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Grammar-Vocabulary WORKBOOK
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Learning Language: English

Nominal and modifiers


A1
Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

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• Nominal and modifiers
• Mood, voice and auxiliaries
• The sentence
• The verbal group
• Linking words
• Vocabulary

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Language: English
Level: A1 (Beginner)
Topics covered: Nominal and modifiers

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Table of Contents

NOMINAL AND MODIFIERS ........................................................................................................... 5


PRONOUNS .............................................................................................................................................................5
Subject pronouns ............................................................................................................................................ 5
Object pronouns ............................................................................................................................................. 6
Use of the pronoun 'one' ................................................................................................................................ 7
Interrogative words ......................................................................................................................................... 9
‘How much’ – ‘How many’ ............................................................................................................................ 12
Possessive pronouns ..................................................................................................................................... 13
'Everybody' - 'Nobody' .................................................................................................................................. 15
'Everybody' - 'Somebody' - 'Nobody' ............................................................................................................ 16
Relative pronouns and adverbs..................................................................................................................... 17
'Which' - 'What' ............................................................................................................................................. 19
NOUNS.................................................................................................................................................................21
The plural ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
Construction of compound nouns ................................................................................................................. 22
Use of compound nouns ............................................................................................................................... 23
Nouns without singular forms ....................................................................................................................... 24
Singular nouns in '-s' ..................................................................................................................................... 25
ADJECTIVES ...........................................................................................................................................................26
Placing the adjectives .................................................................................................................................... 26
Verbs expressing impressions and feelings ................................................................................................... 27
Adjective + infinitive ....................................................................................................................................... 28
DETERMINERS........................................................................................................................................................ 29
Definite and indefinite articles ...................................................................................................................... 29
The difference between 'a' and 'an' ................................................................................................................ 30
Possessive adjectives .................................................................................................................................... 31
The possessive ............................................................................................................................................... 32
Demonstratives ............................................................................................................................................. 33
'Some' - 'Any' ................................................................................................................................................. 34
The elliptic genitive ........................................................................................................................................ 36
The article and geographical names ............................................................................................................. 37
'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many' .................................................................................................................................. 39
'Little' - 'A little' - 'Much' ............................................................................................................................... 40

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

NOMINAL AND MODIFIERS - SOLUTIONS .................................................................................... 41


PRONOUNS – SOLUTION(S) ......................................................................................................................................41
Subject pronouns – Solution(s) ..................................................................................................................... 41
Object pronouns – Solution(s) ...................................................................................................................... 41
Use of the pronoun 'one' – Solution(s) ......................................................................................................... 42
Interrogative words – Solution(s).................................................................................................................. 42
‘How much’ – ‘How many’ – Solution(s) ....................................................................................................... 43
Possessive pronouns – Solution(s) ................................................................................................................ 44
'Everybody' - 'Nobody' – Solution(s) ............................................................................................................. 44
Relative pronouns and adverbs – Solution(s) ............................................................................................... 45
'Which' - 'What' – Solution(s) ........................................................................................................................ 45
NOUNS – SOLUTION(S)............................................................................................................................................45
The plural – Solution(s) ................................................................................................................................. 45
Construction of compound nouns – Solution(s) ............................................................................................ 46
Use of compound nouns – Solution(s) .......................................................................................................... 46
Nouns without singular forms – Solution(s).................................................................................................. 46
Singular nouns in '-s' – Solution(s) ................................................................................................................ 46
ADJECTIVES – SOLUTION(S) ......................................................................................................................................47
Placing the adjectives – Solution(s) ............................................................................................................... 47
Verbs expressing impressions and feelings – Solution(s) .............................................................................. 47
Adjective + infinitive – Solution(s).................................................................................................................. 47
DETERMINERS – SOLUTION(S)...................................................................................................................................48
Definite and indefinite articles – Solution(s) ................................................................................................. 48
The difference between 'a' and 'an' – Solution(s) .......................................................................................... 48
Possessive adjectives – Solution(s) ............................................................................................................... 48
The possessive – Solution(s) .......................................................................................................................... 49
Demonstratives – Solution(s) ........................................................................................................................ 49
'Some' - 'Any' – Solution(s) ............................................................................................................................ 50
The article and geographical names – Solution(s) ........................................................................................ 50
'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many' – Solution(s) ............................................................................................................. 51
'Little' - 'A little' - 'Much' – Solution(s) .......................................................................................................... 51

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Nominal and modifiers


Pronouns
Subject pronouns

Singular Plural
1st person I We
2nd person You You
3rd person:
masculine He They
feminine She They
neuter It They

Subject pronouns – Exercise – The right word

are married.

We - It – I

Subject pronouns – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

is my brother.
Do have a sister? Does have a job?
am a teacher.

you - I - she - he

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Object pronouns

Form

Pronouns Singular Plural


1st person Me Us
2nd person You You
3rd person:
masculine Him Them
Feminine Her Them
neuter It Them

Use

They are used as direct or indirect complements to the object.


They are always placed after the verb.
When a verb is followed by a particle, the object pronoun is always put between the verb and the
particle.

