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Tutoring Skills for 1-to-1 TESOL Online

Unit Aim

This unit is part of Acadsoc's internationally accredited TESOL certificate, intended for new or prospective
online tutors of ESOL using a 1-1 pedagogy in a Chinese context. It is assumed that candidates have no
prior ESOL teaching/tutoring qualifications. The aim of the unit is to provide Candidates with the
knowledge and understanding about the delivery of effective and engaging lessons at Acadsoc, and how
to match this to meet the needs of learners when teaching English as a foreign language. You will also get
the chance to teach real lessons.

Unit Outcomes

On completion of this Unit candidates should be able to:

1. Install, operate and maintain an online 1-1 TESOL environment.


2. Be aware of the context of ESOL learners in an online situation, and potential barriers to learning.
3. Understand and discuss an online learning approach to ESOL teaching and learning, and how to
ensure that it is learner centered.
4. Be skilled in the use of a 1-1 online ESOL learning environment, in a real tutoring situation. 
5. Self-evaluate their tutoring performance, using tools provided in the online environment.

Where do TESOL teachers fit into the rapidly changing area


COMMUNICATION of online education?

TECHNOLOGY AND
1. Introduction
TEACHING ONLINE
EARLY TECHNOLOGY
(used to teach languages):
- Computer laboratories of:
*1960s and 1970s
*in North America and Europe.

Laboratories contained:
1. basic computer equipment
- provided language learners with the
opportunity to hear recordings of the
language they wanted to learn.

- In these computer classrooms, learners


would listen and repeat their target language,
again and again, in the hope that ‘drilling’ and
copying would lead to competency. 2. Teachers and Technology
- Needless to say, today’s technologies and Closely linked:
methods have moved on, with individual 1. Language education
learners now having access to more cost- 2. Technology
effective communication technologies and
equipment, through which they can interact
with actual speakers of their target language, Online TESOL teachers find it difficult to know where
at times and in ways that suit their individual they ‘fit in’ to this bigger and ever modernizing picture
needs.  of language education. So,…

CONTINUOUSLY GROW IN LANGUAGE LEARNING


1. Information David Nunan (2011)
2. Communication Technologies in  Teaching English to Young Learners

- made simple breakdown of online education


Annamaria Pinter (2017) offered by where technology functions as a:
in Teaching Young Language Learners mentions:
1. Carrier of content and an instructional
1. how the internet itself is now offering tool
sophisticated opportunities for 2. Learning management tool
independent learning 3. Communication tool

2. how young children in many contexts are


becoming socialized into using
communication technologies at an early
age.
Central to the practice of teaching one-to-one
online:
1. independent learning COMMUNICATION TOOL
2. communication technologies - using technology as this
- is where the link between you as an online
It is hoped that this will become more apparent as TESOL teacher and your students will be made, in real-
you work through the materials in this unit. time.

Typically, communication tools will enable you to do


the following:
1. To see students and be seen by them The following video clip is of a real online class given by
2. To hear and be heard  an Acadsoc tutor on one of the commonly used
3. To share and receive materials (e.g. lessons and teaching platforms - ClassIn.
homework, audio or exercise files, etc.)
4. To interact, respond and explain using in-built Take a moment to watch the video and then reflect on
functions (e.g. drawing tools, giving digital the class using some of the ideas you learned in Unit 1.
rewards, using text boxes, etc.)
5. To record lessons and collect data for learning
and assessment Ask yourself questions such as: 
What is the target language (words, phrases,
sentences)?

NOTE: What methods is the teacher using?


COMMUNICATION
1. does not just simply mean ‘talking’ to students; Are there any issues with pronunciation, grammar or
2. includes how you as a teacher use appropriate word use?
methods of communication to engage learners
and deliver meaning.
(Watch Jha Oliveros Trial class)
CONSIDER WHAT TEACHERS CAN USE
(in young learners):
1. body language in the Total Physical
Response (TPR) method
2. realia (real items) in their classroom to
make things more exciting,

(with adult beginners)


1. chat box to supplement listening exercises
(by typing out text)
2. drawing tools to highlight and bring
attention to words and phrases that the
student is having difficulty saying

All of these relate to effective communication, and the


list goes on.

3. Reflection Exercise
ACADSOC ONLINE
An overview of the tools used to deliver online lessons at
Acadsoc.

1. Acadsoc Online
At Acadsoc, teachers communicate with their students
in:
Synchronous Classes
- classes are held in real-time. A-Classroom
- Each class is 25-minutes long, and taught using - for use by Acadsoc teachers only
one of the following platforms - only available for download on the Acadsoc
Tutor System website. 
 
PLATFORMS or FOUR COMMUNICATION A-Classroom Manual 
TOOLS: - commonly used by Acadsoc Online - provides a basic overview of the platform and
instructions on how to use it.
1. A-Classroom (Acadsoc’s own platform)
= proper teaching
2. ClassIn  = proper teaching 1.2. System Requirements
3. QQ = popular Chinese messenger app
4. Skype = popular telecommunication software In order to use A-Classroom (and other
platforms) effectively, your computer must meet the
following minimum system requirements:

1.1. A-Classroom
A-CLASSSROOM
- Acadsoc’s own teaching platform software.
- developed for use by its teachers and
students.

- is interactive
- PROVIDES:
1. audio-visual interaction
2. multimedia teaching
3.whiteboard examples
4. brush painting
5.chat translation
6. other functions used to create an TWO INTERNET SPEEDS: 
effective learning environment for 1. Download speed
students. - how fast you download data sent to
you
- higher than upload speeds
* Acadsoc recommends at least 2 mps (megabytes per
THREE SYSTEM VIEWS IN A-CLASSROOM: second) to avoid connection problems while teaching
1. Student view
2. Tutor view (your view) 2. Upload speed
3. Customer service view - how fast you send data to others.

*NOTE: speed requirements are higher for dedicated


teaching platforms like ClassIn and A-Classroom, which
require download/upload speeds of at least 5mps/2mps - used in language teaching because of it
in order to work smoothly. being well-known, mostly free to use and
simple.
Take a few moments to check and compare your current
system configuration against the minimum system
requirements.

  For internet speeds, Acadsoc tutors can select 'Speed


Test' in the Tutors' System.

2. ClassIn - a freely downloadable software that


offers a comprehensive set of teaching tools on a
purpose-built teaching platform. Features you need to familiarizefor teaching
English through Skype are:
- can be used on a range of devices (computer,
tablet or phone)
1. Call and messaging functions so that you
- compatible with Windows, Mac, Android, iOS can communicate with your students by
and WeChat – China’s most famous social speaking, by text and by video (in video
media app.  calls).
2. File sending function so that you can
Take some time to visit EEO ClassIn’s official YouTube share learning resources with your
channel to learn more about how it works and how it is student, e.g. worksheets or PowerPoint
used for teaching.  EEO Official  Presentations (lookout for the paperclip
icon in the dialogue box which can be
Watch an 'Acadsoc Tutor's Short Demos' video (Young
opened when on a call or during normal
Learners | Beginners and Elementary). messaging).
3. Screen share function so that you can
share websites, videos and other materials
that cannot be sent as easily as self-
3. QQ (by Tencent) contained documents (press the + sign in
- a popular Chinese messenger software the bottom center of the screen and
freely downloadable in Chinese and choose the share option).
English (International) versions.

- Because of its popularity and functions,


such as screen share, it is commonly used
as a tool for teaching in China.

5. Training Videos

( Watch on downloaded folder: Training Videos)

Tip: Take time to watch some videos on YouTube


of online teachers using QQ to teach English to
Chinese learners. 

4. Skype - an Internet-based communication tool


6. Comparing Platforms - includes the teacher and the space they
Compare Functionalities teach in.
- A good way for online TESOL teachers to
compare the programs they used to teach. - It is necessary therefore to understand how
the presentation of yourself and where you
are working can affect the students you
teach, including their perception of you and
The table below gives an overview of the functional even of the materials you are teaching!
similarities and differences between the teaching
platforms already introduced in this unit.  * Of course, Acadsoc understands that not everyone
has the space or facilities to set up the perfect virtual
classroom; however, at a minimum teachers are
asked to present a bright and tidy learning space with
themselves positioned well against a clear backdrop.

The things you should ask yourself when


setting up your workstation include:

 Is your workstation in a quiet, non-public


space?
 Is your background appropriate, and clear
of clutter?
 How is the lighting, does your workstation
7. Workstation Set-up appear bright enough?
 Have you checked your mic, speaker and
Prospective online teachers need to be aware camera quality, and are they acceptable?
that they are not only responsible for the quality of
 Is your camera positioned appropriately
the equipment they work with, but also for the
with you centered, not too close or far?
environment they present to their student.
 Are you well presented, with a positive
Students do not want to see their teachers and professional appearance (and a
working in a cluttered room, and young students in smile)?
particular are easily distracted by things such as
movement, mess or noise in the background.

Dornyei 2005; 2009 Research


shows that learner motivation is affected by
‘attitudes towards the learning environment’
Understanding Online
Learning
Learning is different from learning face-to-face.
Kinds of teacher behaviors suited in Online Learning
1. Introduction
Use of the :
1. Internet
2. New digital technologies

- is revolutionizing the way we understand language


learning and education.

Online communication tools, like those outlined in


section 1, are no longer considered simple
‘communication accessories’, but are now recognized as
being crucial in allowing the interaction between
language learners and language teachers over great
distances in ‘the online classroom’.

In this section,
traditional face-to-face classes=(like at schools in
China)
online classes = (like at Acadsoc)

will be compared and teacher roles in these kinds of


classes discussed. Common barriers to online learning,
including technical issues and ideas about how to avoid
them, will also be introduced.

3. Teacher Roles
2. Comparing Face-to-Face and Online
TEACHER ROLES
Classes
- important to understand
- the role a teacher takes on directly affects
Online classrooms
the interaction they have with their student, and it is
- are fundamentally different to those taken
through this interaction that languages are learned.
in class at school

Example:
Harmer (2015)
1. in terms of how language is presented
- in his book The Practice of English Language
2. how physical space is arranged
Teaching 
3. how students and teachers interact.
The Practice of English Language Teaching 
- gives a detailed list of teacher roles.
- about what kind of teacher you are, or
General breakdown of the differences in terms of
should be, when teaching English online.
knowledge requirements, methods of
communication, materials and the learning process.
KINDS OF TEACHERS Examples:
1. The Controller 
- stop and start activities when they want to,
correct immediately and give direct feedback.

What she does: Controller Teacher (T) Behaviors


1. makes announcements 1. T tells student what they should read and
2. puts students into groups how to read it
3. drills words and lectures about language
2. T corrects errors immediately (direct
points.
feedback)
2. The Assessor 3. T spends time explaining grammar and
- give useful guidance and feedback based on vocabulary rules
their assessments. 4. T uses summary tests to assess students
5. T manages time well by deciding when
- gives grades and allows students to pass or activities start and finish 
fail. 6. T only occasionally participates in tasks as
an ‘equal member’ because they are the
- watches carefully and observes student
authority in class
performance and does not interfere with
7. T sticks closely to the materials
activities too much.
8. T gives encouragement and praises their
3. The Tutor student
- likes to work with students one-to-one or in 9. T asks students to repeat words and copy
small groups to offer help and answer sentences
questions.

- like to be a resource for information and like Facilitator Teacher (T) Behaviors
to give advice to their students. 1. T adapts materials to their student’s needs
4. The Facilitator
as much as possible
- help students along in class, giving them 2. T explains vocabulary and grammar when
hints, suggestions and personal asked or when it is the focus of a lesson or
encouragement. a clear mistake
3. T notices student’s problems and changes
- ask questions that make their students their teaching style and materials
think, they also help games and activities by accordingly
‘joining in’. 4. T lets students finish tasks by themselves
5. T corrects S by repeating what they say in
the correct way (indirect feedback)
3.1. Controller or Facilitator?
6. T relates class material to student’s life
Teacher behaviors can all be placed on a scale and interests
somewhere between controller-like and facilitator- 7. T gives encouragement and praises their
like. student
Now that you know more about the different 8. T asks students to repeat words and make
teacher roles, read through the following comments sentences
and see if you agree.
3.2. What teacher roles are best?
AN ACADSOC TEACHER:
There is no simple answer to this, because as
already mentioned, how you behave as a teacher 1. takes on a more facilitator- and tutor-
should depend on what you are teaching, where you like role, instead of controlling a class,
are teaching and who you are teaching. 2. teachers act less authoritative
3. look to give more individualized
As an online teacher at Acadsoc, you will be instruction and positive feedback.
teaching one-on-one lessons, mostly to young learners,
in an online learning environment using the
*Note: T and S are equal
communication tools you studied in Section 1.

With this in mind, compare the following two graphs:


3.3. Reflection Exercise
As a teacher, you will eventually gain
experience in being reflective in your practice, you
will be able to consider your own teaching and
determine how you mix roles. Using what you now
know about teacher types and behavior, try and
answer the following questions:

1. Which teacher role is best suited to 1-to-1


online learning?

2. Should teachers behave the same way


towards lower-level and higher-level
learners, why?

Comparing these two graphs gives us an


idea about how we think a teacher’s role varies
between traditional classrooms in China and one-
to-one classes online, like those given by
3. Should teachers behave the same way
Acadsoc.
towards younger and older learners, why?

The graphs are not meant to be perfect


representations, but they do give a general idea
about how a teacher’s role differs depending on
who, where and what they are teaching.
1. Cant use whole body as effectively, so we
need to rely more on using our hands only.
4. Barriers to Online Learning 2. Make use of drawing tools instead of
- teachers need to reduce and manage. physically pointing to or touching a word or
item we want the student to focus on.
Teaching English online is no different, and comes
with its own specific challenges that we need to be TURN-TAKING
aware of. - refers to how teachers and students take
turns to speak.

BARRIERS TO TEACHING: - common barrier to online communication


 Barriers to Communication (verbal and nonverbal)
 Unexpected Situations in Class Sometimes teachers and students may talk
 Technical Issues over each other because they are not sure who has
finished speaking

4.1. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Made worse by:


(1) lag time due to a poor internet connection
Communication (2) when students and teachers cannot see each
= verbal other’s face on camera.
= nonverbal.
How to avoid:
(1) speak clearly
TWO TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: (2) give instructions as we teach
(3) make use of the drawing tools to bring
1. Verbal Communication
attention to target language items or topics.
1. tone of voice
2. speed or clarity of speech
3. using pauses to sound more natural
4.3. Unexpected Situations in Class
2. Nonverbal Communication
1. facial expressions = show feeling and Situational factors
emotion - things that happen outside of the teacher’s
2. head movements = show you agree/ disagree control
3. tone of voice = emphasize importance of a - may be unexpected
word or idea - may happen by chance.
4. eye contact = show concentration
5. hand gestures = represent an object/action - Some can be managed before your lesson
6. physical appearance = show respect and - others need to be managed ‘on the spot’.
professionalism
7. posture = paying attention
Examples of some unexpected situations in class
could include:
4.2.Barriers to Communication
1. Noise in the background
2. Students eating or playing
Nonverbal communication
3. Students not concentrating or showing no interest
- can be used to communicate a lot
4. Other children present, interrupting class or sitting
- some forms of nonverbal communication
In
can be lost when teaching online.
5. Parents interrupting or attempting to co-teach
6. Technical issues
Example:
2. If connection is slow during lesson and there
As a general rule, online teachers are is a delay between speaking, allow some time
expected to work through most situational issues between responses
they encounter when teaching, trying their best to 3. (but be careful not to speak over your
focus on the student. If, however, you feel unable to student)
teach, you will always be able to communicate your 4. If you find the connection so slow that it is
issues later on with your tutor manager who can affecting communication, you can try closing
advise you on what to do. You will learn more about video. If this doesn’t work, restart the session
how Acadsoc Tutor Management can support and or ask to reschedule class
advise you in your teaching later on in your initial
training.
Software Issues – DO’s
1. Do make sure that you install and use up-to-
date versions of all the communication tools
4.4. Reflection Exercise you need
2. Do make sure that you maintain all of your
Acadsoc accounts and passwords safely
1.       Students eating or playing 3. Do make sure that the materials you have
2.       Students not concentrating or showing interest ready match the class you are going to teach
3.       Other children present, interrupting class or 4. Do make sure the device you teach on is clear
sitting in of viruses and malware
4.       Parents interrupting or attempting to co-teach
 
Hardware Issues - DO’s
Choose from the issues listed 1-4 and think about 1. Do invest in a quality camera and sound
what you either have done (for those with teaching cancelling headset
experience) or would do (for those new to teaching) 2. Do check your equipment before the start of
to mediate the situation. every lesson (camera, headset, mic)
3. Do make sure that you have backup devices
with software ready installed, e.g. on a
personal computer and tablet (it is not
5. Avoiding Technical Issues recommended that teachers use their mobile
phone device to deliver lessons)
Technical issues
- can become the most common barrier to
learning and teaching online if you are not
ready for them.

- some are uncontrollable and not the fault of


the teacher

However, it is good practice to do all that you can to


prepare for such problems before they happen.

Connection Issues – DO’s


1. Do invest in high-speed, wire internet
connection (avoid shared wifi)
- benefit from a more structured approach to
learning.

PERFORMANCE IN CLASS DEPENDS ON HOW


SOMEONE FEELS at that time:
1. mood
2. emotions.
Individualized Learning Understanding and identifying different learner
Learner’s Age, Language level, preferred Learning types can help teachers adjust their approach and
styles and Personality types energy levels in class.
 
1. Learners as Individuals Extrovert-Introvert Dichotomy
- comes from a system called the Myers-Briggs
Understanding and treating learners as Type Indicator (MBTI).
individuals is an important skill that all teachers who
give one-to-one classes need to have. This is because Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI - personality
the more a teacher is able to ‘personalize’ their lesson, is classified according to eight personality traits
the better it will be for their student, in terms of them arranged in four continuums or preference
learning, enjoying your class and wanting to book time scales:
with you again.

For new or less experiencde teachers, being


able to view and treat each student as an individual,
with different needs and characteristics, maybe
challenging at first, especially because of the limited
time in class. However, there are some ideas and
concepts about Learners as Individuals  that we can
discuss to help us gain deeper insights into what is
meant by ‘individuality’. 

THREE ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALITY


- most practical and relevant

1. Age
2. Personality and Learner Type
2.1. The VAK Model
3. Language Level
- assumes that there are 3 types
of learning style - Visual,  Auditory  and  Kinaesthetic.

2. Personality and Learner Type - there is a belief that learners have a preferred
learning style or a mixed blend of the three styles:
Personality
- affects how we learn and our attitude in class.
- can be described on a continuum between
extrovert to introvert
THREE LEARNING STYLES learners prefer
Extroverts - more global ‘top-down’ thinkers (or a mix blend of 3 styles)
Introverts - more analytical ‘bottom-up’ thinkers.  
1.       Visual learners
Top-down thinkers (extrovert) 2.       Auditory learners
- prefer to practice ‘by doing’ and being 3.       Kinaesthetic learners
involved, often with higher energy levels.  
Analytical personalities (introvert) If a teacher understands how their student learns by
- may be less energetic paying attention to how they react to different
teaching strategies, they can tailor teaching to fit the
learning habits of the student. Here are some ideas:
Being aware of different intelligence types can
help teachers meet the expectations of the learners
they teach regularly by matching materials and
techniques to suit their preferred way of learning. 

*Young Learners
- react differently to music, songs, video, colors,
movement and toys

-because they appeal to different senses.

*Adults
- less sensitive and are more able to
concentrate, apply logic, and cooperate with
the teacher to meet the lesson objectives.

2.3. Reflection Exercise

Motivation
- widely researched in relation to SLA) theory

-recognized as an important factor


- effects language learning at the level of the
individual.

TWO CATEGORIES OF MOTIVATION IN


AREA OF PSYCHOLINGUISTICS:
1. Intrinsic Motivation
2.2. A Final Word on Learner Types - 'internal' to the individual who is learning their
target language.
Dominant Intelligence Type
- another important difference between people - personal and often related to personal
goals and self-image

DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE *Example: someone who is learning English because


1. Naturalist (nature smart) they personally find it enjoyable and rewarding would
2. Musical (sound smart) be considered as being intrinsically motivated.
3. Logical-mathematical (number/
reasoning smart)
4. Existential (life smart) 2. Extrinsic Motivation
5. Interpersonal (people smart) - 'external' to the individual.
6. Bodily-kinesthetic (body smart) - affected by social and practical influences such
7. Linguistic (word smart) as schooling and employment. 
8. Intra-personal (self smart)
9. Spatial (picture smart)
Using what you learned in Unit 1, and any other learners. You can do this by carefully reading through
experiences you have of teaching Chinese learners, the comments in the table below and labelling each
what do you think could be some of the external factors comment as either relating to ‘Younger Children’ or
influencing them, and how do you think motivation ‘Older Children’.
could differ between children, teens and adults?

3. Age - obviously an incredibly important factor Table adapted from Pinter, A. (2017)

Age Implies in Learner’s Development:


1. cognitive (mental)
2. affective (social and emotional)

LEARNERS ARE CATEGORIZED INTO THREE MAIN


GROUPS: (e.g. Harmer, 2012; Bland, 2015).

1. Adults
2. Teens 
3.Young Learners (3-12 years) 
- group that contains most variation mainly
- people change so much between the ages of 3
and 12.

- Because children change so quickly, and at


different rates with different personalities, it’s
difficult (and not very helpful) to try and define
clear age boundaries within this category.

Pinter (2017)
- offered more useful approach
- provides a good starting point for comparison
between children who are learning English 4. Language Level

Divides Young Learners into: *Understanding different language levels


1. Younger Children  - an important area of knowledge for anyone
2. Older Children teaching ESOL.

*Understanding different levels of language


proficiency
- helps teachers communicate more effectively
with their students

-they are able to adjust what words and


3.1. Comparing Younger and Older Children grammar they use and how fast they speak.

You will find that the majority of students you


teach at Acadsoc will be ‘Young Learners’, so it is
beneficial for you to further explore this group of *NOTE! the better you are able to understand a
student’s language level and find a communication
strategy that ‘fits them’, the less you will have to rely on
translation tools and chat boxes.

Look at the graph above. Notice how teaching


instructions vary depending on each language level,
becoming progressively more complicated from Pre-A1
to B1.

Notice how language like ‘after me’, ‘first’ and - learners have enough time to
‘repeat’ are generally too difficult for complete progress slowly between them.
beginners, to whom you would need to say something
like: ‘This one. I read. You read’. Note also that CEFR
levels

Pre-A1 to A2
- English proficiency range most common
amongst Chinese learners at Acadsoc.

4.1. Acadsoc Levels and the CEFR

16 ACADSOC LEVELS
- w/c students and materials are measured
- mapped to the CEFR and other widely-used Notice how there is only one level at
language proficiency standards such as IELTS C2 - Acadsoc Level 16. This is because
and TOELF. learners at this level have already
achieved mastery.
*As a teacher at Acadsoc, it is important to understand
how these different levels relate so that you have a
better understanding of the level you are teaching at.
Notice
*A clear difference between the Acadsoc level system how
and CEFR is the number of levels.
there is
The CEFR SYSTEM only
- has 3 tiers : one
1. A - basic user level at
2. B - independent user C2 -
3.C- proficient user

- that make up 6 levels (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2)

ACADSOC SYSTEM
- has 16 levels.
Acadsoc Level 16. This is because learners at this
*Reason for having more levels
level have already achieved mastery.
- allows materials to be developed in a
way that is highly graded
4.2. Acadsoc Levels and Proficiency Exams TWO APPROACHES OF TEACHING CAN BE
Who to teach in Acadsoc?
ACHIEVED THRU:
- English for Academic Purposes (EAP)
1. Personalization
- typically for international exams such as IELTS
- how relevant the material is to the student
and TOELF.
and
their life.
- taking these kinds of courses will be at B1 to
B2 level, or Acadsoc Levels 7-12.
- If you make the material seem more relevant,
then your student will see it as being more
valuable and interesting, leading to better
motivation to learn.

2. Control
- how ‘open’ or ‘closed’ you allow an activity to
be
- USEFUL

- an approach that enables teachers to make an


activity seem either:
1. more difficult (open)
2. easy (closed)

*depending on the level of their


student.

Being able to move difficulty levels up


and down in the same lesson helps to ensure
that both lower- and higher-level learners can
experience success.

5.1. Adapting Materials for a Young Learner

5. Adapting Materials
- next step in making your lessons more ‘learner
centered’

Materials To Teach:
1. pre-selected by course consultants
2. agreed upon by the students themselves.

*Take Adaptation to Next Level


- teacher’s responsibility is to adapt
materials on a study-by-student, class-by-class
basis.
TI: 1.) T reads the sentences and ask for S to read after
twice.
2.) T asks to read sentences by himself/herself once.
3.) T points to the pictures randomly and asks S to say
the corresponding sentences

TWO CONTROL TECHNIQUES:


Personalization Questions  1. Closed (easier)
Does your mom have brown hair? T reads one role, student reads one role
What color is your dad's hair? T asks student to repeat all of the words in bold 
T asks:  How many people? What are their names?
What are these? ‘They are glasses.’ Where did Troy go? 
Does your dad have/wear glasses?
2. Open-ended (harder)
TWO CONTROL TECHNIQUES: What are they talking about?
Did Steve stay in Shenzhen, why?
1. Closed (easier)
T reads sentences and asks student to repeat
T points and students reads

2. