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The Handbookof Anarchy

J . A . A N D R E WS

Edited and lntroduced by Bob James

M O N T Y M I L L E R P R E S S- S y d n e y
L IB E R T A R I A N R E S O U R C E S- M E I b O u T N C
llt m a y b e a s We l l to p o i n t o u t h e r e th a t th e d yn a m i te p o l i cy
h a s n o th i n g to d o w i th An a r ch yi ...JAA, 1 8 9 4 .

A l e t t e r fr o m th e C h i e f Se cr e ta r y a n d Pr e m i e r , D i b b s, l 4 Ju n e
1 8 9 4 t o th e H o n . C .G.H e yd o n , ( So l i ci to r - Ge n e r a l ? ) w i th a co p y o f
t h e p a m p hl e t,r r H a n d b o o k o f An a r ch ytta tta ch e d , a ske d fo r h i s ca r e fu l
p e r u s a l r w i th a vi e w o f co n si d e r i n g w h e th e r a n y a cti o n sh o u l d b e
H ANDB OOK OF A NA RCHY - J . A . A n d re ws t a k e n r e g a r d i n g i tr . In th e co n te xt o f th e ti m e , D i b b s d o u b U e ss h a d
s o m e c h a rg e l i ke r se d i ti o n r o r r i n ci te m e n t
Edited and Introduced by Bob James to m u r d e r r i n m i n d . Afte r
s o m e d e l i b e r a ti o n s, An d r e w s w a s p r o se cu te d a n d co n vi cte d fo r se l l i n g
t h i s r p a m p hl e tt w i th o u t l e g a l i m p r i n t, e ve n th o u g h m a n y o th e r p u b l i c-
a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g th e H a n sa r d o f th e N SW p a r l i a m e n t, w e r e se r i o u sl y
i n b r e a c h o f th e r u l e . An d r e w s h a d h i s n a m e a n d a d d r e ss o n th e
p u b l i c a t i o n' b u t n o t i n th e r co r r e ctr p l a ce . Th e Bu l l e ti n r e ce i ve d
o n l y a p o li te l e tte r o f ce n su r e fo r a si m i l a r , te ch n i ca l b r e a ch .
What does this vindictive hypocrisy tell us about the state of mind
o f N S W G ove r n m e n t o ffi ci a l s?
T h e c o re o f th e sti g m a w h i ch r e str i cts g e n e r a l co m p r e h e n si o n o f
t h e m e s s ag e o f r a n a r ch i sm r i s th e i n si ste n ce b y tth e a u th o r i ti e st th a t
t h e i r d e f i n i ti o n o f w h a t i s r vi o l e n tr b e h a vi o u r a n d w h a t i s tl e g i ti m a te '
o r r r e s p e cta b l e t b e h a vi o u r w i l l b e th e d o m i n a n t o n e . Ju st a s to d a y
t h e U n i t e d sta te s Ad m i n i str a ti o n a n d i ts p a r a si ti c fo l l o w e r s i n si st
t h a t P a l e sti n i a n vi o l e n ce i s te r r o r i sm a n d th e i r o w n vi o l e n ce i s n o t,
s o r a n a r c h i stst w e r e a n d a r e r vi o l e n tr , tb l o o d - th i r styte tcn
e ve n i n
t h e i r c a s e , i f th e y r e m a i n to ta l l y tr a n sfi xe d i n o n e sp o t.
T h e r e i s n o w a y a r o u n d th i s co n fi d e n ce tr i ck, th i s sl i g h t- o f- to n g u e .
I t m u s t b e co n fr o n te d h e a d - o n , a n d ca l l e d w h a t i t i s, r a l i e ,.
First pu blis hed in Sy r lnr : y 1t l1) 4. C o n s i d e r th e p a r ti cu l a r ca se o f An d r e w s i n Syd n e y, l 8 g 4 . Fo r r n o r e
Re prin ted in t Rc a< lr : r of Ar r s ; t r ir lr ; r nAr r ; r r r : l r t l ; r r rl,i l t J ( ; l t l {X j l t h a n 2 y ea r sn h e h a d b e e n o n th e m o ve , co n ti n u a l l y d o d g i n g p o l i ce
e dite d b y [ ] ot ; . J lt nt c : ; ,O ; t r t lx r nir l1]/ t l. a t t e m p t s t o fr a m e h i m b y p l a n ti n g b o m b s n e a r h i s l o d g i n g s, b y tr yi n g
t o g e t h i s h a n d w r i ti n g o n e xp l o si ve fo r m u l a e , b y tr yi n g to ste a l h i s
t y p e - f a c e s to u se o n b o g u sr d yn a m i te m a i fe sto e sta n d b y tr yi n g to
This Edi t ion publr s lr c < 1f or t he Aus t r al i a n t r i c k s o m e o f th e yo u n g e r r a d i ca l s to i n vo l ve h i r n i n a sh o o t- o u t
An archis t Cor r t t - ' r r ; r r yCelebr at ions , w i t h t h e p o l i ce o r th e m i l i ta r y a t a p r o te st d e m o n str a ti o n o r M a y
Melb ou rr r e M ay 1- 4, 1986, joint ly by D a y m a r c h . Fo r m o r e th a n fi ve ye a r s h e h a d b e e n p o i n ti n g o u t
n i s o . w n l a ck o f su p p o r t fo r r p r o p a g a n d a o f th e d e e d t. Fo r e xa r n p l e :
l . . L e t r e vo l u ti o n i sts th i n k a s m u ch a s th e y l i ke a b o u t In e a n s
o f p e r so n a l a n d co l l e cti ve se cu r i ty i n ca se s o f e m e r g e n cy, b u t
t o s t ud y a r n r a r n e n ts o f w a r fa r e a s th e i r e n e r n i e s d o , i s to m y
L IBERTA RIA N RE S OURCE S m i n d bo th u se l e ss a n d a b su r d r .
