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ali"angolc di incidenza ciitica, con il flusso separato catatterizzatoda vortici

turbolenti a grande scala,evicientinella fig. iII-6b, costituisceii fenomenodello

stallo. Tale fenomeno si può innescaree sviluppare con diverse modalità che
determinano, in ultima analisi, sia I'andamento della curva di portanza in
corrispondenzadellbngolo di incidenzacritica sia il valoredel coefficientedi portanza
Il comportamentoallo stallo di un profilo alare si puo ricondurre ad uno dei
seguentiquartro tipi:

1 Airfoils Stall.
l) Stallo turbolento o stallo sul bordo dí uscita
The lost of lift on a airfoil which is observed at a critical angle of attack is usually called the stall.
ryJ$g canp!pq9i9,o-dei
This phenomenon profiii different
develop following speui ("-)-0JJ), carattenzzatoda una graduale
possible mechanisms.
separazione dello stratolimite turbolento,che si origina,alle piccoleincidenze,in
• prossimità
Trailing edge delturbulent
bordo distall.
uscita.I punto di separazioiieturbolento,all'aumentare
dell'incidenza, si sposta
It is the classical route ofverso
thickil (t/c
bordo di attacco
> 0.15) e loThe
airfoils. staltrosi verifica,
separation of all'incideqza
the flow takes place, at
critica, quando
small values of α,ii punto
near thedi trailing raggiunge
edge and
separaziope ii 50 - of 6070
as the values della corda.
α increases, the separation point
xsep moves towards the leading edge. When xsep reaches 50%-60% of the chord, the airfoil stalls.
Figure fig. iV-19
1 shows si mostra un tipico spostament,o
the phenomenon. del punto di separazione
turbolenio, definito daila coordinatacurvilinea x*p" in funzionedell'angolodi
For this kind of stall the reduction of lift is quite smooth.
x""pî :




Fig. Ív-i9
Figura 1: Trailing edge separation
/ 1l

• Leading edge stall (short bubble).

The high pressure gradient which is located in proximity of the leading edge makes difficult the
development of the laminar boundary layer which can undergo to the separation of the flow well
before the transition to the turbulent regime. This effect can appear at intermediate angles of
attack with the presence of separation bubbles. When the thickness of the airfoil is comprised
between 9% and 15% approximately, the length of these bubbles is almost constant with α. At

the critical value of αs the bubbles increases suddenly and the stall is abrupt (a sort of “bubble
:I): U N I F O f i ] , I V I S C C L ] SF L L ) \ , t rPI . ] . S TJ E F , O F O I L S V. 1{
• Thin airfoil stall (long bubble).
For The graph(t/c
thin airfoils oL<C',
9%)aga;nst point: ofnormallv
the reattachment hir,sbubble
the separation a rn'ell-rouncled
moves towards the
peak. edge when
Tirìs is the incidence increases.
iliustiatecL in Fíg. V.The I{stallindisplays
wlúchwhen the reattachment
clrrve point is
(a) is for an
close to the trailing edge. The stall presents characteristics which are intermediate with respect
63r--t-ii5 aeroi-oil.This aerr,rf-,,ri1
the two stalls previously described.
is I ! per ceni thick anci the clevelop-
nen"l of its -qtirÌi lrr,uid iollorv the lines of the iyeceding paragraph
last two mechanisms
the stage (short and
sirorvn in long
Fig.bubbles) can A
V. 1,3(ó). appears
marimumassociated to the trailing edge stall
value of.C"about
with mixed features. Figure 2 shows the three different possibilities while Fig. 3 presents the boundary
layer and tr-pical of such a tìrick aerofoil.
p distribution for the two separation phenomena.


