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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.

Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

Universidad Católica del Cibao


Segundo Manual de Inglés para
estudiantes de medicina
Content
Unit 1. Medical specialists
 Different medical specialist.
 Ailments/Injuries – Treatments/ Remedies.
 Talk about actions in process

Unit 2. Dermatology
 Dermatology / Dermatologist / skin care
 Facial dermatology / Skin problems, injuries.
 Talk about past.

Unit 3. Pediatrics
 Pedriatrician
 Children diseases
 Talk about future.

Unit 4. Cardiology
 Heart disease
 Hypertension
 Tachycardia
 Systolic and diastolic pressure
 Comparing.

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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
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Unit 5. Gynecology
 Gynecologist
 Endoscopy
 Climacteric
 Mammogram
 Estrogen
 Menstruation
 Asking questions

Unit 6. Psiquiatry
 Mental Illnesses
 Demencia
 Delirium
 Depression
 Make suggestions

Unit 7. Geriatric
 Aging
 Geriatrician
 Significant diseases
 Arthritis
 Rheumatism
 Present perfect continuous.

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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

Grammatical content
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4

Present Continuous Past tense statements Future tense: Comparative and


tense statements. Past tense questions Be+ going to superlative forms.
Present continuous Past tense: Be Future tense: Comparing nouns
tense questions. Used to will. More/fewer/less+
Present tense Present Noun + than.
statements continuous As many + noun +
Present tense tense with as.
questions. future meaning. As much + noun +
Promises and as
predictions: As…as
Will.
Future time
clauses.

Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7

Question review Modals Present perfect


Yes/no questions. Have to and must continuous.
Who/ Don`t/ Doesn’t For and since.
Whom/Whose have to. Yes/No questions
How and Wh- Must not and
questions. cannot.
Tag questions Can/ can’t

Should/ Shouldn’t.
Had better/had
better not

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Unit 1
MEDICAL SPECIALISTS

Ailments/ injuries

Treatments/
remedies
Diabetes

Present continuous
Simple present
tense

Different medical specialists


Medical specialties are sub-fields within the broad field of
medicine that doctors can focus on to become skilled in
and certified in.

A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of


medical practice. After completing medical
school, physicians or surgeons usually further
their medical education in a specific specialty of
medicine by completing a multiple year residency to
become a medical specialist.

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Medical practitioners have always been specialized.


According to Galen, specialization was common among
Roman physicians. The particular system of modern
medical specialties evolved gradually during the 19th
century. Informal social recognition of medical
specialization evolved before the formal legal system.
Unit 1. Different medical
specialists
1.1 Vocabulary. Listen and repeat.
 Surgeon
 Obstetrician
 Optometrist
 Cardiologist
 Dermatologist Advises
 Psychologist
 Call the doctor.
 Ophthalmologist
 Call the dentist.
 Gynecologist
 Drink some hot
 Pediatrician
tea.
 Allergist
 Drink some
 Family doctor
soda.
 Psychiatrist
 Put ice on it.
 Neurologist
 Stay in bed.
 Urologist
 Take aspirin.
 Rheumatologist
 Take ibuprofen.
 Diagnostic radiologist
 Take some
 Anesthesiologist
medicine.
 Gastroenterologist
 Use a heating
 Hematologist/ Oncologist
pad.
 Nephrologist
 Neurosurgeon
 Oral and maxillofacial surgeon
 Otolaryngologist
 Plastic surgeon
 Pulmonary medicine
 Physician
 Endocrinologist

Health Problems
Ailments/Injuries
 A cough
 An allergy

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 Asthma
 Chicken pox
 Mump Hurt = ache Hurt= ache
Head hurts Ear hurts
Back hurts Feet hurts
Stomach hurts Tooth hurts

 Rubella

 A headache
 A backache
 A rash
 A toothache
 A stomachache
 An earache
Remedies /
 A burn
 A bad cold Treatment
 A fever
Aspirin
 A sore throat
Ibuprofen
 A sneeze (she’s sneezing)
ice pack
 A broken bone
Heating pad
 Cut
Lotion
 Bites
Inhaler
 Scratch
Painkiller
 Itches
Cast
 Poisoning
Crutches
 Nauseated
Stretcher
 Chill
Pressure bandage
 Bleed
Stitches
 Heart attack
Ointment
 Dizzy
Band aid
 Fell
Vitamin C
 Inflamed
Diet
 Breathing problem
Injection
 Ice pack
Pills
 Cavity
X-rays
 Cholesterol
Strip
 Blood pressure
Massage
 Puffy eyes
Syrup
 A sprain
 Insomnia
 Sneeze

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 Measles
 Faint
 Swollen thumb
 Shivering
 Sunburn
 Retching
 Sore eyes
 Ankle sprained
1.1.1 Read and discuss. Medical specialists and what they do.
Allergist or Immunologist - conducts the diagnosis and treatment of
allergic conditions.

Anesthesiologist - treats chronic pain syndromes; administers anesthesia


and monitors the patient during surgery.

Cardiologist - treats heart disease.

Dermatologist -treats skin diseases, including some skin cancers.

Gastroenterologist - treats stomach disorders.

Hematologist/Oncologist - treats diseases of the blood and blood-


forming tissues (oncology including cancer and other tumors).

Internal Medicine Physician - treats diseases and disorders of


internal structures of the body.

Nephrologist - treats kidney diseases.

Neurologist - treats diseases and disorders of the nervous system.

Neurosurgeon - conducts surgery of the nervous system.

Obstetrician - treats women during pregnancy and childbirth.

Gynecologist - treats diseases of the female reproductive system and


genital tract.

Nurse-Midwifery - manages a woman's health care, especially


during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period.

Occupational Medicine Physician - diagnoses and treats work-related

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disease or injury.

Ophthalmologist - treats eye defects, injuries, and diseases.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon - surgically treats diseases, injuries,


and defects of the hard and soft tissues of the face, mouth, and jaws.

Orthopaedic Surgeon - preserves and restores the function of


the musculoskeletal system.

Otolaryngologist (Head and Neck Surgeon) - treats diseases of the


ear, nose, and throat,and some diseases of the head and neck, including
facial plastic surgery.

Pathologist - diagnoses and treats the study of the changes in body tissues
and organs which cause or are caused by disease.

Pediatrician - treats infants, toddlers, children and teenagers.

Plastic Surgeon - restores, reconstructs, corrects or improves in the shape


and appearance of damaged body structures, especially the face.

Podiatrist - provides medical and surgical treatment of the foot.

Psychiatrist - treats patients with mental and emotional disorders.

Pulmonary Medicine Physician - diagnoses and treats lung disorders.

Radiation Onconlogist - diagnoses and treats disorders with the use


of diagnostic imaging, including X-rays, sound waves, radioactive
substances, and magnetic fields.

Diagnostic Radiologist - diagnoses and medically treats diseases and


disorders of internal structures of the body.

Rheumatologist - treats rheumatic diseases, or conditions characterized


by inflammation, soreness and stiffness of muscles, and pain in joints
and associated structures.

Urologist - diagnoses and treats the male and female urinary tract and
the male reproductive system.

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1.1.1 Exercises. Practicing the vocabulary.


Match the medical specialists with what do they do.
___ A pediatrician a. Treats stomach disorders.

____An allergist b. Takes care of children.

____An obstetrician c. Talks to people about their


personal problems.
___ An optometrist d. Treats chronic pain syndromes,
administers anesthesia and monitor
the patient during surgery.

____A psychologist e. Treats heart disease.

____ A dermatologist f. Treats diseases of blood and blood


forming tissues (oncology including
cancer and other tumors.)

____Cardiologist g. Takes care of women’s health, during


pregnancy and childbirth.

____Anesthesiologist h. Check and treats skin diseases,


including some skin cancers.

____Gastroenterologist i. Treats kidney diseases.

____Hematologist/ j. Helps people control their allergies.


Oncologist

_____Nephrologist k. Check your eyes.

_____ Internal Medicine l. Treats diseases and disorders


of the nervous system.

____Neurologist m. Treats diseases and disorders of


internal structures of the body.

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1.1.2 Match others medical specialists.


____Conducts surgery of the nervous system. 1. Rheumatologist

____Treats diseases of the female reproductive


system and genital tract. 2. Pulmonary Medicine
physician
____Preserves and restores the function of the
musculoskeletal system. 3. Neurosurgeon 

____Diagnoses and treats work-related disease or injury. 4. Radiation Oncologists 

____Treats eye defects, injuries, and diseases. 5. Gynecologist 

____Surgically treats diseases, injuries, and defects


of the hard and soft tissues of the face, mouth, and jaws. 6. Plastic Surgeon
 

____ (Head and Neck Surgeon) - treats diseases of the ear,


nose, and throat, and some diseases of the head
and neck, including facial plastic surgery. 7. Nurse-Midwifery 

___Diagnoses and treats the study of the changes


in body tissues and organs which cause or
are caused by disease 8. Psychiatrist

___Treats infants, toddlers, children and teenagers. 9. Occupational Medicine


Physician
___Restores, reconstructs, corrects or improves in the
shape and appearance of damaged body structures,
especially the face. 10. Ophthalmologist

 ___Provides medical and surgical


treatment of the foot. 11. Oral and Maxillofacial
surgeon

___Treats patients with mental and emotional disorders. 12. Orthopaedic Surgeon 

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____Diagnoses and treats lung disorders. 13. Pathologist 

___Diagnoses and treats disorders with the use of


diagnostic imaging, including X-rays, sound waves,
radioactive substances, and magnetic fields. 14. Otolaryngologist

___Diagnoses and medically treats diseases and


disorders of internal structures of the body. 15. Pediatrician 

___Treats rheumatic diseases, or conditions characterized


by inflammation, soreness and stiffness of muscles,
and pain in joints and associated structures. 16. Podiatrist

___Diagnoses and treats the male and female urinary


tract and the male reproductive system. 17. Diagnostic Radiologist 

1.2 Conversation. Ailments/injuries &


treatments/remedies
Practice this conversation.
1.2.1 Read the conversation between Mr. West and the doctor
and answer the questions below.

Doctor: These are the X-rays, Mr. West. Jimmy has a


broken leg. It’s a bad break. The nurse is putting ice
packs on his leg now because it’s swollen quite a lot.
We need to wait for the swelling to go down, so we’re
going to keep him in the hospital for two days, and
then we’ll put the cast on.

Mr. West: How long is he going to need the cast?

Doctor:  For children, it’s usually six to eight weeks.

Mr. West: He’s in a lot of pain.

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Doctor:  We’re going to give him something for the


pain in a few minutes.
Is he allergic to anything?
Mr. West:  No, he isn’t.

Doctor:  He’s going to need painkillers for a few days.

Mr. West:  Can he go to school?

Doctor:  Don’t worry. He will be back in school next


week.
But he’s going to need crutches.
1.2.1.1 Exercise. About the conversation.
Answer the questions.
1. What’s the matter with Jimmy?

2. Is the doctor looking at the x-rays?

3. What is the nurse putting on Jimmy’s leg? Why?

4. How long is Jimmy going to stay in the hospital?

5. When is the doctor going to put a cast on his leg?

6. How long is Jimmy going to be in a cast?

7. What are they going to give him for pain?

1.3 Grammar Summary

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1. Present Continuous tense


a. Use the present continuous to talk about an action that is happening
now.
b. Time expressions such as now, right now, at the moment, and at this
moment are often used with the present continuous.
Are you using the computer? No, I’m not. I’m talking on the phone
Is she buying her books? Yes, she is.
What are you doing? I am studying.
Who is drinking a cup of coffee? The students are.
Where are they studying? They are studying in the library.
Why is he talking to the counselor? He is talking to the counselor about
a course.

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2. Simple present tense


a. Use the simple present tense to describe a routine, a Schedule, or a
repeated action.
b. These time expressions are often used with the simple present tense:
Every day on the weekends in the summer
Every year on Mondays in the fall
Do you study in the morning? Yes, I do. No, I do not.
Do the students speak English in class? Yes, they do. No, they do
not.
Does she work part time? Yes, she does. No, she does
not.
Does he take any science courses? Yes, he does. No, he does
not.
Where do you study? I study in the library.
How often do they speak English? They always speak English.
When does she work? She works three evenings a week.
How much does it cost? It costs $250 per course.

Grammar exercise

Simple present / Present continuous


Remember: The simple present tense is used to talk about your daily activities and
routines. The present continuous tense is used to talk about things that are happening at
the moment of speaking. The continuous tense is also used to talk about pre-planned
future events.

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1.3.1 Complete the following sentences using the simple present or


present continuous tense form of the verb given.

1. Every morning, my dad________________ for a walk in the park.


go

goes

is going

2. I__________________some old friends this week.


visit

am visiting

3. Don’t make a noise. The baby ______________


sleeps

sleeping

is sleeping

4. The kettle ________________. Will I make tea?


boils

is boiling

5. I ___________________ this wine very much.


like

am liking

6. Don’t forget to take your umbrella. It ___________


rains

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is raining

7. She doesn’t like to be disturbed if she ___________________


works

is working

8. My brother___________________ in Paris at the moment.


works

is working

9. He _____________________ his grandparents about twice a year.


visit

visits

is visiting

10. I ____________________ what he says.


not believe

don't believe

am not believing

1.4 Reading.
Diabetes
When Carla went for her regular physical checkup, she told her doctor that felt
tired and that she was always thirsty. Her doctor suggested a blood test for diabetes. The
results came back positive. Carla had Type 2 diabetes.

Over 17 million people in the United States suffer from Type 2 diabetes. In the
beginning, the symptoms are often mild. People with diabetes report that they feel tired,
are often thirsty, and need to urinate frequently.

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Carla had many of the common risk factors, too. She was over 45 and had high
blood pressure. Carla was 60 pounds overweight, and she did not exercise. Carla is
Hispanic, and diabetes is especially high in minority populations, including the African-
American, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American communities.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body
does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin effectively. People with diabetes
need to watch their blood-sugar levels carefully. In time, diabetes can damage the
circulatory system, the nervous system, and major organs of the body. It can cause
blindness, kidney disease, and heart disease.

Type 2 diabetes is easy to diagnose with a blood test. It can often be controlled by
proper diet and regular exercise. People with diabetes must usually reduce fats and
carbohydrates and control their sugar intake.

At first, Carla needed to take diabetes medication. She began to walk and now
walks four miles a day. Over the past year, she lost 50 pounds. Her diabetes is now under
control, and she no longer needs to take medication for the disease.

1.4.1 About the reading. Read the statements and circle T for True
or F for False.
1. Many people with diabetes don’t know that they have this disease. T F

2. Most people with Type 2 diabetes are under 45 years old. T F

3. Type 2 diabetes is more common in minority populations. T F

4. Diabetes can damage the kidneys. T F

5. A stress test can show if a person has diabetes. T F

6. People with diabetes must carefully control their diet. T F

7. All people with diabetes must take medication. T F

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1.5 Listening exercises.


