Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

The protection of children and

young people with autism from


violence and abuse

1
Contents
With the financial support from European Commission - Justice Author: Clare Hughes, The National Autistic Society
the “DAPHNE III” Programme of the
European Commission
What is SPEAK UP? 2
Who is this guide for? 2
What is autism? 2
Safeguarding children and young people with autism 7
Identifying potential signs of abuse in children with autism 9
Eliciting information from people with communication difficulties 11
Hate and mate crime 13
Support for the child 13
Support for the family 14
Resources 16
References 16

Guides for the protection of children with autism and


the prevention of aggressive or violent behaviour

This publication has been produced with the financial support of the European-specific programme “DAPHNE III”
(2007-2013) to prevent and combat violence against children, young people and women and to protect victims and
groups at risk. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of The National Autistic Society, Fondazione
Il Cireneo, Progetti Sociali, Alpha Foundation, Focolare Maria Regina Study Center, Autismo Burgos and Autism
Europe and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Commission.

2 1
What is SPEAK UP? Who is this guide for? Social communication Social interaction

SPEAK UP (System for the Protection and This guide has been developed to assist Some people with autism have no or limited People with autism find it very difficult to
Empowerment of Autistic Children as victims those responsible for the protection and speech. Others have good language skills, recognise and understand other people’s
of abuse or as Unintentional Perpetrators) is safeguarding of children and young people but still find aspects of communication feelings and emotions, often described
a European project involving Autism Europe, with autism. This guide aims to complement difficult, such as turn-taking, or talking as ‘Theory of Mind’ deficits. Because of
F.M. Regina Association, CIRENEO, The existing policies and procedures and will incessantly about their special interest, whilst this, some people with autism may appear
National Autistic Society, Autismo Burgos, provide specific information and guidance not recognising that the other person may insensitive and cold; odd and peculiar in
Alpha Foundation and Progetti Sociali. in relation to children and young people not be interested. manner. They may appear to lack empathy.
with autism. They may also struggle to express or even
SPEAK UP intends to improve the current People with autism struggle with non- understand their own emotions and may
knowledge and awareness in relation to verbal communication and therefore find react differently to others without autism in
safeguarding children and young people with What is autism? interpreting facial expressions and body certain situations, for example, laughing
autism at a European level, both as victims language very difficult. They may also take at a funeral.
of abuse, but also in the reduction and Autism is a lifelong, developmental disability things literally and think that people mean
prevention of abuse and violence by children which affects the way a person sees and exactly what they say, such as ‘like banging They may not understand the unwritten
with autism to others. This work involves the understands the world around them. It is your head against a brick wall’. Sarcasm and rules that people without autism pick up
development of this guide and another guide described as a spectrum condition as it jokes can also be difficult to understand for instinctively. They may stand too close
relating to the prevention or reduction of affects people to varying degrees, however this reason. to people or speak about things that are
anger and violence in children with all people with autism have difficulties in inappropriate in that particular circumstance.
autism, the development of a programme social communication, social interaction and Some people with autism will repeat Many people with autism want to have
to reduce the risk of abuse for children social imagination. Many people with autism sentences or phrases that they have heard friendships and relationships, but because
and young people with autism and an also have sensory sensitivities. or may repeat the last thing that you say they struggle with social interaction, they
information resource. to them. This is called ‘echolalia’. The may go about it in an odd or inappropriate
Throughout this guide, the term ‘autism’ sentences or phrases may come from way. Theory of Mind is thought to emerge
As this is a guide for professionals across will be used. This will cover the range of anywhere; a family member, a teacher, during early childhood and to remain a
Europe, there is no mention of the legislative diagnoses that people with autism may a TV advert or their favourite programme. constant ability throughout our lives1.
frameworks around this area of work, as they receive, such as autism spectrum disorder
differ from country to country. However, the (ASD), autism spectrum condition (ASC),
guide should complement existing legislation Asperger syndrome (AS), childhood autism,
and practices in the respective countries. pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and
so on.

