 5
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Review
Design
objectives

Geometry
domain

Design
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers
algorithm
Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Slide 6
Design objectives

Design • Tower mass


objectives • Tower cost
• Pareto optimization
Geometry
domain

Design
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm 0 yen/m2 3000 yen/m2 6000 yen/m2
[Taniwaki, 2004
[Mathakary, ]
2007]

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 7
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Geometry domain

Design • Non-parametric
objectives • Parametric
Geometry
domain

Design
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis
[Shea, 1997]
Optimization
algorithm
[Kiessling, 2014]

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 8
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Geometry domain

Design Parametrization:
objectives • tower
• segment
Geometry • subsegment
domain • arms
Design • panels
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 9
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design variables

Design Geometry parameters:


objectives • Outer shape
Geometry
domain

Design
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 10
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design variables

Design Geometry parameters:


objectives • Outer shape
• Inner topology
Geometry
domain

Design
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 11
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design variables

Design Geometry parameters:


objectives • Outer shape
• Inner topology
Geometry • Inner shape
domain

Design
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 12
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design variables

Design Geometry parameters:


objectives • Outer shape
• Inner topology
Geometry • Inner shape
domain

Design Structural parameters:


variables • Cross-section

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 13
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design variables

Design Geometry parameters:


objectives • Outer shape
• Inner topology
Geometry • Inner shape
domain

Design Structural parameters:


variables • Cross-section
• Material
Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 14
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design variables

Design Geometry parameters:


objectives • Outer shape
• Inner topology
Geometry • Inner shape
domain

Design Structural parameters:


variables • Cross-section
• Material
Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 15
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design constraints

Design Geometry:
objectives • Electrical clearances
Structural:
Geometry • Slenderness
domain • Buckling resistance
Design • Tensile resistance
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 16
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design constraints

Design Geometry:
objectives • Electrical clearances
• Angles between members
Geometry Structural:
domain • Slenderness
Design • Buckling resistance
variables • Tensile resistance

Design
constraints
> °
Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 17
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design constraints

Design Geometry:
objectives • Electrical clearances
• Angles between members
Geometry • Engineering assumptions
domain

Design Structural:
variables • Slenderness
• Buckling resistance
Design • Tensile resistance
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 18
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design constraints

Design Geometry:
objectives • Electrical clearances
• Angles between members
Geometry • Engineering assumptions
domain

Design Structural:
variables • Slenderness
• Tensile resistance
Design • Buckling resistance
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 19
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Structural analysis

Design Finite element method


objectives • 2-D
• 3-D
Geometry
domain

Design
variables

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 20
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Optimization Algorithm

Design • Non-convex
objectives • Discrete
Geometry Stochastic optimization:
domain • Genetic algorithm
Design • Simulated annealing
variables
Objective value

Design
constraints

Structural
analysis

Optimization
algorithm
Parameter axis
Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers
Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 21
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Approach
Start

Design Input

Problem subdividing

Layout
optimization

Size
optimization

Output
optimal
geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / MaratFinish
Khodzhaiev Slide 22
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Approach to design optimization

Start Design input:


• Available cross-sections and materials
• Load from conductors
Design Input • Initial geometry

Problem subdividing Three main nested operations:


• Problem subdividing
Layout
optimization
• Layout optimization
• Size optimization
Size
optimization
Output:
• Optimized geometry
Output • Structural properties
optimal • Tower cost
geometry

Finish

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 23
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Problem subdividing
Design Input

Problem subdividing
Layout
optimization
Subproblem 1 Size
optimization

Freeze
Next
optimal
subproblem
geometry

IF next
subproblem
TRUE available

FALSE

Output optimal geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 24
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Problem subdividing
Design Input

Problem subdividing
Layout
optimization
Subproblem 1 Size
optimization

Freeze
Next
optimal
subproblem
geometry

IF next
subproblem
TRUE available

FALSE

Output optimal geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 25
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Problem subdividing
Design Input

Problem subdividing
Layout
optimization
Subproblem 1 Size
optimization

Freeze
Next
optimal
subproblem
geometry

IF next
subproblem
TRUE available

FALSE

Output optimal geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 26
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Problem subdividing
Design Input

Problem subdividing
Layout
optimization
Subproblem 1 Size
optimization

Freeze
Next
optimal
subproblem
geometry

IF next
subproblem
TRUE available

FALSE

Output optimal geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 27
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Problem subdividing
Design Input

Problem subdividing
Layout
optimization
Subproblem 1 Size
optimization

Freeze
Next
optimal
subproblem
geometry

IF next
subproblem
TRUE available

FALSE

Output optimal geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 28
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Layout optimization
Layout optimization
IF
Set FALSE the number of TRUE
initial parent generation exceeds an Parent:
genome upper limit

