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Module 4


Lesson 1. Objectives – to introduce the topic of communication

technologies, encourage students to speak on the topic, to revise/learn
grammar “Sequence of Tenses” (“Reported Speech”) and “Object”.

Lesson 1
1. Look at the photos and say what communication technologies they show. Then write
them under each picture.

1________________ 2________________ 3________________ 4_____________


5________________ 6_______________ 7________________ 8______________

2. Watch the video “The History of Communication”.

Before you watch

A. Look at the following words and expressions to understand the video:

a milestone – краеугольный камень, веха

to enable – давать возможность
an advent – появление
you name it – всё, что угодно
it goes without saying – само собой разумеется
to keep a grip on smth.(the whole world) – крепко держаться за что-либо
ultimately = in the long run – в конечном итоге
in the meantime – между тем, тем временем
predominant – доминирующий
to convey – передавать
to come with the reach of man –стать досягаемым для человека

After you watch

B. Answer the following questions.

1. How did people contact one another in ancient times?
2. Why was the discovery of electricity an important milestone in the history of
3. What inventions were introduced after the discovery of electricity? What were/are their
4. What medium is considered predominant nowadays? Why?
5. How do people convey images, feelings and knowledge?

3. Work in pairs. Take turns to ask and answer these questions.

1. What methods of communication are you most likely to use? (blogs, Skype, the Internet,
social networks, mobile phones)
2. How often do you watch TV?
3. Which are your favourite/least favourite TV channels? Why?
4. What can you use the Internet for?
5. What are the good and bad things about the Internet?
6. What are your favourite websites? Why do you visit them, and how often do you visit
7. Are you a user of social networks?

4. Revise Simple, Continuous, Perfect forms of verbs. Complete the questions with the
correct forms of the verbs in brackets.
1 Do you prefer TV, radio, books or the Internet? Why? (prefer)
2 _________you_____________ anything at the moment? What? (read)
3 _________you_____________ anything interesting recently? What? (read)
4 _________ you ____________ a TV series at the moment? Which one? (follow)
5 _________ you ____________watching TV from other countries? Give examples. (like)
6 _________you ____________ any important news today? What? (hear)
7 _________ you ____________anything good on TV last week? What? (see)
B. Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions from exercise 4 A.

5. Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.
I think the Internet (1)_______ the greatest invention ever (to be). Think how it
(2)_________________the world (change). So much information is out there. It (3) _____
totally _________ my life (change). I can chat with friends, download music, buy books and
get all the info I (4) _________for my homework (need). It (5)________ days or weeks to
do any of these things before the Internet (take). I (6)____________hours every day online
(spend). I think I spend a little too long. I’m sure staring at a computer screen all day
(7)________good for my eyes (to be). I think it (8)______ also ___________ me fat
(make). I (9)____________to exercise a little more (need). The only (10)____________----
thing I about the Internet is that it can be dangerous (like). I don’t really like putting my
personal information online, especially on social networking sites like Facebook.

B. Listen and check.

Grammar (see Grammar Reference to the Module p.25)


6. Change to Reported Speech.

1. My friend said, “I am watching my favourite programme on TV.”
2. TV narrator reported, “We are going to start a new show next week.”
3. Paul admitted, “I haven`t seen this game.”
4. The teacher exclaimed, “You should work harder!”
5. The researcher said, “Texting is making our spelling worse.”
6. Sam promised, “I`ll send an email to confirm the date.”
7. John said, “I can’t do without a mobile phone.”
8. Dad said, “All the programmes are harmless fun.”
9. He said, “I didn’t understand the meaning of the film.”
10. Ann confessed, “I don`t like watching sitcoms.”

a) 1. I asked him, “What are you doing here?”

2. Ann asked her Mom, “When will you take me to the cinema?”
3. Father asked, “When does the football match start?”
4. I asked Bob, “Why didn’t you answer my letter?”
5. The teacher asked, “Who hasn’t done the home assignment?”
b) 1. She was interested to know, ”Is this new movie really worth watching?” 
2. Bobby wanted to know, “Do you have a blog or read other blogs?”
3. Jerry asked me, “Did you see that documentary about political corruption last night?”
4. I asked Nick, “Can you get two tickets for this sensational film?”
5. Jane wondered, “Is it your new website ?”

Commands and Requests:

1. Dad said to his son, “Turn the TV off!”
2. Mom said to her daughter, “Don’t watch this mindless rubbish!”
3. The manager said, “Please switch off your mobiles when the concert starts!”

7. Work in pairs. Student A: Reconstruct the Direct Speech in the following sentences.
Student B: Check up the partner’s answers with the help of the key (look at page 31 of
the Supplementary section at the book of the Module).

Student A

1. Nick said that a famous American actor had come to Moscow the previous week.

2. I wonder if the BBC World Service broadcasts throughout the world.

3. Jane said that she would advertise a new shampoo on TV.

4. He wanted to know when I switched my mobile phone off.

5. We were told that emails were usually more informal than letters.

6. I had to admit that I had never seen such a controversial programme.

7. He asked her to stay with them that night.

8. He stated that a plasma television is made up of two sheets of glass.

Now swap the roles. Student B: Reconstruct the Direct Speech in the following
sentences. Student A: Check up the partner’s answers with the help of the key (look at
page 31 of the Supplementary section at the book of the Module)
Student B
1. Linda said that her brother liked to watch crime mysteries.

2. Lena said that she hadn`t seen that game show.

3. He told me that he was chatting on the phone.

4. The teacher asked me which method of communication I used regularly.

5. She said she would get herself a mobile phone the following week.

6. They were instructed not to use stereo equipment.

7. Students wanted to know when satellite television had emerged.

8. He asked me whether he should phone her.

Additional suggestion

to learn about Object you can refer to the Supplementary section at the back of the
Module (p.31).