Example:
• She's looking at me.
• We'll pick you up at eight.
• I'll give them the papers.

Object pronouns – Exercise – Grammar practice


Rewrite as in the example:

I Me
You
He
She
It
We
They

Object pronouns – Exercise – The right word

Can I deliver on Friday the fifth?


the - they - them

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Use of the pronoun 'one'


The pronoun 'one' (or 'ones' in the plural) is used after an adjective to replace:

A countable noun already expressed. Example:


• I bought a red shirt and a blue one.
• She saw some beautiful homes and some
ugly ones too.
A noun that hasn't been expressed. Example:
• That's a nice one.
• The sensible ones have done their
homework.

'One' is sometimes omitted in a question expressing a choice (with which one), in literary language,
or, in a general sense, after a superlative.

Example:
• Which one will you take, the blue one or the yellow one?
• Spanish bulls are more fiery than Mexican ones. (D.H. Lawrence)
• Your suit is the most beautiful one.

Note: 'One' is not used to replace:

A noun indicating a person or a Example:


generalization. • A blond woman and a dark-haired woman.
(instead of 'a dark-haired one').
• American cars are often bigger than French
cars. (instead of 'French ones').

An uncountable noun (after an adjective). Example:


• Italian coffee is stronger than American
coffee.

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Use of the pronoun 'one'– Exercise – Grammar practice


Rewrite as in the example:

a chocolate cake, a marble cake a chocolate cake and a marble one


A big chicken, a small chicken
One strawberry tart, one apple tart
Some frozen peas, some fresh peas
Two blueberry muffins, one bran muffin
A yellow onion, a white onion
Four paper bags, two plastic bags

Use of the pronoun 'one'– Exercise – The right word

Which of these actors do you prefer? This !

ones - that - two - won – one

Use of the pronoun 'one'– Exercise – Fill in the blanks

I need a comb. Do you have ?


What is ? It's a pencil. Where is ? On my desk.
Good !
Yes, I think .

idea - it - this - so - one

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Interrogative words

Interrogative words introduce questions which cannot be answered with yes or no.

The main interrogatives are:


• Who
• Where
• How
• What
• Why
• Which
• When
• Whose

Who always refers to people. Example:


• Who is the President?
The structure of a who question varies • Who are you?
depending on whether who refers to the
object or the subject of the question. Example:
• Subject: Who asked you? (sb asked you)
• Object: Who did you ask? (you asked sb)
Which refers to either people or things. Example:
• Which teacher do you like?
• Which poem are they studying?
What can also refer to people, but usually Example:
refers to things. • What sport do you play?
• What is her job?
How expresses the manner or means of Example:
an action. • How do you spell your name? (manner)
• S-M-I-T-H.
• How do you go to work? (means)
• By bus.
How, as an adjective or adverb, is used to
inquire about someone's well-being,
enjoyment or progress. Example:
• How are you?
• How do they like their new apartment?
• How is your new job going?

How can come before an adjective or an Example:


adverb to express degree • How long is the movie? (adjective)
• How often does he play tennis? (adverb)

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Why inquires about the reason behind an Example:


event or action • Why don't you like her?
• Why are they taking the train?
Where refers to a location Example:
• Where is the museum?
• Where can I buy stamps?
When refers to a time or date. Example:
• When does it open?
• When do we leave?
Whose refers to possession. Example:
• Whose shirt is this?
• Whose is that?

Questions using interrogative words are generally formed using the following structure:

Interrogative word + Auxiliary/Modal + Subject + Verb

Example:
• What are you eating?
• Where does the train go?
• Who can I visit?

If the question contains a preposition, it is placed at the end of the sentence.

Example:
• What were you listening to?
• Who is she talking about?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Interrogative words – Exercise – Grammar practice


Rewrite as in the example:

how (you / to spell) it How do you spell it?


Where (he / to work)
How (she / to call back)
Who (we / to want)
What (they / to want)
How (it / to speak)
Who (I / to phone)

Interrogative words – Exercise – The right word

is the Statue of Liberty?


Was - Who - When - Whence – Where

Interrogative words – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

ruler is mine?
is the stapler?
did you put it there?
tape is this?

which - why - whose - where

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

‘How much’ – ‘How many’

How much and how many are interrogative adjectives of quantity.

How much is used before an uncountable Example:


noun. • How much sauce do you want?
How many is used before a plural countable • How many friends do you have?
noun.

The noun or noun phrase can also be Example:


implied. • How much (money) is it?
• How many (books) do you have?

‘How much’ – ‘How many’– Exercise – Grammar practice


Rewrite as in the example:

How (much / many) eggs How many eggs


How (much / many) bread
How (much / many) money
How (much / many) people
How (much / many) soda
How (much / many) books
How (much / many) time

‘How much’ – ‘How many’– Exercise – The right word

tea would you like?

How old - How many - How - How much

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Possessive pronouns
Form

Pronouns Singular Plural


1st person Mine Ours
2nd person Yours Yours
3rd person:
masculine His Theirs
Feminine Hers Theirs
neuter Its Theirs

Use

The possessive pronoun replaces a noun phrase. It is never preceded by a determiner.


