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University of Balamand

Faculty of Arts and Sciences

Education Department

Course Name: EDMM 310: Foundations of Educational Technology and Theories of Learning

Assignment: Final Project Instructor Guide on numerical literacy of addition for grade 2

Submitted to: Dr. Ghania Zgheib

Prepared by:

Sharin Chadid &Yara Younes

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Table of Contents
Adopted Theory 3
Pedagogical model: Situated learning 3
Why situated learning 4
Situated learning strategies …………………………………………………………………………………...4-5

Overview 6
Purpose 6
Audience setting 6
Instructional problem………………………………………………………………………………………….. .6

Learning Objectives for the lesson/guide 6

Materials needed 7

Sequence of instruction 7

Class schedule 8
Facilitator instructions………………………………………………………………………………………8-20

Session 1 9-13
Session 2 …………………………………………………………………………………..........................13-17

Session 3……………………………………………………………………………………………………18-19

Session 4…………………………………………………………………………………………………….19-20

Session 5………………………………………………………………………………………………………...20

Instructional strategies …………………………………………………………………………………….20-22

Transfer Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………..22-23

Technological Framework: SAMR………………………………………………………………………….23

Appendixes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Appendix A……………………………………………………………………………………………………..24
Appendix B…………………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Appendix C…………………………………………………………………………………………………….26
Appendix D…………………………………………………………………………………………………27-28
Appendix E …………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

References………………………………………………………………………………………………………30

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I. Adopted Theory:

- Constructivism

We intend to adopt the constructivist approach/theory. In this theory, the learner constructs his/her

knowledge through various meaningful experiences and actions (Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005, chapter 5).

Moreover, the learner is an active participant in the learning experience, developing knowledge through

meaning-making and perception (Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005, chapter 5).

All in all, the constructivism theory has various models within it. We choose to implement the situated

learning -pedagogical model in our project.

- Pedagogical Model: Situated Learning:

Situated learning model aims at situating the knowledge being taught in contextualized situations, that

reflect the meaning and usefulness of this knowledge in real life (Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005, chapter 5).

In situated learning environments, instructions are presented in authentic scenarios, cases, problems.

Adopting and implementing authentic situations provide students with meaningful and purposeful

activities that reflect real-life skills and domains (Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005, chapter 5).

Additionally, the situated learning model provides the students with real-world experiences. The

students learn from the interaction, noise, and confusion that they will face in the authentic activities to

construct their knowledge. Hence, they will be exploring and experiencing the complexity and

ambiguity of real-world learning experiences ( Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005, chapter 5). Also, the teacher

has a major role in this model in scaffolding the learning environment. Dabbagh & Bannan (2005) stated

that the teacher scaffolding role is reflected by “providing collaborative activities, learning resources,

and instructional support.” (p.170)

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In sum, Dabbagh & Bannan (2005) stated four major beliefs that are the basis of situated learning:

1- “Learning arises from the actions of everyday situations

2- Knowledge is gained in context and transfers to similar situations

3- Learning is acquired through social interaction

4- Learning is related to the world of action” (p.170)

- Why situated learning?

In today’s 21st century, students must transfer school learning to their real lives (ISTE for

students, 2016). They should learn how to contextualize and apply their acquired skills at school

in real life. Hence, the situated learning model is the one that fits our aim. It promotes authentic

learning activities where learning is situated in a way to help students acquire insight on how this

knowledge is applied in real life situations (Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005). Students are going to

engage in hands-on adding activities and simulations of buying experiences to learn how to use

addition in real life.

- Situated learning strategies:

Situated learning has a lot of strategies that contextualize learning. For our class we will be using the

following strategies:

1. Collaborative Learning (CL)

Students will work in pairs/groups to practice adding two digit and three-digit numbers during 2 sessions

(for more information, check the sequence of instruction section). CL is one of the situated strategies as

it allows the students to learn from interacting with each other (Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005).

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It has a lot of benefits academically speaking such as promoting critical thinking, involving students

actively in the learning process, providing the students with a positive atmosphere for modeling,

practicing cooperation, developing a social support system for learners through their peers (Laal &

Ghodsi, 2012).

2. Simulations

It is used to provide the students with “physical spaces, offices and everyday tasks, immersing students

in a realistic scenario or dilemma with time constraints and impending executive evaluation and

consequences” (Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005, p. 181). Simulations reflect the core principle of situated

learning of making learning meaningful and realistic. We will use the Supermarket VR Red application

to provide the students with the virtual reality of buying experience.

3. Role-playing.

It is a technique where students are provided with an instant opportunity to apply the learned content as

they will take the roles of decision-makers in a game (normal simulation of the supermarket with a list to

buy stuff, more information in the instructor sequence session 3). This technique helps students learn

through social interaction while accomplishing the tasks of their assigned roles on

time (Millwood, 2016).