( S y dn e y Tr u th , 1 0 Ju l y, 1 8 9 2 .)
c/- P.O. B ox 20 P arkville,
H e w a s n o t a p a ci f i st, h e w a s a r e a l i st. H e h a d n o r e a so n to su p p -
Victor ia 3052, o s e t h a t t h e C h i ca g o a u th o r i ti e s w e r e a n y w o r se th a n th o se i n Syd -
n e y , a n d if th e N o r th Am e r i ca n p o l i ce - j u d .o e s- b u si n e ssi n te r e sts co u l d
M O i ITY MILLE R P RE S S h a n g 4 a na r ch i sts o n to ta l l y tr u r n p e d - u p ch a r g e s i n l BB7 , th e n th e
P.O. Box 92 Broadway, S y d n e y s t atu s- q u o w a s e q u a l l y ca p a b l e o f i t. An d h e kn e w th a t i f
N.S.W. 2007, a n y o n e w as to b e th e ta r g e t o f Sta te - co n sp i r a cy i t w o u l d b e h i m
a n d / o r h i s co m r a d e s w h o w o u l d b e i n d a n q e r o f e xe cu ti o n .
, 1 , 't t r : t . ' es, w ho wer e ar r est ed f or dist r ibut ing t he pam phlet . No cour t r ecor d
He h ad also tho ught long and har d on t h e q u e s t i o r r , 'l . 't remai ns of t hls't r ialt becauseno t t r ial'act ually occur r ed. No wit ness-
as a po ssible mea ns t o ac hiev e s oc ial c hang e a n d _ h c t t : 1 , l , , l r l i t l ; es w ere called, no evidence t aken. The judge, bouncing up and down,
tlt Com eS not t o deat h but t o l i f e t , F {e i t l '; o r r 'l " r 't r ) ( l
anarchists must: shouti ng, lBut you m ust not publlsh sr t r Jit lonlYou m ust not publish
organisa tion a nd d ef ens iv e pr e- planning v r hich w a s a t r ri : r l ,r l " . sedi ti on! t handed down penalt ies which bor e no r elat ion t o a char ge
he wa s well a war e of t he danger s of a gr o u p s e t t i n g i t t ; r : l l t p tt t
of sedi t ionr and no r elat ion t o r c; r lit y. lle slr nply r ef used t o list en
from ritsrco mmun ity and at t em pt ing t o pr edic t r t h e r e v o l u t i o r r ':
to A ndrewr sdef ence. ( See Bullet in, 3 Novr . . r r r ber18g4, p3. )
rWe d Ontt a dv oc at e any or ganis ed c onSp i r a c y t o o v e r t l t r t t \ n J t l r o ,
The au t hor it ies wer e ablc t o r ; ; r lr rt lr c ilr r t i- ar r ar chistpublicit y t hat
existing p owe rS' as SUc h is I ik eI y t o be d i s a p p o i n t i n g a n d r ; r ; t t l ; t t t l : ;
w oul d en sur e public acct : pt ar r ccof t lr r , ' jur lgr : 's ar bit r ar y behaviour
th e ge ims o f new aut hor it y . W e c an s ir n p l y a d v i s e e a c h t . t t t ; t l <, :
i f they ever hear d of il, r r ot t r or n t lr is <; ast since -. t hcy wer e on such
a s rn an y corrv er t s as he ( s ic ) c an do w i t h o u t I n o r e r i s k t l t i t t t parti cul a r ly shaky gr or r nd,llr r t f r or r r al l; r : t of f or t uit ous cir cum st ances
he is pre pa red t o inc ur , t ill t he ex t ensi o n o f o u r i d e a s a t n o t t g
w hi ch l a r gely dt : pt . 'r r r lcrf or
l t lr cir cf t t , 'ct on pr evious ant i- anar chist
the people makes it easier to act more boldly. And at length'
hysteri a. I n Fr anc; e,lust r lit ys bef or e Llr e Sydneyt t r ialt , Sant o assass-
in answer to some act of tyranny will come the spontaneous
Inated P r esldcnt Car not . O n ll0 Jur r c, a scar r dal- sheet called t he Bir r J
irre sistible ma n- s t or m of r ev olut ion t hat w i l l s w e e p w a n t a n d
OrFreedor n cent er - paged a scur r ilous, vicious at t ack on anar chism ,
oppression from the land, and the martyrs of the past will be
A ndrew s and a so- called anar chist f ar m at Sm it hf ield. Using t he
avenged by victorYl.
( t Anar c hYt , No. l, Nov em ber , t 8 9 1 )
French m ur der as t he jum ping- of f point t he ar t icle cor r elat ed social
revol uti o n wit h seas of blood, and wit h m en f or cing wor nen t o shar e
D esp ite h is clea r oppos it ion t o any k ind of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c v i o l . . - 'r r c e r
their sexual favours around. Marx and Engels were said to have been
and de sp ite h is n ot hav ing any of f ic ial pos it ion w i t h l n t l t c l ; r t r o r r l l o v e -
the leaders of the Paris Commune, and anarchists, unionists, Satan
ment r he was still being har as s ed and c ons pir e d : t <l l l n r ; t l ) y t l r o o r r c r n -
and mad f anat ics wer e all, lit er ally, lum ped t oget her :
ieS Of tha t movem ent . He was , indeed, an e x t r {) r I l t l k i t t <l r t f o t t t s l d e r ' tWe have it on the most reliable
authority that both Ravoschol
an in telle ctu ally in c lined inv ent or and t f t c or t - ' t i r ; i a t t , r t r t r l p o o r i t s w e l l , (sic) and Vaillant who have been recently executed for outrages
w hiCh me an t h e went about in t hr t - ' a< lt lit r t : r : l t l t l l r : l ; , r t t t l ; l t i t v r r t l ,d i r t y ,
i n Par is, wer e in const ant com m unicat ion wit h local gr oups. , .
w ith straw in h lS hair . FO r r eas ot ls < lf llr ir t t : i; l l t l , t l t g t t , a t t r l f o r f i n a n C -
More than that it is whispered...that some recent European
ial f ea SOnS, h e di d not CO nfor t n ; t t t r l his li s t r l t t t : r s w ( : l 'o v t t l n e r a b l e
r r es pec t ablet bc lr it v i o u r w i r s l r l i q t l c d w i t h explosionswere to have had an echo in the far south,..