2 3
People with autism, including Asperger Sensory issues > touch may feel painful to them, even Many young people with autism just want to
syndrome consistently show impairments in light touch. ‘fit in’ and to be seen the same as everyone
Theory of Mind. We have seven senses; sight, sound, touch, > they may insist on wearing certain fabrics else, so will try to hide their level of difficulty
taste, smell, balance (vestibular) and body as others are too painful or uncomfortable, and instead portray an image that they think
They may prefer to spend time on their awareness (proprioception). Many people they may not like wearing clothes at all people want to see or expect from them.
own and not seek the company of others. with autism have sensitivity issues with some > they may only eat very bland food or food Again this can put them in difficult situations
Some children with autism don’t appear to or all of the senses and can be over- or of a certain colour or texture if they misread what they think is expected
be very affectionate and others will be very under- sensitive. This can have a massive of them or if people assume that they are
> some people may be underweight due to a
affectionate, even overly affectionate - but impact on the person with autism, and also understanding everything that is being said
very limited diet
on their terms, ie when they want to be on their family. or asked of them.
affectionate rather than when a parent for
> places like supermarkets can be incredibly
overpowering for some people with the
example might want them to be. Sensory sensitivities in children with autism
competing smells on every aisle
What autism is not
may be displayed in the following ways:
> they may be unable to judge personal
Social imagination > poor depth perception leading to problems Autism is neither a learning disability nor a
space and therefore stand too close
with throwing and catching mental health condition, however people with
to people
People with autism struggle to predict things > possible clumsiness autism can and do have additional learning
outside of their daily lives and routine. They > some will seek sensory stimulation by disabilities and mental health issues.
> finding it easier to focus on detail rather
also find it hard to predict the behaviour and self-harming
than the whole thing
intentions of others, which can make them > some may have very sparse bedrooms Around 55 per cent of people with autism
> wanting to hear certain music very loud,
incredibly vulnerable. Change and coping or sleep on the floor because of their will have a learning disability² and around 66
but finding other loud noises distressing
with new or unfamiliar settings and situations sensory difficulties. per cent of children and young people with
> difficulty in drowning out background noise
can be incredibly difficult. autism develop mental health problems³.
leading to poor concentration These things should all be taken into account However, there are many people with autism
> they may have a high pain threshold with any safeguarding investigation.
Due to these areas of difficulty, people who do not have a learning disability or a
and not say or be aware if they have
with autism also struggle with executive mental health condition and for this reason,
injured themselves
functioning, meaning that Intellect ‘vs’ social understanding can often fall between the two services.
they may be focused on Despite being unable to meet eligibility
detail and not see the It cannot be assumed that for people with criteria for learning disability or mental health
whole picture. This makes autism their level of social understanding services, they and their family may still have
organising, sequencing and matches their intellect. Many people with unmet and perhaps unrecognised needs.
prioritising difficult. In terms autism who have average or above average This in itself can lead to families feeling
of reporting an incident, this intelligence still struggle to understand the isolated and that they have to manage on
can be very problematic. intentions of others and still struggle to their own without professional support. It
predict the consequences of their actions. is imperative that the needs of children and
Difficulty with social This is due to their theory of mind difficulties young people with autism are assessed by
imagination should not be and is not in any way related to their level professionals with a good knowledge and
confused with a lack of of intelligence. This means that some understanding of autism and how it impacts
imagination. Many people children and young people with autism may on the child. It is also crucial that these
with autism have incredible put themselves into incredibly dangerous services work together to provide the best
imaginations, with great situations and, despite their level of support possible for children and young
creative skills. intelligence, be unaware of that danger. people with autism.