4. Authentic activities

To ensure that students are going to be involved in authentic tasks outside the four walls of a classroom,

we will create a bake sale during the recess, where grade 2 students will sell cupcakes to their friends and

they have to deal with the money correctly.

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II. Overview:

A. Purpose:

The purpose of this math class is to teach numerical literacy of two digits and three-digit numbers

addition to 2nd-grade students during the last semester of the year.

B. Audience/ Setting:

Audience: Grade 2 students (math class)

Time: last semester of the year

Setting: a private school in north Lebanon

C. Instructional Problem

Based on the feedback gathered from math teachers at different schools, students are facing a lot

of problems in linking the computational skills that they learn at school to their real lives. This is

an expressed need which we plan on addressing. Students in grade 2 lack numerical literacy.

Hence, we plan on making an intervention in the math classes to teach numerical literacy.

Specifically, we plan on teaching how to use addition in real life.

III. Learning objectives for our lesson/guide

- After completing the 4 sessions, students will be able to:

1. Add two digit and three-digit numbers.

2. Demonstrate the underlying values of addition in a real-life situation.

3. Engage in a learning environment where they can transfer and apply the newly acquired addition

skills in a real-world situation.

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IV. Materials needed:

The materials for the 5 upcoming sessions include:

- PowerPoint about adding two digit and three -digit numbers

- Two digits and three-digit adding worksheets

- Dice

- Tens and one's blocks

- Whiteboard

- Projector

- Speakers

- Laptop

- Playground

- Virtual reality headsets

- Internet connection

- Rubric for informal assessment

- table and chairs

V. Sequence of instructions:

This math class will run over five sessions in the school. For these five sessions, students must

have acquired the following prior knowledge: place value, the addition of single digit numbers.

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A. Class schedule

Number of session Learning activity Objective Time

Session 1: Adding Discussion, guided 1 60 minutes total:


two-digit numbers practice PowerPoint, 5 mins: place value song
individual practice 30 mins: Explanatory Video
(blocks and dice) 10 mins: Pair work
10 mins: Dice game
5 mins: Double Digit Addition Poem +
home-learning

Session 2: Adding Discussion, guided 1 60 minutes total:


three-digit numbers practice PowerPoint, 5 mins: adding two-digit song
individual practice 30 mins: Explanatory Video three digit
(blocks and dice) 10 mins: Pair work
15 mins: worksheet

Session 3 Modeling and 2 60 minutes total:


practice 10 mins: discussion and explanation
50 mins: activity
Session 4 Application and 2 60 minutes total:
transfer 10 mins: discussion and explanation
50 mins: activity
Session 5 Application and 3 60 minutes total:
transfer 10 mins: discussion and explanation
50 mins: activity

B. Facilitator instructions:
Session 1:
Introduce students to adding two-digit numbers (aka double-digit numbers) through a PowerPoint
and then guide them to practice applying it using blocks and how to relate it to real life using dice.

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Slide 1:

Slide 2:

Instructor: Today’s session will be spent on learning, discussing and practicing adding two-digit numbers.

Slide 3:

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Instructor: Tells the learner that that they will review quickly with you what is the place value in
this video and you would discuss how place value helps us add.

Slide 4:

Instructor: We will watch a video that explains to us how to add two digits numbers using
regrouping technique with ones and tens and then you discuss the video with the students. You ask
them to give you examples of two-digit numbers to add them on the board and then you ask them
to come up and add it on the board using the regrouping strategy.

Slide 5: Practice time:

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Slide 6:

Instructor: You explain to the students that they are going to get blocks in front of them in
addition to a two-digit number on a double-sided card. You explain to the learners that they should
look at the number in the green box and form the two-digit number using the blocks. Meanwhile,
you will be passing by to help those who need help.

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Slide 7:

Instructor: You should model in-front of the students how to do it following the instructions listed
in slide 7. Then you give them time to apply it and moves around to provide scaffolding when
needed.

Slide 8:

Instructor: You should model the instructions in slide 8. You should give the learners time to
apply it. Then, you discuss with the students where do they see dice in real life and how to use
what they learned today in their real lives.
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Slide 9:

Instructor: You wrap up the session by giving out these 2 pages in the form of a handout
appendix A to the students. The first side is a poem about adding two-digit numbers. The second
page is homework for the next day to practice more adding two- digit numbers

Session 2:
Introduce students to adding three-digit numbers (aka triple digit numbers) through a PowerPoint
and then they are going to practice applying it using blocks and how to relate it to real life using
dice.