Generation
population Setting fittest
individual a
new parent
For each
individual: TRUE
Size IF
optimization the objective
of the fittest is smaller
of the parent
FALSE

Search for
the fittest
individual

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 29
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Layout optimization
Layout optimization
IF
Set FALSE the number of TRUE
initial parent generation exceeds an Parent:
genome upper limit

Generation
population Setting fittest
individual a
new parent
For each
individual: TRUE
Size IF
optimization the objective
of the fittest is smaller
of the parent
FALSE

Search for 54
the fittest
individual 20 20
1 5

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 30
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Layout optimization
Layout optimization
IF
Set FALSE the number of TRUE
initial parent generation exceeds an Parent:
genome upper limit

Generation 100
population Setting fittest
individual a
new parent
For each
individual: TRUE
Size IF
optimization the objective
of the fittest is smaller 138 120 103 96 108
of the parent
FALSE

Search for 54
the fittest
individual 20 20
1 5

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 31
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Layout optimization
Layout optimization
IF
Set FALSE the number of TRUE
initial parent generation exceeds an Parent:
genome upper limit

Generation 96
population Setting fittest
individual a
new parent
For each
individual: TRUE
Size IF
optimization the objective
of the fittest is smaller
of the parent
FALSE

Search for
50
the fittest
individual 20 20
5 5

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 32
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Layout optimization
Layout optimization
IF
Set FALSE the number of TRUE
initial parent generation exceeds an Parent:
genome upper limit

Generation 96
population Setting fittest
individual a
new parent
For each
individual: TRUE
Size IF
optimization the objective
of the fittest is smaller 118 105 108 109 116
of the parent
FALSE

Search for
50
the fittest
individual 20 20
5 5

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 33
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Size optimization

Geometry
input

Wind load
generation

Structural
calculation by
FEAPpv

Sizing
optimization of
members

Evaluation
of cost

Cost
output

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 34
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Approach to design optimization

Start

Design Input

Problem subdividing

Layout
optimization
Size
optimization

Output
optimal
geometry

Finish

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 35
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Example

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 36
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Design input

• Real-life example
• Double circuit 110 kV
• 40 load combination
• Acceptable initial geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 37
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Problem subdividing

Subproblem 5
1
2
3
4

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 38
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Genetic algorithm parameters

• Number of generations: 10
• Population size: 300
• Execution time: 2 hours

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 39
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Optimization execution

Sub Initial Final Cost


problem cost cost reduction
1 89.0 78.3 12.1%
2 98.4 98.3 0.1%
3 226.2 215.4 4.8%
4 410.4 367.0 10.6%
5 590.8 507.0 14.2%
TOTAL 1414.8 1265.9 10.5%

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 40
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Subproblem 2

Usage

100%

Initial
80%

60%

40%
Optimized

20%

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 41
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Subproblem 4

Initial Optimized
Usage

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 42
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Subproblem 2

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 43
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Subproblem 4

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 44
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Result comparison

max

Q3

Q2
average
Q1

min max
min

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 45
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Result comparison
Subproblem 2 Subproblem 4
125 600

120
550

115
500
110
450
105

400
100

95 350
1 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8
1600 1600
1200 1200
800 1790 800 1410
400 10 900 300 400 135 555 690 195 15
0 0
Number of individuals Number of individuals
Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers
Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 46
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Conclusions

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 47
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Conclusions

• 10% cost optimization is valuable


• Requirements of Eurocodes considered
• Reasonable time for execution
• The approach may be directly applied for a practical use

Further research
• Varying outer shape
• More complex topologies
• Member joints
• Multi-processor implementation
• Other optimization algorithms

[pxhere.com]

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 48
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Thank you for your attention
Backup slides
Optimized geometry

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 51
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Load on tower

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 52
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Optimization flowchart

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 53
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Program architecture

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 54
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Data structure

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 55
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Geometry parametrization

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 56
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Doubly linked list

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 57
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Pointer methods

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 58
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Wind load generation

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 59
Dresden // 24.02.2020
FEAPpv input

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 60
Dresden // 24.02.2020
FEAPpv output

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 61
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Size optimization

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 62
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Tensile resistance

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 63
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Buckling resistance

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 64
Dresden // 24.02.2020
Panel topologies

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 65
Dresden // 24.02.2020
FEAPpv instability

Topology, shape, and size optimization of transmission towers


Faculty of Civil Engineering / Marat Khodzhaiev Slide 66
Dresden // 24.02.2020