8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Она сказала, что любит исторические фильмы. 2. Я был уверен, что он сказал Вам,
что получил от неё письмо. 3. Джон сознался, что весь вечер смотрел телевизор. 4.
Газеты сообщили, что на орбиту запущен новый телекоммуникационный спутник. 5.
Нам сказали, что мы сможем воспользоваться интернетом, как только будут
устранены все технические проблемы. 6. Профессор сказал, чтобы я не приходил,
пока не выучу весь материал. 7. Из текста мы узнали, что первый телевизор был
изобретён в 1939 году. 8. Он попросил меня проверить электронную почту. 9.
Интересно знать, как передаётся телевизионный сигнал. 10.Они спросили меня, когда
начнутся новости.

Home assignment after Lesson 1:

1. Ex-ces 8, (Lesson 1), ex. 10 in Supplementary to Lesson 1 (optional)
2. Ex-ces 13, 14 (Lesson 2)
3. Ex. 15 (Text Technology and Communication and Vocabulary before the text (Lesson

Lesson 2. Objectives – to introduce the topic of Technology and
Communication, active vocabulary of the Module, to develop reading
skills, to encourage students to speak on the topic.

Word formation

11. Look at the adjective form of nouns and verbs.

A. Noun (существительное) or Verb( глагол) + ible (able) = Adjective (прилагательное)
e.g. access (доступ) – accessible (доступный), to rely (доверять) – reliable (надежный)
Form adjectives from the following verbs and nouns.
to reuse - _____________________
to dispose - ____________________
to refill - ______________________
to response - ___________________
to consider - ___________________
practice - _____________________
to achieve - ______________________

B. Look at the following prefixes and then make your own words.

tele- (=over a distance): e.g. television.

communications, phone, text, working, marketing.
trans- (=across): e.g. transmission
continental, corporation, form, Atlantic.
inter- (=between): e.g. interference
net, active, connections, national, continental.

12. Complete these sentences with words from 11 B.

(1)________________________ refers to the transmission of signals over a distance for the

purpose of communication. Information is (2)_______________ed by devices such as the
(3)______________, radio,(4)__________, satellite, or computer networks. Examples could
be two people speaking on their mobile phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client,
or even someone reading the (5)______________pages on TV. But in the modern world,
telecommunications mainly means transferring information across the
(6)_______________, via modem, phone lines or wireless networks.
Because of telecommunications, people can now work at home and communicate with their
office by computer and telephone. This is called (7)__________________.
It has been predicted that about one third of all work could eventually be performed outside
the workplace. In call centres, assistance or support is given to customers using the
telephone, email or online chats. They are also used for (8) __________________, the
process of selling goods and services over the phone.

13. Read and translate the following international words from the text “Technology and
apparatus |ˌapəˈreɪtəs|, media |ˈmiːdɪə|, connection |kəˈnɛkʃ(ə)n|, progress |ˈprəʊɡres| ,
mechanical  |məˈkænɪkl| process |ˈprəʊsɛs|, electronic transmission |tranzˈmɪʃ(ə)n|, practical,
telegraph, system, cable, electric pulses |ˈpʌlsɪz| , minute|ˈmɪnɪt|, mile |maɪl|, radio |ˈreɪdɪəʊ|,
public |ˈpʌblɪk|  demonstrations, technology  |tɛkˈnɒlədʒi|, television, project|ˈprɒdʒekt|,
visual |ˈvɪʒ(j)ʊəl| image |ˈɪmɪdʒ|, version |ˈvəːʃ(ə)n|, collectively |kəˈlɛktɪvli| , audio |ˈɔːdɪəʊ|
and visual signals, channel|ˈtʃan(ə)l|, satellite |ˈsatəlʌɪt|, antennae  |ænˈteniː|, limit ˈlɪmɪt| ,
browser |ˈbraʊzə|, navigate |ˈnavɪɡeɪt|.
14. Read and learn pronunciation of the words from the text “Technology and
allow [ə'lau], saturate |ˈsætʃəreɪt|, rely  |rɪˈlʌɪ|, variety |vəˈrʌɪəti|, entertainment |ɛntə
ˈteɪnm(ə)nt|, occur |əˈkəː|, origin |ˈɒrɪdʒɪn|, transmit |tranzˈmɪt| , through |θruː|, evolve |ɪ
ˈvɒlv|, digitized |ˈdɪdʒəˌtaɪzd|, particular |pəˈtɪkjʊlə|, either |ˈʌɪðə|, precursor  |prɪˈkəːsə|,
though |ðəʊ|, cruiser|ˈkruːzə| notify |ˈnəʊtɪfʌɪ|, relatively |ˈrɛlətɪvli|, simultaneously |ˌsɪml
ˈteɪnɪəsli|, capable ['keipabl], mountainous |ˈmaʊntɪnəs|, readjustment |ˌriːəˈdʒʌstmənt|,
require |rɪˈkwʌɪə|.

allow v позволять, разрешать precursor n предшественник

attractive adj привлекательный relatively adv относительно

capable adj cnoco6ный; to be ̴ быть в rely on v доверять, полагаться
состоянии (на)
enable v давать возможность report v/n сообщать,
entertainmen развлечение докладывать/доклад
tn require v требовать, нуждаться
evolve v развивать, развиваться, responsible adj ответственный, to be ̴
эволюционировать for отвечать за что-
go on v продолжать, search n/v поиск (n), искать (v),
продолжаться ̴ out разыскивать
in particular в особенности, в simultaneously одновременно
adv частности adv
notify v уведомлять, извещать solve v решать
occur v происходить, возникать take place v происходить,
ongoing adj постоянный, though conj хотя
origin n возникновение, through prep через, сквозь
происхождение, начало
pave the way подготавливать почву, trace n/ v след (n), отслеживать
прокладывать путь (v)
transmit v передавать

crude adj – сырой, предварительный

either – каждый, любой, любой из двух

Additional suggestion
to learn more about structures with either you can refer to the Supplementary
section at the back of the Module (p.32).