4 5
Diagnosis Safeguarding children
Getting a diagnosis of
and young people
autism may take several with autism
years for some families,
therefore there will be What additional issues need to
many families that you be considered when dealing
come into contact with with safeguarding investigations
who do not have a involving children with autism?
diagnosis for their child.
As some families have to As people with autism have difficulty
wait such a long time for with social communication and
a diagnosis, the pursuit social interaction, their ability to
of it can become all- be able to understand or report
consuming. It is important potential signs of abuse will affected,
to have an understanding to varying degrees. Again, despite
of what that agonising wait levels of intelligence, if their social
can do to a family. understanding is in any way impaired,
how they process and understand certain
Some families may feel that they accept
situations will undoubtedly be affected.
For one family, their pursuit of a diagnosis Their son did indeed receive a diagnosis their child for who they are and allow them
for their son led to a safeguarding of autism by a clinical psychologist Difficulty in being able to ‘read’ other people
to withdraw from the world. Is that neglect?
investigation. A community paediatrician working for the NHS and their GP, who Many people with autism need to have
and therefore understand and interpret
accused the parents of having a ‘fabricated was asked for his opinion said he thought structure and routine in their lives to cope
their intentions makes children with autism
with an unpredictable world. Some parents
and induced illness’ as he felt it was it unlikely that they were fabricating their incredibly vulnerable to abuse.
may allow this to take over and dictate the
impossible for their son to have autism. son’s symptoms. This led to the case lives of the whole family, others may rally
The paediatrician claimed that their son’s against the family being dropped and The misconception that a child with
against it, believing it’s in the child’s best
symptoms were caused by emotional abuse support being put in place to support autism of average or above-average IQ
interest for them not to give way to the
will be less vulnerable due to having better
inflicted by the parents. their son. structure. Is this abuse?
understanding of what is happening also
puts children with autism at further risk.
There are many different therapies and
interventions available which claim to cure
The nature of autism itself can put people
autism. Some of these practices can in
at risk. High levels of stress and anxiety are
themselves ‘appear’ abusive. Some parents
common, as are self-injurious behaviour,
pursue these out of desperation and when
the desire to be alone, behaviour which can
the claims for some of these therapies and
be perceived as challenging to others and
interventions are far from clear, it can be
‘Some families can wait such a long time for a diagnosis... finding physical contact uncomfortable.
This requires an incredibly difficult balance
difficult for parents to know what to believe.

it is important to have an understanding of what that between what is due to autism and how it
presents uniquely in each individual and what
(For further information about the different
therapies and interventions, please see

agonising wait can do to a family.’ is a potential sign of abuse.


www.autism.org.uk/interventions.)

6 7
Sensory factors can have an impact We teach children from an early age to Identifying potential
on the child’s behaviour. Seeking
sensory stimulation can result in
comply with parents and other adults, but
there are a number of situations and certain
signs of abuse in
behaviour that is self-injurious. adults where we wouldn’t want them to children with autism
comply. Children are taught to do as they
Children with autism sometimes display are told and to listen to adults and do as It is essential to avoid making the
behaviour that challenges those around they say, but the ‘grey areas’ to these rules assumption that all signs and indicators
them and can therefore be vulnerable can be incredibly confusing for some people are attributable to abuse or that all are
to experiencing interventions that are with autism. This learned compliance can attributable to the child’s autism.
inappropriate, disproportionate or abusive. put them in incredibly vulnerable situations The best outcomes are achieved
in relation to abuse by adults. For many when designated persons and
Children with autism often share children and young people with autism, safeguarding professionals consider
environments with other children who may they may be aware of situations they are in, both possibilities and explore these
display behaviour which challenges and the when they feel that they shouldn’t comply carefully and thoroughly.
child with autism may copy this behaviour. and do as an adult has told them. They may
instinctively feel a sense of danger. This may It is imperative that those working with
There is an increased risk of professionals not happen instinctively for some children children with autism have good-quality, with or without autism may resort to having
becoming overfamiliar with the behaviour and young people with autism. It is important detailed information which is gathered and the child in bed with them as a way of just
that a child with autism exhibits. They to explain what those grey areas are and find reviewed regularly, so that changes can be getting some sleep. Breaking this habit for
are then at risk of failing to pick up other ways that they may be able to assess the identified and updated. Information about any parent is difficult. However, for some
concerns, or seeing new behaviour as an risk themselves. It is also crucial that they are the child should be sourced and shared with parents of children with autism this can be
extension of behaviour they have already given a script or a process to follow when those who come into contact with them more problematic. It may have become a
observed. A clear understanding of autism they have assessed that a situation may in order to ensure a consistent approach, routine for the child, this is what they are
and its impact on a child is imperative, as be putting them in a vulnerable position. considering data protection requirements. used to and they may well be loath to give it
is the ability to recognise subtle changes They need to know what to say or do to get This will help to indicate how autism affects up. This may be something that the parents
or other indicators, and remaining open to out of that situation. them and the ‘typical’ behaviours that the desperately struggle to get the child to give
the possibility of abuse or neglect. A clear child displays, as well as identifying any up, but as the child gets older and bigger, it
understanding of how autism impacts upon changes in behaviour, however subtle. There may feel less appropriate for this to continue,
each individual child is crucial in determining may, however, be other reasons for these but parents may be concerned about raising
an appropriate response to indicators changes and every eventuality should be this with professionals for fear of what they
of abuse. explored. It is also essential that information may think and whether they may
is shared about the child as they go through see something sinister in it.
the various stages of transition in their life;
Many children with autism, because of
‘There is an increased risk of professionals becoming from primary to secondary school, from child
to adult services. their sensory difficulties, find it incredibly

overfamiliar with the behaviour that a child with autism Sleep issues are incredibly common in
uncomfortable to wear clothes. Parents may
have allowed them at an early age to remove
exhibits. They are then at risk of failing to pick up other children and young people with autism and
like any parent with a child that won’t sleep,
clothing when they are in the house for this
reason. This is quite acceptable when the
concerns, or seeing new behaviour as an extension of parents of children with autism will look for child is young, but may well be frowned upon
as the child gets older. As with the example
behaviour they have already observed.’ various ways to try and solve the problem.
Many parents of babies and small children of sharing a bed with the child, parents may

8 9
also be concerned about how they may be breaking that behaviour isn’t easy for anyone. Eliciting information from For some children and young people with
judged if they ask for help to manage this. It is important to understand why the person
displays this and what purpose it serves. It’s
people with communication autism, when they are feeling particularly
stressed and anxious, their ability to
Dietary issues are incredibly common in also important to be alert to changes in that difficulties understand verbal information from
children and young people with autism. behaviour and identify possible reasons for others will be impaired. Their own ability
Again, parents may have concerns about those changes. It’s important to record accurate information to communicate with others will also be
raising issues relating to their child’s diet in about how a child communicates with others affected, which may mean that they use
case of repercussions. It can’t be assumed As with all of these examples, it is important and how the child understands and interprets alternative modes of communication. This
that the child has a poor diet because the not to assume that concerns are solely language. Communication with children with may involve hitting, biting, spitting etc. It’s
parents only give the child the same limited related to the child’s autism. Although all of autism will clearly vary from child to child. important to consider this at the time when
diet. Many parents of children will go to all these issues are very real and frequent for Therefore having an understanding of how you speak to the child.
kinds of lengths to get their child to eat a children with autism, they could all also point to best engage in reciprocal communication
more varied diet. to signs of abuse. The knowledge of the for that particular child is crucial. How best We know that children with autism are visual
child, accurately recorded information and to communicate at different times needs thinkers, regardless of where they are on the
Signs of abuse, or possible self-harm? questioning early signs of concern to be identified, for example when the autism spectrum. Therefore the use of visual
Self-injurious behaviour serves a purpose are all imperative. child is happy, sad, anxious, ill, in different communication support will be beneficial.
for everyone that displays it. Changing and settings etc. This information should also Again this will depend on the child and their
be recorded. If the child uses echolalia, this level of understanding. Visual supports don’t
should also be recorded, particularly if the have to necessarily be pictures or symbols;
source of the sentences or phrases that the for some people having something that is
child is repeating are known. written down can be incredibly helpful.

A child with autism who used


echolalia would repeat scenes
from his favourite television
programme that was featuring
a story line around domestic
abuse. When repeating
what he had heard on the
‘It is imperative that those working with children with programme, he replaced the
names of characters with
autism have good quality, detailed information, which those of his family members,
is gathered and reviewed regularly so that changes can creating concern for the
professionals in contact with
be identified. This information should be shared with him. Gathering information
of this kind is vital to ensure
those who come into contact with the child to ensure a that the correct decisions
consistent approach.’ are made.