Slide 1:

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Slide 2:

Instructor: Today’s session will be spent on learning, discussing and practicing adding three-
digit numbers.

Slide3:

Instructor: You will watch a short video with your students to review quickly how to add two-
digit numbers and how to use it in real life.

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Slide 4:

Instructor: You will watch a second video entitled: “Addition with regrouping song: 3-digit
addition” with the students, that explains how to add three digits using regrouping technique. Then,
you discuss the video with the students.
You ask them to give you examples of three-digit numbers to add them on the board, and then you
ask them to come up and add it on the board using the regrouping strategy. Also, you discuss with
them where do we see three - digit numbers in real life and how do we use them.

Slide 5:

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Slide 6 :

Instructor: You explain to the learners that they are going to get three- digit number cards or
blocks and they should match the number to their colleague that have the same number of blocks
on their cards.

Slide 7 :

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Instructor: You model in-front of the students how to add to the 3 digit number on the card and 3
digit number in block form and then you give them time to apply it and moves around to provide
scaffolding when needed.

Slide 8:

Instructor: You model in-front of the students the instructions on slide 8 and then you give them
time to apply it and moves around to provide scaffolding when needed.
Slide 9:

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Instructor: You give out this worksheet as homework for the next day(Appendix B).

Session 3: Actual Supermarket simulation :

During this session, you ask the students to get 4 items from home and turn the class into a supermarket with

monopoly money to buy stuff by turn. She divides the class into 4 groups of 5 students. In each group, we have

1 student who is going to be the cashier and the rest are buyers.

She models with the first group what should be done. (You have to pick up a basket, fill it with stuff you want

to buy from the supermarket and then you have to go to the cashier to pay money. How can we know how much

money we need to pay?

Students answer: We need to add up the price of the stuff we bought.

Then, the teacher noticed a child having trouble in paying the money to the cashier. She went up to help him.

Teacher: What did you buy?

Majd: pencil case, school bag, and a sharpener

Teacher: Okay what is the price of each of these materials?

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Majd: pencil case: 10 $ , school bag: 15 $ , a sharpener 2 $.

Teacher: Great! Now, let's use the: 1big family strategy: we need to add the price of the materials to have 1 big

family of food chunks.

Majd: Yes! I remember now! I have to add 10+15 +2 which is = 27$ Is it correct?

The rest of the class answers: correct!

Majd: Thank you, Miss, for reminding me of one big family strategy! Can I try to buy other things now?

Teacher: Sure thing! and make sure to share with us how much money you will need to pay for the new

materials.

Jawad then picks up a tissue paper box and a pencil case. He screams Miss, I think I should pay 25 $ because

the tissue paper box is for 10 $ and the pencil case is for 15 $. Am I correct?

Teacher: Correct.

After the whole class is done experimenting the supermarket scenario. The teacher provides the students with a

word problem two digits and three digit number worksheet to solve on their own and to check how two digit

number and three-digit number addition are used in real life(Appendix C).

Session 4: Supermarket Virtual Reality (VR)

In this session, students will use virtual reality headsets to experience a virtual buying experience in a virtual

supermarket. In Supermarket VR the students will be provided with a shopping list, money and limited time.

They are required to finish shopping the stuff within the given time and money (Virori, 2017). They should also

avoid bumping into other people who are buying as well (Virori, 2017). There are various levels of difficulty in

two different supermarkets. One smaller and easier to travel and another much larger and more real. In this

game, you get to experience the real shopping experience of “buying products as if you felt inside a real

supermarket, being able to take them with your hands and leave them in the cart.” (Virori, 2017).

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First, they will watch a demo video: Supermarket VR: The game:https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=d7glCR4mQQI.

Then, they will try it by turn. Then, you will discuss their experiences accordingly to check how they used

double- two-digit numbers and three-digit number addition in the supermarket.

Session 5: Assessment:

During session 5 students will undergo formal and informal assessment.

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To assess our learning objectives of addition and numerical literacy of addition, we will be using formal

and informal assessment. First, we will conduct a short quiz on the 5th session (Appendix D). Then, to

ensure that students are going to be involved in authentic tasks outside the four walls of a classroom, we will

create a bake sale during the recess, where grade two students will sell cupcakes to their friends and they

have to deal with the money correctly. A rubric to assess them will be provided as well and it will serve as

an informal assessment where students will demonstrate their numerical literacy skills (Appendix E).

5 Instructional Strategies:

The following instructional strategies were used in the class:

Authentic context Learners were in class the first three sessions,


but during the 4th and 5th session they will get
involved in virtual and real buying
experiences to explore how to use addition in
real life.
Discussion In the first four sessions, the discussion was
always used to discuss the videos on how to
add two digit and three-digit numbers, as well
as to provide a space for interaction between
the students to share examples on how to use
addition in real life.

Modeling The instructor will be modeling the individual


practices in front of the students to
demonstrate how first of all then students will
try it on their own accordingly.

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Practice and Feedback
- This ZPD (Zone of proximal
development) is clearly reflected in
all of the 4sessions using the
scaffolding strategy where the
teacher initially models a skill,
provides support, learners develop the
skill accordingly, she provides them
with a checkpoint to check what they
can do alone (Schunk, 2012)

- For example, modeling how to buy in


a supermarket

o provides support: such as


reminding Majd with the
strategy needed to calculate
how much he needs to pay,
and gradually reduces aid as
learners develop the skill:
leaving the students to practice
adding mentally in the form of
buying from a supermarket on
their own.

o Then, she provides the


students with a worksheet to
check what they can do on
their own (Schunk, 2012).

Application Learners will practice numerical literacy of


addition in a bake sale conducted by them
during the recess time at school.

6 Transfer strategies:

Situated learning is all about situating learning in contexts that reflect the usage of knowledge in real life
(Dabbagh & Bannan, 2005). It allows for the transfer of the learned knowledge in a real meaningful
learning context. The bake sale allows the students to transfer their learned knowledge about two digit and
triple digit number addition to real life context where numbers are used in buying and selling. When

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students are involved in such authentic learning activities, it helps them promote transfer to real life problem
solving on when and how to use addition in real life.

7 Technology Framework:

The lesson taught using technology: numerical literacy of addition Explanation of how can our intended
in grade 2. technology be integrated based on
that model
Virtual reality supermarket learning experience using VR headset or
Google cardboard to relate the addition to real-life tasks

SAMR Framework:
SAMR:
It is a simple and effective way to assess how we are going to
incorporate technology in our instruction. - Modification:

It includes 4 levels: We are modifying the lesson


from a traditional supermarket
- Substitution(S): Technology acts as a direct substitute, with no experience into a virtual reality
functional change buying experience to provide
- the students with a direct
- Augmentation(A): Technology acts as a direct substitute, with application of addition in real
functional improvement life.

- Modification: Technology allows for significant task redesign. - Redefinition:

- Redefinition: technology allows for the creation of new tasks We are redefining the students
previously inconceivable (H, 2017). learning experience while
integrating virtual reality in
classrooms to Engage in a
learning environment where
they can transfer and apply the
newly acquired addition skills
in a real-world situation.

Appendix A: Two digit number addition poem +worksheet


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Name : ___________ Date:_________

Appendix B: Three digit number worksheet


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Name : ___________ Date:_________

Appendix C: Two and three digit addition word problems


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Appendix D: Short Quiz on Two digits and three digit addition
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School name

Elementary Department

Math – Quiz 1 (U4-L3) - Grade 2

________________ :Name: _______________ Date


Neatness: 1pt

Duration:30mins

Read each word problem carefully and find the solution for it.

1.

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2.

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Appendix E: Bake Sale Rubric

Criteria Exceeds expectations (5) Meets expectations(3) Below expectations (2) points

Use money The students add the The students add money The student does not
correctly. money correctly and give correctly but don’t know how to add money
back money correctly to know how to give back nor give back money
the buyers. money on bigger bills correctly to buyers
Communicate with The students know how to The students know how The student doesn’t
buyers properly. sell the customers what to communicate slightly know how to
they need, with buyers /customers. communicate with
buyers/customers.
Design their shops. The students prepare a The students prepare a The students prepare a
creative design for their regular table for their table with products on it.
shops with price marked shop with price marked
product products.
Total:
/15

Pass: 7/15
Fail: 6 and below

References
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Dabbagh, N. & Bannan-Ritland, B. (under contract - in progress). Chapter 5: Pedagogical models for online

learning. Online learning: Concepts, strategies, and application. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Education, Prentice Hall.

L., H. (2017, October 30). SAMR Model: A Practical Guide for EdTech Integration. Retrieved from

https://www.schoology.com/blog/samr-model-practical-guide-edtech-integration

Laal, M., & Ghodsi, S. M. (2012). Benefits of collaborative learning. Procedia-social and behavioral

sciences, 31, 486-490.

Millwood, B. (2016, July 7). Benefits of Role Play in Early Years | Millwood Education - Blog [Web log post].

Retrieved from https://www.millwoodeducation.co.uk/blog/post/07/2016/benefits-of-role-play-in-early-

years

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Virori. (2017, August 2). New Virtual Reality Application: Supermarket VR [Web log post]. Retrieved from

https://horizonstreetview.wordpress.com/2017/08/02/new-virtual-reality-application-supermarket-vr/

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