15. Read the text and match the headings (1-6) with the gaps (a-f).
1. Wireless 2.Technology 3. Sound 4. The 5. Cable 6. Mass
Sound Leading to communications Internet and communication
Transmission Visual Mass and Satellite evolution
Media Digital Television

Technology and Communication


We live in a media-saturated world and rely on a variety of old and new media for
information, entertainment, and connection. The beginnings of mass media and mass
communication go back 560 years to the “print revolution” that occurred in Europe in the
fifteenth century. As we progressed through the centuries, mass communication evolved
from a mechanical process to electronic transmission, which paved the way for the
digitized world of today.

The origins of sound-based communication, radio in particular, can be traced to the
invention of the telegraph. The telegraph was invented in the 1840s and was made practical
by Samuel Morse, who invented a system of dots and dashes that could be transmitted
across the telegraph cable using electric pulses, making it the first one-to-one
communication technology. Messages were encoded to and decoded from dots and dashes
on either end of the cable. This first cable could only transmit about six words per minute,
but it was the precursor to the global communications network that we now rely on every
day. Something else was needed, though, to solve some ongoing communication problems.
During this time, war ships couldn’t be notified when wars ended and they sometimes went
on fighting for months before they could be located and informed.


In May 1895, the Russian physicist, Alexander Popov, reported sending and receiving a
wireless signal across a 600 yards distance. In March 1897, Prof. Popov equipped a land
station at Kronstadt and the Russian navy cruiser “Africa” with his wireless
communications apparatus for ship-to-shore communications.
In about 1900, Popov's wireless apparatus was used in what may have been the first ever use
of radio communications to help a vessel in distress. The battleship General Admiral
Apraksin was going down amidst the ice floes of the Gulf of Finland with hundreds of
sailors and officers aboard, but Popov's radio system enabled them to contact islands 45
kilometers away.
After Popov, the road to radio broadcast was relatively short, as others quickly expanded on
his work. Numerous experiments and public demonstrations of radio technology—some
more successful than others—were taking place around the same time in the late 1800s and
early 1900s.

As was the case with radio, several people were simultaneously working to expand the
technology that would soon be known as television. In 1884, Paul Nipkow invented a
mechanical television-like device that could project a visual image. It took a while for this
crude version of a television to be turned into a more functional electronic version. In 1923,
Vladimir Zworykin improved on this technology, followed closely by John Baird and Philo
Farnsworth. Collectively, these men are responsible for the invention of television, which
was the first mass medium capable of instantly and wirelessly transmitting audio and visual


Network and broadcast television was forever changed by the growth of cable and satellite
technology.  Cable was especially attractive to people who lived in mountainous, hilly, or
rural areas that had difficulty receiving the broadcast channels’ signals. Many people were
also happy to give up ugly rooftop antennae that required readjustment for each channel


The “Internet and digital media age” began in 1990 and continues today. Tim Berners-Lee is
the man who made the Internet functional for the masses. In 1989, Berners-Lee created new
computer-programming codes that fixed some problems that were limiting the growth of the
Internet as a mass medium. Berners-Lee also invented the first browser, which allowed
people to search out information and navigate the growing number of interconnections
among computers. Berners-Lee named his new network the “World Wide Web.”

Notes to the text:

ship-to-shore communications – связь между кораблем и берегом

to help a vessel in distress – помочь судну, терпящему бедствие
amidst the ice floes – среди обломков льда

16. Based on the information from the text and your own knowledge decide what these
statements are about.

1. It paved the way for radio and television broadcasts.

2. Advances in signal transmission and reception as well as vacuum tube technology made
them more reliable and compact.

3. The two types of television began to compete with broadcast television, as they provided
access to more channels.
4. The development of digital code, microprocessors, and fiber-optic cables were key
technological advances that made it and digital communication possible.
5. It copied many of radio’s ideas and soon displaced the radio as the centerpiece for
entertainment in people’s homes.
6. It took advantage of new technologies to become portable and follow people out of their
17. Scan the text for the following reference words and phrases and then say what they
refer to.
this first cable (para 2) this technology (para 4)
this time (para 2) these men (para 4)
some more successful than others (para 3) the man (para 6)
this crude version (para 4)

18. Complete these two tables with the missing part of speech.
Verb Adjective
Verb Noun

19. Work in pairs. Use the words from Active Vocabulary and from the Text in the
correct form to complete the gaps.
1. The digital technology s___________ the old problems of noise in signal transmission.
2. Where did the survey t______ p_________?
3. T__________ first developed for military purposes, radar can be used in modern cars.
4. One laser beam could carry all the radio, TV and telephone messages s______________.
5. Cable was especially a_________________ to people who lived in mountainous, hilly, or
rural areas.
6. Digital TV provides a better quality of picture and sound and a______________
broadcasters to deliver more channels.
7. The equipment r_________________ further improvement.
8. These men are r______________________ for the invention of television, which was the
first mass medium capable of instantly and wirelessly transmitting audio and visual signals.
9.  He was n____________________ that he did not get the job.
10. This doesn't improve the speed of transport vehicles in general and that of an automobile
i____ p_________________.
11. The o_________________ of sound-based communication can be traced to the
invention of the telegraph.
12. Through the centuries, mass communication e______________ from a mechanical
process to electronic transmission.
13. This evolution p___________ t____ w________ for the digitized world of today.
14. Rocket-launching, concerts and football and tennis matches can be seen direct as they
15. The newspapers r_____________ that the Trade Union Congress had finished its work.

20 Look through the text Technology and Communication again. What are the
following years and numbers associated with?
1. 560 2. 1840 3. 1895 4. 45

5. 1884 6. 1923 7. 1989 8. 1990

21. Summarize the technological advances of the print, audiovisual, and
Internet and digital technologies (8-10 sentences). You may use additional information
from Supplementary section.

Home assignment:
1. ex. 21. (you may use additional materials in the Supplementary section at the back of the
Module p. 32, 33)
2. Active Vocabulary – to be learned.

Lesson 3. Objectives – to practise the use of vocabulary, to acquire the

basic vocabulary associated with the Internet, to develop
reading/listening skills on the topic of the Internet, to encourage students
to discuss the topic, to practice grammar - “Reported Speech”.