7/W@ \' 6:l-{l'tùI
// ,'è')
\,'i lr , ,- j
/ j t at x e 54Ar)0rjI


I 1

D 5 t0 ti :r)
Incidencein degrees

I'ig. \'. 1-1.I rtt. c1-rr\-.:s

iilustlaling three tvpes o{'stall.
Figura 2: Stall behaviours
{-)ntÌriti irerofoii.s,srr,-,,: fhose iess thern 12 per cent thick, a,n írnportant
frrattu'e crf the flitl.- i'i r1.e occrLn'enceof sepirration of tlLe lamin:l,r'
bou-nd[ar'''lavei netil t]re leaciing eclgeas socn as & pronorlncecl minimum
of pressut'e torr-rr-q tît'le. For muclerate inciclences,reattachmerrt as a
trirbule;rt bou:r,&:,r-r-l,:l-,'e,:occllrs sorne clistance clov-nstream, a bubble
tllrs being fbrltecl. Long' ancl short bub'bles uucler these circumstances
ì r à r ' r ' r r l t ' o r t dlvr r i ' r r l l i s t í n g i i i s l r e riln 2S e r , ' t i o nT I T . ; ì r y t l r e r - : r l r r eo f - R ; -
at separatit';r. Ii rr'ill bc recallecl that the r-alue of'J?5": 5t)(l roughlv
sc)iu'atecitir.' t\\-o legi:ues.
T'he Ílow ',vith a long buìrbLe estenciing from ihe leacling ecige is
sketchecl in Fig. \-. 1:3(c), togetlier l-ith tire effect on the pressure
clistribiition. The Lrng bubble is about 2 per cent oî 3 per cent of the
ciror,,l c-inftrrmr,tion at low incic'lencesbut grolrs rapidi;,- tvith increasing

13 i'. 1J C ' I { A F , A C T E F " i S T I C S O F F L O \ , Y ^ \ _ E . { RT T { E S T A L L :c1
the jn lvhich the bubble is of infinite length ancLrricith. and- al the same
otaL stirtic pressllre as the mrr,instream. The positlon of the separatioir and
,ints lhe pressnre v-ithin the bubble are the princitrll agenciesin determining
the r:he chalaerteri.Sti.:sof the fl.ow-as a lvhole.
.It Oí the thrt-'epossibilitie-qmentionecl in Section IIL 5, two are conìmon:
'sult se1-rùràtionof a laminar bounclarv laver near the nose, anrl of a turbulent
is ii,
it is
First inviscid approxinrationi
nse- E.rncrirnenî J Qualitaiive
D a
'ove trj a

and . ) !

:e is - tF
Lrc - I
ical '--*k

1ii) L-nsiparate!ìflùw (Ò)Rear

(Ò) Rear separation
separation ic) Leading-edge separalion
qn,l ln.- hthhlo
F r i : . V . 1 3 . D i a g l n L u si l h r s t r a t i n g s ( ) m eo f t h e p r i n c i p , r l effects of the bourirlan'
1:1j,'er t.rLthe pressureCistribution on aerofoils at incidence.
il- Figura 3: Boundary layer and Cp distribution.
1 t,ú- i.zr,-rp.-i nea,r the rraiiing ec1ge. The fcrrmer is usrialir.- founcl on ihin à-.;ro,
necl fr,.ils itt inciilenre, r'-hile tire latter i-s perhap"s nìrle cotrmotÌ for tiricker'
ael'ofoii sectiorÌs, sa)' of ll per cent thicliness-chorcl ratio or more.
The elTect of the bounclarv lar-er on the pressure distljbution round
d"ria,erùfoiÌtit rncclerate inciclence is.qketched in Fig. V. 13(a). This is
otÌr the casewhicir can be treatecl irr cletail b1' the nrethoclsof the prececlinq
be sections. As tire lift is itrcreasecl,the separation point mav first appear
'I É
iìear tiìe trailing erllte iinr-l then ntor:e forw-arcl as the lifì increases as
ont, ., collJeqrrÈÌ1cc rlf ihe increaseclpositi\.e pressure graclients or-er the r'ear
foil i,i tire ilerofoil. A free bounclarv or vortes sheet springing from the
the i:epÀr'irti()npoirLt encloscsa btibble of trir in rr-hjch a tru'bulerrt circulatorv
iral , . r ú i i , , , .i , >S c f u p b 1 ' t l i e s h e t a il a t - r u l ' a l o n gt h c u u b b l e b o u n c l a r v a n c i b ; ,
'om iie tulbi-rlent nrising at the rear encl. An inter'pretation of the flow
il. o r-rì:,tteirÌin this ciìse, zì,ndthe effect on .the pressure clistribution, are
the i:-:-Lsilatec'L iir Fig. Y. i3 (ó). Durins errch further increment of inci-
)ncL iience, ever srna.llernei, amorints of voriicity- are ct-r,st off into the rvake
a.r,rjt,Ìre lift eveltuail''; reaches a maxinum varlue.