1.5.1 Listen to the story of the accident and answer the questions.
1. What are Luis’s injuries?

2. What are the emergency workers doing?

3. What treatment is Luis going to receive at the hospital?

4. What are the woman’s injuries?

5. Whose injuries are more serious?

6. What treatment is the woman going to receive at the hospital?

1.5.2 Listen again and circle True, False, or NI (Not enough information)

1. Luis went past the stop sign. True False NI

2. The accident was the woman’s fault. True False NI

3. Luis called 911 for emergency help True False NI

4. Luis has a broken arm. True False NI

5. Luis is going to need stitches in his arm. True False NI

6. The woman is telling the workers her


phone number. True False NI

7. The woman probably hit her head


on her windshield. True False NI

8. The woman is going to stay in the hospital


for a week. True False NI

1.6 Review
Types of illnesses
Allergy

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(adjective Allergic) To have a bad reaction to animals, dust, foods or plants. The symptoms are
red eyes, runny nose and sneezing.

Cough

(verb to Cough) Pronounced 'coff'. To force air out of the lungs making a loud and
uncomfortable noise:
'Smoking makes me cough.'

Dizziness

(adjective Dizzy). To have the feeling that everything around you is spinning.


'I felt dizzy after standing up too quickly when I was in the bath.'

Fever / Temperature

A rise in body temperature. To feel hot.

The Flu

(also called Influenza) A very strong cold caused by a virus. Symptoms include: fever,
headache, runny nose and sneezing.

 Hay Fever

An allergy to plants and the pollen from flowers. The symptoms are red eyes, a runny nose and
sneezing.

Insomnia

Not being able to sleep at night.

Rash

Uncomfortable, itchy, red spots on the skin. A skin condition.


'She got a rash on her hand after touching a strange plant.'

Rundown / Under the Weather

(idioms) Both of these mean a general feeling of sickness. Rundown usually comes from living
an unhealthy lifestyle. Under the weather means to not feel your usual, healthy self.

Runny Nose

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Mucus coming from the nose. The need to blow your nose a lot.

Sneeze

(verb to Sneeze) An uncontrollable movement of air from the nose and mouth.
'The strong smell of flowers makes me sneeze.'

Sunburn

Red and painful skin that comes from being in the sun too long.

Something ache / sore something / bad something


These three forms are usually used to talk about general problems. These are the common
collocations:

+ ache

headache
backache
stomachache
muscle ache

bad +

bad back
bad head
bad leg

sore +

sore throat
sore eyes
sore feet

1.6.1 Types of doctor


Cardiologist: A heart doctor

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Dermatologist: A skin doctor

Dentist: A doctor who treats teeth

General Practitioner: (G.P.) A family doctor who you would usually go to see for common
health problems

Obstetrician: A doctor for female patients before and during pregnancy (child birth)

Optometrist: An eye doctor

Orthopedic Doctor / Surgeon: A doctor who specialize in bones

Pediatrician: A doctor for children

Surgeon: A doctor who performs operations

Other important words


Here are another few words that you might find useful:

Prescription: (Noun) The piece of paper that your doctor gives you with the name of the
medicine you need on it.

Patient: (Person) A sick person in hospital or visiting the doctor's.

Drug Store (US) / Chemist's (UK) / Pharmacy: The place you go to get

1.6.2 Exercise. Select the correct one.


 Not being able to sleep at night is called ___.

rash

insomnia

sneeze

fever

 Some people are ___ to dogs.

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allergic

allergy

 A doctor who operates on people is called a ___.

dentist

surgeon

optician

cardiologist

 My nose has been ____.

running

run

 I ___ a fever.

have

am having

 I have a ___ throat.

ache

sore

 I have a stomach ___. 

bad

ache

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sore

 I'm feeling a little under the ___.

weather

run down

 Doctor: 'What are your ___ ?

wrongs

problem

symptoms

 Take this ___ to the pharmacy and get your medicine.

patient

chemist

prescription

Teacher. Extra activities for the unit.


 Dictation about vocabulary.
 Students identify and underline expressions with must in the reading
about diabetes.
 Students discuss about other information that they know about diabetes.
 Students looking for the doctor who care patients with diabetes, in the
list of medical specialists.
 Homework. Research more information about doctors who care patients
with diabetes. What is their specialization’s name? What other illnesses
they care? Do you like this specialization? Why? Do you know someone
with this specialization?

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Unit 2
Dermatology

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Dermatology
Dermatologist
Skin care

Facial dermatology
Skin problems, injuries...

Past tense statement


Past tense questions
Past tense: be

Unit 2. Dermatology

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Dermatology
Is the branch of medicine concerned with the
diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders.
Dermatology involves the study, research, diagnosis,
and management of any health conditions that may
affect the skin, fat hair, nails, and membranes. A
dermatologist is the health professional who
specializes in this area of healthcare.

The skin is the largest organ of the body, which acts


as a barrier to protect the internal organs from injury
and bacteria. It is also a good indicator of the overall
health of the body, making the field of dermatology

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important in the diagnosis and management of many


health conditions.

2.1 Vocabulary. Listen and


Repeat.
Skin Care Terms

Acne Eczema Immunomodulator


Alkali Elasticity Inflammation
Allergens Elastin Viscosity
Allergy Emollient Topical
Antihistamine Emulsifier PH
Antioxidame Epidermis Lipids
Asthma Exfoliant Moisturizer
Astringent Exfoliate Ointment
Dermatitis Follicle
Common
Derma Melanin skin
Atopic dermatitis Humectant problems
Collagen Hydrate Blackhead
Blemish
Pimples Hypoallergenic Blister
Blotch
Boil
Bedsore
Athlete’s foot

2.1.1 Skin Care Terms. Read and


discuss.
Acne: A skin condition that manifests itself in the form of
blackheads, whiteheads, pimples and/or cysts; lesions which are
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thought to result from the accumulation of keratin proteins,


bacteria and oil in hair follicles.
Alkali: A substance that has an opposite reaction to acid
and is capable of neutralizing it.
Allergens: Foreign substances that cause allergic
reactions. Examples of allergens are plant pollens, dust mites,
animal dander, foods, insect venom, antibiotics, and substances
such as latex and rubber.
Allergy: An acquired sensitivity to a substance. When
allergic reactions occur following external contact, they usually
produce eczema-like dermatitis, usually characterized by
redness, itching and swelling.
Antihistamine: Medicine used to counteract
histamine, a chemical released by the body in an allergic
reaction that contributes inflammation. Some examples include
(Benadryl) and hydroxyzine (Atarax). Many may cause
drowsiness.
Antioxidant: Antioxidants are substances that may
protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free
radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down
food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and
radiation. Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in
heart disease, cancer and other diseases.
Asthma: Airway disease characterized by recurrent
breathing problems. People with asthma have acute episodes
when the air passages in their lungs suddenly narrow, and
breathing becomes more difficult. Sometimes, asthma attacks
are triggered by allergens, but infection, exercise, cold air and
other factors are also important triggers.
Astringent: An agent that is capable of shrinking and
contracting skin tissue, temporarily and locally.
Atopic dermatitis: Also called eczema, this is a
chronic, recurring inflammatory skin disorder that usually first
appears in babies or very young children and may last through
adulthood. Eczema causes the skin to itch and develop a red,
scaly, patchy rash. It often develops in people who have hay

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fever or asthma or who have family members with these


conditions.
Collagen: A fibrous protein in the skin that gives it its
firmness. When the collagen fibers are stretched or strained, the
skin loses its elasticity and the area wrinkles and sags. Collagen
is used in skin care products because of its moisture binding
properties.
Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin.
Dermis: Connective tissue layer under the epidermis.
Contains blood vessels, nerves, glands and hair follicles.
Eczema: A type of skin condition with redness, itch,
bumpiness, and scaling (see atopic dermatitis).
Elasticity: Flexibility; the ability of your skin to stretch
and spring back.
Elastin: Elastin is the protein that gives skin its elasticity.
Emollient: An ingredient that softens, smoothes and
moisturizes the skin.
Emulsifier: An agent used to combine two liquids that
ordinarily do not mix, such as oil and water.
Epidermis: The outermost layer of the skin where skin
cells are formed, mature and die. Contains epidermal cells.
Exfoliant: An ingredient or product that is used to
remove, or exfoliate, dead cells from the skin’s surface.
Exfoliate: Slough off dry, scaly skin.
Flare: A term used to describe when eczema worsens
(itching
and redness).
Follicle: A deep, narrow, tube-like channel in which a hair
grows.
The opening of the channel on the skin surface is the pore.
Humectant: A substance that promotes the retention of
moisture.
Hydrate: To add moisture.

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Hypoallergenic: Formulated to reduce the chance of


allergic reactions by avoiding ingredients that are most likely
to cause these problems. Does not mean that allergic reactions
are not possible, only less likely.
Immunomodulator: Any substance that influences
the immune system; a substance or process capable of
modifying functions of the immune system.
Inflammation: The body’s natural response to injury
or abnormal stimulation by a physical, biologic, or chemical
agent. Typical signs of inflammation include pain, itchiness,
warmth, redness, and loss of function.
Keratin: A tough, fibrous protein found in the surface cells
of the skin, hair and nails.
Lipids: Fatty substances that help bond skin cells together
and strengthen the skin. Lipids also help skin retain moisture.
Melanin: The pigment produced by the skin cells known as
melanocytes. The amount and size of the melanin granules is
what determines the skin’s color, or skin tone. Melanin is also a
natural defense against ultraviolet radiation.
Moisturizer: Something that will make skin softer and
more pliant by increasing its hydration. Also called emollient.
Ointment: A clear, greasy semisolid (contains no water)
preparation that is intended for topical use.
Oral immunosuppressant: An oral medication
that prevents or suppresses a response by the immune system.
Over-the-counter: A drug that can be purchased
without a prescription.
Ph: The level of acidity or alkalinity of a solution or substance.
If the pH of a product is too different from the pH of the skin it
could damage the skin. It is estimated that the ‘natural’ skin
surface pH is on average.
Topical: Pertaining to the surface of the skin; a medication
applied to the skin.

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Viscosity: A term to describe the flow characteristics of a


product. Also commonly used to describe how thick or thin a
liquid is.

2.1.2 Complete with the words from the chart.

Blackhead - blemish - boil - blotch -


bedsore - athlete’s foot - blister

1. ______________________is an infection in which the skin between the toes becomes


sore, cracked, and itchy.
2. _____________________is a red painful area on your skin that you get from lying in
one position for a long time.
3. ______________________ is a small black spot on your skin, caused by dirt or oil
blocking a pore (=one of the small holes in your skin)
4. _____________________a mark on someone’s skin, such as a spot or a scar
5. ______________________is is a swollen area on your skin that is full of
a clear liquid and is caused by being burned or rubbed.
6. _____________________is a coloured mark on something, especially a red mark on
your skin.

7. _____________________is a painful lump on your skin that has become infected and
is filled with pus (=an unpleasant yellow liquid)

2.2 Read. Your Skin


Written by Sandie Lee

Your Largest Organ


What is the largest organ in your body? Your heart? It is the largest
muscle in your body, but you do have larger organs. Your brain? The brain
inside your skull is pretty big, but it's not the biggest. How about the liver?
It is the heaviest organ. How about your skin? Yes, your skin is an organ,
just like your heart, brain, and liver. Since your skin covers your entire
body, it is, in fact, your body's largest organ.
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Even though skin comes in many different colors, all skin has a very
important job to do. It acts as a covering for our entire body, which protects
our organs and keeps out infections. Can you imagine what your body
would look like without skin?
It also regulates our body temperature and helps us perceive pain,
pressure, and touch.
Layers of the Skin
The human skin is made up of three layers:
• Epidermis - [ep-i-dur-mis] the part of the skin on the outside of your body;
it's the part you can see
• Dermis - [dur-mis] where blood vessels and nerves are at work
• Hypodermis - [hahy-puh-dur-mis] mostly made of fat; where your hair
grows from
How Thick Is My Skin?
If you've ever had a cut on your skin, you know that it's not very thick at all.
On average, your skin is only about 1.5 millimeters thick. It is thickest on
the soles of our feet and thinnest on our eyelids.
Is it Alive?
Here’s something fun to try. Look down at your hands. What do you see?
Anything unusual? Even though you can’t see it, your skin is hard at work
making new cells. It takes from two weeks to a month to make a new cell.
When these cells are ready they will work their way to your epidermis,
pushing the old, dead ones to the surface. So when you look at your skin,
you’re actually seeing dead cells. In fact, our skin loses about 30,000 to
40,000 dead cells every minute!
Skin-Tastic Facts!
• Frogs don’t drink water; they absorb it through their skin.

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• Polar bear’s skin is black to absorb heat from the sun.


• Besides humans, pigs are the only other animal that can get sunburned
skin.
• Ostrich skin makes the strongest leather.
• Some humans and animals have no ‘melanin’ (an enzyme that produces
color) in their skin. This makes them completely white.

2.2.1 Exercise. Select the best respond, about the reading.


1. What is your body's heaviest organ?
a. brain
b. heart
c. liver
d. skin
2. Your skin is about as thick as....
a. a notebook
b. a dime
c. pancake
d. a plate
3. Explain how our skin helps to keep our bodies healthy.
_______________________________________________________
______________________________________
_______________________________________________________
______________________________________

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4. When you look at someone, which layer of their skin can you
see?
______________________________________________________
5. Which layer of skin does hair grow from?
______________________________________________________
6. Which layer of skin contains blood vessels and nerves?
______________________________________________________
7. What is the enzyme in skin that gives it color?
______________________________________________________
8. How does a polar bear's skin help it survive in the Arctic?
_______________________________________________________
2.2.2 Your Skin. Vocabulary
Match each vocabulary word with its definition.
1. ________ brain a. controls
2. ________ organ b. large bird that cannot fly
3. ________ muscle c. soaks in
4. ________ liver d. bottoms of your feet
5. ________ absorb e. organ that stores nutriens for your
body and cleans your blood.
6. ________ regulates f. Part of your body that is used
for movement.
7. ________ soles g. organ that controls your entire body.
8. ________ ostrich h. group of body tissue that performs a
task (examples: heart, lungs, stomach)

2.3 Grammar Summary

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1. Simple Past

We use the simple past tense to talk about actions that happened in the
past time. Regular past verbs end in ed.

2. Past

Yesterday a few minutes ago last night in 1750

The day before yesterday a few days ago last week

In 1995 a few weeks ago last year

3. Past tense: be
Jamestown was the first English settlement.
Many settlers were very religious.
Was the voyage long and difficult? Yes, it was.
Were the settlers farmers? No, they weren’t.
Where was the first settlement? It was in Jamestown.

4. Past tense verb forms.

Regular verbs

Colonial people worked hard.

They lived on farms.

Families didn’t live in cities.


Irregular verbs
Did children attend school?
Colonial women wore long
Yes, they did. dresses.
Colonial families had gardens.
Where did colonial people Houses didn’t have bathrooms.
live? Did children wear sneakers?
They lived on farms. No, they didn’t.
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2.3.1 Exercise. Past simple or past continuous tense.


Fill in the blanks with an appropriate past tense form.