to arg ume nts in whic h
rresp ectab ler p olitics . Innuendo, dist or t ions and lies pile up in t his exam ple of yellow
j ournal i s m , whlch is pr obably by E. J. Br ady, one- t im e f r iend of An-
T he a uth orltie s wer e out t o get hlr n ( anc l a f t 'w o t l t o r s ) p r e c i s e l y
drew s. A lit t le lat er Car dinal M or an of Sydney,at a packed m er nor ial
because h e, pe rso nally , pos ed no t hr eat at all , a r r r j b r : c a t t l ; e a n a t t a c k
service for Carnot, displayed his partisan prejudices by attacking
on him wou ld n ot c os t Vot es , J us t aS in lat er t l m e s t h e A t t a r t t l i t M a r g a
anarchism at length, especially for anti-religious aspects, its rsatanic
posed no d irect th r eat . Anar c his m and Andr e w s , I n p a r t i c u l a r , c o u l d
r s howt t r i a l t h a t w o u l d l r n p r e s s enmi ty ag ainst r eligion and m or alit yr .
be lab elle d viole nt and put away in a
Governme nt sup po r t er s , s way s om e undec ide d m i d d l e - g r o u n d v o t e r s In the Handbooktsmere t4 pages, Andrews talks a lot about lawless-
and intimid ate thos e in t he m iddle- gr ound w h o t e n d e d t o o p p o s e ness and the liklihood of violence between people en masse or in
t he Govern men t. The c har ges t hat r ec eiv ed p u b l i c i t y w e r e t o b e smal l gro ups. At all t im es against t his violence he believes in t he
extre mer b ut th e penalt ies wer e of lit t le p o l i t i c a l a c c o u n t . l f t h e natural ness of people f eeling f or one anot her , shar ingr in Joys and
int im ida tion worked, it was unim por t ant wh e t h e r a n a r c h i s t s h a n g e d sufferlng of each otherr lf they were only given a chance to decide
or not. What mattered was the ef f ect on the public perception of for themseves on the basis of that capacity rather than have that
what was a ccep tab le behav iour and what wa s n t t . K e e p i n m i n d t h a t ' exerci se of f ellow f eeling' t aken away t hr ough t he applicat ion of
person-m adelaw.
t he wh ole de ba te about par liam ent ar y v er s us n o n - p a r l i a m e n t a r y p o l i t -
ics ( d irect a ctio n) t ur ns on t he ques t ion of w h e t h e r t h e s t a t u s - q u o U pon b eing sent enced, Andr ews was r elieved t o be t em por ar ily
is im mo ral o r n ot. lf it is , it c an be s wept a w a y , r o o t a n d b r a n c h . out of t he f lr ing line, but I n r e- appear ing he decided t o conf r ont
lf its mere ly an ac c ident , s light ly f lawed or a r e s u l t o f a m i s c o r l - the hypocrisy of his opponents directly. In October he took up propa-
ganda act ivit ies ent husiast ically ar r d pr epar ed r Revolt , No. 2t f or
cept ion amo ng other wis e r eas onable people, i t s s u p p o r t e r s c a r r b c
publ i cati o n. ln it he was cr it lcal of inact ive anar chist s but claim ed
negotiate d o ut o f their opinions wit h t alk .
r The H a n d b o o k o f A t t r t r C l t y " a degree of pr ogr ess. He t hought r t he lesson of New Aust r aliat had
whe n th e a uth or it ies c am e t o per us e
w hich sho uld b e c ons ider ed Andr ewr s def init ve statement, tlrr:y found i nfl uence d people t owar ds anar chy and t hought t a ver y m anif est
not hin g the y cou ld hang s er ious c har ges on. s o , t h r o u g h t l l ( ) [ ) ( ) r s o n anarchi s t t endency of t hought is ar ising am ong t he pr ogr essiveunion-
of Wh itting da le Johns on who had alr eady s en t e n c e d B r o k t : r t I l i l l s t r i k e lsts, whose socialism is now about the standard of the old social
leaders to ja il in 1892, t hey s et t le f or per ju r y o f t h e r n s r : l v 9 r ; ; t t t r l f o r democrat ic alliance at t he t lm e of Bakuninr .
a min or cu rtailme nt of Andr ews t ac t iv it ies a n d o f t h a t o f
'. ) r ; o t t r r a d - In general however, outmanoeuvredon the question of direct action.
th e whole of t t he (l a b o r) m o v e me n tr w a s i n tatters, vi gororts onl y brought in an emphatic verdict of Inot guiltyr on the count of
i n spas m s , s ubs id i n g fi tfu l l y to a p l a te a u x of aspi rati on far bel ow justifying the crime of murder and inciting to murder, Incend-
th a t f r om whic h i t h a d b e g u n th e d e c a d e . The contai nmerrt of tl te l ari sm _and plllage. lwas f ound guilt y on t he t wo r em ainlng
d e mo c r at ic s ur ge w i th l n th e p a rl i a m e n ta ry bottl e w as very nearl y counts (whlch neither slde had taken the trouble to argue aOout),
co mp let e. Count r y d i s tri c ts w e re th e l a s t to submi tr 1894 pr< l vi di ng whatever they might mean with the part covered bt the first
so me of t he c lear e s t e x a mp l e s o f d e te rmi n e d, del i berate yet l argel y count subtracted.
spontaneousdefensive acts of violence of the whole period of strikes' This entitled me to a further soJournof flve months ln Darllng-
without so far as I am aware there belng any anarchists on hand. hurst (Ja ll) '.
l l l l l e t A ndr ews t el l th e re s t o f th e s to ry h i m s el f:
rJ udge Dar ley h a d ma d e c o mme n ts o n the pri nci pl es i nvol ved
in the case of the Momba shearers who were tried before hirn.
I agr eed wit h h i s re m a rk s i n th e a b s tract' but consi dered that
he was barking up the wrong tree. He said' the country was
vir t ually in a s ta te o f c i v i l w a r; o rg ani sed gangs w ere goi ng
a bout , dic t at in g to w o rk e rs th e te rms o n w hl ch they must w ork,
a nd ev en f or c i b l y i n te rfe ri n g w i th th o s e w ho ref used to submi t 1
to that dictation. To Judge Darley these tyrants were the union
s hear er s , and th e o p p re s s e d v i c ti ms , th e bl ackl egs; but to me
the tyrants were the squatters' backed by the Goverrttnetlt, attd
the v ic t ir ns w e re th e u n i o n s h e a re rs . Judge D arl ey sai d every HATOB@K

m an had t he rGo d -g i v e n rri g h t to w o rk w hen, w hc' re, how l ong,
and f or what h e p l e a s e d . l s a i d s o to o - as he pl easr:< 1, not as
m as t er pleas e d to i mp o s e ...J u d g eDr a l c y sai d that thc tree marl
h ad t he r ight to d e fe n d h i s l i b e rty b y f orce, rl vctt to tl te l ast
ex t r em it y ; ar r d s o s a i d l r.
Al though logic a n d c o mmo n s e n s e w e re o tt A ntJtt.l w rssi cl t-' because
th e S t at e dif f er ed i n i ts o p i n i o n a s to w h a t r ttoral l ty tho soc-' i alstruc-
tu re s hould r ef lec t, n a m e l y th a t o f th e matster-serf rel ati onshi p'
Andrews was arrested and charged with:
rs edit ious libet w i th i n te n t to j u s ti fy th e cri tne of trtttrdcr, and
t o inc it e div ers p e rs o n s u n k n o w n to c o m m i t tl te cri tnes of tnurd-
€r , inc endiar i s m, p i l l a g e a n d a s s a u l t; to bri ng tl re l aw of the
land int o c ont e mp t, a n d m a k e i t a p p e a r t hat i t i s undul y adtni ni s-
tr at ed; t o I nc i te H e r Ma j e s ty rs l i e g e s u b jects to ri ots artd turnul ts
and breaches of the peace; to incite evilly disposed persons
to r es is t of f ic e rs a n d me mb e rs o f th e p ol i ce force l aw ful l y seek-
ing to apprehend them, and to bring the members of the said
force into hatred and contempt; and to stir up discontent and
dis af f ec t ion amo n g H e r M a J e s ty rs l i e g e subj ects. A l l of w hi ch
t hings wer e s o l e m n l y d e c l a re d to b e s u bversi veof l aw and order
and good governmentr.
When this trial came on after 2 months in jall' Andrews found
that additlonal charges had been sandwiched into the indictment
o f tgr iev ious ly s c a n d a l i s i n g a n d v i l i fy l n g H i s H onour S i r Frecl eri ck
Ma thew Dar ley , K n i g h t, C h i e f J u s ti c e , a n d maki ng i t appear that
h e h at h inc it ed di v e rs p e rs o n s to c o mml t the cri rne of murdert. of
courser Andrews had prepared hls defence In relation to the charges
hetd been told about' not the new ones:
rThe trial was extraordinary. The Crown Prosecutor talkt>d for
t hr ee quar t er s o f a n h o u r a b o u t th e l ri sh Fenl an tri al s,:rttd sal d
s c ar c ely any t h i n g a b o u t th e c a s e i n h and...E ventual l y...tht-' Jury
The Handbook of Anarchy disadvantaged and subordinatedby the operationof the same
restrictions. Those who received the advantagewere naturally
Anarchy is freedom.The literal meaningof the rvord "free"
weeded dowri to consist of the most assertiveof those whom
is to love or like; thus when we say that a man is free we imply
chanceor cunninghad at any time favored,and cameto look on
that he is "to like," that is, he hasonly to like in orderto decide
the unequal operation of law as the expressionof mysterious
what he will do, or try to do. Among the things which peoplein
"rights," invented,after the law had unconsciously createdthem,
generallike, is to avoid hurting others,and as sometimesto do a
by way of apology for their orvn existence.and of makinq it
particular thing which one would like wouid come in conflict
appearthat law, insteadof unintentionallyoriginatingthem, f,ad
with this, it becomesa matter for considerationwhich course
itself come into existencefor the expresspurposeof protecting
one likes the best. From this people have roughly set out certain
them; and new laws were piled sky-highand Governments estab_
particularthings which they supposed,so far as they could see,
iished to compel the observanceof the vestedintereststhus set
that they would prefer not to do towards others. sayingthat
up. When the resulting evils have at some stagebecomeintol-
as it was tlteir wish to save each other from harm. they would erable,those below have from time to time revolted,either to
mutually defend each other againstanyonewho did thosethings. bring things back to a fresh start, or to put the framing and
This was law, which at first existed without any Governments administrationof laws into the hands of supposedlyimpartial
since the mere solidarity and fellow-feelingof the peoplesufficed persons,or to take them directly into their own hands_ expect_
to carry it out. But they erred through short-sightedness, for they ing to thus remedy the evil, which, however,as pointed out, is
could not seefurther than the conditionsand circumstances they
in the very nature of law as imposingfallaciesupon conduct;and
were most familiar with, and not only are the generalconditions out of falsehoodas the sourceof socialrelationscan come onlv
of life constantly changing,but the individual circumstances the piling up of sociallies, which, translatedinto materialcondi-
under any generalconditionsare of almost infinite variability. tions, mean tyranny, slavery,and misery.No two occurrences are
Consequentlywhen they assumedthat certain things wcre as a exactly alike in their causesand their effects,and the essence
matter of courseopposedto their generalpurposeof sparingcach of
law is that it takesall caseswhich havea single,and it may be the
other suffering,they overlookedthe fact that thereare "two sides least important, point in resemblance,and directs them to be
to a question," and that the real aspectof a casemight be the treat ed,in kind if not in degr ee,on t he sam ef oot ins. And as
very oppositeof what they stood pledgedin advanceto regardit, under no conceivable condit ion of societ yis wr ong im possible,
as circumstances alone giveeveryaction its bearing.Had they not the effect of law is necessarilyto createa vestedinterestin all
established the law, they would havetaken part on the unbiassed wrongs possibleto occur in conformity with the modes it cry_
guidanceof the samenatural sympathiesas were at the root of
stallises,for all who are in a position to profit by them at the
the law; but having createdthe law, they had to consider,not
expenseof thosewho will suffer,and thus to constitutethe iatter
what part they would like to take accordingto the realities,but mere cattle for the former; while freedom, by preservingthe
which part the law piedgedthem to. As a consequence of which,
social elasticity, although it cannot prevent wrongs of a purely
it would happen that when some person,let us say A.lfred,did personalcharacterfrom occurring if the elementsare present,
somethingsiightly to the disadvantage of another, say Arthur,
admits of no such wholesalewrong being foisted upon and over-
but which, in the nature of the circumstances, everyunbiassed
shadowingsociety. The moment when, instead of considerine
observer would hold him absolutely justified in doing, they
what they would really like best to do under the actual circuml
would, in the false light of the law, look on it as a crime; while
stancesconfrontingthem, peoplein their ignoranceturned their
the law would, through being all on Arthur's side, and, so to
will to work out the dictatesof a rule, that moment they ceased
speak,patting his immediategrievanceon the back,leadhim into
to be free; and the fact that they adoptedthe rule of their own
the most narrowly selfish and exclusiveview of the matter. Thus accord, could no more alter the nature of their condition,than
by degrees,as conditionschangedpartly from natural evolution the fact of a man having voluntarily chained himself 'up could
and partly from the deliberateexertions of the most cunning to prevent the resulting fact of his physical bondage.The fiee man
bend the circumstancesinto the shapethat would givethem most cannot owe obedienceor support either to a personalruler or to
advantageof the law, the effects showed themselvesin the divi- the fallaciousexactionsof any sort of superitition. The recog-
sion of society into two classes- those to whom, on the whole, nition of this fact is signified in expressingfreedom by the woid
the restrictionsof law operated as circumstantialadvantages over "Anarchy," which meansliterally '\rn-rule,', or l_awlessness.
and againstthe others;and theseothers,who were,on the whole, Now what is lawlessness? It is usually held up as the equiva-
I 9
lent of all wickedness.But let us see.
Right and wrong are simply good and harm. We define as
right whateverministersto the pleasure.whichwe find in others'
welfare without depriving us of a greater amount of pleasurdin
our own being, and which those whom it is safe for us to
associatewith find reciprocally in our welfare; wrong that which
acts oppositely. Our whole nervous structure makes it a physi-
ological fact that we share in the joys and sufferings of each
other. This is true of almost all animals that have a nervous sys-
tem, but in man so especiallythat a healthy individual feels to
some extent the pleasuresand woes of even the animalsof other
speciesrvith which he associates.But from a protective natural \
process,this susceptibility is closed where vital interests are in
conflict. We share no grief in the death-agonyof a tiger or a
human enemy whose life would threaten our own or make it
insupportable. Then, sincelaw in the natureof thingstakesaway
the exerciseof fellow-feelingby which that feeling is developed,
substituting, instead, comparison with codes, and since by
building on false generalisation it createsantagonisticinterests,
which cannot be adheredto without consequentlyclosingup the
bodily avenuesof love for one's neighbouras for oneself,it is
It w oul d moreover
law t hat is a h i d e o u sc re a to ro f w i c k e d n e ss.
be as rationalto allegethat an honestman should not object to
beingchainedup to preventhim from stealing,as that he should
not object to being a bond-slavein his conduct to preventhim
from doingwrong,and a bond-slave he is when he has to conform
his actions!o an imposedcode to the exclusionof his own judg-
ment of what accordswith reasonand human sentiment.The
whole of larv is exactly on a par with the contentionof the rabid
teetotallerswho affirm that becauseone man may do rvrongin
drinking a1cohol,everyone should be forbidden to drink it.
Becausea certainact committed by a personwhosemoral nature
is deficient.or who is not sufficiently thoughtful in his conduct,
may probabiybe. underthosecircumstances.
ahd considerate
an unjust act, moral
men are to be forbiddento do that act underany
It is the same.And a man does.or abstainsfrom
doing. something,for one of two reasons:eitherbecausehe con- ,J
cludesthat this conduct is the most appropriate,or because such
is the rule or law. The conduct may answerto both reasons, but
the motive can be only one of them; if a man does a thing
becausehe thinks it fitting, he does so whether it is in accord
wit h law or no t. a n d i f h e d o e si t b e c a u s e
s u chi s the l arv.hedoes
it whether it is litting or not. This is regardinglaw as a moral
standardof conduct. Rules are ail very well in their place as J.A. Andrews
foundations tbr thoroughly oprional specialdoings,and contlned
to the limited sphereof a circumscribed purpose,suchas defining
the structureof a game,the fun of which consistsin seeingwhat
10 11
can be done under specifiedlimitations, and where the rule alive would like to kill, the survivorswili be only such as are cap-
th,e capacity of an assumednaturai quality in an imaginary able and desirousof living together in peaceand harmony. kt
world which we can enter or leaveat will;but as affectins
ioines us haveit, by all means,as soon as the peoplelearn to abandon
in the real world, which are founded on facts trt"t
u'. law - let those who can and wish to live in helpful brotherhood,
abrogated in that connection, they are wholly out of place.
"uinoi Oui or at leastin peaceand concord,exterminatetheir enemies,and
everyday affairs might just as well be regulated by the rules
of have, even if it is oniy for a few generations,a life worth livingl
crjcket or draughtsas by property or otheilaw; it is only
a matter They can do it, for if wickednesswere naturally pleasingto the
of depending on the complicationsto which the peculiar
limita_ bulk of mankind,they would not wish for law "to suppress evil."
tions of the game give rise, for our material prosperity
or adver- But in the absenceof law, all the social feelingswould, of a psy-
sity. As to the dread of penalty, everyonehas to bewarehow
he chologic necessity,be enormouslyawakened,and I believethat
awakens resentment, but the question here is, will it
wake on when peoplelearn to throw away the superstitionof law, with its
natural and reasonable,or on artificial and arbitary grounds?
If consequenceof their stiffened and distorted attitude towards
the latter' its moral value for arousingthe morally auulo
the fact each other, many and indeed the most of those who are under
that other people'sfeet ache when trodden on, is destroyed;
edsting conditionssocialenemies,will rise naturallyto the glory
especiallywhen the aggrieved_ directly or through
sympathy _ of peaceand good will. Men's mutual mistrusthas furnished,in
are forbidden to exercise their resentment,and instead
of tfre the variousforms of law - rules,statutes,property, authority -
aggrieverbeing taught a lessonas between man and man,
he is the meansfor its own justification; so also their mutual confl-
punished by strangersin the name of an impersonal power
for dencewili not fail, in Liberty, to justify itself.
breach of discipline;not for wronging otheri, for the^lawgives In the absenceof law the one consideration takenby people
to all rvho can usethe law to that purpose,the privilegeof as to t heir own or eachot her s'welf ar e,m ust be in t he br oadest
ing others: bui for doing a *rong, or for'that matter a sensethe bearingof their respectiveneeds,feelingsand purposes.
right, in
a forbidden way. This bringsus to the point: to judge the For thosewho refusethis considerationto others,therecan only
and wrongs of any casecorrectly and deal with it iltrttig.nitf be war, and it is war now, only that the war is againstthosewlio
it must be treatedon its own circumstances, and not by cinuen- refuseto give the falseconsiderationdemandedby rules,instead
tionalitiesand codes;then, is this to be done by the p*ti., of the true considerationcalled for by real circumstances. But
sciously affected, or by officials endowed with the monopolis- this war is not wagedby the classes who profit by the vestedin-
tic privilege of doing so? To be governedsignifiesthat someone terestsin the subjectionof their fellows which law in its very
elsehas the choiceof your conduct and attiiude towardsothers, nature has createdfor the crafty and tyrannical.It is the people's
conduct,and you havenot. own foree which through their delusionis turned againstsuchof
"Oh! but." we are told, ..if you did away with Government them as dare to infringethe rulesof their bondage.And what the
there would be a horrible state of things; the world people'sown force can do biindly and irrationally,at the bidding
become one vast field of chaotic rapine ind slaughter!,,What and for the purposesof their oppressors,it can do consciously
elseis it now? If.however,thereare so many people-whoareonly and intelligently,of free will, and for the people'sown purposes.
restrained by law and authority from waging war on Who are all the poiice, soldiers,judges,goalersand so on, but
lvretched,helplessothers,it is rather surprisin[for them to have people like anyone else,and picked very much at random?So
B_one o-nallowing the weak helplessgood to gouernthem and keep far as their position does not corrupt them. they are conscien-
them from doing what they would like. If such exist it is because tiousiy endeavouringto admhister and defend laws which no-
the existenceof law is protectingthem from the risks of their
body canunderstand, and they are privilegedinterferers,(sincethe
disposition; and Nature demandsa slaughterfor the purification handsof the peopieat large are tied) and temptedto curry favor
of the world from the riving abortionsand inhuman monstrosities with their "superiors" and the classesin whose interest they
that have been preservedthrough law from the doom mainly exist. Surelythen peoplein generalhere,thereand every-
humanity, in its own defence,should have meted out to rvhere.can far better administerand def'endthe principiesof hu-
t"et it be slaughter.then, if such indeedit would, but let me manity. rvhichevery ordinary personcan understand.and with a
free to try and slaughter whom I like to slaughter,and every full senseof mutual responsibilityundestroyedby priviiegeand
other whom he likes to slaughter, and not be butcher-slaves unbiassed by serviledependencel
massacringas somebody else pleases,and when that slauehter Anarchy is no biind dogmaof non-interference, esit is some-
stops becauserhere is nobodyrleft alive that anybody elsJ left times misrepresented to be; I would even take a man by force
and compel him to work for me, if occasionrequired - for in- Just here let us considerbuying and selling,and the com-
stance,if my life or yours dependedon the prompt repairing of mercial principle generally,together with the division of labor
an engine and his labor was necessaryto its accomplishment, that we now have in connectionwith them. What is the differ-
and he refusedto help voluntarily; and I think every reasonable ence betweena woman sellingto a man the use of her sexual
man would justify me in standing over that fellow with a whip organs,and one personsellingto another personthe useof some
in one hand and a pistol in the other till that enginewas in work- other part of the body, such as the arm or the brain?Or what is
ing order - just as I think that nobody would justify me in inter- the differencebetween a woman exacting from a man a price
for the use of certain "resources"for his gratification,and one
fering with him even by procuring his voluntary assistance, when person exactingfrom another person a price for the use of cer-
I should obviously entail less hardship on myself and others by
tain other resourceswhich the former can provide - such as a
leavinghim alone than on him by so interfering. Neither as it as
pair of boots or a load of firewood? I can seeno moral differ-
others misrepresentit, a condition in which the first to do ashe
ence between one transactionand the other. Our innate senti-
likes is privileged,and other people must not do as they like in
ment for the welfare of the race teachesus that if a woman
opposinghim. It is simply and purely the substitution of the real
admits a man for the meresatisfactionof her own animalpassion,
for the conventionalas the guide of conduct. Substitutethe free
it is natural and not in itself immoral; and if she doesso in pur-
choice of conduct by ail humanity accordingto their respective
suanceof a specialaffection it is usually positivelymorai, inas-
needs for action, in place of having some ordinary persons
much as such affection ordinarily guides to the coupling most
endowedwith monopoliesof this and that portion of the choice
advantageous for the beneficialbreedingof her species.But to
of conduct and resulting destiniesof the rest; substitutethe
pair without desireis repugnantto our feelings,and rightly so,
enlightenedinstincts of self-preservation and fellow-feelingto-
as it impairsthe quality of propagation.Doesnot aisothe useof
gether as the standardof morality, in placeof obedience;and if
the ot her or ganswit hout , or in excessof , desir e,im pair t he
not all peopleare competentfor sucha life, thoseof not lessthan
qualit y of t heir oper at ion?The ar t ist , t he aut hor , t he poet .
averageintelligenceand good will certainly are, and they are the
know that when they have to resort to "pot-boiling" drudgery,
community;the othersareits enemies.
it renders it more difficult for them to produce good work.
ReadBakounine'sGOD & THE STATE.
Where there is a real natural prompting,whether the cravingof
Property is law in restraintof use and possession, and con-
a faculty fbr exercise.or the suegestiveness of appropriatecondi-
ferring on the person in whose favour the restriction is declared,
ti ons, t he gr at if icat ionof t hat pr om pt ingis a pleasur e:
and t he
authority over his fellow-beingsto arbitrarily forbid or impose
his own terms for, their use of particularthings.The more a man being who would demand compensationfor being
repugnant ro al1 our instincts of self-preservation. The whole
owns, the more he owns you. Uke other law in the beginning,
s-vstemof the habitua.lfemaieprostitureis in a state of chronic
it was institutedwith good intentions,the ideabeingto secureto
derangement. What else can be said of the man who spendsall
each person undisturbed possessionof the things which habi-
his time in overworking one faculty to the level of a mere
tually he resorted to or had reasonableexpectation of using for
mechanicalautomaton. and shutting his energiesoff frorn the
the satisfactionof his needs.In freedom,of course,there will
rest?O ur body is t oo deiicat ea m echanismt o be t am per edwir h
be no ownership,but secureall the good aimed at by the latter,
i n th is way. The whoiem an would be healt hierand m or evigor ous
without its evil. The moral senseof people at largewill, to the ut-
and com pet entf or a gr eat ervar iet yof exer ciseand due pr opor -
most of what reasonableand humane men can do, erlsure and
tioning oi action to the measurein which the different faculties
defend to each the undisturbed opportunity to gratify his
exi s t in his st r uct ur e.And again.a per sondoes not in gener al
purposeswith the things he has provided or placed himself in
l i ke t o do som et hinglor t he sakeof m er e exer cise;uniesshe is.
accessto for that end; otherwise give him friendly help; and
as the sayingis. bur st ingt o get it of i him . he want sf ir st som e
justify him equally with anyone else in such latitude with the
reason.som e pur posein view. The am at eurwho is br im t ul of
means provided for other people's purposesas emergencymay
energyseekingr n our lct in t he dir ect ion,sa, v,of phot oer lphyor long ashe displaysas much regardfor others'
the cult ivat ionof f bwer s, doesnot r vantt o com pilean albumor
convenienceas the relativeimportanceand urgencyof his needs
fill a gardenwhich no eyesbut his shalleverbehold.The scientist.
will enable. the philosopher,the poet, the author, thesewouid soon weary,
In the absenceof Property, capitalism,wagesand prices, though rewardedwith every outward luxury, were they cut off
money, barter, etc., will necessarilybe extinguished,since they f'om others whose lives and intereststo weaveinto their work,
dependon property for their very existence.
and tbr whose pleasureand advancementto make their concep-
14 15
tions and investigations.Even the hard-up swagman goes his
way gloomily while he is alone,and asksfor tucker seldom.but
help anotherwho had, and there would be no thought oI taKlng
when two such come together,neitherone shirksthis most dis-
formal recognisances for the return of the compliment, or
tasteful work, becauseit is for his mate as well as himself. And
keeping accounts of the things done for eachother, nor would
the swagmanwho exerciseshis bushmanshipin discoveringwater
the personwho wanted somethingdone go to anotherwho could
9r_a qood campingplace,constructinga shelter,improving the not do it, and offer to permit him to eat three mealson condi-
bill of fare,making a knife or a billy from old waste,etc.,leels,
because his doings have a direct purpose, an immediate tion of having the thing.done, and that one go to anotherand
connectionwith the needsand welfare of him and his mates,a offer him leave to eat a quarter of a meal to do it, another a
zest and relish of living such as he never experienceswhen, in quarterto record the transaction,anothera slicefor introducing
employment,he spendshis time doing somethingthat so far as the party who wanted the thing done, and other slicesto divers
he is concernedmight just as well be anythingelse,andreceiving individualsto stand ready with gunsto enforcethe arrangement!
money with which he buys enjoyments that have no logical The day after, ail these goups and combinations might be
connectionwith his efforts. changed;somevanished,somecomposedpartly or wholly of new
Production and distribution would be effected in a condi- persoris,others sprungup new. Nor would there be any persons
privilegedto rule in thesecombinations;if indeed anyone was
tion of Anarchy on the same free and pleasurablelines as the
variousthings necessaryamong a party of friends on a holiday acceptedas guideor directorin anythingyou would only take his
instructionsas advice, and if you did not approveof them, if
excursion.Supposethat you and someof your comradeswent on
it was your affair you would go on in your way, if his affair leave
a holiday camping-outexpedition in some remote part. Each
him to his way.
would bring as far as possiblewhat he or she woultl require,and
Now supposenews came to hand of a flood or war, that
what wo u l d b e h a n d yto o th e rsrv h om i ght not havei t,everythi ng
would cut you off from the outer world for some time, you
would be at disposalfor the most equal and harmonioussatis-
would keep on in exactly the sameway, only you would build
faction of all the wants of everyone.The sameprinciplewould
more substantialsheltersand take more elaboratemeans for
prevail in your doings;thus one group.might go fishing,some
supplyingyour wants from the resourcesaround you, and there
becausethey liked both anglingand eatingfish;otherswho liked
would be wants that you would experienceon a long stay, that
anglingbut did not care for eatingfish; others who did not care
could have been passedover for a short one, and the thingson
particularly for angling,but wanted to make sure of the fish
which your energieswould be directed,but not the nature of
either for themselvesor for friends with a taste for it. Other
your relations towards each other, would be modified. You
groups would go shooting, exploring, etc., in like manner.
would still be the party of friends,and the waysof property and
Another group would probably stay at the main camp, some
law would have no place among you.And now supposingthat
becausethe work of camp fitting was most attractiveto them,
your stay was prolonged indefinitely, do you think that you
some becausethey felt for the time being more interestin that
would want to changeall this, and map things out, saying,"this
than in anythingelse,or knew that othersfelt so. Then when the
is for me exclusively,"and "that is for him exclusively,"to go
other groupsreturned,and the party sat down to supper,it would
each lbr himself againstthe rest, and lay out a commercialsys-
be simply, who would like fish? who would like game?etc. so
tem, jealously measuringeverything by which one benefited
long as there'wasenoughof the particulararticle for eachwho
another, and demandingliquidated security for a reward as a
caredfor it to havea shareworth eating;if therewasnot enough
condition of doing it? No! Whateverdifferencethere might be
for this, then some would stand out of their own accord,and if
in the things to be undertakenfor supplying your respective
the deficiencywas considerable you would leavethe fish, if that
needs,you would conduct yourselvesin the samefree and happy
was what was short, to those among the fishers who caught it
way as when you first set out. And the fruits of your toil and
and next to them those among the unsuccessfulfishers,who had
skill, and of your way of life, would soon be comtbrt for ali such
fished in the hope of eating fish. or the non-fishersfor whom
asthe few haveby the woe of the many now.
most personallyand particularlyany of the anglershad gone to
ReadW. Nlorris'sNEWSfrom NOWHERE.
the task of fishing.Then, too, one of you might do something
to provide for his own convenience;two more might do differ- If quarrelsor difficultiesarose,you would adjustthernfreely
like all other matters.Why should you pick out a few and bind
ent things for each other; a fourth might attend to something
yourselvesthat what they call right shail be right,and what they
for a fifth, while the fifth did somethingfor a sixth, and.thesixth
call wrong shall be wrong? Peoplewhoseconduct is chosenfor
them are "selfish," becausethe only thing left them to think on
is the immediate convenienceor inconvenienceof the result. by a domesticone, it is not essentialor uniformly desirable.
People who choose their conduct for themselvesexercisetheir Seducinga personto quit or ignorean existingsexualpartnership
social feelingsin doing so, and are satisfied with any sacrifices is, other things being equal, an act that would call forth the
they make to pleasetheir sympathies. contemptof the lawless,on accountof its inconsiderate character
If a dispute arisesamong associates, towar dst he ot herpar t ner ,
it does not follow that
the majority should prevail.Perhapsboth majority and minority Childrenwould not be the chattel slavesof the parentsas
can carry out their views independently. The majority may be they are now. They would be to all on the samefooting as any
barely more than indifferent, while the minority are very decided, other feeble and inexperiencedstrangerwho might arrive and
and in practice it may pleasethe individuals of the majority best becomethe guestof the community. It would at once be recog-
to giveway. Or the questionmay be sunk, or new ideasconceived, nised as monstrousto order such a strangerabout, saying,"Do
or new personsenlisted. Unlessmaterially impossible,as in the this becauseyou are told." A child may be rightfully coerced,
caseof a ship in midocean whose further coursehas beencalled to avoid more seriousharm to itself or others,but without au-
in question,wherethere is nothing for it but to stay on board,it thority, as you would force a friend who wasdrinkingtoo much
should generally be optional with everyone whether to remain and behavingfoolishly - nor for the mere whim of the parents
associatedwith what others decideon - though extraordinary or anyoneelse,but with full responsibilityto everyone'ssenseof
emergencies might justtfy the majority in coercingthe minority, fairnessand right.
or the minority in coercingthe majority, if possible.It is all a As older people would have leisureto let the society and
matter for common senseto a<ijustwithout being trammelled wants of childhood enter more into their lives than at present
by formalitiesand legalities. . . . and encouragethe natural tendencyof chiidrento take the
An agent, delegateor representative in any matter would affairs of their elder friends into their lives . . . children would
only be that of thosewho procuredhim to act. In dbalingwith pick up writing, reading,and a.ll material knowledgers they
anotherperson'srepresentative everyoneis awarethat he may be acquirespeechor the knowledgeof games.Specialclasses con-
a misrepresentative, and would in Anarchy know thereforethat ductedby thosewhom it would pleaseto so exercisetheir facul-
he sharedwith the party "represented,"the risk of the repre- ties, and cooperativeclassesof students,such as our scientific
sentativebeing false.The "represented"would be perfectlyjusti- societiesreally are, are natural and obvious means for closer
fied in repudiation if the representativehad designedlyor in- s t udy.
advertently committed them to something unreasonableor The nature of Anarchy being now understood,how is this
foreign to their purposein sendinghim;or in so far as one fair t o be r ealised?
s t at e,so desir able, I t cannotbe im posed:it m ust
man would justify another in revoking a promise made even come by enlightenmentand individualreform. Each must purify
personally,if the circumstanceshad materially varied in the his own life from all taint of the evil, and havecouragero ignore
meantime.A promise or agreementis simply an expressionof what is imposed,as the Catholicsdid before paganand Protes-
definite intention,for the guidanceof others concerned,and the tant persecutors,Protestantsbefore Catholic persecutors.and
whole moral questionupon it is one of mutual sparingof incon- At heist sin f ace of bot h; as sciencehas conquer edr eligiouspcr -
venience. secution rvhiie the sects are still contending,so Anarch1.,the
The relations of the sexeswill be on the same footing of appliedscienceof society,will make its way with a rapidity and
freedom. Here there are always two personswhose choice in the power impossibleto barrencreeds.In the spirit of the living faith
matter would requireto be mutual. All personsare not alikesex- that works its truth to sight, dweils, and there alone,the hope
ually. Some are monogamous, with the glory of Victory.
otherspolygamous;some mating,
others roving, but all thesecan find partners who can take them
as they are, and the mating person forced againstnature to go
from one to another, the rover kept to one, the monogamist
forced to consorthabituallywith severalduring the sameperiod
and the polygamistpreventedfrom doing so, eachlosesrespect
for the other sex, and treats a sex-partneras a mere machinefor
gratifyinghis or her sensuality.Hence,freedomtends to purity.
Though ordinarily, the habitual sex partnership is accompanied