22. Discuss how you would define the Internet.

The Internet is ……
a) Make a list of all the things you can use the Internet for.
b) Describe how people did all these things before the Internet was born.

23. Work in pairs. Read a dialogue between a customer buying a PC and a sales
assistant. Why do you think the sales assistant has to explain so much about the

Assistant: .. .so that's £549 including VAT. Is there anything else I can help you with?
Customer: Well, would you mind explaining how I access the Internet with this computer?
I don't think I really even understand what the Internet is! Wait a minute, I'm going to write
this down.
Assistant: Of course. Well, basically, the Internet is a global network of computer networks,
which allows users to share all kinds of information and computer resources. The system is
made up of networks interconnected all over the world, from universities and large
corporations to commercial online systems and non-profit organizations...
Customer: OK, that sounds complicated enough! And can I access the Internet
automatically with this PC?
Assistant: Well, you need a computer and a modem - a device that connects your PC to the
telephone line. You'll also need an account with an Internet Service Provider, or ISP - that's
a company that offers connection to the Internet for a monthly fee.
Customer: OK, that sounds easy, but what if we have several computers in different rooms.
How can I connect them all to the Internet?
Assistant: In that case, the best choice is a wireless router with a built-in modem. It's a
device that links various computers over a network and will connect everyone in your
family to the Internet without using cables. New computers include wireless support but if
any of the computers are old, you'll need a Wi-Fi wireless adapter.
Customer: I'm sorry, but what does Wi-Fi mean exactly?
Assistant: Wi-Fi is short for Wireless Fidelity and refers to a technology that uses radio
waves to communicate data over medium range distances.
Customer: Right. And so that’s everything?
Assistant: Not quite. You'll need some software too, specifically internet connection
software and a Web browser application, such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox.
Customer: OK, I think I've got it. And I'll be able to start emailing straight away?
Assistant: You can do more than just email. There is file transfer, newsgroups, real-time
chats, instant messaging and looking for information on the Web.
Customer: Wow, this all sounds complicated. I'm not sure I even understand the difference
between Web and the Internet.
Assistant: Well, the Web is a huge collection of “pages” stored on computers all over the
world. Web рages contain all sorts of information in the form of text, pictures, sounds and
video. The Internet is the network which connects all the computers.
Customer: OK, I think I've got it.

© Cambridge University Press 2008

24. Complete the customer`s notes

© Cambridge University Press 2008

25. Imagine your partner is new to using the Internet. Explain to him how to reach a
website. The following words/word combinations might be helpful.

To connect to the Internet, computer, modem, Internet service provider, access, wireless,
things you can do, email, instant messaging, real-time chats, look for information.

26. You are going to hear findings related to Media Use study conducted by Ofcom
(a communications regulator in the UK). The following words help you understand the

access (v) – иметь доступ myriad (n) – несметное число

catch up (v) – нагонять offer (v) - предлагать
consumption (n) - потребление reveal (v) – обнаруживать, открывать
inevitably (adv) - неминуемо treble (v) – утраивать
instant messaging –мгновенная передача watchdog (n) – надзорный комитет

27. Listen and mark TRUE or FALSE statements.

1. The 27 hours a week is twice that from a decade ago. T / F

2. Researchers interviewed thousands of 20-29- year-olds. T / F
3. Most online content is now being accessed on mobile devices. T / F
4. Around two-thirds of British adults often use a mobile device. T / F
5. An industry expert spoke of a myriad of possibilities. T / F
6. The expert said young people are just watching content online. T / F
7. More than 25% of young people watch TV and movies online. T / F
8. The expert said TVs would never be unimportant. T / F

28. Match the synonyms from ex.26.

1. survey a. frequently
2. reveals b. for sure
3. trebled c. greatly
4. regularly d. shows
5. considerably e. multitude
6. expert f. study
7. myriad g. provides
8. inevitably h. specialist
9. instead of i. increased three-fold
10. offers j. rather than

29. Do the Multiple Choice-Quiz using the information from ex. 26.
1. Where did the survey take place? 6. What opens up a myriad of possibilities?
  a) the USA   a) money
b) at a university b) new technologies
c) Britain c) friends
d) online d) the new Apple Watch
2. Who was interviewed? 7. What are people doing at the same time as
  a) 16-24-year-olds   a) texting

b) 18-28-year-olds b) eating
c) 18-30-year-olds c) working
d) 16-30-year-olds d) chatting
3. Where is most online content being 8. What kind of consumption is going to be
accessed? affected?
  a) on computers   a) gas
b) London b) food
c) India c) TV viewing
d) on iPads d) online
4. What fraction of adults regularly use What size of TV is mentioned towards the end
a mobile device? 9. of the article?
  a) 3/4   a) 14-inch
b) 2/3 b) 60-inch
c) 7/8 c) 32-inch
d) 1/2 d) 40-inch

5. What are many people checking 10 What did someone say TV will never become?
today? .
  a) their email   a) unimportant
b) prices b) a tablet
c) their bank accounts c) paper-based
d) social media accounts d) ubiquitous

30. Work in pairs to discuss the following questions.

1. Is 27 hours a week too much? What are the bad things about using the Internet too
2. Can we believe anything we read on the World Wide Web?
3. Making friends online – is it the same as making friends in ‘real life’?
4. What would life be like without the Internet?
5. Do you ever get fed up with the Internet?

31. Role-play

Role  A – Google

You think Google is the best website. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their
sites aren't as good. Also, tell the others which is the least useful of these (and why):
Facebook, Vkontakte or Odnoklassniki.
Role  B – Vkontakte

You think Vkontakte is the best website. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why
their sites aren't as good. Also, tell the others which is the least useful of these (and why):
Google, Facebook or Odnoklassniki.
32. Practise asking and answering the questions (in the you form) using these prompts.
Example: When/first/use the Internet When did you first use the Internet?

1. What type of Internet connection/have at home?

2. How fast/your Internet connection?
3. How much/pay for broadcast access?
4. How often/access the Internet?
5. Do/use your mobile phone to access the Internet?
6. Do/use the Internet in public spaces using Wi/Fi?
7. Do/play games online?
8. How many social networks/are on?
(based on the materials of Cambridge University Press 2008)

33. Change the questions from 32 into indirect questions using the following
1. My friend asked me …
2. I wonder ….
3. She was interested to know…
4. Bobby wanted to know ….
5. The shop assistant asked me….
6. I`d like to find it out….
7. They wondered
8. I asked Nick….

34. Find mistakes in these reported sentences and correct them.

1. A new survey in Britain revealed that young people spend over 27 hours a week online. 2.
I asked my friend how can I access the Internet. 3. I don't think I really understand what is
the Internet. 4. He said us that a modem is a device that connects a PC to the telephone line.
5. Ofcom found that online content has changed considerably in the past ten years. 6. The
expert told TVs would never be unimportant. 7. I wonder what would life be like without
the Internet? 8. I said I’ll email them.
Home assignment:
1. Ex-ces 33, 34
2. Ex. 36 from Lesson 4 –listening and reading
Lesson 4. Objectives – to introduce the topic of the Mobile phone, to
acquire vocabulary related to the topic, to develop reading and listening
skills, to encourage students to speak and to write on the topic, to
revise/learn grammar material.

Look at these pictures. What are these people doing?

2 3

35. Work with a partner to discuss the following:

1. What is your preferred way to communicate with friends: email, telephone, social
networks or text messaging?
2. How much time do you spend talking on the phone, texting or sending email?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones compared to land-lines?
4. What problems can you have when using a mobile phone?
5. What other things can mobile phones be used for apart from just talking to another

36. Listen to the article and read it.

Mobile phones
by Craig

When Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876, it was a revolution
in communication. For the first time, people could talk to each other over great distances
almost as clearly as if they were in the same room. Nowadays, though, we increasingly use
Bell’s invention for emails, faxes and the internet rather than talking. Over the last two
decades a new means of spoken communication has emerged: the mobile phone. The
modern mobile phone is a more complex version of the two-way radio. Traditional two way
radio was a very limited means of communication. As soon as the users moved out of range
of each other’s broadcast area, the signal was lost. In the 1940s, researchers began
experimenting with the idea of using a number of radio masts (мачты) located around the
countryside to pick up signals from two-way radios. A caller would always be within range
of one of the masts; when he moved too far away from one mast, the next mast would pick
up the signal. (Scientists referred to each mast’s reception area as being a separate “cell”;
this is why in many countries mobile phones are called “cell phones”.) However, 1940s
technology was still quite primitive, and the “telephones” were enormous boxes which had
to be transported by car.
The first real mobile telephone call was made in 1973 by Dr Martin Cooper, the scientist
who invented the modern mobile handset. As soon as his invention was complete, he tested
it by calling a rival scientist to announce his success. Within a decade, mobile phones
became available to the public. The streets of modern cities began to feature sharp-suited
characters shouting into giant plastic bricks. In Britain the mobile phone quickly became
synonymous with the “yuppie”, the new breed of young urban professionals who carried the
expensive handsets as status symbols. Around this time many of us swore that we would
never, ever own a mobile phone.
But in the mid-90s, something happened. Cheaper handsets and cheaper calling rates meant
that, almost overnight, it seemed that everyone had a mobile phone. And the giant plastic
bricks of the 80s had evolved into smooth little objects that fitted nicely into pockets and
bags. In every pub and restaurant you could hear the bleep and buzz of mobiles ringing and
registering messages, occasionally breaking out into primitive versions of the latest pop
songs. Cities suddenly had a new, postmodern birdsong.
Moreover, people’s timekeeping changed. Younger readers will be amazed to know that, not
long ago, people made spoken arrangements to meet at a certain place at a certain time.
Once a time and place had been agreed, people met as agreed. Somewhere around the new
millennium, this practice started to die out. Meeting times became approximate, subject to
change at any moment under the new order of communication: the Short Message Service
(SMS) or text message. Going to be late? Send a text message! It takes much less effort than
arriving on time, and it’s much less awkward than explaining your lateness face-to-face. It’s
the perfect communication method for the busy modern lifestyle. Like email before it, the
text message has altered the way we write in English, bringing more abbreviations and a
more lax approach to language construction. The 160-character
limit on text messages has led to a new, abbreviated version of English for fast and
instantaneous communication. Traditional rules of grammar and spelling are much less

important when you’re sitting on the bus, hurriedly typing “Will B 15min late - C U @ the
bar. Sorry! :-)”.
Mobile phones, once the preserve of the high-powered businessperson and the “yuppie”, are
now a vital part of daily life for an enormous amount of people. From schoolchildren to
pensioners, every section of society has found that it’s easier to stay in touch when you’ve
got a mobile. Over the last few years mobiles have become more and more advanced, with
built-in cameras, global positioning devices and internet access. And in the next couple of
years, we can expect to see the arrival of the “third generation” of mobile phones: powerful
micro-computers with broadband internet access, which will allow us to watch TV,
download internet files at high speed and send instant video clips to friends. Alexander
Graham Bell would be amazed if he could see how far the science of telephony has
progressed in less than 150 years. If he were around today, he might say: “That’s gr8! But
I’m v busy rite now. Will call U2nite.”

37. Match the words and phrases in the table to their definitions:
1. emerge 2. primitive 3. rival 4. decade
5. synonymous 6. postmodern 7. lax 8. vital

a. Really important; without this it won't work

b. To appear as if from a hidden place
c. Meaning the same
d. Consciously mixing ideas from different periods or disciplines
e. Basic
f. Someone you compete with
g. Without care and attention to the rules
h. 10 years

38. Multiple choice. Read the questions and choose the right answer using the
information from 36 .
1. Modern mobile phone technology is based on:
a. two-way radio
b. global positioning devices
c. yuppies

2. More people bought mobile phones in the 1990s because:

a. traditional phones didn't work anymore
b. they were bad at timekeeping
c. mobile phones became a lot cheaper

3. The first mobile phone call took place between:

a. two scientists
b. two Scotsmen
c. two yuppies

4. Mobile phones are sometimes called cell phones because of:

a. a technical term for telephone masts
b. a technical term for mobile handsets
c. the number of mobile phones used in prisons

5. The first commercially available mobile phones looked like:

a. small, pocket-sized objects
b. telephone masts
c. giant plastic bricks

6. A text message saying "Gr8! Will call U 2nite" means:

a. Great! I'll call you tonight.
b. Good grief! Please call William tonight.
c. I'll be 15 minutes late

39. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the following questions:

1. How many mobile phones have you had so far? 2. Do you always have your mobile
phone with you? 3. Do you turn it off at night? 4. Do you keep it on during a lesson? 5. Are
you phone addictive? 6. What do you usually use your mobile phone for? (name its
functions). 7. Can you imagine your life without mobile phones? Would you be really lost
without it? 8. What happens when you leave your mobile phone at home?

40. Write one or two sentences giving your opinions about these statements. Use
the following expressions:
In my opinion,….. From my point of view….. I believe…… I`d say….
Mobile connection is
Using mobile phones in Texting is making our
not the cheapest way
public transport is impolite spelling worse
to keep in touch with

41. Have you ever made telephone calls in English? When? What for?

A. Read a common phoning scenario checking the meaning of the words in bold.

Phoning scenario

You want to phone someone in a company. You pick up the phone. You hear the dialing
tone and dial the number on the keypad. You don`t know the person`s direct line number,
so you dial the number of the company`s switchboard. One of these things happens.
a. The number rings but no answers.
b. You hear the engaged tone (BrE)/busy tone (AmE) because the other person is already
talking on the phone. You hang up and try again later.
c. You get through, but not to the number you wanted. The person who answers says
you`ve got the wrong number and asks you to hold on.
d. The operator answers. You ask for the extension of the person you want to speak to.
e. You are put through to the wrong extension. The person offers to transfer you to the
right extension. But you are cut off – the call ends.
f. The person you want to speak to is not at their desk and you leave a message on
their voicemail. You ask them to call you back or to return your call.

B. Complete these sentences with the correct part of one of these ‘telephone’ phrasal
verbs (If there is a pronoun in brackets, put it in the right place).
cut someone off get through hold on

pick something up put someone through ring off

1 I’ve been trying to phone him all morning but I can’t_____ __________.
2 I was talking to Ann, then for no apparent reason she just_____ ______.
3 Hello. Mr Johnson is expecting your call. I’ll just_________ (you) __________.
4 To make a phone call,_____ ____the receiver and dial the number you want.
5 In the middle of our conversation we_____ quite suddenly _____ ____. (Use the
6 He’s in the office somewhere. Can you just_________ _____ while I try to find him?

Additional suggestion
You may wish to do the crossword ex.41C in the Supplementary section

42. Work in pairs to complete the telephone conversation. Then practice it and make
up your own one. Use the phrases in the box.
Could you ask her to call me Can I speak to
I’m sorry, she’s away today Can I have your number?
Can you spell that, please? Could you give her a message?
Who’s calling, please? Could you tell me your name again?
Hold the line, please.

Receptionist: Good afternoon. Global Travel. How can I help you?

Caller: Hello. ___________(1) Emma Norton, please?
Caller: It’s George Kolasinski.
Receptionist: Thank you. __________(3) I’ll put you through to her office.
Caller: Thank you.
Colleague: Emma Norton’s phone. David Lawson here. Can I help you?
Caller: Oh, this is George Kolasinski. Could I speak to Emma, please?
Colleague: _______________(4)
Caller: Oh, I need to speak to her – It’s quite important.
Colleague: Perhaps I can help you.
Caller: Thank you. ______________(5)
Colleague: Yes, of course.
Caller: ____________(6) tomorrow morning?
Colleague: Yes, certainly. ____________(7) , please?
Caller: It’s Kolasinski. George Kolasinski.
Colleague: _____________(8)
Caller: It’s K-O-L-A-S-I-N-S-K-I.
Colleague: And _____________(9)
Caller: It’s 0-1-6-5-7, 3-double two-5-8-9-0.
Colleague: Right. So that’s Mr George Kolasinski on 0-1-6-5-7, 3-double two-5-8-9-0.
Caller: That’s it. Thank you very much. Goodbye.
Colleague: Goodbye.

Home assignment:
1. Ex. 40
2. Prepare presentations/reports on one of the suggested topics:
1. Modern means of communication.
2. Television in our life.
3. The birth of the Internet.
4. Social networks. What are the good and the bad things about social networking?
5. The history of mobile phones.
6. Functions of mobile phones.


1. Translate into Russian. (2 points)

1. What we need to know is whether new means of communication will be available in
the future and whether they will change the quality of our life. 
2. You should know that it was Vladimir Zworykin, who was responsible for the
invention of television.
3. At the lecture we were told that numerous experiments and public demonstrations of
radio technology had been taking place around the same time in the late 1800s and
early 1900s.
4. Can you tell me whether satellites are used for telephone communication?

2. Translate into English. (2 points)
1. Студенты не знали, что кабельное телевидение появилось в 1949 году.
2. Лектора спросили, когда был запущен первый коммуникационный спутник.
3. Find and correct the mistakes. (2 points)
1. I was told that I’ve got the wrong number.
2. The students were told that the first cable can only transmit about six words per
3. A new survey in Britain revealed that two thirds of adults regularly use a smartphone
or tablet.
4. We were informed that the lecture on telecommunications was rearranged for
4. Unjumble the words and write two or three more sentences on the given topic. (4

Telephones (1) are these lives our of part major a days. When I was growing up, (2) used
phone a perhaps the once I week. (3) it a rang big It event was when almost. Everyone
rushed (4) into find the out living who room was to calling. (5) phone , an style course was -
Of it old – the size of a football. And (6) to had you table the on it leave because it was
plugged into the wall. Today, however, is a totally different matter. Everyone has a phone.
Some people I know have several. (7) change They months six every them when the latest
models come out. Today’s phones aren’t really phones. They are like personal entertainment
devices that have a phone. I’m waiting for the watch phone. (8) it’ll sure I’m soon here be.

Grammar Reference
Sequence of Tenses
Часть 1 Косвенная речь (Indirect Speech). Правила перевода прямой речи в
косвенную речь.

Вам известны такие грамматические термины, как «прямая и косвенная речь». В

русском языке нам не составляет труда переводить прямую речь в косвенную. «Кто эта
девушка у окна?»  - «Она моя сестра». Это прямая речь, т.е. диалог двух людей. В косвенной
речи это выглядит так: «Саша спросил меня, кто эта девушка у окна, а я ответил, что это моя
Как перевести прямую речь в косвенную

Прямую речь в английском языке мы переводим без труда, но как же превратить ее в

косвенную? Для этого существуют определенные правила. Как обычно, такие предложения
начинаются с главного предложения, например, «он говорит, она сказала, меня спросили, она
поинтересовалась и т.д.», за которым следует придаточное предложение.

• Он говорит, что она заболела

В данном случае «он говорит» — это главное предложение, а «что она заболела» —
придаточное. С переводом повествовательных предложений в косвенную речь  не возникает
особых трудностей: слова автора становятся главным предложением, а прямая речь —
придаточным, которое вводится союзом that:  Он говорит, что она заболела – He says, that she
has fallen ill.

Mary says: “Yesterday I saw a new film with Mary says that yesterday she saw a new film
Brad Pitt” with Brad Pitt.
Mr. Smith says: “I like travelling. I have been Mr. Smith says that he likes travelling and he
to many countries” has been to many countries.

Вопрос в косвенной речи

Когда мы переводим вопросительные предложения в косвенную речь необходимо

учитывать некоторые нюансы.

1. Порядок слов в английском косвенном вопросе прямой, то есть, как и в утвердительном

He asks: “Who is that girl?” He asks who that girl is.

Mary asks her friend: “When are you going on Mary asks her friend when she is going on
vacation?” vacation.

My mother asks me: “Where did you see

Peter?” My mother asks me where I saw Peter.

2. При переводе вопроса в косвенную речь глагол ask – спрашивать, можно заменять

другими гаголами по смыслу: wonder – интересоваться, want to know – хотеть знать
Pete asks : “Where does your father work?” Peter wonders where my father works.

My brother asks: “When is David’s My brother wants to know when David’s birthday
birthday?” is.

3. Общий и альтернативный вопросы вводятся в косвенную речь при помощи союзов  if и

whether – ли. Оба эти союза равнозначны, но whether чаще используется в формальной речи,
а в разговорной предпочтение отдается союзу if:
A stranger in the street asks me if I speak English.  –
A stranger in the street asks me: “Do Незнакомец на улице спрашивает  меня, знаю ли я
you speak English?” английский.

Jane wonders if it is going to rain. – Джейн

Jane asks: “Is it going to rain? интересуется, пойдет ли дождь.

Mother asks Bob: “Will you have tea

Mother asks Bob if he will have tea or coffee. – Мама
or coffee?” спрашивает, Боба, будет ли он чай или кофе

Bill wants to know whether his girlfriend would prefer

Chinese or Italian restaurant.  Вилл хочет знать,
“Would you prefer Chinese or Italian предпочитает ли его подруга китайский или
restaurant?” – Bill asks his girlfriend. итальянский ресторан.

Повелительные предложения в косвенной речи

Повелительные предложения передаются в косвенной речи  при помощи to и not to, а также
глаголов ask – просить, tell – велеть, order – приказывать, после которых должен стоять
объект, к которому обращаются.
My sister asks me to help her with her homework.  –
Моя сестра просит меня помочь ей с домашним
My sister says: “Please help me with
my homework”  

Mother tells me to come home by 10 o’clock. – Мама

велит мне прийти домой к 10 часам.
“Come home by 10 o’clock!” Mother

Father says to his daughter: “Don’t go Father tells his daughter not to go there alone. – Отец не
there alone”. велит своей дочери ходить туда одной.

The colonel orders the soldiers not to fire. Полковник

The colonel shouts: “Don’t fire!” приказывает солдатам не стрелять.

Mother says: “Don’t make noise, father Mother asks us not to make noise as father is sleeping.
is sleeping” Мама просит нас не шуметь, потому что папа спит.

Часть 2. Согласование времен.

Если глагол в главном предложении стоит в настоящем времени, то в придаточном
предложении глагол может стоять в любом времени по смыслу, меняется, как правило,
только порядок слов.
Если же глагол в главном предложении стоит в прошедшем времени, то в
придаточном предложении время глагола также меняется: применяется правило «шаг назад»
или «шаг в прошлое».

Проиллюстрируем на примере глаголов:

 Он сказал, что он врач – He said, that he was (а не is) a doctor
 Джейн спросила, могу ли я пойти с ней – Jane asked if I could (а не can) go with her.
 Сара сказала, что идет в магазин – Sarah said, that she was going to the shop (а не is).
 Мама сказала, что ей не нравится фильм – Mother said, that she didn’t like the film (а не
does not)

Предлоги и наречия меняются следующим образом:

Рассмотрим следующие примеры:

He said: “I am busy now” He said he was busy then.

She said: “Yesterday I met my ex-boyfriend at She said she had met her ex-boyfriend at the
the exhibition” exhibition the day before.
He complained that it was too hot  there and he
He said: “It’s too hot here, I don’t feel well” didn’t feel well.
She said they were going to Rome the following
She said: “We are going to Rome next week” week.
He said: “I am very tired today” He said he was very tired that day.


Lesson 1
7. Student B
Student B
1. “A famous American actor came to Moscow last week.”

2. “Does the BBC World Service broadcast throughout the world?.”

3.  “I`ll advertise a new shampoo on TV.”

4. “When do you switch your mobile phone off?”