1. I________________ with my son when you _________________


played, called

was playing, were calling

was playing, called

played, were calling

2. The doorbell _______________while I ________________ a bath.


rang, was having

was ringing, was having

was ringing. Had

3. As I ___________________ for bus, I _________________ Joe crossing the


road.
waited, saw

was waiting, saw

waited, was seeing

4. Yesterday, I ___________________ to the movies with my wife.


was going

went

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had gone

5. When I was a child, we __________________ our own amusements.


were making

made

have made

6. When we ________________home, we discovered that water


______________ down the walls.
reached, ran

reached, was running

was reaching, was running

7. It __________________ while I ________________ in Mumbai.


was happening, was living

happened, was living

happened, lived

8. I ________________ in Rome for ten years while I _____________ a child.


lived, was

was living, was

lived, had been

9. I ______________ all day yesterday.


had slept

was sleeping

10. What _______________at 11 pm last night?


did you do

were you doing

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had you done

11. Who ________________you that watch?


was giving

gave

had given

12. When I ______________ into the office, everybody ______________


was walking

walked, worked

walked, was working

2.3.2 Grammar exercise. Select the correct respond.


1. When I called Mike, he _______.
 is eating.
 ate.
 was eating.
2. When _______ to bed last night?
 are you going.
 did you go.
 were you going
3. While Max was eating pizza, his wife _______ in the door.

 walked.
 is walking.
 was walking.
4.  _______ a VW Beetle when I was a student.

 am having.
 had.
 was having.

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5. While I was doing my homework, I _______ two glasses of water.

 was drinking.
 drank.
 am drinking
6. Max was robbed last night. While he was sleeping, a burglar _______
his house.
 broke into.
 was breaking into.
 is breaking into
7. When the power went out last night, we _______ a movie.
 were watching.
 watched.
 are watching

8. They _______ tennis when it began to rain.


 are playing.
 played.
 were playing
9. While Max was walking home from the store, he _______ twenty
dollars.
 is finding.
 found.
 was finding

10. Max _______________ his car to work when it broke down.


 was driving.
 is driving.
 drove

2.4 Reading. Human Skin


The skin is the largest organ of the human body and covers and protects
muscles, bones, organs, and all other parts of the body. Without the skin,

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the body parts may fall out onto the floor. Besides protecting the body, the
skin helps the body maintain its temperature, and allows a person to have a
sense of touch.

There are three main layers of human skin and each has its own function
and parts. The epidermis layer is the outmost layer of skin and is the part
that can be seen. Its main function is for protection. Deep inside the
epidermis layer, there are growing cells, and, on the outside, there are flat,
dead skin cells that easily flake off the body. In fact, every minute of the
day, a person loses about 30,000 to 40,000 dead skin cells or about 9
pounds every year. When new skin cells come to the surface, they
contain keratin, which makes the skin waterproof and tough. Other cells of
the epidermis produce a pigment called melanin which darkens the skin
and protects it from strong sunlight. Most of the cells in the epidermis,
about 95%, work to make new skin cells and the other 5% make the
melanin.

The layer beneath the epidermis is the dermis, which is a thicker and more
elastic layer compared to the epidermis. This layer is home to glands, hair
follicles, nerves, and blood vessels. The two types of glands
include sebaceous, which produce sebum, a type of oil that helps keep the
skin soft and waterproof, meaning water cannot get inside the body. The
second type are sweat glands which make sweat and when the body gets
too hot, the moisture is sent through the pores or tiny holes of the skin to
help cool a person.

The hair follicles are where the hair on the body is made. They look like
tiny bulbs, and most of the hair on the body is short and fine. The only
places where there is no hair is the lips, palms of the hands, and the soles
of the feet. There are about 100,000 hair follicles on a typical person's
head.

The nerves in the dermis layer are the sensors for the body that send
messages to your brain. They tell the temperature, cause one to feel pain,
lets a person feel the smoothness or roughness of things, and tell how hard
skin is being pressed. Finally, the blood vessels in the dermis layer are
part of the body's circulatory system and carry oxygen and nutrients to the
cells in the body and carry away waste.

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The final layer, located beneath the dermis, which is also called
the subcutaneous layer, is the hypodermis layer of skin. It is mostly
made of fat and helps keep the body warm and absorbs shocks. It holds all
the skin to the tissues beneath it, and the start of hair follicles take place in
this layer and is the location of the hairs' roots. Glands in this layer
connected to each hair follicle coat the hair with oil giving it a shine plus a
small amount of waterproofing. The fat cells in the hypodermis layer keep
the body warm, and the more body fat a person has the more a person will
sweat.

The skin is responsible for other functions as well including temperature


control. The typical temperature of a person's body is 98.6°F which is
needed to keep the body and cells healthy. The skin responds to messages
sent to it by the brain's inner thermometer called the hypothalamus.

When the body is cold, the blood vessels help keep the body warm by
keeping blood away from the skin's surface. This is when goosebumps
appear, the scientific name for them is the pilomotor reflex. This reflex
makes special tiny muscles called the erector pili which pull on the hairs, so
they stand up straight causing the goosebumps.

There are different thicknesses and forms of skin on the body too. The skin
on most of your body is about 2 millimeters thick, but it is thicker on the
soles of feet because it gets rubbed a lot when a person is moving around.
The skin on the eyelids is only about 0.5 mm thick.

In addition, the skin on your knees and elbows is more elastic and looser
because it must do a lot of stretching when a person moves. Finally, the
skin on the palms of the hands is much firmer than the skin on the back of
the hand. This makes it easier for the hands to grasp things.

The largest organ of the human body, skin, is a fascinating part of the body
that protects, maintains body temperature, allows the sense of touch, and
much more. Everyone has different shades of skin color but deep down, all
skin is the same, and it is the inside of a person that is unique and special.

2.4.1 Exercise. Select the best respond according


with the information from the text.
 1) Which of the following darkens the skin and protects it from
strong sunlight?

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 A: Keratin

 B: Melanin

 C: Sebum

 D: Follicles
2) Which of the following is found in the dermis layer of the skin?

 A: Nerves

 B: Blood vessels

 C: Both A and B

 D: None of the above


3) Which of the following is the brain's inner thermometer which
sends messages to the skin?

 A: Hypothalamus

 B: Hypodermis

 C: Pilomotor reflex

 D: Subcutaneous
4) Which of the following layers of skin produces sebum, and oil to
keep the skin soft and waterproof?

 A: Subcutaneous

 B: Hypodermis

 C: Dermis

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 D: Epidermis
5) Which of the following is the scientific name for goosebumps?

 A: Pilomotor reflex

 B: Follicles

 C: Sebum

 D: Hypothalamus

6) On which part of the body is the skin more elastic and looser?

 A: Palms of hands

 B: Knees and elbows

 C: Soles of feet

 D: Lips

2.5 Listening Exercise.


Listen to each conversation. Then, answer the questions.
Conversation 1
1. What kind of a doctor is this woman seeing?
____________________________
2. What is she allergic to?
____________________________
3. When does she need the medication?
________________________
4. What shouldn’t she eat?
____________________________

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Conversation 2
5. What is Mr. Jackson’s cholesterol level?
___________
6. How old is Mr. Jackson?
____________
7. What are three causes of Mr. Jackson’s medical problems?
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
8. What kind of diet does Mr. Jackson need?
_________________________
9. What test is the nurse going to schedule?
___________________________

Unit 3
Pediatrics

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Pediatrics
Pediatrician

Children diseases
Runny nose
Stuffy nose
Asthma

The future tense


Present continuous tense
Future meaning
Future be+going to/
Future will+ verb

Pediatrician
A pediatrician is a doctor who specializes in the care of
children. When a sick child goes to visit the pediatrician, often
there are toys and other things to play with in the waiting
room.
The word pediatrician has only been in use since the turn of
the 20th century. Some people also use the word pediatrist to
mean the same thing — a doctor who specializes in treating
children ranging from newborn babies to adolescents.
Unit 3. Pediatrics
Uni

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3.1 Vocabulary. Listen and


repeat.
Breathing Problems
Anatomy of the Respiratory System in Children
Bronchiolitis
Cystic Fibrosis
Dysphagia
Epiglottitis
Fetal Giant Neck Masses
Foreign Body Aspiration
Laryngeal Atresia
Laryngeal Trauma

The signs and symptoms of rhinitis include:

 Runny nose
 Stuffy nose
 Itching
 Sneezing

 3.1.1 Read and discuss.
 Chickenpox - a highly viral infectious disease, usually associated with
childhood. By adulthood, more than 95 percent of Americans have had
chickenpox. The disease is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV).
Transmission occurs from person-to-person by direct contact or through the
air.
 Child safety seat - special seats for infants and toddlers that are
secured in a vehicle with seat belts or special anchors to increase the safety
of the child in the event of a crash.
 Circumcision - surgical procedure to remove the skin covering the end
of the penis, called the foreskin.
 Colic - a condition in an otherwise healthy baby characterized by
excessive crying.
 Congenital - present at birth.
 Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye.
 Contact dermatitis - itchy rash; a result of an exposure to an
allergen or an irritant.
 Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bacterial
infection.

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 Lanugo: Fine, downy hair present during gestational life that gradually
disappears toward the end of fetal development; remains in smaller
quantities over the temples, back, shoulders, and upper arms after birth.

3.1.1.1.Exercise. Write the correct words or expression in the line.


1. ________________Is an inflammation of the bladder.
2. ________________Hair present during gestational life that
disappear after birth.
3.________________Inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye.
4.________________Surgical procedure to remove the skin covering
the end of the penis, called foreskin.
5._______________A condition in an otherwise healthy baby
characterized by excessive crying.

3.2 Read this conversation


Getting Advice on the Phone
Clinic: Hello, Children's Clinic.

Mother: Hello. Could I speak to a consulting nurse please?


Clinic: Yes, Hold one moment please.
Mother: OK.
Nurse: Hello, how can I help you?
Mother: My son isn't feeling well and I'd like to get some advice.
Nurse: What seems to be the problem?
Mother: Well, he has been coughing for several days now. I'm
wondering if he should come in and see the doctor.
Nurse: How old is he?
Mother: He is 3 years old.
Nurse: Does he have any other symptoms like fever, runny nose, or loss
of appetite?

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Mother: No, actually other than the cough, he seems healthy. I am


concerned though, because some of his sister's friends have whooping
cough and I know that it can be very contagious. Isn't that a pretty
serious illness?
Nurse: It can be serious with babies. Has your son been immunized
against whooping cough?
Mother: I'm not sure. He did get all of the suggested vaccinations. I
will look it up in our records.
Nurse: If he has been immunized recently, it is very unlikely that he
would catch whooping cough, even if he has been exposed.
Mother: Sounds like I don't have to worry about that, but what shall I
do about his cough?
Nurse: The cough is probably a viral infection. It will help if you give
him lots of fluids and a hot bath before bedtime. A humidifier is also
helpful. Keep an eye on the cough to watch to see if it gets worse. Call
us again if he has a fever or if you are still concerned.
Mother: Thanks for your advice.
Nurse: You are welcome. Good-bye.
Mother: Bye-bye.

3.3 Grammar Summary


1. The future tense
We use the future tense to talk about actions in the future time,
such as tomorrow, next week, next year, etc. There are two forms
of the future: be+ going to and will.
Both future forms talk about future actions and plans.
In addition, will expresses promises or predictions.

2. Present continuous tense: Future meaning


If a specific time in the future is stated or understood, the present
continuous tense can show future meaning.

Tom is leaving this weekend.

He’s talking the children on vacation in July.

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3. Future time expressions


Tomorrow next week in a few minutes soon

The day after tomorrow next month in an hour later

Next year in a little while

4. Future 4. Future
Be+ going to Will + verb
I’m going to move next month.
I will move next month.
She’s going to get a divorce.
She will get a divorce.
Are you going to move?
Will you move?
Is Tom going to pay alimony?
Will Tom pay alimony?
When are you going to move?
When will you move?
Where is Tom going to live?
Where will Tom live?

5. Future time clauses


A time clause begins with words such as if, when, before,
after, and as soon as.
A time clause has a subject and a verb, but it is no a complete
sentence by itself.
A time clause may come at the beginning or at the end of a
sentence. With a future time clause, the verb in the main
clause is in the future tense. The verb in the time clause is in
the present tense.
I’ll get married when I meet the right person.
(main clause) (time clause)
When I meet the right person, I’ll get married.
(time clause) (main clause)

Note: When a time clause comes at the beginning of a sentence, use


a comma to separate it from the main clause.

3.3.1 Put the verbs into the correct form (future I). Use going to.
is
1. It (rain)  ___________________

2. They (eat)   __________________stew.

3. I (wear)  _____________________blue shoes tonight.

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4. We (not / help)   ________________________you.

5. Jack (not / walk)   _______________________home.

6. (cook / you)   ___________________________dinner?

7. Sue (share / not)  ________________________ her biscuits.

8. (leave / they)   __________________________the house?

9. (take part / she)  _________________________ in the contest?

10. I (not / spend)   ___________________________my holiday abroad


this year.

3.3.2 Put the verbs into the correct form (future I simple). Use will.

Jim asked a fortune teller about his future. Here is what she told him:
w ill earn
1. You (earn)  __________________ a lot of money.

2. You (travel)  ___________________ around the world.

3. You (meet)   ______________________lots of interesting people.

4. Everybody (adore)   __________________ you.

5. You (not / have)   ____________________any problems.

6. Many people (serve)   _________________you.

7. They (anticipate)   _____________________your wishes.

8. There (not / be)   ______________________anything left to wish for.

9. Everything (be)   ______________________perfect.

10. But all these things (happen / only)  ______________________ if you


marry me.

3.3.3 First conditional and future time clauses


Match the sentence halves. Type the letter in the box.
1. If you don't study, A. you'll fail your exams.

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2. I'll eat a sandwich B. I'll get us some drinks.


3. If we leave home early, C. as soon as I get home.
4. If I don't go to bed soon, D. we won't be late for school.
5. Before the film starts E. I'll feel tired tomorrow.
6. When we finish school F. we'll play basketball.
 

3.4 Reading. Brian went to the doctor.


His mother took him there for a checkup. He also needed to get a flu shot, so
he was a little nervous.

After Brian and his mother arrived at the doctor's office, they sat in the
waiting room for about ten minutes. Then a nurse called for Brian. He and his
mother went to another smaller room and the nurse told Brian to step on a
scale. She weighed him and measured his height. Next, the nurse took his
blood pressure and asked him some questions.

When the doctor came into the room, he listened to Brian's heart and his
breathing with a stethoscope. He checked Brian's eyes, ears, nose, mouth,
and other parts of his body. He was a very nice doctor.

At the end of the visit, the nurse returned with a small syringe. When Brian
saw the needle, he started to cry.

"This is going to be fast and easy," said the nurse. "You don't want to get the
flu, do you?" The nurse rubbed a little alcohol on his upper arm. Brian turned
his face away. He knew the shot was necessary. Soon it was over. The nurse
put a band aid on his arm and gave him a sucker.

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After the visit to the doctor's office, Brian and his mother went to the park.
Brian was happy to know that he won't need another shot until next year
when he visits the doctor again.

OOOOOOOOOOOOOO

   Howmuch do you remember from the reading?


3.4.1 Fill in the blanks.

 1A: Who took Brian to the doctor?


 1B: His ___________ took him to the doctor.
 2A: Who weighed and measured Brian?
 2B: The ___________weighed and measured him.
 3A: What does a doctor use to listen to the heart?
 3B: He (or she) uses a __________________.
 4A: What kind of a shot did Brian get?
 4B: He got a __________ shot.

  3.5 Listening Exercise. Answer the questions.


Talking to Your Doctor
Listen to a conversation between a patient and a doctor.

Answer the questions.

1. How does Sasha feel today?

2. What are his symptoms?

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3. What kind of illness does he have?

4. What does the doctor tell him?

Unit 4
Cardiology

Heart disease
Hypertension
Tachycardia

Dyspnea
Arrhythmia
systolic pressure
diastolic pressure

Comparative and
superlative adjectives

Cardiology
(From Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia,
"study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders

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of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.


The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment
of congenital heart defects, coronary artery
disease, heart failure, valvular heart
disease and electrophysiology. 
Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are
called cardiologists, a specialty of internal medicine.
Pediatric cardiologists are pediatricians who specialize
in cardiology.
Unit 4. Cardiology
4.1. Vocabulary. Listen and Repeat.
Aortic Bradycardia Tachycardia

Artery Dilatation Cardiovascular

Atrium Dyspnea Cerebrovascular

Coronary Cardiomyopathy Heart attack

Vein Arrhythmia Stroke

Ventricle Cyanosis High blood pressure

Pulmonary Hypertension Vessel

Diastole pressure Insufficiency Blood

Systolic pressure Ischemia Chest pain

4.1.1 Read the


definition of these words and later,
complete the exercise below.
Aortic: Relating to the aorta, which is the major vessel that carries oxygenated
blood from the heart to the body. Sometimes this term is used to denote the aortic
valve, which is the valve that prevents back-flow of blood from the aorta into the left
ventricle. (For example, "aortic stenosis.")
Artery: A vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Arteries generally carry
oxygenated blood. In mammals, the exception is the pulmonary artery, which
carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

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Atrium: The chamber of the heart that collects blood returning from the rest of the
body. In all vertebrates but fish, there are two atria, left and right. The right atrium
collects deoxygenated blood from the body and passes it to the right ventricle. The
left atrium collects oxygenated blood from the lungs and passes it to the left
ventricle.
Coronary: Relating to the heart, or to one of the two arteries that originate in the
aorta and supply blood directly to heart tissue.
Pulmonary: Relating to the lungs. Sometimes this term is used to denote the
pulmonary valve, which is the valve that prevents back-flow of blood from the
pulmonary artery into the right ventricle. (For example, "pulmonary regurgitation.").
Vein: A vessel that carries blood toward the heart.
Ventricle: The chamber of the heart that is responsible for pumping blood out to
the rest of the body. In mammals and birds, there are two ventricles, left and right.
The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary
artery; the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta.
Arrhythmia: Irregular heartbeat.
Bradycardia: Excessively slow heartbeat.
Cyanosis: A condition in which a person's skin is discolored to a bluish hue
because of inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
Diastole: Normal period of relaxation and dilatation of the heart cavities.
Dilatation: the condition of being abnormally dilated or enlarged.
Dyspnea: Difficulty in breathing.
Cardiomyopathy: This is the general term for diseases of the heart muscle. The
most common of these diseases is the dilated cardiomyopathy in which the
disease weakens the heart muscle and causes left ventricular dilation leading to
increased diastolic pressure and volume.
Hypertension: A condition in which a person's blood pressure is abnormally high.
For normal adults, the pressure should be less than 130 mmHg systolic and less
than 85 mmHg diastolic. Pressures above 140/90 indicate a mild form of
hypertension; above 180/110 is considered severe.
Insufficiency: Describes a condition in which a valve is not able to prevent back-
flow of blood. The resulting back-flow is termed a regurgitation.
Ischemia: Localized loss of blood supply due to a mechanical obstruction.
Syncope: A brief loss of consciousness caused by temporary lack of oxygenated
blood.
Systole: Period of contraction of the heart during which blood is ejected from the
ventricles.

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Tachycardia: Excessively rapid heartbeat.


Blood pressure: The pressure of the blood on the walls of the arteries, produced
primarily by contraction of the heart muscle. Its measurement is recorded as two
numbers: the first (systolic pressure) is measured after the heart contracts and is
highest; the second (diastolic pressure) is measured before the heart contracts and
is lowest.
Cardiomyopathy: A general diagnostic term for disease of the heart muscle
(myocardium).
Cardiovascular: Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
Cerebrovascular: Pertaining to the blood vessels of the cerebrum, or brain.
Diastolic pressure: The minimum blood pressure, measured before the heart
contracts. Usually the second number recorded in a blood pressure reading.
Heart attack: Death of the heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply, usually
caused by a complete blockage of a coronary artery, one of the arteries that
supplies blood to the heart muscle. Death of the heart muscle, in turn, causes
chest pain and electrical instability of the heart muscle tissue. Also known
as myocardial infarction (MI).
Hemorrhagic stroke: Rupture of a blood vessel in or near the brain. This type of
stroke accounts for 20% of all strokes that occur. There are two types of
hemorrhagic stroke: subarachnoid hemorrhage, which occurs when a blood vessel
on the surface of the brain ruptures and bleeds into the space between the brain
and skull; and intracerebral hemorrhage, which occurs when a blood vessel bleeds
into the cerebrum, the main portion of the brain.
High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over
90 mmHg - a systolic pressure above 140 with a diastolic pressure above 90. Also
known as hypertension.
Stroke: The sudden death of some brain cells due to a lack of oxygen when the
blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage (ischemic stroke) or rupture of
an artery to the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A medical emergency, stroke is also
called a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Stroke symptoms depend on the area
of the brain affected. The most common symptom is weakness or paralysis of one
side of the body, with partial or complete loss of voluntary movement or sensation
in a leg or arm; other symptoms can include speech problems, confusion, weak
facial muscles, numbness or tingling. A stroke involving the base of the brain can
affect balance, vision, swallowing and breathing, and may even cause
unconsciousness.
Systolic pressure: The maximum blood pressure, measured after the heart
contracts. Usually the first number recorded in a blood pressure reading.

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4.1.1.1 Complete with the correct word from the


chart.

Stroke Systole Vein Arrhythmia


Tachycardia Hypertension Dyspnea

1. ______________ Is an irregular heartbeat.


2. ______________ Is an excessively slow heartbeat.
3. ______________ Is when the sudden death of some brain cells due to a
lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage (ischemic
stroke) or rupture of an artery to the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).
4. ______________ Is the period of contraction of the heart during which blood
is ejected from the ventricles.
5. _______________ Is an excessively rapid heartbeat.
6. _______________ Is a vessel that carries blood toward the heart.
7. _______________ Is a condition in which a person's blood pressure is
abnormally high.
8. __________________ Is a difficulty in breathing.

4.2 DOCTOR - PATIENT CONVERSATION


Practice this conversation with a partner.
A dialogue between a doctor and a patient

Doctor: What is bothering you? 


Patient: I have chest pain. 
Doctor: How long have you been feeling the pain? (Doctor asks because the pain
can last from 2 to 5 minutes up to 15 and 20 minutes.) 
Patient: I have been feeling pain for approximately 10 minutes. 
Doctor: What’s the pain like? 
Patient: My chest feels constricted, as if a heavy weight is upon my chest and I
can’t breathe. (Patient motions with his hand on his chest as he describes the
pain.) 
Doctor: Only on your chest? Do you feel the pain expanding? 
Patient: Yes, at times in my left shoulder down to my left arm, extending to my
pinky and ring finger. 
Doctor: Has this ever happened to you before? 
Patient: Yes, it has. 

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Doctor: When does this happen most often? 


Patient: When I walk fast this occurs, I have to stop and wait for the pain to
subside.  (Doctor asks because pain is usually felt during physical exertion,
experience of extreme emotion, during dental extractions, after eating large
quantities of food (during digestion), forceful defecation etc etc) 
Doctor: Have you taken any medication? 
Patient: Yes, I have taken nitroglycerine. 
Doctor: Does this relieve the pain? 
Patient: After I take it, in a couple of minutes the pain subsides.

Patients who experience angina pain, are usually very agitated and anxious, at
times pale, perspiration visible on the forehead, scared of potential imminent death.

At times, patient experiences problems with urination and defecation, sometimes


urinating frequently or not at all.

4.3 Grammar Summary

1. Comparative adjectives
a. Use the comparative form of an adjective to compare two people or
things.
New York City is larger than Boston.
New York is more diverse than Boston.
Canada is less populated than China.
b. When two items, people or places are very different, add much to
emphasize the difference.
c. Canada is much less populated than China.
One –syllable adjectives (larger than) Two syllable adjectives, ending
with –y- (busier than).
Two or more syllables, not ending with -y- (more populated than)

2. Superlative adjectives
a. Use the superlative form of an adjective to compare three or more people, places,
or things.
Brazil is the largest country in South America.
b. Use the superlative form of an adjective to compare one person, place, or thing to a
larger group.
China is the most populated country in the world. 58
One syllable adjectives (the largest) Two syllable adjectives, ending with –y- (the
busiest) Two or more syllables, not ending with –y- (the most populated)
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3. Comparing nouns
a. Use more + noun + than or fewer + noun + than to compare count nouns.
There are more women than men in our class.
There are fewer men than women in our class.
b. Use more + noun + than or less + noun + than to compare count nouns.
There is more traffic in Mexico City than in Montreal.
There is less pollution in my hometown than in this city.

4. as + adjective + as / not as + adjective + as


a. Use as + adjective + as to show that two items, people, or places are the same.

Moscow’s winters are as cold as St. Peterburg’s winters.

b. Use not as + adjective + as to show that two items, people, or places are not the
same.

Japan is not as large as India.

Grammar exercises 
 
4.3.1 COMPLETE THE ADJECTIVES USING THE
COMPARATIVE FORM.
 
1. It´s too noisy here. Can we go to a   (quiet) place?

2. The hotel was   (big) than that in which we stayed last


year.

3. Your work is   (good) than mine.

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4. The accident could have been   (bad) than it was.


5. I was   (nervous) in my exam yesterday than Mark.

6. I´d like to have a   (fast) car. The one I have now is really
old.

7. Last week it was really hot. Today is   (cold) than then.
 
 

4.3.2 WHICH IS CORRECT?


 
1. We have an   (old) brother who lives in Miami.

2. Her illness is  (serious) than what the doctors


expected.

3. I like warm weather. If the weather is  cold), I will get sick.

4. This dress is  (beautiful)  than that one.

5. He is  (rich)  than Arthur.

6. This road is  (far) than the motorway.

7. Was the TV programme  (bad) than the film?


 
 
4.3.3 COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USING THE
SUPERLATIVE FORM OF THE ADJECTIVES
  
 
1. It´s a very nice house. It´s  (nice)  house in the street.

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2. This is a cheap restaurant. It´s  (cheap) I´ve ever


been.

3. It was a very valuable painting. I´m sure it was   


(valuable) painting in the gallery.

4. She´s a very good tennis player. Her trainer says she


is  (good).

5. He´s a very dangerous criminal. The police says he


is  (dangerous) in the country.

6. We should buy him a beautiful present. Last year we gave


him  (beautiful) gift of all in his birthday.
 
 
4.3.4. WRITE THE COMPARATIVE OR SUPERLATIVE FORM
OF THE ADJECTIVES IN THESE SENTENCES
 
 
1. She was a very intelligent student. She was   
(intelligent) girl in her class.

2. It´s a very old castle. Experts argued it is  (old)  in


Britain.

3. I´m going to sleep on the sofa. The floor is   


(uncomfortable) than it.

4. This new job is   (important) for me than the last I


had.

5. Living in the countryside is  (healthy) than leaving in


town.

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6. These instructions were   (difficult) ones  I have


ever read.
 
4.4 Reading.
Five sentences have been removed from the text below. Read
the text and then match the missing sentences. Write the
letter of the appropriate sentence in the box. There is one
sentence that you do not need.

Indian heart disease ‘more severe than in


West’
Heart disease in Indians is often more severe and occurs in younger people than in
developed countries, a study has found. Publishing their findings in The Lancet last
week, an Indian-Canadian team of researchers analysed data on 20,937 people
who suffered heart attacks, collected from 89 centres spread across 50 cities in
India from 2001–2005.

The researchers found that 60 per cent of the patients had a severe form of heart
disease, compared with around 40 per cent in developed countries. Indian patients
are also younger, with a mean age of 57 years rather than 63–68 years.

The poorer patients receive medical attention late, for reasons including lack of
awareness of the symptoms and poor access to ambulances. Poorer Indians are
also less likely to receive treatments proven to save lives. The study indicates that
higher death rates in poor patients are not because of differences in risk factors,
but because of differences in treatment.

“Prior to this study, we did not have data of similar nature and magnitude from a
developing country,” Denis Xavier, associate professor at St. John’s National
Academy, Bangalore, and lead author of the study, told SciDev.Net.

Between 1990 and 2020, the number of men with heart disease in developing
countries is expected to increase by 137 per cent, and women by 120 per cent,
compared to 30–60 per cent in developed countries. “India is a likely representative

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of other nations facing similar socioeconomic challenges,” says Kim Eagle,


cardiology professor at the University of Michigan Medical Center, United States,
and author of an accompanying comment article about the research in The Lancet.

Eagle says India — and developing countries in general — could take cues from
developed countries’ successful strategies to reduce risk factors for heart disease,
such as banning smoking from public places, increasing taxes on tobacco and
promoting awareness of diet.
Missing sentences:
A) And the actual number of deaths could be higher as many patients might have died
before reaching the hospital, the researchers say.
B) Another important finding of the study is that rich people often seek treatment abroad,
mainly in the US.
C) They then compared this data with similar studies in developed countries.
D) Eighty per cent of the 7.1 million deaths due to heart disease in 2001 took place in poor
countries, and India is expected to account for 60 per cent of the heart disease burden by
2010.
E) “The increasing obesity epidemic, high rate of smoking in certain populations, and
variable availability of modern medications and treatments creates a situation where
coronary prevention efforts are far from optimal,” he told the Science and Development
Network.
F) Three-quarters of Indian heart disease patients are from low socioeconomic
backgrounds.

4. 5. Listening exercises.
4.5.1 Select True or False for each question.
1. Hypertension has clear symptoms.  True False

2. Hypertension can be a long-term medical condition. True False

3. Hypertension is called high blood pressure, too. True False


4. The causes of secondary high blood pressure
Can not be identified. True False
5. According to statistics, about 90 - 95% of cases are
secondary hypertension. True False
6. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk of hypertension
include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight,
smoking, and alcohol use. True False

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7. Changes in eating habits can lower high blood pressure. True False

Unit 5
Gynecology

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Gynecology
Endoscopy
Climacteric

Mammogram
Menstruation
Estrogen

Yes/no questions
Who/Whom/whose
questions
Wh questions

Gynecology
Is the medical practice dealing with the health of
the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus,
and ovaries) and the breasts. Outside medicine, the
term means "the science of women". Its counterpart
is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific
to the male reproductive system.

Almost all modern gynaecologists are


also obstetricians. In many areas, the specialities of
gynaecology and obstetrics overlap.

5. 1. Vocabulary. Listen and Repeat.

Amenorrhea Climateric/perimenopause Estrogen


Anovulation Colposcopy Fertil
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Cancer Culdocentesis Fibroids
Carcinogen Cyst Stimulating hormone
Cervicitis Cystitis
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5.1.1 Read and discuss.


Amenorrhea - absence or cessation of menstrual periods.

Anovulation - failure of the ovaries to produce or release mature eggs.

Benign - cell growth that is not cancerous, does not invade nearby tissue, or
spread to other parts of the body.

Cancer - abnormal cells that divide without control, which can invade nearby
tissues or spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of
the body.

Carcinogen - a substance that is known to cause cancer.

Cervicitis - an irritation of the cervix by a number of different organisms. Cervicitis


is generally classified as either acute or chronic.

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Cervix - the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb) located between the bladder
and the rectum. It forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the
outside of the body.

Chemotherapy - treatment to destroy cancer cells with drugs.

Chlamydial infection - very common sexually transmitted disease or urinary tract


infection caused by a bacteria-like organism in the urethra and reproductive
system.

Climacteric (also called perimenopause) - the transition period of time before


menopause, marked by a decreased production of estrogen and progesterone,
irregular menstrual periods, and transitory psychological changes.

Colposcopy (also called colposcopic biopsy) - a procedure which uses an


instrument with magnifying lenses, called a colposcope, to examine the cervix for
abnormalities. If abnormal tissue is found, a biopsy is usually performed.

Culdocentesis - a procedure in which a needle is inserted into the pelvic cavity


through the vaginal wall to obtain a sample of fluid.

Cyst - a fluid-filled or semi-solid sac in or under the skin.

Cystitis - inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters.

Dilation and curettage (also called D & C) - a minor operation in which the cervix
is dilated (expanded) so that the cervical canal and uterine lining can be scraped
with a curette (spoon-shaped instrument).

Dysmenorrhea - pain or discomfort experienced just before or during a menstrual


period.

Ectopic pregnancy (also called tubal pregnancy) - pregnancy that develops


outside the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes.

Endometrium - mucous membrane lining of the inner surface of the uterus that
grows during each menstrual cycle and is shed in menstrual blood.

Endoscopy - use of a very flexible tube with a lens or camera (and a light on the
end), which is connected to a computer screen, allowing the doctor to see inside

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the hollow organs, such as the uterus. Biopsy samples can be taken through the
tube.

Estrogen - a group of hormones secreted by the ovaries which affect many


aspects of the female body, including a woman's menstrual cycle and normal
sexual and reproductive development.

Fertile - able to become pregnant.

Fibroids - noncancerous growths in, on, or within the walls of the uterus.

Follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) - hormone secreted by the pituitary gland in


the brain that stimulates the growth and maturation of eggs in females and sperm
in males, and sex hormone production in both males and females.

Genital herpes - a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex


virus.

Genital warts - a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human


papillomavirus (HPV).

Genitals - external sex organs.

Grading - a process for classifying cancer cells to determine the growth rate of the
tumor. The cancer cells are measured by how closely they look like normal cells.

Hirsutism - excess growth of body and facial hair, including the chest, stomach,
and back.

Hormone therapy (HT) - use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin (a
synthetic form of progesterone) to treat symptoms that result when those
hormones are no longer produced in menopause; also used as treatment of cancer
by removing, blocking, or adding hormones.

Hormones - chemical substances created by the body that control numerous body
functions.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) - a group of viruses that can cause warts.


Some HPVs are sexually transmitted and cause wart-like growths on the genitals.
HPV is associated with some types of cancer.

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Hyperplasia - an abnormal increase in the number of cells in a tissue or an organ


(i.e., cervix or the lining of the uterus).

Hysterectomy - surgery to remove the uterus.


Imaging - tests or evaluation procedures that produce pictures of areas inside the
body.

Immune system - group of organs, antibodies, and cells that defends the body
against infection or disease.

Immunotherapy (also called biological therapy) - treatment that uses the body's
natural defenses to fight cancer.

Infertility - not being able to produce children.

Invasive cancer - cancer that begins in one area and then spreads deeper into the
tissues of that area.

Malignant - cancerous cells are present.

Mammogram - X-ray of the breast tissue.

Menarche - a young woman's first menstrual period.

Menopause - end of menstruation; commonly used to refer to the period ending


the female reproductive phase of life.

Menstruation - a cyclical process of the endometrium shedding its lining, along


with discharge from the cervix and vagina, from the vaginal opening. This process
results from the mature egg cell (ovum) not being fertilized by a sperm cell as it
travels from one of the ovaries down a fallopian tube to the uterus, in the process
called ovulation.

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5.1.1.1 Exercise. Complete with the words from the chart.

Estrogen - Hormones- hyperplasia - climacteric -

Mammogram - Hysterectomy - menstruation - Endoscopy

1. ___________________ Is also called perimenopause. Is the transition period


of time before menopause, marked by a decreased production of estrogen and
progesterone, irregular menstrual periods, and transitory psychological changes.
2. ___________________ X-ray of the breast tissue.
3. ___________________surgery to remove the uterus.
4. ___________________ an abnormal increase in the number of cells in a tissue or
an organ.
5. ____________________ chemical substances created by the body that control
numerous body functions.
6. ____________________use of a very flexible tube with a lens or camera (and a
light on the end), which is connected to a computer screen, allowing the doctor to
see inside the hollow organs, such as the uterus. Biopsy samples can be taken
through the tube.
7. _____________________ a group of hormones secreted by the ovaries which
affect many aspects of the female body, including a woman's menstrual cycle and
normal sexual and reproductive development.
8. _______________________a cyclical process of the endometrium shedding its
lining, along with discharge from the cervix and vagina, from the vaginal opening.
This process results from the mature egg cell (ovum) not being fertilized by a
sperm cell as it travels from one of the ovaries down a fallopian tube to the uterus,
in the process called ovulation.

5.2 Conversation. Practice this conversation with a partner.


Kate: Amy! You look wonderful! Congratulations!
Amy: Thank you.
Kate: When are you due?
Amy: I’m due on October 27.
Kate: What are you going to have?
Amy: We’re going to have a boy.

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Kate: How are you going to name him?


Amy: We’re going to name him Josh.
Kate: I love that name! Is your husband going to take a break
from job?
Amy: Yes, my husband is going to take two weeks off from
work.
Kate: Are you going to take maternity leave?
Amy: Yes, I am. I’m going to maternity leave for three
months.
Kate: Who is going to take care of the baby?
Amy: My mom is going to take care of him when I go back to
work.

5.3 Grammar Summary

1. Yes/No questions 1. Yes/No questions


Are you a student?
You are a student.
Is she jogging?
She is jogging.
Were they tired?
They were tired.
Are you going to watch TV?
We are going to watch TV.
Do you study English?
We study English.
Did you have a test
I had a test yesterday.
yesterday?
She will get married soon.
Will she get married soon?

2. Who questions. Who takes a singular


verb form.
Who is a student? I am.
Who is jogging? They are.
Who is going to play soccer? Those girls are.
Who studies every day? We do.
Who had a test yesterday? I did.

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3. Whom/ who Whom and who can both refer to


the object in a sentence.

Both are used in speaking and in writing, but whom is


considered more formal.

Whom is often used with a preposition.


Jamie sends e-mails to his cousins.
Whom does he send e-mails to?
To whom does he send e- mails?
Who does he send e – mails to?

4. Whose questions. Whose refers to possession. A singular or plural


noun can follow Whose.

Whose photo is that? That is my photo.


Whose CDs did you borrow? I borrowed my cousin’s CDs.

5. Wh-questions
Where were you yesterday?
What do you do in your free time?
When are you going to take a trip?
How did you learn how to do that?
Why do you collect stamps?
How much is your collection worth?
How many stamps do you have?
How long does it take to get there?

6. Tag questions. Tag questions have rising or falling intonation. Falling


intonation shows that the speaker expect a “yes” answer. Rising intonation
shows that the speaker isn’t sure of the answer. The tag depends on the main
verb.

You like football, don’t you?


Your favorite music is classical, isn’t it?
They didn’t drive, did they?
It isn’t expensive, is it?
You won’t be free tomorrow, will you? 72
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5.3.1 Transform these sentences into a yes or no question.


1. He loves this town.

_________________________________

2. They like soccer.

______________________________

3. They are nice.

______________________________

4. They went to the swimming pool.

_______________________________

5. She wastes her money on jewelry.

____________________________________

6. He decided to leave his wife.

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______________________________

7. She wakes up early.

______________________________

8. They should revise their lessons.

______________________________

9. He was born in this town.

______________________________

5.3.2 Choose the correct question words. (Wh)

Why - Where - Who - How - When -

1. ________ do you live?


2. ________'s that girl?
3. ________ do you go to school?
4. ________ do banks open?
5. ________ are you wearing that coat?

5.3.3 Tag questions. Complete with tag questions.

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1. She is collecting stickers, ______________?


2. We often watch TV in the afternoon, ______________?
3. You have cleaned your bike, ________________?
4. John and Max don't like maths, ______________?
5. Peter played handball yesterday, ______________?
6. They are going home from school, _____________?
7. Mary didn't do her homework last Monday, ______________?
8.  He could have bought a new car, ________________?
9. Kevin will come tonight, ___________________?

5.4 Reading. Our neighbor just had a baby.


   

Our neighbor just had a baby. Everyone in the


neighborhood is excited. The woman who had the Vocabulary
baby is named Tatyana. She lives in the apartment baby shower: a social event in which
next door with her husband, George. They're both friends or family purchase things for
new parents.
from Ukraine. They moved to the United States just
three months ago. They plan to stay in the United bought: the past tense form of the verb
"buy."
States and raise a family here.
crib: a bed for a baby
Tatyana will stay home and take care of her baby.
George works as a bricklayer. Right now the newborn: a new baby

company he works for is very busy, so he makes stroller: a cart used for taking a baby
enough money to support his family. to different places.

thrilled: very happy
George's coworkers organized a baby shower for  
Tatyana and George and bought many things for
  
them. They bought a crib, a changing table, some
baby toys, and a lot of diapers. The new parents
still need a stroller, baby bottles, and many other
things that a newborn baby has to have.

We bought a teddy bear for the baby. We're so


thrilled that they live next door to us!

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O O O O O O O O O O O O O O  

   How much do you remember from


the reading?

5.4.1 Fill in the blanks.

 1A: What country are Tatyana and George from?


 1B: They're from _____________.
 2A: What kind of work does George do?
 2B: He's a ____________.
 3A: When did they move to the United States?
 3B: They moved to the United States _______
_______ ago.
 4A: Who had a baby shower for Tatyana and
George?
 4B: His ____________________.

 5.5. Listening exercise.

5.5.1 Listen and write in the line True or


False.

1. Gestation is the same of pregnancy.


________
2. Pregnancy can only occur by sexual
intercourse. _________
3. Childbirth occurs around 40 weeks from the
last menstrual period. ____________
4. Frequent urination can be a symptom of
pregnancy.____________
5. Pregnancy test can confirm a pregnancy.

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_____________
6. The sperm fertilizes the egg during the first
trimester of pregnancy.___________
7. The second trimester is from week 1 to
week 12._____________
8. Prenatal care may include taking extra folic
acid and avoid drugs and alcohol.__________

Unit 6
Psychiatry
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Mental Illnesses

Dementia
Delirium
Depression

Modals verbs
Should/shouldn't
Must/musn't

Psychiatry 
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the
diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental
disorders. These include
various maladaptations related to mood,
behaviour, cognition, and perceptions.
Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the
diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental,
emotional and behavioral disorders.

A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (an M.D. or D.O.)


who specializes in mental health, including substance
use disorders. Psychiatrists are qualified to assess
both the mental and physical aspects of psychological
problems

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Unit 6. Psyquiatry.
6.1 Vocabulary. Listen and Repeat.

Addiction Compulsion Insight

Adjustment disorder Confabulation Hypomania

Agnosia Deja vu Hallucination

Anorexia nerviosa Delirium Mania

Anxiety Depression Obsession

Asthenia Dementia Thought disorder

Bulimia nerviosa Dyspraxia Word salad

Compulsion Illusion Apathy

6.1.1 Read the definition of these words and then,


Complete the exercise below.
Apathy: Lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern.
Word salad: A severe form of thought disorder.

Thought disorder: A disorder of the form of thought, where associations between


ideas are lost or loosened.

Obsession: An unpleasant or nonsensical thought which intrudes into a person's


mind, despite a degree of resistance by the person who recognises the thought as
pointless or senseless, but nevertheless a product of their own mind. Obsessions
may be accompanied by compulsive behaviours which serve to reduce the
associated anxiety.

Mania: An affective disorder characterised by intense euphoria, overactivity and


loss of insight

Addiction: An organism's psychological or physical dependence on a drug,


characterised by tolerance and withdrawal.

Adjustment disorder: A pathological psychological reaction to trauma, loss or


severe stress. Usually these last less than six months, but may be prolonged if the
stressor e.g. pain or scarring is enduring.

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Agnosia: An inability to organise sensory information so as to recognise objects


(e.g. visual agnosia) or sometimes even parts of the body, (e.g.
hemisomatoagnosia).

Amnesia: A partial of complete loss of memory. Anterograde amnesia is a loss of


memory subsequent to any cause e.g. brain trauma. Retrograde amnesia is a loss
of memory for a period of time prior to any cause.

Anorexia nervosa: is an eating disorder characterised by excess control - a


morbid fear of obesity leads the sufferer to try and limit or reduce their weight by
excessive dieting, exercising, vomiting, purging and use of diuretics. Sufferers are
typically more than 15% below the average weight for their height/sex/age.
Typically they have amenorrhoea (if female) or low libido (if male). 1-2% of female
teenagers are anorexic.

Anxiety: Anxiety is provoked by fear or apprehension and also results from a


tension caused by conflicting ideas or motivations. Anxiety manifests through
mental and somatic symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, hyperventilation,
and faintness.

Asthenia: Asthenia is a weakness or debility of some form, hence neurasthenia, a


term for an illness seen by dctors around the turn of the century, a probable
precursor to chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME).

Bulimia nervosa: Described by Russell in 1979, bulimia nervosa is an eating


disorder characterised by lack of control. Abnormal eating behaviour including
dieting, vomiting, purging and particularly bingeing may be associated with normal
weight or obesity. The syndrome is associated with guilt, depressed mood, low
self-esteem and sometimes with childhood sexual abuse, alcoholism and
promiscuity. May be asociated with oesophageal ulceration and parotid swelling
(Green's chubby chops sign).

Compulsion: The behavioural component of an obsession. The individual feels


compelled to repeat a behaviour which has no immediate benefit beyond reducing
the anxiety associated with the obsessional idea. For instance for a person
obsessed by the idea that they are dirty, repeated ritual handwashing may serve to
reduce anxiety.

Confabulation: Changing, loosely held and false memories created to fill in


organically-derived amnesia

Cyclothymia: A variability of mood over days or weeks, cycling from positive to


negative mood states. The variability is not as severe in amplitude or duration as to
be classified as a major affective disorder.

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Dejà vu: Haven't you been here before? 


An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a particular or unique event
has happened before in exactly the same way.

Delirium: An acute organic brain syndrome secondary to physical causes in which


consciousness is affected and disorientation results often associated with illusions,
visual hallucinations and persecutory ideation.

Dementia: A chronic organic mental illness which produces a global deterioration


in cognitive abilities and which usually runs a deteriorating course.

Depersonalisation: An experience where the self is felt to be unreal, detached


from reality or different in some way. Depersonalisation can be triggered by
tiredness, dissociative episodes or partial epileptic seizures.

Depression: An affective disorder characterised by a profound and persistent


sadness.

Derealisation: An experience where the person perceives the world around them
to be unreal. The experience is linked to depersonalisation.

Dyskinesia: Abnormal movements as in tardive dyskinesia a late onset onet of


abnormal involuntary movements. Tardive dyskinesia is conventionally thought a
late side effect of first generation antipsychotics, but some abnormal movements
were seen in schizophrenia before the introduction of antipsychotics.

Dyspraxia: A dyspraxia is a difficulty with a previously learnt or acquired


movement or skill. An example might be a dressing dyspraxia or a constructional
dyspraxia. Dyspraxias tend to indicate cortical damage, particularly in the parietal
lobe region.

Hallucination: An abnormal sensory experience that arises in the absence of a


direct external stimulus, and which has the qualities of a normal percept and is
experienced as real and usually in external space. Hallucinations may occur in any
sensory modality.

Hypomania: An affective disorder characterised by elation, overactivity, an


insomnia.

Illusion: An abnormal perception caused by a sensory misinterpretation of and


actual stimulus, sometimes precipitated by strong emotion, e.g. fear provoking a
person to imagine they have seen an intruder in the shadows.

Insight: In psychotic mental disorders and organic brain syndromes a patient's


insight into whether or not they are ill and therefore requiring treatment may be
affected. In depression a person may lack insight into their best qualities and in
mania a person may overestimate their wealth and abilities.
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Jamais vu: An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a routine or


familiar event has never happened before. (See Dejà vu).

6.1.1.1 Exercise. Complete with the correct word from the


chart.
1. _____________ Is an abnormal sensory experience that arises in the absence
of a direct external stimulus, and which has the qualities of a normal percept and is
experienced as real and usually in external space. Hallucinations may occur in any
sensory modality.

2. ___________ Is a chronic organic mental illness which produces a global


deterioration in cognitive abilities and which usually runs a deteriorating course.

3._______________ Is an affective disorder characterised by a profound and


persistent sadness.

4. _____________ Is an acute organic brain syndrome secondary to physical


causes in which consciousness is affected and disorientation results often
associated with illusions, visual hallucinations and persecutory ideation.

5. _____________ Is provoked by fear or apprehension and also results from a


tension caused by conflicting ideas or motivations. Anxiety manifests through
mental and somatic symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, hyperventilation,
and faintness.

6. _______________ Is a partial of complete loss of memory. 

6.2Conversation. Practice with


partners.
How’s your memory?
Agnes: I have a very good memory when it comes to faces
and images and drawings and things like that.
I don’t remember numbers very well. I even forget my ATM code
sometimes.
Alyssa: I can usually remember people’s names when they
tell me. However I can’t remember numbers very well. I need to
write down the telephone numbers when people tell them to me.

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Daniel: I have a good memory for numbers especially


phone numbers. I usually only need to hear it once. I have a bad
memory for foreign languages.
Gian: I have a bad memory for names so I try to use a
characteristic to remind me. Such as Becky is blonde-Becky
blonde. Tom is tall- Tom is tall.
Dan: Usually I have a good memory but sometimes I have
problems remembering names. Sometimes I have to say to
people “Hey Bro, Hey Sis”.

6.2.1 Exercise. Circle the correct answers. About the


conversation.

2. Agnes can remember images/ languages well, but she


can’t remember names / numbers very well.
3. Alyssa can usually remember names, but she can’t
remember numbers/ faces very well.
4. Daniel has a good memory for names/ numbers, but he has
a bad memory for languages / faces.
5. Gian uses characteristics to remind her of people’s names/
faces.
6. Sometimes Dan has a problem remembering
numbers/names.

6.3 Make suggestions. Grammar. Modal


should /shouldn’t.
Grammar: should / shouldn’t for advice
To say what you think is a good idea use should. To say what you think is a bad
idea use shouldn’t + infinitive (without to).

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What should I do to get fitter?


You should take more exercise.
You shouldn’t smoke.
Note: With should (as with all modal verbs) don’t use
auxiliary verbs in question forms and don’t add ‘s’ with the
3rd person singular form

should / shouldn’t
Natasha Marshal went to her doctor for some advice.
   ‘Doctor, I’ve read that by making the right health choices for diet and life style,
people can live for longer. What should I do to live long and healthily? Can you
give me some suggestions?’
  
‘Certainly, Miss Marshal!’ replied the doctor. ‘Well firstly, you should only eat
fresh fruit and vegetables. You shouldn’t eat any meat, salt, cheese or butter.
You shouldn’t drink any alcohol and you shouldn’t smoke. You should drink lots
of natural mineral water, but not too cold.

   ‘OK,’ said Natasha, writing all this down in her notebook. ‘And should I change
anything else about my lifestyle?’

   ‘You shouldn’t go out to bars or big cities,’ the doctor told her,  because the
crowds and the noise can be stressful. You should get up very early in the morning
and go running and you shouldn’t stay up late at night. You shouldn’t watch television
or use the internet. It’s not good for you to sit still for long and look at a screen.’
  
‘And by following this health plan I’ll live to be a hundred?’ asked Natasha.

   ‘Well, I don’t know, answered the doctor. ‘But it will certainly feel like it.

6.3.1 Grammar exercise. Complete with should or shouldn’t.


According with your own ideas.
1. The doctor says that you ________take a lot of teaspoons of this

medicine before every meal.

2. The doctor advise Jack that he __________have a health plan.

3. If you don’t feel well, you ________go to the doctor.

4. If you are always tired in the morning, you __________try to relax

more.

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5. If you can’t stop coughing, you ___________drink the syrup.

6. If you know that cigarettes are bad for your health,

you__________smoke.

Grammar: must/ must not


Note:
1. Must means that something is necessary.
2. Must not means that something is against the law. It is not
permitted.

You must take this medicine with food.


Children must not take this medicine.

Must= It is necessary.

Must not= don’t do it.

Grammar exercise. Read the directions. Circle must or


must not.

Directions:
Adult Dose:
2 tsp. Every 4 hours

Child Dose: 6 yrs-12yrs.:1 tsp. every 4


hours.

Not for children under 6

1. Adults must/must not take two teaspoons every four hours.

2. Adults must/ must not take four teaspoons every two hours.

3. Children under six must/ must not take this medicine.

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Directions
Adults:
Take 2 capsules every 4-6 hours.

Do not give to children.

Do not use with alcohol.

4. An adult must/must not take this medicine every four to six hours.
5. Parents must/must not give this medicine to children.
6. A patient must/ must not drink alcohol and take this medicine.

Note: Once a day= One time a day.

Directions
Take 1 capsule once a day.

Take with food or milk.

Do not drive; may cause


drowsiness.

7. A patient must/must not take


one capsule a day.
8. Patients must / must not take this medicine with food or milk.
9. Patients must/ must not drive if they take this medicine

Culture note: To get a prescription, you must see a doctor .

6.3.2 Grammar exercise. Select the correct respond.


1. When I called Mike, he _______.
 is eating.
 ate.

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 was eating.
2. When _______ to bed last night?
 are you going.
 did you go.
 were you going
 3. While Max was eating pizza, his wife _______ in the door.
 walked.
 is walking.
 was walking.
 4. _______ a VW Beetle when I was a student.
 am having.
 had.
 was having.
 5. While I was doing my homework, I _______ two glasses of
water.
 was drinking.
 drank.
 am drinking
 6. Max was robbed last night. While he was sleeping, a burglar
_______ his house.
 broke into.
 was breaking into.
 is breaking into
 7. When the power went out last night, we _______ a movie.
 were watching.
 watched.
 are watching

8. They _______ tennis when it began to rain.


 are playing.
 played.

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 were playing

9. While Max was walking home from the store, he _______ twenty
dollars.
4. is finding.
5. found.
6. was finding

10. Max _______________ his car to work when it broke down.


 was driving.
 is driving.
 drove

6.4 Reading. Answer the questions after reading the article


below.
Mental Illnesses

There are many times when someone suffering from either mental illness or
depression may not even realize there is a problem. I have suffered from
depression myself. I was completely unaware of what was wrong with me, my
family doctor pointed it out to me, as I did not have any one else around me
that recognized the symptoms. It was hard for me to accept at first, but after
having the hard facts placed in front of my face and understanding that it may
get worse, I had no choice but to get help. A lot of people who suffer from
such problems tend to be more alone than anyone realizes. I suspect that
anyone who was unaware of their condition would probably be shocked, as I
was, to have someone confront them about it. A good friend would confront
them anyway, and hopefully they would seek help.

1. It can be understood from the passage that ----.

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A) some doctors are unaware of their patients' problems


B) a lot of people have family doctors
C) mental illness is not a big problem today
D) people cannot easily realize their own mental illnesses
E) we have a lot of choices to become healthy

2. Someone who is suffering from either mental illness or depression ----.

A) should go to his family doctor


B) may give damage to other people
C) has to find his friends to talk about it
D) will one day realize everything if he wants
E) generally isn't aware of the condition

3. The author seems to be suggesting that ----.

A) large families generally have a family doctor


B) we cannot be aware of how much these ill people suffer
C) the people who are suffering from mental illness should go to doctors
D) everybody can easily accept their illness
E) there are a lot of people in our society who are suffering from mental 
        illness

6.5 Listening Exercise.


2.2.1 Listen to the text with information about the brain
and select the best response for each questions.

1) Which part of the brain is responsible for short and long-term memory?

A: Brainstem

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B: Cerebrum

C: Cerebellum

D: Pituitary gland
2) The normally healthy man was having trouble balancing himself as he walked down the
street. Which of the following parts of the brain may not have been functioning properly?

A: Cerebellum

B: Cerebrum

C: Hypothalamus

D: Amygdala

3) The talented artist became famous not only for her paintings, but also for her poetry.
Which part of her brain was most likely functioning very well?

A: Left half of the cerebrum

B: Left half of the cerebellum

C: Right half of the cerebrum

D: Right half of the cerebellum


4) Which of the following is an example of an involuntary muscle?

A: Arm

B: Leg

C: Finger

D: Heart
5) Which of the following pars of the brain is like a pipeline which sends the messages
back and forth between the body and brain?

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A: Pituitary gland

B: Cerebellum

C: Amygdala

D: Brainstem
6) Which parts of the brain may not have been working properly when the boy in the
hospital stopped growing and did not sweat even in hot temperatures?

A: Hypothalamus and pituitary gland

B: Amygdala and hypothalamus

C: Pituitary gland and brain stem

D: Cerebellum and pituitary gland

Unit 7
Geriatric

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Geriatrician
Aging

Significant diseases:
Arthritis
Rheumatism

Present continuous
For and since
Yes/ no questions

Geriatrics
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that
focuses on health care of elderly people. It aims to
promote health by preventing and
treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. There
is no set age at which patients may be under the care
of a geriatrician, or geriatric physician, a physician
who specializes in the care of elderly people. Rather,
this decision is determined by the individual patient's
needs, and the availability of a specialist. It is
important to note the difference between geriatrics,
the care of aged people, and gerontology, which is the
study of the aging process itself. The
term geriatrics comes from
the Greekγέρων geron meaning "old man", and
ιατρός iatros meaning "healer". However, geriatrics is
sometimes called medical gerontology.

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Unit 7. Geriatric.
7. 1 Vocabulary. Listen and Repeat.
Significat Diseases Aging Incontinence
Dementia Geriatrician Physical Therapy
Arthritis Acute care
Rehabilitation
Palliative care Adult day health care
Osteoporosis Age testricted Stroke
Rheumatoid communities Senior centers
Blood pressure Ambulatory
Nursing home/ Home care
Atherosclerosis Ambulatory aids
High cholesterol Audiologist Mental health
Mental illness Dialysis Handicapped
Diabetes Disability insurance
Gerontology
Alzheimer’s disease Elder care

7.1.1 Read and discuss.


Aging: The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined
and environmentally modulated.

Geriatrician: Is a medical specialist who treats older adults. These are


generally internal medicine or family practice physicians who have completed
additional training and certification.

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Home care : Home care includes any professional support services that
allow a person to live safely in their home. In-home care services can help
someone who is aging and needs assistance to live independently; is managing
chronic health issues; is recovering from a medical setback; or has special needs
or a disability. Professional caregivers such as nurses, aides, and therapists
provide short-term or long-term care in the home, depending on a person's
needs.

Handicapped: Is any person who has a physical or mental impairment which


substantially limits one or more major life activity, has a record of such impairment,
or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Mental Health: Is the capacity in an individual to function effectively in


society. Mental health is a concept influenced by biological, environmental,
emotional, and cultural factors and is highly variable in definition, depending on
time and place. It is often defined in practice as the absence of any identifiable or
significant mental disorder and sometimes improperly used as a synonym for
mental illness.

Mental Illness/Impairment: A deficiency in the ability to think, perceive,


reason, or remember, which results in loss of the ability to take care of one's daily
living needs.

Gerontology: Study of the biological, psychological and social processes of


aging.

Acute care: Any treament to diagnose, prevent, or cure an illness or to provide


primary care. Treatments can be provided in an outpatient or inpatient setting.

Adult Day Health Care: A type of adult day service that offers
comprehensive health services in addition to social and support services. Typical
facilities will provide on-site nurses, therapists, social workers and other health
professionals.

Age Restricted Communities: A housing area or development, often


gated, that restricts ownership and residency to individuals who are over a set age.
These communities are set up to accommodate older adults.

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Aging in Place: A concept that advocates for allowing an individual to remain


in his/her home and the community regardless of cognitive or functional
impairments.

Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive brain disorder that gradually destroys


mental functions such as memory and learning. Individuals may also experience
changes in personality and behavior.

Ambulatory: The ability to walk freely and independently.

Ambulatory Aids: Devices that help individuals move safely and


independently. These include walkers, crutches, canes, scooters and wheelchairs.

Audiologist: A health professional who specializes in hearing measurement


and hearing loss or impairment correction.

Dementia: Deterioration of cognitive ability. Symptoms include disorientation


and memory loss.

Diabetes: A disorder in which the pancreas produces too little insulin with the
result that the body is unable to adequately metabolize sugar.

Dialysis: Equipment used to clean individual's blood when one or both kidneys
are defective or absent, and to remove excess accumulation of drugs or chemicals
in the blood.

Disability Insurance: A type of insurance coverage that compensates


some percentage of a worker's total wages should they become sick and/or injured
and therefore unable to work.

Eldercare: Caregiving delivered to an older adult that is in need of assistance.


Rehabilitation: Treatments for individuals who have suffered a stroke, brain
or spinal cord injury, or pain that cannot be controlled by medication alone. This
also includes return-to-work programs or occupational rehabilitation, which help
individuals regain skills they need.