10 11
The following points should be considered when trying to elicit information from children Hate and mate crime
with autism:
Over recent years, there have been more
> If possible, involve someone that knows > Be clear and specific with the questions or reports of hate crime incidents. A hate
the child well, who can help communicate phrases that you use. crime is a crime committed against a
with the child and also identify the child’s > Reinforce what you are saying with visual person because of their disability,
level of understanding. supports, whether PECS (Picture Exchange ethnicity, transgender status, faith
> Consider the environment. If it is Communication System), symbols, pictures or sexual orientation.
somewhere the child is unfamiliar with, or writing, communication passports, etc.
this will create added distraction or other tools that child uses Mate crime is when someone takes
and/or anxiety. to communicate. advantage or exploits the vulnerability
> Allow enough time for the child to process > Build in breaks. As communication is of someone while pretending to be their
the questions or information. going to be something that the child finds friend. Many people with autism desperately
> Don’t rush them. difficult, at whatever level, it’s important to want to have friends, but may struggle
allow them to have plenty of time in which to know the best ways of starting and
> Don’t re-phrase the question. If necessary,
no demands are placed on them. maintaining friendships. They can therefore
repeat the question in the same way.
be particularly vulnerable to mate crime. In
> Be led by the child and go at their pace. addition to this, as they would struggle to Professionals working with children with
understand the intentions of others, they may autism should always be alert to all signs of
struggle to see the relationship as anything bullying, mate or hate crime and take action
other than friendship, even if this involves if they suspect a child is experiencing any
the person with autism getting involved with form of harassment. Preventive strategies
activities that they may have concerns about. at school often include teaching children to
identify safe places and people who can
As children get older, they become more help them.
aware of the social vulnerability and potential
pliability of children with autism and some
may take advantage of that. Some young Support for the child
people with autism can blend and mimic the
language and behaviour of others as a way Clearly if the child is unable to understand
of fitting in. Despite the fact that the child that any form of abuse has occurred, this will
with autism might say that these people are have a major impact on the reporting of that
their friends and use the same language abuse and also the support needed to help
as them, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the child deal with it.
they have been accepted by that group of
people or that the person with autism feels As part of the process of eliciting information
altogether comfortable in that environment. about the incident, the child’s knowledge and
It’s incredibly important for professionals to understanding of what has occurred should
observe these relationships and question be explored. Gathering this information will
the nature of some friendships which may also be beneficial for helping the child deal
appear unusual. with the incident and ensuring, as much as
possible, they don’t become the victim of this

12 13
kind of abuse again. However, it is essential responses that they may receive and It is important that parents receive cases there is a genetic link. It is important
that any information given to the child in how then to respond. It is imperative that information about what autism is and to consider this when looking into potential
terms of safeguarding themselves takes their children with autism are taught how to keep how it impacts on their child. In particular safeguarding incidents, as what may appear
autism and individual needs into account. themselves safe. information about understanding to be signs of neglect or abuse, may be
Providing generic support to the child with communication and behaviour and general the parent’s difficulties in relation to social
autism may mean that they miss out on some strategies for how to manage behaviour. interaction because of possibly undiagnosed,
of the more subtle messages that you are Support for the family It’s important that professionals are non- or even diagnosed, autism. This will clearly
trying to help them understand. judgemental. If the family has asked for not be the case for all parents with a child
Having a child with autism can be very help and support it is likely that it has come with autism, but it is important to consider,
As for anyone who has experienced any difficult and isolating at times. Many families after trying a number of ways of dealing particularly in relation to bonding and
form of abuse, people with autism need help battle for years to get a diagnosis for their with issues by themselves. If you appear to attachment concerns that professionals
to deal with that experience. However this child. Following the diagnosis, they may have judge them based on the decisions they have may have.
support has to take into account their autism to continue the fight to get the support they made, that may mean that families do not
and as such their communication difficulties, need for their child. As a family, they may seek support, perhaps until it is too late. It’s Many people with autism make excellent
as well as the fact that they may well deal also need to fight for the right education, or important to encourage parents to have open parents and it should in no way be assumed
with and process the experience in a different for financial help, while trying to keep the dialogue with professionals involved in their that they are any more likely to have issues
way. family together and give enough support to child’s life. Many parents have a fear of their with bonding with their child than any other
their partner and siblings. The experience of child being taken from them and therefore parent, but it is worth considering if their
As with all victims of abuse, the potential for all of this can, at times, be seen negatively by may be concerned about raising any issues. parenting style is different or not what you
mental health issues to arise following an professionals, who may not know about any would expect. Due to the difficulties with
incident is incredibly high. Providing the right of this and who may judge the family It’s useful for teachers and support staff being able to ‘read’ or understand the
kind of support for that child in a way that as being aggressive, obstructive or difficult. to encourage parents to tell them about feelings and emotions of others, this is
they understand, that takes account of their changes at home which may all have an unlikely to come naturally to a parent with
communication needs, social understanding impact on the child’s behaviour, for example autism and may therefore be something that
and intellect is incredibly important. This will moving house, a sibling or a parent leaving they need to learn.
help to prevent other issues further down home, a sick relative which may mean
the line, such as becoming a perpetrator of one parent is away from the home more It’s important to understand that for parents
violence themselves. frequently than before, etc. All of these things with autism, the way they parent their child
can have an effect on the child’s behaviour may be different to our ideas of how to
It is also important to give children and and are therefore important to take into parent a child, but that doesn’t necessarily
young people the skills and training account when considering any changes. mean that the way they do it is wrong.
to deal with situations in which they However, there may need to be additional
might be vulnerable. Although we still don’t know the exact support given to those parents who have
It may be necessary to give the causes of autism, we know that in some autism, whether they have a diagnosis or not.
child a script with which to
respond if someone says
something or touches ‘It’s important to encourage parents to have open dialogue
them in a way they are
uncomfortable with, but with professionals involved in their child’s life. Many
they may also need
to be prepared for a
parents have a fear of their child being taken from them
number of different and therefore may be concerned about raising any issues.’
14 15
Resources Notes
This is a suggested, but not exhaustive list of useful books and resources ..............................................................................................................................................................