5. “E-mails are usually more informal than letters.”

6. “I have never seen such a controversial programme.”

7. “Please, stay with us tonight!”

8. “A plasma television is made up of two sheets of glass.”

Student A
1. “My brother likes to watch crime mysteries.”

2. “I haven`t seen this game show.”

3. “I am chatting on the phone.”

4. “Which method of communication do you use regularly?”
5. “I’ll get myself a mobile phone next week.”
6. “Do not use stereo equipment!”
7. “When did satellite television emerge?”
8. “Shall I phone her?”

Direct and Indirect Objects (Dos and IOs)

9. Watch the video about Direct and Indirect Objects.

10. Complete the sentences with the words in brackets in the correct order.
1. I promised to deliver _______________________. (parcel/the/her)
2. We have already shown _______________________ . (the/Mrs. Clark/to/project)
3. We will write________________________________. (letter/a/John)
4. I can lend ___________________________________. (book/her/the)
5. They will immediately send_____________________ . (a/us/to/fax)
6. Keep _____________________________ . (place/her/the/for)
7. They've bought ______________________ . (daughter/new/a/flat/their)
8. Show__________________________________ . (to/his/him/room)
9. You should give __________________________ . (of/your/a/teacher/bunch/flowers)
10. My mum made ___________________________ . (for/cake/me/a/huge)

Lesson 2
А.: Do you know what the words either and neither mean?
B.: Yes, I do. Either means каждый, любой, любой из двyx, while neither stands for ни
один, ни один (из).
A.: That's correct. Can you give examples?
B.: Yes I can. For example: There is a number of lecture rooms on either side of the
corridor. Which of these dictionaries can be used for translating a technical article? You
may use either.
A.: And in what way is either translated when it is used with or? For instance: “Please,
bring some dictionaries either from the library or from the reading room.”
B.: Either ... or ... means либо ... либo, или ... или.
A.: Now let us speak about neither, it is the negative form of either, meaning ни тот…ни
другой. For instance: I was offered two books, but I took neither of them, as I did not like
B.: And neither connected with nor means ни ... ни, for example: These problems seemed
difficult neither to my friend, nor to me.
A.: Are these words used in any other way?
B.: Yes, they may be used in short negative sentences such as: “I don't like this book”, said
Peter. “Neither do I”, said Ann, which means Мне тоже (не нравится). I`ll not go to the
library tomorrow. He won't go either. (Он тоже нет).

To reading “Technology and Communication”

Printing Press

The history of the printing press dates back to the 1400s, when Johannes Guternberg created a
model based on primitive versions already in use. His printing press used removable metal letters
that could be rearranged to create blocks of text. Before that, people had to pen texts by hand, which
was an extremely laborious process. During the Renaissance, commercial printing presses could
churn out almost 4,000 pages each day. Before the printing press, books were highly valued and
treasured objects. Many families would only have one book in their homes: the Bible. The printing
press allowed people to access books and pamphlets for far lower prices, helping to educate them
and introduce them to new ideas. Johannes Gutenberg’s first creation using his new press was a
copy of the bible; an extremely famous version that is known as the Gutenberg Bible. Since his
time, printing presses have evolved into more sophisticated versions, but they are still used for the
same reasons to distribute news and literature on a mass scale.

After the telegraph was invented, others continued to experiment with electromagnets and their
potential in telecommunication devices. With so many active inventors sharing ideas and
developing machines with overlapping concepts, there is some dispute as to the original inventor of
the telephone. However in 1876, one man, Alexander Graham Bell, did succeed legally by securing
a patent for his version of the telephone, and so he is remembered best in association with this
invention. Several decades earlier, telephone-type devices required the listener to speak and listen
through the same piece. Later, the phone evolved into a device where the listener had to hold one
piece to their ear and speak into the main phone unit. A later version, the model with which we are
more familiar with today, included both earpiece and mouth piece on one handle. Many telephone
operators were also later replaced by self-dialing systems.

Even before the Internet was fully evolved, electronic mail had been developed in the 1970s as a
way to send messages from one computer to another. In the early days, both users had to be online
at the same time in order to send and receive messages through a central system. It was a computer
network called ARPANET that largely contributed to the development of email. In 1971, the first
email was sent by Ray Tomlinson, an American programmer. Instead of only being able to send text
messages, we can also transfer multimedia and other attachments as well. Through the 1990s, email
quickly caught on as the quick, new way to communicate. While email is still one of the main
means of modern communication methods, it is facing some competition from instant messaging
and social media services. 

Cell Phone

In the 1970s, a researcher at Motorola named Martin Cooper began working on portable
communication devices. In 1973, he developed a type of mobile phone. It was a large, clunky
prototype, now colloquially referred to as “the brick” for its awkward size and shape. For the next
couple of decades, the main aim of many cell phone manufacturers was to make phones that were
smaller and sleeker. With digital cell phones, new options were added, such as the ability to store
phone numbers, change ring tones and even play games. In recent years, this has given way
to smart phones. These devices combine computing power into a cell phone, giving the user
Internet access and basic computer functionality all in a pocket-sized cell phone.
Author: James Parker Doyle

Lesson 4
41 C. Read the definitions and write the missing words.
4. Please leave your name and telephone number. We will get back to you as soon as we can. Wait
for the _____and then speak.
6. A machine which answers the telephone for you is a _____.
7. - The phone is ringing.
- OK, I'll _____it.
9. The continuous sound you hear when you pick up a phone is called the dialing_____.
11. I've been trying to phone him all morning, but I just can't get_____.
12. We were in the middle of an important conversation when we were suddenly cut_____.

1. A phone that you carry around with you is _____.
2. If the person you want to talk to is not there, you can leave a _____.
3. If people phone and try to sell me something I don't want, I hang_____.
5. To talk to someone on the phone, you make a telephone _____.
8. To end a telephone conversation by putting the receiver down. (2 words)
10. - Can I talk to Paul, please? - Yes, Could you just hold_____, please? I'll try his extension.