Incontinence: Total or partial loss of bowel or bladder control or functions.


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Palliative Care: Pain management services to provide comfort to those with


life-threatening illness.

Physical Therapy: Physician-prescribed services to improve movement,


muscle control, flexibility and range of motion and reduce or prevent physical
disability.

Senior Centers: Community or residential centers with activities and non-


medical services designed for independent older adults to promote well-being,
activity, social interaction and meals.

Stroke: A sudden loss of consciousness followed by paralysis which is caused


by hemorrhage into the brain, formulation of a blood clot or mass of undissolved
matter in the blood.

7.1.1.1 Exercise. Complete with the correct word from the


chart.
1.
Stroke - Aging - Alzheimer's Disease - Handicapped
Rehabilitation - Incontinence - Audiologist-

__________________ A progressive brain disorder that gradually destroys


mental functions such as memory and learning. Individuals may also experience
changes in personality and behavior.

2. _________________A sudden loss of consciousness followed by paralysis


which is caused by hemorrhage into the brain, formulation of a blood clot or mass
of undissolved matter in the blood.

3.__________________ Is any person who has a physical or mental


impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activity, has a record of
such impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

4. _______________ Treatments for individuals who have suffered a


stroke, brain or spinal cord injury, or pain that cannot be controlled by medication
alone. This also includes return-to-work programs or occupational rehabilitation,
which help individuals regain skills they need.

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5. _____________ Total or partial loss of bowel or bladder control or


functions.

6. ______________A health professional who specializes in hearing


measurement and hearing loss or impairment correction.

7. ______________ The process of becoming older, a process that is


genetically determined and environmentally modulated.

7.2 Conversation. Practice with partners.


Health Problems
Agnes: When I get sick I usually get headaches and a stuffy
nose and my body aches and usually I don’t take medications.
I just drink a lot of tea with lemon. Tea with lemon is very good
home remedy for a cold.
Daniel: When I have the flu I have a stuffy nose, a sore throat,
my eyes water. I usually take an aspirin and some rest, and…
a day or two I’m fine.
Alyssa: Usually when I feel sick I try to get lots of sleep. I also
drink water and I take cough medicine.
Jonathan: I have very bad allergies. My nose is always stuffed
and I get a headache. It’s very bad. Usually, I take my allergy
medicine but it doesn’t always work and it makes me kind of
drowsy.
Dayanne: Sometimes my back hurts and when this happens I
go to my yoga class to stretch.
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7.3 Grammar Summary

1. Present perfect continuous


The present perfect continuous talks about an action that
started in the past and continues in the present. The action is
no yet complete.

He has been watching the game since 8:00

They have been playing tennis for an hour.

2. For and Since


For shows an amount of time.
For an hour
For three days
Since tells when an action started.
Since 12:00
Since the game started

3. Yes/No questions
4. How
Have long
you been questions
practicing all afternoon? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.
How long has she been playing basketball?
Has she been playing tennis since 2000? Yes, she has. No, she hasn’t.
How long have they been running?
Have they been running for two hours? Yes, they have. No, they haven’t.

7.3.1 Put the verbs into the correct form (present perfect
progressive).

1. He (work)    _____________________in this company since 1985.

2. I (wait)   _________________________for you since two o'clock.

3. Mary (live)  _______________________ in Germany since 1992.

4. Why is he so tired? He (play)  _____________________ tennis for


five hours.

5. How long (learn / you)  __________________________ English?

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6. We (look for)   __________________________the motorway for


more than an hour.

7. I (live)   ______________________________without electricity for


two weeks.

8. The film (run / not)   _________________________for ten minutes


yet, but there's a commercial break already.

9. How long (work / she)   ________________________in the garden?

10. She (not / be)   _______________________________in the garden


for more than an hour.

7.3.2 In the following sentences, should you use 'for' or 'since'.

 1. I have lived in London ___ six months.

for

since

 2. I have danced ___ I was small.

for

since

 3. She hasn't had a day off ___ three months.

since 

for

 4. I've lost so much flexibility ___ I injured my leg.

since

for 

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 5. They have all improved in attitude ___ the headmaster talked to them.

for 

since

 6. Wars have been happening ___ centuries, it won’t ever change.

since 

for

 7. I haven't been on holiday ___ ages.

for

since 

 8. I haven't eaten that much ___ Christmas.

for 

since

 9. I haven't been on holiday ___ last year.

for

since

 10. She hasn't seen her jacket ___ yesterday, I think she lost it.

since

for 

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7.4 Reading

Read the following text, without looking back at the article, answer the
reading comprehension questions.

Arthritis and rheumatism

Arthritis and rheumatism are general names for approximately 100 diseases
that produce inflammation or degeneration of connective tissue. Some of
these diseases are infectious and primarily affect younger people.
Rheumatic fever, for example, is a bacterial infection that occurs mostly in
children or teenagers. Rheumatoid arthritis predominantly strikes women
between 20 and 60. However, the most common rheumatic disease is a
noninfectious, noninflammatory degenerative joint disease – osteoarthritis.
To some degree, it affects nearly all older adults, causing swelling, pain, and
stiffness in joints. Treatment may include heat, exercises, and drugs that
reduce pain and inflammation.

Besides osteoarthritis, many other noninfectious diseases can limit the


activities of the elderly. Osteoporosis (a condition in which bone loss
exceeds bone replacement so that the bones become less dense, more
porous, and more brittle) often leads to fractures, especially of the hipbone.
Many conditions conspire to decrease the sensory perception of the elderly.
Cataracts are created when the lens of the eye – or a portion of it –
becomes opaque and sometimes swells or shrinks and interferes with
vision. Deterioration of nerves in the inner ear causes the characteristic old-
age hearing loss, most severe in the high-pitched tones.
The senses of taste and smell also deteriorate in old age.

Source:  Tiersky, E.M. (1992) The Language of Medicine in English,


Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, pp. 39-44.

Questions
7.4.1 Answer True or False to the following statements:
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1. Rheumatic fever is a viral infection.__________


2. Osteoporosis is the most common arthritic
disease.___________
3. Elderly people’s senses are less acute than when they were
younger.___________
4. Cataracts are transparent.___________
5. Three terms associated with osteoporosis are dense, porous
and brittle.___________

7.4.2 Complete the following sentences by choosing the


most correct term (s):

1. Osteoarthritis is an example of a/an __________________ disease


a) infectious
b) incurable
c) noninfectious

2. A condition in which bone loss exceeds bone replacement is


called ______________
a) rheumatoid arthritis
b) osteoporosis
c) rheumatism

7 As mentioned in this article, sensory perception of the elderly relates to


___________:
a) sight, hearing and touch
b) taste, smell and hearing
c) hearing, smell, taste and sight

8 ______________ primarily affects younger people, while rheumatoid


arthritis predominantly strikes ___________ between the ages of 20 and
60.
a) Rheumatic fever; women
b) Osteoporosis; hearing loss
c) Cataracts; males

7.5 Listening exercise. Answer True or False.


1. A geriatrician care of the elderly and the diseases that
affect them. ______________

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2. Alzheimer disease is a condition that may affect the


elderly._______
3. Dementia and palliative care are specialty areas of interest
of geriatrics.____________
4. The geriatrician work with a team that include
therapists._________

Tape Scripts for Listening Exercises


Unit 1. Medical specialists
1.1 Listening exercise.
The accident

There was a bad accident at the intersection of Maple and


Central Avenue about 10 minutes ago. A woman went past the stop
sign and hit another car. A witness who saw the accident immediately
called 911. The police and two ambulances were at the scene of the
accident a few minutes later.

Luis is lying by the side of the road. His arm is cut very badly.
One emergency medical worker is applying a pressure bandage to
stop the bleeding. The other technician is talking to him and taking his
blood pressure. She's telling Luis that the bleeding is under control.
Soon they are going to take him to the hospital. Luis is going to need
30 or more stitches in his arm.

Two other emergency workers are helping the woman on the


stretcher. She is pale and confused. She doesn’t know her name, and
she can’t answer any questions.

One worker is covering her with a blanket. Because the front


windshield of her car is broken, the workers think that she might have a
concussion.

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A police officer is directing traffic at the scene. Traffic is moving very


slowly because everyone wants to look at the accident

Unit 2. Dermatology
2.1 Listen to each conversation. Then answer the
questions.
Conversation 1
A: By looking at the test results on your arm, we can tell
what you are allergic to.
B: I think I’m allergic to cats.
A: Definitely. You’re allergic to both cats and dogs.
B: What else?
A: Well, you’re allergic to dust and ragweed.
B: Any foods?
A: Just strawberries. None of this reactions are strong,
except for animals. Do you have any pets?
B: No, but my children want a dog.
A: I don’t recommend that. I can give you a prescription
to take now because ragweed is a problem in late
summer. And don’t eat any strawberries.

Conversation 2
A: Mr. Jackson, your blood pressure is very high-140 over
90. You’re going to need medication to lower that.
B: I’m not surprised. My mother and father both had high
blood pressure.

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A: Your cholesterol is too high, also. It’s 275. At your age,


it shouldn’t be over 200.
B: I don’t watch my diet very carefully.
A: I’d like you to have a stress test, too. You’re only 37
and these test results are troubling. Do you do any
exercise, Mr. Jackson?
B: I don’t have any time to exercise. I work 10 hours a
day.
A: I’m afraid that’s one of the reasons for these high
numbers. I’m going to give you a prescription for your
blood pressure. I’m also, going to put you on a low-fat
diet to help you lower your cholesterol. Talk to the nurse
at the front desk and she’ll help you schedule a time for
the stress test.

Unit 3. Pedriatrics.
3.1 Talking to Your Doctor
Listen to a conversation between a patient and a doctor.

Sasha does not feel well and goes to see the doctor.

Dr. Smith: Hello, Sasha. How are you feeling today?


Sasha: I don’t feel well.
Dr. Smith: What’s wrong? Can you tell me how you feel?
Sasha: Well, I have a terrible headache.
Dr. Smith: Hmm…Anything else? Does your throat hurt?
Sasha: Yes, it hurts a little. I have a cough too.
Dr. Smith: Do you have a fever?

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Sasha: Yes, I have a low fever.


Dr. Smith: It sounds like you may have the flu.
Sasha: Oh, that’s terrible.
Dr. Smith: Don’t worry. I will give you some medicine and
you will feel better soon.
Sasha: Okay. Can I go to work tomorrow?
Dr. Smith: No. Stay home tomorrow, get some rest, and
drink plenty of juice and water.
Sasha: Thank you, Doctor.
Dr. Smith: Okay, take care of yourself and I hope you feel
better soon.

Unit 4. Cardiology.
4.1 Listening exercise. What’s hypertension?

Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure


in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Hypertension is also sometimes called high blood pressure. High blood


pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure,
however, is a major risk factor for many illnesses such as coronary artery
disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease,
vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.

High blood pressure is categorized into two major types: Primary and
secondary. According to statistics, about 90 - 95% of cases are primary
hypertension. This type is defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific
lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include
excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use.

The remaining 5-10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood


pressure. This type of hypertension is defined as high blood pressure due to
identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney
arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.

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Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and


decrease the risk of health complications. Lifestyle changes include weight
loss, decreased salt intake, physical exercise, and a healthy diet.

Unit 5. Gynecology.
5.1 Listening exercise
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or
more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple
pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins.
Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive
technology. Childbirth typically occurs around 40 weeks from the last
menstrual period. This is just over nine months, where each month
averages 31 days. When measured from fertilization it is about 38
weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight
weeks following fertilization, after which, the term fetus is used until
birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods,
tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination.
Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test.
Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters.[4] The first
trimester is from week one through 12 and includes conception, which
is when the sperm fertilizes the egg. The fertilized egg then travels
down the fallopian tube and attaches to the inside of the uterus, where
it begins to form the embryo and placenta. The second trimester is
from week 13 through 28.
Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. Prenatal care may
include taking extra folic acid, avoiding drugs and alcohol, regular
exercise, blood tests, and regular physical examinations.

Unit 6. Psiquiatry.
6.1 Listening exercise
The Brain

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The brain is the main part of the body's nervous system constantly
sending signals to the body. The brain has several different parts
working together to help a person live their life each day. The five main
parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem,
pituitary gland, and hypothalamus.
The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, making up about 85%
of the brain's weight. The cerebrum allows a person to think and
control voluntary muscles, which a person is able to control. A person
can kick a ball, walk down, the street, or jump in the air because they
control the muscles and movements.
The cerebrum is active when a person is thinking during a test,
making decisions, or playing a video game. Memory is a part of the
cerebrum, including short-term memory, recalling a morning event,
or long-term, a memory from several years ago.
The cerebrum has two halves, one on each side of the head. The
right half helps a person think about abstract things like art, music,
colors, shapes, and other parts of the imagination. The left half is
more analytical, which helps a person speak, make logical decisions,
do math problems, and reason. Scientists are unsure about which half
of the brain controls the left or right side of the body.
The cerebellum controls a person's balance, movement, and
coordination. This includes how a person stands, moves, and
balances. The cerebellum is located in the back of the brain under the
cerebrum, but it is only about one-eighth the size of the cerebrum,
though it is a vital part of the brain. Without the cerebellum a person
would not have very little ability to move.
The brain stem, also small, is responsible for all of the functions of
the body for a person to remain alive, including breathing, food
digestion, and blood circulation. Located below the cerebrum, in front
of the cerebellum, it connects the rest of the brain to a person's spinal
cord. The brain stem controls involuntary muscles, working on their
own without the help or thought. The muscles are located in the heart,
stomach or other parts of the body. It tells the heart to pump blood to
the body, and stomach muscles to break food down. The brain stem is

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also the pipeline sending and receiving millions of messages back and
forth between the brain and the body.
The pituitary gland controls the growth of a person's body by
producing and releasing hormones into the body. The gland is only the
size of a pea, but without it properly functioning, a person's body would
not go through its changes as they get older. The gland also controls
sugars and water in the body, as well as keeping the metabolism of
the body going, which is related to the body's use of energy.
The final part of the brain is the hypothalamus, which basically
controls the temperature of the body. When the body is too hot, this
part of the brain tells the body to sweat; too cold, and it tells the body to
shiver.
The five parts of the brain connect with the body's nervous system,
made up of thousands of nerves that communicate information to and
from the brain. The more messages sent to the brain, the stronger the
connections become. This is how good, and bad, habits or skills are
learned. The brain also is the control center for feelings. On each side
of the brain there are a groups of cells called amygdala, which is
responsible for emotions.
In conclusion, the brain is the control center of the body, and it must
be treated well by eating healthy, being safe, and avoiding alcohol,
drugs, and tobacco, but it's also important to challenge your mind.