It doesn't vary in function with the nominal group that it replaces.

Example:
• This skirt is mine (my skirt).
• These skirts are mine (my skirts).

In the third person singular, the possessive pronoun agrees with the gender and number of the
possessor.

Example:
• This is Edward's hat - This is his.
• I like her shoes - I like hers.

Possessive pronouns – Exercise – Grammar practice


Rewrite as in the example:

it's our office it's ours


it's his task
it's my job
it's your team
it's her project
it's their secret
it's our responsibility

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Possessive pronouns – Exercise – Word order

isn't - the - as - This is - ours, - same - carpet - it?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Everybody' - 'Nobody'

Everybody is the combination of every and body. Everybody (synonym of everyone) is singular.

Example: Everybody thinks he's clever.

In the negative form, everybody becomes nobody.

Nobody (synonym of no one) is singular. This pronoun is followed by a verb in the positive form.

Example: Nobody is home.

'Everybody' - 'Nobody' – Exercise – Sentence practice


Rewrite the following sentences as in the example:

My co-workers are very friendly. Everybody is very friendly.


My co-workers work very hard.

My co-workers don't arrive late at the office.

My co-workers are really helpful.

'Everybody' - 'Nobody' – Exercise – Word order

called - being - nobody - likes - stupid!

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Everybody' - 'Somebody' - 'Nobody'

'Everybody', 'somebody' and 'nobody' take singular verbs. However, the pronouns and adjectives
that take the '-body' forms as their antecedents are often those of the third person plural.

Example:
• Everybody was enjoying themselves.
• Somebody has to go shopping, don't they?
• Nobody really knows, do they?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Relative pronouns and adverbs

A - The Relative Pronouns

Who is the relative subject pronoun Example:


(singular and plural) that refers to a person. • I like people who are honest.

That and which are the relative subject Example:


pronouns and direct and indirect objects • She's reading a book that makes her laugh.
(singular and plural). • The shoes, which I bought yesterday, hurt
my feet.
That is restrictive, while which is not.

Whom is the relative indirect object Example:


pronoun (singular and plural) that refers to • The boy whom you met is my cousin.
an animate antecedent. • Here is the woman whom you were looking
at.
Note: Whom is often replaced by who.

Whose and of which replace a noun phrase Example:


object to the noun: • The girl whose dad is a scientist is very
clever. (Animate antecedent.)
Whose refers to an animate or inanimate • Her room is the one whose door is locked.
antecedent. (Inanimate antecedent.)

Example:
Of which refers to an inanimate antecedent. • She's in the room the door of which is
locked.

What and which are the relative subject and Example:


object pronouns (direct and indirect) that • I don't understand what you're saying.
announce or continue previous clauses. • Darkness is what I'm afraid of.
• He said he's lazy, which is true.
• She'll give a party, which I'm excited about.

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B - The Relative Adverbs

When replaces an adverbial phrase of time. Example:


• The day when he arrived, his family wasn't
there.

Where replaces an adverbial phrase of Example:


place. • We live in a place where the sun shines very
often.

(The reason) why replaces an adverbial Example: I don't know why he's so angry.
phrase of cause.

Relative pronouns and Adverbs – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

just before one thousand?


I know to spell Tuesday.
I also know Thursday, that's I play tennis.
are you? In my bedroom.

what's - when - how - where

Relative pronouns and Adverbs – Exercise – Word order

named - who - I - man - Slim - a - anything - but - met - was - that

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Which' - 'What'
'What' and 'which' may introduce non-interrogative clauses.
In such a case:

'What,' which has no antecedent, introduces Example:


a relative clause which may be subject or • What worries me is how he'll get here.
object to the sentence's main verb.

'Which' relates to an antecedent which may Example:


be a noun, noun phrase, or clause. • She often smiles, which is nice.
• You're inspecting the downtown branch,
which has higher operating costs than the
others.

In an interrogative clause:

'What' is used generally to convey a choice Example:


between or among things. • What books do you prefer?
• What kind of services do you want?
• What time do they open?

'Which,' which may precede both things and Example:


people, conveys a choice between or among • Which friend did you invite?
a limited number of possibilities. • Which of these shirts is yours?
• Which airline did you choose?

Note: 'Which' is sometimes followed by 'one'. Example: Which one do you prefer?

Both 'which' and 'what' are used to talk about choices. When used as question words, they are
often interchangeable.

Example:
• What/which products are you interested in?
• What/which size would you prefer?

Note: 'What' usually refers to objects, and not people. 'Which' refers to both objects and people.

Example:
• Which colleagues are coming to the meeting?
• What file are you looking for?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

There are small differences in meaning between 'which' and 'what'.

Generally, use 'what' to talk about a large and indefinite number of choices.
Use 'which' when the number of choices is limited and definite. To ask for more information about
available choices, you can follow 'what' with expressions such as kind/s of, sort/s of, or type/s of.

Example:
• What kinds of services do you offer? (Services are indefinite)
• What books do you recommend on the topic? (Any books, rather than specific books)
• What type of material is this made from?
• We have five different sizes. Which size do you prefer? (There are only five possible sizes)
• Which way should I turn when I get to Coldcreek Street? (Right or left?)