Csóti, M. (2001). Social awareness skills for Holliday Willey, L. (2011). Safety skills for ..............................................................................................................................................................
children. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Asperger women. London: Jessica Kingsley
Publishers ..............................................................................................................................................................
Wrobel, M. (2003). Taking care of myself: a
hygiene, puberty and personal curriculum for Brown, D. (2012). The Aspie girl’s guide to ..............................................................................................................................................................
young people with autism. Arlington, Texas: being safe with men: the unwritten safety rules
Future Horizons Incorporated no one is telling you. London: Jessica Kingsley ..............................................................................................................................................................
Publishers
Kerr-Edwards, L. and Scott, L. (2003). Talking
..............................................................................................................................................................
together… about sex and relationships: a Hartman, D. (2013). Sexuality and relationship
practical resource for schools and parents education for children and adolescents with
..............................................................................................................................................................
of children with learning disabilities. London: autism spectrum disorders: a professional’s
Family Planning Association guide to understanding, preventing issues,
supporting sexuality and responding to ..............................................................................................................................................................
Gray, C. (2010). The new Social Story book. inappropriate behaviours. London: Jessica
Arlington, Texas: Future Horizons Incorporated Kingsley Publishers ..............................................................................................................................................................

McMaster, C. (2011). The choices game: Steward, R. (2013). The independent woman’s ..............................................................................................................................................................
staying safe in social situations. London: handbook for super safe living on the
Jessica Kingsley Publishers autistic spectrum. London: Jessica Kingsley ..............................................................................................................................................................
Publishers
..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................
References
..............................................................................................................................................................
1
Murphy. D. (2010). Understanding offenders 3
Simonoff, E. et al (2008). Psychiatric
with autism-spectrum disorders: what can Disorders in children with autism spectrum ..............................................................................................................................................................
forensic services do? Commentary on disorders, comorbidity and associated
Asperger syndrome and criminal behaviour. factors in a population-derived sample. ..............................................................................................................................................................
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16: Journal of American Academy of Child and
pp44-46 Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(4), pp921-929 ..............................................................................................................................................................
2
Baird, G. et al. (2006). Prevalence of ..............................................................................................................................................................
disorders of the autism spectrum in a
population cohort of children in South ..............................................................................................................................................................
Thames: the Special Needs and Autism
Project (SNAP). The Lancet, 368 (9531), ..............................................................................................................................................................
pp210-215
..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

16 17
Notes
..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................

18 19
About The National Autistic Society

We are the leading UK charity for people with autism (including Asperger syndrome)
and their families. With the help of our members, supporters and volunteers we provide
information, support and pioneering services, and campaign for a better world for people
with autism.

Around 700,000 people in the UK have autism. Together with their families they make up
around 2.8 million people whose lives are touched by autism every single day. From good
times to challenging times, The National Autistic Society is there at every stage, to help
transform the lives of everyone living with autism.
 
We are proud of the difference we make.
 

The National Autistic Society


393 City Road
London EC1V 1NG

Switchboard: 020 7833 2299


Autism Helpline: 0808 800 4104
Minicom: 0845 070 4003
Fax: 020 7833 9666
Email: nas@nas.org.uk
Website: www.autism.org.uk

The National Autistic Society is a charity registered in England and Wales (269425) and in Scotland (SC039427) and a company limited by guarantee

20
registered in England (No.1205298, registered office 393 City Road, London, EC1V 1NG. © The National Autistic Society 2014 1959 181214