Unit 7. Geriatric.
7.1 Listening exercise.
What is a geriatrician?
A geriatrician is a doctor who specialises in care of the elderly and the
diseases that affect them. The approach tends to be holistic and
involves a multidisciplinary team. The geriatrician concentrates on
managing the medical conditions affecting the patient

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Any condition that may affect the elderly. Particularly common area
are: Dementia, Delirium, Alzheimers disease and Falls.
Specialty areas of interest

Dementia, psychogeriatrics, palliative care and any specialty area of


medicine with a focus on the elderly.
Treatment usually involves a multidisciplinary team. Interventions will
be coordinated by the doctor who may begin medications and give
general advice. Specific advice regarding coping in the home
environment and managing with limited mobility comes from
occupational therapists, physiotherapists and social workers. Support
for the patient and the family is available from these sources and also
from the GP who often plays a central role in managing elderly
patients.

VOCABULARIES
Unit 1. Medical specialists
1.1 Vocabulary

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 Surgeon (cirujano)
 Obstetrician (Obstetra)
 Optometrist (optometrista)
 Cardiologist (cardiólogo)
 Dermatologist (dermatólogo)
 Psychologist (psicólogo)
 Ophthalmologist (Oftalmólogo)
 Gynecologist (Ginecólogo)
 Pediatrician (pediatra)
 Allergist (alergista)
 Family doctor (Doctor familiar)
 Psychiatrist (psiquiatra)
 Neurologist (neurólogo)
 Urologist (Urólogo)
 Rheumatologist (reumatólogo)
 Diagnostic radiologist (radiólogo de diagnóstico)
 Anesthesiologist (anestesiólogo)
 Gastroenterologist (gastroenterólogo)
 Hematologist/ Oncologist (hematólogo/ Oncólogo)
 Nephrologist ( nefrólogo)
 Neurosurgeon (neurocirujano)
 Oral and maxillofacial surgeon (cirujano oral y maxilo facial)
 Otolaryngologist (Otolaringologo)
 Plastic surgeon (cirujano plastic)

 headache (Un dolor de cabeza)


 A backache (Un dolor de espalda)
Remedies / Treatment
 A rash ( Una erupcion) Aspirin (aspirina)
Ibuprofen (ibuprofeno)
 A toothache (Un dolor de diente/muela) An ice pack (Una bolsa helada)
 A stomachache(Un dolor de estomago) A heating pad (Una almohadilla
 An earache (Un dolor de oido) termica
 A burn (Una quemadura) Lotion (Una locion)
An inhaler (Un inhalador
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Painkiller (analgesic)
Cast (Yeso)
Crutches (muletas)
Stretcher (Camilla)
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 A bad cold (Un fuerte resfriado)


 A fever (Una fiebre)
 A sore throat (Un dolor de garganta)
 A sneeze (she’s sneezing)
 A broken bone (Un hueso roto)
 Cut (Corte)
 Bites (mordida)
 Scratch ( Rasguño)
 Itches (picaduras
 Poisoning (envenenamiento)
 Nauseated (nauseabundo)
 Chill (escalofrio/ resfriado)
 Bleed (Sangrado)
 Heart attack (Ataque del Corazon)
 Dizzy (mareado)
 Fell (caida)
 Inflamed (Inflamado)
 Breathing problem (Problema respiratorio)
 Ice pack (bolsas de hielo)
 Cavity (Caries)
 Cholesterol (cholesterol)
 Blood pressure (presion sanguinea)
 Puffy eyes (ojos hinchados)
 A sprain (Un esguince)
 Insomnia (Insomnio)
 Sneeze (estornudar)
 Measles (Sarampion)
 Faint (debil)
 Fainted (desmayado)
 Swollen thumb (Pulgar hinchado)
 Shivering (Temblando)
 Shiver (Tiritar
 Sunburn (quemadura de sol)
 Retching (Nausea)
 Sore eyes (dolor de ojos)
 Ankle sprained (esguince de tobillo)

Unit 2. Dermatology.
2.1 Vocabulary. Skin Care Terms

Acne - Acne Eczema - Eczema Immunomodulator-


Alkali - Alcali inmunomodulador112
Elasticity - elasticidad
Inflammation –
Allergens - alergenos Elastin - elastina inflamacion
Viscosity-
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Unit 3. Pediatrics Uni

3.1 Vocabulary.
Breathing Problems - problemas respiratorios

Anatomy of the Respiratory System in Children – Anatomia del Sistema


respiratorio en niños.
Bronchiolitis - bronquiolitis
Cystic Fibrosis – fibrosis quistica

Dysphagia - disfagia
Epiglottitis - epiglotitis
Foreign Body Aspiration – aspiracion de cuerpo extraño
Laryngeal Atresia – atresia laringea
Laryngeal Trauma – trauma laringea
Chickenpox - varisela
Child safety seat – asiento de seguridad de niño
Circumcision - circunsicion
Colic - colico
Congenital - congenito
Conjunctivitis - conjuntivitis
Contact dermatitis – dermatitis de contacto
Cystitis - cistitis

The signs and symptoms of rhinitis include: Los signos y


sintomas de rhinitis incluyen:

 Runny nose – nariz que moquea


 Stuffy nose – congestion nasal
 Itching – comezon
 Sneezing - estornudo

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Unit 4. Cardiology
4.1. Vocabulary.
Aortic - aórtico Bradycardia - Tachycardia -
bradicardia taquicardia
Artery - arteria
Dilatation- Cardiovascular -
Atrium - atrio
dilatacion cardiovascular
Coronary - coronario
Dyspnea - disnea Cerebrovascular -
Vein - vena cerebrovascular
Cardiomyopathy
Ventricle - ventriculo – miocardiopatia Heart attack – ataque
del corazon
Pulmonary - Arrhythmia -
pulmonar arritmia Stroke - golpe

Diastole pressure – Cyanosis - High blood pressure-


Presión diastólica cianosis Presion sanguinea
alta
Hypertension -
Systolic pressure – Vessel
hipertension
Presión sistólica
Blood - sangre
Insufficiency -
insuficiencia Chest pain – dolor de
pecho
Ischemia -
isquemia

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Unit 5. Gynecology
5. 1. Vocabulary.

Amenorrhea - Climateric/perimenopause Estrogen - estrogeno


amenorrea –
climateria/perimenopausia Fertil - fertil
Anovulation -
anovulacion Colposcopy - colposcopia Fibroids - fibroides

Cancer - cancer Culdocentesis - Stimulating hormone –


culdocentesis hormona estimulante
Carcinogen -
carcinogeno Cyst - quiste Genitals - genitales

Cervicitis - cervicitis Cystitis - cistitis Genital herpes – herpes


genital
Cervis- cerviz Dilation and curettage –
dilatacion y legrado Genital warts – verrugas
Chemotherapy - genitales
quimioterapia Dysmenorrhea -
dismenorrea Grading - calificacion
Menstruation -
menstracion Pregnancy - embarazo Hirsutism - hirsutismo

Chlamydial infection – Ectopic pregnancy- Hormones - hormonas


infección por clamidia embarazo etopico Hormone therapy –
Endometrium - Endoscopy - endoscopia terapia hormonal
endometrio Invasive cancer – cancer
Imaging - imagenes
Human invasor
Immune system – Sistema
papilliomaviruses –
inmune Malignant – maligno
virus del papiloma
humano Immunotherapy - Mammogram -
inmunoterapia mamografia
Hyperplasia -
hiperplasia Infertility - esterilidad 115
Hysterectomy -
histerectomia
Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

Unit 6. Psyquiatry.
6.1 Vocabulary.
Addiction - adiccion Compulsion - Insight - vision
compulsion
Adjustment disorder Hypomania -
– trastorno de Confabulation - hipomania
adaptacion confabulacion
Hallucination -
Agnosia - agnosia Deja vu- déjà vu alucinacion

Anorexia nerviosa- Delirium - delirio Mania - mania


anorexia nerviosa
Depression - Obsession -
Anxiety - ansiedad depresion obsesion

Asthenia - astenia Dementia - Thought disorder-


demencia
Bulimia nerviosa – Trastorno del
bulimia nerviosa Dyspraxia - pensamiento
dispraxia
Compulsion - Word salad –
compulsion Illusion - ensalada de
espejismo palabras

Apathy - apatia

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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

Unit 7. Geriatric.
7.1 Vocabulary.
Significant Aging - envejecimiento Incontinence-
Diseases: incontinencia
Geriatrician - geriatra
Enfermedades
significativas Acute care – cuidados Physical Therapy –
Dementia - demencia terapia fisica
agudos
Arthritis - artritis Rehabilitation-
Adult day health care –
rehabilitacion
Palliative care –
atencion de salud
cuidados paliativos Stroke - golpe
diurna para adultos
Osteoporosis - Senior centers- centro
Age testricted – edad para mayores
osteoporosis
restringida
Nursing home/ Home
Rheumatoid -
Ambulatory- care- hogar de
Reumatoide ancianos/cuidados
ambulatorio
Blood pressure – domiciliarios
Ambulatory aids-
Presion sanguinea Mental health- salud
ayudas ambulatorias
mental
Atherosclerosis -
Audiologist - audiologo
Handicapped –
ateroclerosis
Dialysis - dialisis minusválido
High cholesterol –
Disability insurance – Gerontology -
cholesterol alto gerontologia
seguros de invalidez
Mental illness –
Elder care – cuidado de
enfermedad mental
ancianos
Diabetes - diabetes
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Alzheimer’s disease-
enfermedad de
alzheimer
Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

List of irregular verbs.


Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Spanish
Arise Arose arisen Surgir
Be was / were been Ser
Beat Beat beaten golpear
Become Became become convertirse
Begin Began begun comenzar
Bet bet/betted bet/betted apostar
bite Bit bitten morder
bleed Bled bled sangrar
blow Blew blown soplar
break Broke broken romper
bring Brought brought traer
build Built built construir
buy Bought bought comprar
catch Caught caught atrapar
choose Chose chosen elegir
come Came come venir
cost Cost cost costar
creep Crept crept arrastrarse
cut Cut cut cortar
Deal Dealt dealt dar, repartir
Do Did done hacer
Draw Drew drawn dibujar
Dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed soñar
Drink Drank drunk beber
Drive Drove driven conducir
Eat Ate eaten comer
fall Fell fallen caer
feed Fed fed alimentar
feel Felt felt sentir
fight Fought fought pelear
find Found found encontrar
flee Fled fled huir
fly Flew flown volar
forget Forgot forgotten olvidar
forgive Forgave forgiven perdonar
forsake Forsook forsaken abandonar
freeze Froze frozen congelar
get Got got tener, obtener

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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

give Gave given dar


go Went gone ir
grind Ground ground moler
grow Grew grown crecer
hang Hung hung colgar
have Had had tener
hear Heard heard Oír
hide Hid hidden Esconderse
hit Hit hit Golpear
hold Held held tener, mantener
hurt Hurt hurt herir, doler
keep Kept kept Guardar
Kneel Knelt knelt Arrodillarse
Know Knew known Saber
Lead Led led Encabezar
Learn learnt/learned learnt/learned Aprender
Leave Left left Dejar
Lend Lent lent Prestar
Let Let let Dejar
Lie Lay lain Yacer
Lose Lost lost Perder
Make Made made Hacer
Mean Meant meant Significar
Meet Met met conocer, encontrar
Pay Paid paid Pagar
Put Put put Poner
Quit quit/quitted quit/quitted Abandonar
Read Read read Leer
Ride Rode ridden montar, ir
Ring Rang rung llamar por teléfono
Rise Rose risen Elevar
Run Ran run Correr
Say Said said Decir
See Saw seen Ver
Sell Sold sold Vender
Send Sent sent Enviar
Set Set set Fijar
Sew Sewed sewn/sewed Coser
shake Shook shaken Sacudir
Shine Shone shone Brillar
shoot Shot shot Disparar

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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

Show Showed shown/showed Mostrar


shrink shrank/shrunk shrunk encoger
Shut Shut shut cerrar
Sing Sang sung cantar
Sink Sank sunk hundir
Sit Sat sat sentarse
Sleep Slept slept dormir
Slide Slid slid deslizar
Sow Sowed sown/sowed sembrar
speak Spoke spoken hablar
Spell spelt/spelled spelt/spelled deletrear
spend Spent spent gastar
Spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled derramar
Split Split split partir
Spoil spoilt/spoiled spoilt/spoiled estropear
spread Spread spread Extenderse
Stand Stood stood estar de pie
Steal Stole stolen Robar
Sting Stung stung Picar
Stink stank/stunk stunk Apestar
Strike Struck struck Golpear
swear Swore sworn Jurar
sweep Swept swept Barrer
Swim Swam swum Nadar
Take Took taken Tomar
Teach Taught taught Enseñar
Tear Tore torn Romper
Tell Told told Decir
Think Thought thought Pensar
Throw Threw thrown Lanzar
Tread Trode trodden/trod Pisar
understand understood understood Entender
Wake Woke woken Despertarse
Wear Wore worn llevar puesto
Weave Wove woven Tejer
Weep Wept wept Llorar
Win Won won Ganar
Wring Wrung wrung Retorcer
Write Wrote written Escribir

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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

Recursos Informacionales
Mgr. Ilona Havlickova. Mgr.Sarka Dostalova. Mgr.Zuzana Katerova. English
for pharmacy and medical bioanalytics. Charles University in
Prague. Karolinum Press (2014).

Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in use Intermediate.


Cambridge University, Press.

Brieger, N.,& Pohl, A (2002) Technical English : Vocabulary and


Grammar.

Barbara H. Foley & Elizabeth R. Neblett (2011) Second Edition. English in


Action 1, U.S.A

Barbara H. Foley & Elizabeth R. Neblett (2011) Second Edition. English in


Action 3. U.S.A

Joan Saslow & Allen Ascher. (2015) Oxford University Press. Teen 2 Teen
Four. United Kingdom.

H. Douglas Brown. (2000) Voyages 2, Longman. Person Education


Company. Stony Brook, New York, USA.

James E. Purpura & Diane Pinkley. (1992) Scott Foresman English. On


Target 2. Illinois, USA.

Susan Stempleski. (2006) Thomson. World Link-Developing English


Fluency. Boston. USA.

Steven J. Molinsky & Bill Bliss. Side by Side, Second Edition. Book 4 (1989)
Prentice Hall Regents. USA.

Rob Jenkins & Staci Johnson. Stand out Grammar Challenge, second
edition (2008) Boston, USA.

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Departamento de Lingüística Aplicada, UCATECI.
Yobelkis Paulino, M.A

Online resources
https://www.macmillandictionary.com/thesaurus-category/british/skin-problem

https://www.englishlearner.com/advanced/readings

https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/skin

https://www.englishgrammar.org

https://www.ecenglish.com/learningenglish/lessonshow-talk-about-healthproblems

http://www.reepworld.org/englishpractice/teacher_resources/Meds_voc.d
oc

http://www.queenslibrary.org/services/health-info/english-for-your-health

Familydoctor.org

American Academy of Pediatrics

www.woodwardenenglish.com

www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglishteens

http://lemongra.com/wp-content/uploads/

www.onip.ca/reading-and-understanding-medical-texts- reading-comprehension-exercise/

www.softschools.com/language-arts/reading-comprehension/science/64/the-brain/

www.suberingles.com.ar/lists/irregular-verbs.html

www.really-learn-english.com

www.ef.com/english-resources/english-grammar/present-perfect-continuous/

www.softschools.com/language-arts/reading-comprehension/science/138/vaccines/

http://www.myenglishpages.com/

www.ejerciciosinglesonline.com

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