Note: You can only use which before the pronoun one.

Example:
• We have several colors available.
• Which one do you like best?

When which refers to something mentioned immediately before, you may refer back to it
without repeating the noun or using a pronoun.

Example:
• We have coffee, tea, or mineral water.
• Which do you prefer?

Which and what may fall before a given set of choices.

Example:
• Which do you think is more appropriate: an e-mail or a letter?

'Which' - 'What' – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

is your favorite season?


many people are with you?
time is it?
is your birthday?

when - how - what - which

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Nouns
The plural

In general, the plural is formed by adding an Example:


–s to the end of the noun. • a book - books
• a house - houses

Nouns that end with an -s, -sh, -ch and -x, as Example:
well as certain other nouns that end with an • bus - buses box - boxes
-o, have a plural ending of -es. • dish - dishes beach - beaches
• tomato - tomatoes

Nouns that end with a -y often have a plural Example:


ending of -ies. • family - families

Some nouns have irregular plural endings.

The main ones are:


man – men
woman – women
foot - feet child - children

The plural – Exercise – Grammar practice


Rewrite as in the example:

a skirt (black) a black skirt


The women (beautiful)
Hair (long)
A restaurant (Vietnamese)
The eyes (brown)
A question (hard)
The socks (ugly)

The plural – Exercise – The right word

Are they your ?

babysitter - brother - daughter - children

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Construction of compound nouns

The compound noun is made up of a Example:


principal noun preceded by one or several • An alarm clock, a bedroom, the London-New
nouns or a noun phrase that has the same York flight
function as an adjective.

The first element is always in the singular, Example:


even if it has a plural sense, except if it exists • Ski boots, a clothes factory, a goods-train
only in the plural form or if there is risk of (risk of ambiguity if 'good' was in the singular )
ambiguity.

Most compound nouns are written as two Example:


(or several) separate words. Some of them • A great-grandfather, housework
are written with a dash, others as a single
word.

Note: The same compound noun can sometimes Example:


be written as two words, with a dash or as single
• Ice-cream, ice cream.
word.

Construction of compound nouns – Exercise – Word order

increasing - figures - are - Our - sales

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Use of compound nouns

The first element of the compound noun is used to determine the second.
Different meanings exist between the terms of a compound noun: ownership, composition,
purpose, aim...

Example:
• The castle dungeon, a pearl necklace, a jewelry box, a tennis racket

Note: A compound noun cannot express the idea of a cause or a group, or refer to the contents of a
container.

Example:
• A cry of joy, a group of tourists, a gallery of paintings

Use of compound nouns – Exercise – Word order

representative - the - twenty scanners - sold - sales - this week.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Nouns without singular forms


Some plural nouns have no singular forms. These include the following:

Certain nouns referring to objects composed


of two symmetrical parts, e.g. 'jeans',
'shorts’, 'pajamas', 'pants', or 'scissors'.

Note: When used as countable nouns, such Example:


nouns are preceded by 'a pair of'. • My pants are too short.
• She bought two pairs of scissors.

Certain collective nouns, e.g. 'clothes’, Example:


'goods,' 'people,' 'cattle,' or 'poultry'. • People are very friendly here.

Note:
At times, 'people' is the plural form of 'person'. Example:
• There were ten people at the party.
'Head of cattle', in which 'head' is invariable, is • They have ten head of cattle.
the singular of 'cattle'.

The rare 'article of clothing' is the singular of


'clothes'.

'savings’, 'riches' and 'remains' Example:


• She used her savings to invest in a start-up.

Nouns without singular forms– Exercise – The right word

can be used to cut hair.

Calendars - Erasers - Sharpeners - Scissors - Wineglasses - Grass mowers

Nouns without singular forms– Exercise – Fill in the blanks

This is a pencil .
tape.
A stapler? Use the . Are these your ?
I need a comb. Do you have one? No, but I have a .

sharpener - Scotch - scissors - brush - glue

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Singular nouns in '-s'

Some nouns end in '-s' in the singular.

The uncountable noun 'news' is always Example:


singular. • I watch the six o'clock news. (singular use,
plural sense)

• This is an interesting piece of news.


(singular use, singular sense)

'Means' may be singular or plural. Example:

• Subways are an excellent means of


transport in cities. (singular use, singular
sense)

• Use whatever means are necessary. (plural


use, plural sense)

Singular nouns in '-s' – Exercise – Word order

day, - was the - had - on - icing - a - but - your - nice - good news - I - the cake.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Adjectives
Placing the adjectives

The qualifying adjective is always invariable. Example:


• Beautiful dresses
• They are crazy

The attributive adjective is placed before Example:


the noun. • A red apple
• Very interesting movies

Placing the adjectives – Exercise – The right word

water is extremely hot.

Boiling - Ocean - Lukewarm - Well-done - Medium heat

Placing the adjectives – Exercise – Sentence practice


Put the following phrases in the right order:

computers / these / large / are These are large computers.


cheap / are / computers / they
is / expensive / an / it / computer
is / saleswoman / a / she / new

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Verbs expressing impressions and feelings


Verbs expressing impressions and feelings- 'to look', 'to sound', 'to smell', 'to taste', 'to feel'- may be
followed by:

The preposition 'like' Example:


• He looks like his father.
• It sounds like you're angry.
• It smells like smoke.
• It feels like velvet.
• This cake tastes just like the one I had
yesterday.

'as if / as though' Example:


• You look as if you didn't (or don't)
understand me.
• It sounds as if you weren't (or aren't)
listening to me.
• It smelt as if she had burnt something.
• These potatoes taste as if I added too much
salt.
• I felt as if I were (or was) going to fall asleep.

an adjective Example:
• He looks happy.
• This ice cream tastes very good.
• It feels funny to write with my left hand.
• I felt so sick!

Note: 'To be', 'to seem', and 'to appear' (all of which can indicate impressions) may also be followed
by 'like' and 'as if'.

Example:
• What was the dinner like?
• She seems as if she's going to get very mad.

Verbs expressing impressions and feelings – Exercise – Word order

look - like - the villa - It - the - doesn't- in - brochure!

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Adjective + infinitive

To describe or qualify an action, sentences are sometimes formed with an adjective + infinitive.
The sentence structure is usually subject + state verb (to be, to seem, etc.) + adjective + infinitive.

Example:
• This printer is easy to operate.
• Innovative products are difficult to produce.
• This problem will be expensive to solve.
• It was rewarding to see the final result.
• It is important to follow the instructions.
• We're lucky to have such positive feedback.
• It seems too complicated to change plans now.

Note:
A complement, such as a noun or adverb, may fall before or after the adjective + infinitive
structure.

Adjective + infinitive – Exercise – The right word

This project is going to be difficult .

be done - do - doing - to do

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Determiners
Definite and indefinite articles

The indefinite article Example:


• There is a cat in our garden.
“A” is the indefinite article in the singular. • There are cats in our garden.
In the plural, there is no article.

The definite article Example:


• The cat is in his house.
“The” is the definite article in the singular and • The cats are in his house.
plural.

The indefinite article is used to introduce a Example:


noun in a general context. • He is a writer.

The definite article is used to introduce a Example:


noun in a specific context. • He is the writer of "The Sound and the
Fury."

In general, names of places do not take the Example:


definite article. Exceptions to this rule • We went to Peru on vacation.
include compound and plural names, as well • He is going to Beijing next week.
as certain geographical features. • I'm studying in the United States.
• The scenery in the Rocky Mountains is
breathtaking.

Definite and indefinite articles – Exercise – The right word

best medicine is laughter!


The - That - At - In - A – An

Definite and indefinite articles – Exercise – Sentence practice


Replace the definite article with the indefinite article where possible:

He eats the apple. He eats an apple.


He sees the house.
I wear the bow tie.
She wears the orange skirt.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

The difference between 'a' and 'an'

The indefinite article takes two forms:

'A' is used before words that begin Example:


(phonetically) with consonants. • I'm a man.
• Are you a grandfather?
• That's a nice color!

Note: The letters u and o are at times Example:


pronounced as consonants. The article 'a' is • You can download a one-megabyte file.
used in such cases. • I study at a university for foreigners.

'An' is used before words beginning Example:


(phonetically) with vowels. I have an uncle.
I have an apartment.
It's an expensive shop.

Example:
Note: Before certain words beginning with silent
h, the article 'an' is used. • An hour.
• An honest man.

The difference between 'a' and 'an' – Exercise – Grammar practice


Give the appropriate indefinite article for the words listed:

(a / an) salesman a salesman


(a / an) manager
(a / an) assistant
(a / an) receptionist
(a / an) name
(a / an) export manager
(a / an) marketing manager

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Possessive adjectives

Pronouns Singular Plural


1st person My Our
2nd person Your Your
3rd person:
masculine His Their
Feminine Her Their
neuter Its Their

The possessive adjective precedes a noun phrase. It never agrees with the noun that follows.

Example:
• I like my suit - I like my suits.
• She's visiting our house - She's visiting our houses.

Possessive adjectives – Exercise – The right word

son is beautiful.

They're - Their - They – There

Possessive adjectives – Exercise – Sentence practice


Rewrite as in the example:

(He) mom is smart. His mom is smart.


The handsome man is (I) dad.
(You) friend is handsome.
(They) parents are nice.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

The possessive

A - Construction

An -'s is added to singular nouns (even those Example:


ending with an -s) and to nouns in the plural • John's birthday
without -s. • My boss's secretary
• Children's feelings

An apostrophe (-') is added to plural nouns Example:


ending with an -s. • The horses' stables

Note: The second noun (that follows 's) loses its


article.

B - Use

The possessive case is used in general with names of living things, countries, groups, and
institutions.

Example:
• Iris's job
• The Ministry's officials
• Washington's economy

The possessive – Exercise – Sentence practice


Rewrite as in the example:

This is the desk of Neil. This is Neil's desk.


This is the office of Sarah.
That is the computer of Peter.
This is the department of Neil.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Demonstratives

Form
The demonstratives 'this' and 'that' may be used as adjectives or as pronouns. Their singular and
plural forms are as follows:

Singular Plural
This These
That Those

Use

'This' implies proximity in space or time. Example:


• I think we met this morning.
• These muffins look good.
• This is a pencil sharpener.

'That' implies distance in space or time. Example:


• That evening, you are invited to a cocktail
party.
• Those exercises were difficult.
• That's a nice car!

Demonstratives – Exercise – The right word

is a beautiful city!

This - These – Those

Demonstratives – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

Is a mouse?
No, it's a rat.
An is an insect.
at the butterfly! Do you like ?

look - spiders - ant - this

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Some' - 'Any'

The article 'some' precedes a countable Example:


plural or uncountable noun or noun phrase • Could you give me some information on
and indicates an undetermined quantity. your villas?
• Some children were playing outside.

The pronoun 'some' replaces a countable Example:


plural or uncountable noun or noun phrase. • If you like milk, I have some.
• Where are the sponges? We have to buy
some.

The article or the pronoun 'any' replaces the Example:


article or the pronoun 'some' in an • Do you have any children?
interrogative or negative clause. • No, we don't have any.

Any may also be used to express total


permission, possibility, or restriction.

Permission and Restriction

Example:
Feel free to ask questions at any time during the presentation.
Employees may not leave the premises under any circumstances.
You cannot open these files at any time.

Possibility or Indifference

Example:
• Any of these designs would work well.
• You can choose any topic you think is pertinent for your presentation.
• We could meet any place that's convenient to discuss the project.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Some' - 'Any' – Exercise – Sentence practice


Answer the question as in the example:

Do you have any chops? Yes, we have some chops.


Do you have any roast beef?
Do you have any veal cutlets?
Do you have any chicken?

'Some' - 'Any' – Exercise – Word order

There - are - the - bottom - on - some - shelf.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

The elliptic genitive

In the elliptic genitive case, a noun is not mentioned again if its repetition is not essential to the
clarity of the sentence.

Example:
• My son is bigger than Karen's (son).
• Bill's party was as fun as Fred's (party).

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

The article and geographical names

In front of the singular name of a country Example:


(or a continent or region), no article is used. • France, Great Britain, Spain,
• Germany, Japan, America, Wales.

Exceptions: the Sahara, the United Kingdom


('kingdom' is a common noun in origin), the
Congo, the Tyrol, the South Pole...

In front of a plural name of a country, an Example:


article is always used. • The United States, the West Indies,
• The Philippines (the Philippine Islands).
Abbreviations of countries' names (or of
continents and regions) are preceded by an
article (the U.K., the U.S.).

Note: Example:
Countries that take a plural name are collective The United States is a federation of several
nouns and are often followed by a verb in the states.
singular.

Names of oceans, seas and rivers are always


preceded by the article 'the', but names of
lakes and ponds never have an article.

Note: Most geographical names don't have an


article, except if they are preceded by 'of' or if
they are in the plural. (Cape Cod, the Great
Lakes)

The names of streets, squares, monuments Example:


and parks are not, in general, preceded by • Fifth Avenue, Hyde Park, Westminster Abbey
an article, except if they contain the • the Statue of Liberty, the Champs-Elysées
preposition 'of,' or, in certain cases, if it
refers to foreign names.
Note: the White House, the Kremlin...

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

The article and geographical names – Exercise – Sentence practice


Rewrite as in the example:

Miguel lives in Madrid. Miguel lives in Spain.


Hisako lives in Tokyo.
Pierre lives in Paris.
Li lives in Beijing

The article and geographical names – Exercise – Word order

America - age - is - The - drinking - in - legal - twenty-one

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many'

The indefinite adjectives (or pronouns) few, a few and many express a notion of quantity and are
used before a countable plural noun.

Few is used to stress a very small quantity. Example:


• He has few friends.

A few is used to stress a small quantity, but Example:


contrary to few, it is only a simple • He has a few friends abroad.
statement. • The few people I met have gone.

When a few is used with the, these or those,


the indefinite article a disappears.

Many is used when describing a large Example:


quantity. • There are many companies in that area.

Note:

Often, in the affirmative form, many is replaced by a lot of (or lots of) or plenty of.

Example: She has lots of friends.

When the noun is understood, the indefinite adjectives become indefinite pronouns.

Example: These students are working hard and many (students) are quite clever.

'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many'– Exercise – Fill in the blanks

Do you know nice?


I am .
I know of people.
I have aunts and uncles.

lots - single - anybody – many

'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many'– Exercise – Word order

black - rock - many - stars - wear - leather

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Little' - 'A little' - 'Much'

The indefinite adjectives (or pronouns) little, a little and much express a notion of quantity and are
used before an uncountable singular noun.

Little is used to stress a very small quantity. Example:


• There is very little juice left.

A little is used when describing a small Example:


quantity, but contrary to little, it is only a • There is a little juice in the fridge, if you
simple statement. want.

Much is used when describing a large Example:


quantity. • We have much work to do today.
• There isn't much coffee left.

Note:

Often, in the affirmative form, much is replaced by a lot of or plenty of.

Example: There's a lot of tea in China.

When the noun is understood, the indefinite adjectives become indefinite pronouns.

Example: There is little (juice) left.

'Little' - 'A little' - 'Much' – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

we go! The beginning of our vacation!


Watch ! The brooms are going to fall out! Is this a gas cooker?
The cooking burners aren't clean!
We're not going to do with just two pans!
Let's go and get sandwiches and eat them the beach. Oh yes, let's forget all this.

very - about - there - on - out - much

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Nominal and modifiers - Solutions


Pronouns – Solution(s)
Subject pronouns – Solution(s)
Subject pronouns – Exercise – The right word

We are married.

Subject pronouns – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

He is my brother.
Do you have a sister?
Does she have a job?
I am a teacher.

Object pronouns – Solution(s)


Object pronouns – Exercise – Grammar practice
Rewrite as in the example:

I Me
You You
He Him
She Her
It It
We Us
They Them

Object pronouns – Exercise – The right word

Can I deliver them on Friday the fifth?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Use of the pronoun 'one' – Solution(s)


Use of the pronoun 'one'– Exercise – Grammar practice
Rewrite as in the example:

a chocolate cake, a marble cake a chocolate cake and a marble one


A big chicken, a small chicken A big chicken and a small one
One strawberry tart, one apple tart A strawberry tart and an apple one
One strawberry tart and one apple one
One strawberry tart and an apple one
Some frozen peas, some fresh peas Some frozen peas and some fresh ones
Two blueberry muffins, one bran muffin Two blueberry muffins and a bran one
Two blueberry muffins and one bran one
A yellow onion, a white onion A yellow onion and a white one
Four paper bags, two plastic bags Four paper bags and two plastic ones

Use of the pronoun 'one'– Exercise – The right word

Which of these actors do you prefer? This one!

Use of the pronoun 'one'– Exercise – Fill in the blanks

I need a comb. Do you have one?


What is this?
It's a pencil. Where is it? On my desk. Good idea! Yes, I think so.

Interrogative words – Solution(s)


Interrogative words – Exercise – Grammar practice
Rewrite as in the example:

how (you / to spell) it How do you spell it?


Where (he / to work) Where does he work?
How (she / to call back) How does she call back?
Who (we / to want) Who do we want?
What (they / to want) What do they want?
How (it / to speak) How does it speak?
Who (I / to phone) Who do I phone?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Interrogative words – Exercise – The right word

Where is the Statue of Liberty?

Interrogative words – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

Which ruler is mine?


Where is the stapler?
Why did you put it there?
Whose tape is this?

‘How much’ – ‘How many’ – Solution(s)


‘How much’ – ‘How many’– Exercise – Grammar practice
Rewrite as in the example:

How (much / many) eggs How many eggs


How (much / many) bread How much bread
How (much / many) money How much money
How (much / many) people How many people
How (much / many) soda How much soda
How (much / many) books How many books
How (much / many) time How much time

‘How much’ – ‘How many’– Exercise – The right word

How much tea would you like?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Possessive pronouns – Solution(s)


Possessive pronouns – Exercise – Grammar practice
Rewrite as in the example:

it's our office it's ours


it's his task It's his
It is his
it's my job It's mine
It is mine
it's your team It's yours
It is yours
it's her project It's hers
It is hers
it's their secret It's theirs
It is theirs
it's our responsibility It's ours
It is ours

Possessive pronouns – Exercise – Word order

This is the same carpet as ours, isn't it?

'Everybody' - 'Nobody' – Solution(s)


'Everybody' - 'Nobody' – Exercise – Sentence practice
Rewrite the following sentences as in the example:

My co-workers are very friendly. Everybody is very friendly.


My co-workers work very hard. Everybody works very hard.
My co-workers don't arrive late at the office. Nobody arrives late at the office
My co-workers are really helpful. Everybody is really helpful.
Everybody's really helpful.

'Everybody' - 'Nobody' – Exercise – Word order


Nobody likes being called stupid!

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Relative pronouns and adverbs – Solution(s)


Relative pronouns and Adverbs – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

What's just before one thousand?


I know how to spell Tuesday.
I also know Thursday, that's when I play tennis.
Where are you? In my bedroom.

Relative pronouns and Adverbs – Exercise – Word order

I met a man named Slim who was anything but that.

'Which' - 'What' – Solution(s)


'Which' - 'What' – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

Which is your favorite season?


How many people are with you?
What time is it?
When is your birthday?

Nouns – Solution(s)
The plural – Solution(s)
The plural – Exercise – Grammar practice
Rewrite as in the example:

a skirt (black) a black skirt


The women (beautiful) The beautiful women
Hair (long) Long hair
A restaurant (Vietnamese) A Vietnamese restaurant
The eyes (brown) The brown eyes
A question (hard) A hard question
The socks (ugly) The ugly socks

The plural – Exercise – The right word

Are they your children?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Construction of compound nouns – Solution(s)


Construction of compound nouns – Exercise – Word order

Our sales figures are increasing.

Use of compound nouns – Solution(s)


Use of compound nouns – Exercise – Word order

The sales representative sold twenty scanners this week.

Nouns without singular forms – Solution(s)


Nouns without singular forms– Exercise – The right word

Scissors can be used to cut hair.

Nouns without singular forms– Exercise – Fill in the blanks

This is a pencil sharpener.


Scotch tape.
A stapler? Use the glue. Are these your scissors?
I need a comb. Do you have one? No, but I have a brush.

Singular nouns in '-s' – Solution(s)


Singular nouns in '-s' – Exercise – Word order

I had a nice day, but your good news was the icing on the cake.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Adjectives – Solution(s)
Placing the adjectives – Solution(s)
Placing the adjectives – Exercise – The right word

Boiling water is extremely hot.

Placing the adjectives – Exercise – Sentence practice


Put the following phrases in the right order:

computers / these / large / are These are large computers.


cheap / are / computers / they They are cheap computers.
They're cheap computers.
is / expensive / an / it / computer It is an expensive computer.
It's an expensive computer.
is / saleswoman / a / she / new She is a new saleswoman.
She's a new saleswoman.

Verbs expressing impressions and feelings – Solution(s)


Verbs expressing impressions and feelings – Exercise – Word order

It doesn't look like the villa in the brochure!

Adjective + infinitive – Solution(s)


Adjective + infinitive – Exercise – The right word

This project is going to be difficult to do.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Determiners – Solution(s)
Definite and indefinite articles – Solution(s)
Definite and indefinite articles – Exercise – The right word

The best medicine is laughter!

Definite and indefinite articles – Exercise – Sentence practice


Replace the definite article with the indefinite article where possible:

He eats the apple. He eats an apple.


He sees the house. He sees a house.
I wear the bow tie. I wear a bow tie.
She wears the orange skirt. She wears an orange skirt.

The difference between 'a' and 'an' – Solution(s)


The difference between 'a' and 'an' – Exercise – Grammar practice
Give the appropriate indefinite article for the words listed:

(a / an) salesman A salesman


(a / an) manager A manager
(a / an) assistant An assistant
(a / an) receptionist A receptionist
(a / an) name A name
(a / an) export manager An export manager
(a / an) marketing manager A marketing manager

Possessive adjectives – Solution(s)


Possessive adjectives – Exercise – The right word

Their son is beautiful.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

Possessive adjectives – Exercise – Sentence practice


Rewrite as in the example:

(He) mom is smart. His mom is smart.


The handsome man is (I) dad. The handsome man is my dad.
The handsome man's my dad.
(You) friend is handsome. Your friend is handsome.
Your friend's handsome.
(They) parents are nice. Their parents are nice.

The possessive – Solution(s)


The possessive – Exercise – Sentence practice
Rewrite as in the example:

This is the desk of Neil. This is Neil's desk.


This is the office of Sarah. This is Sarah's office.
That is the computer of Peter. That is Peter's computer.
That's Peter's computer.
This is the department of Neil. This is Neil's department.

Demonstratives – Solution(s)
Demonstratives – Exercise – The right word

This is a beautiful city!

Demonstratives – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

Is this a mouse?
No, it's a rat.
An ant is an insect.
Look at the butterfly! Do you like spiders?

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Some' - 'Any' – Solution(s)


'Some' - 'Any' – Exercise – Sentence practice
Answer the question as in the example:

Do you have any chops? Yes, we have some chops.


Do you have any roast beef? Yes, we have some roast beef.
Yes, I have some roast beef.
Do you have any veal cutlets? Yes, we have some veal cutlets.
Yes, I have some veal cutlets.
Do you have any chicken? Yes, we have some chicken.
Yes, I have some chicken.

'Some' - 'Any' – Exercise – Word order

There are some on the bottom shelf.

The article and geographical names – Solution(s)


The article and geographical names – Exercise – Sentence practice
Rewrite as in the example:

Miguel lives in Madrid. Miguel lives in Spain.


Hisako lives in Tokyo. Hisako lives in Japan.
Pierre lives in Paris. Pierre lives in France.
Li lives in Beijing Li lives in China.
Li lives in the People's Republic of China.

The article and geographical names – Exercise – Word order

The legal drinking age in America is twenty-one.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many' – Solution(s)


'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many'– Exercise – Fill in the blanks

Do you know anybody nice?


I am single.
I know lots of people.
I have many aunts and uncles

'Few' - 'A few' - 'Many'– Exercise – Word order

Many rock stars wear black leather.

'Little' - 'A little' - 'Much' – Solution(s)


'Little' - 'A little' - 'Much' – Exercise – Fill in the blanks

There we go! The beginning of our vacation!


Watch out ! The brooms are going to fall out!
Is this a gas cooker?
The cooking burners aren't very clean!
We're not going to do much with just two pans!
Let's go and get sandwiches and eat them on the beach. Oh yes, let's forget about all this.

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Nominal and modifiers – A1 level

ENGLISH
SPANISH
FRENCH
GERMAN
ITALIAN
DUTCH

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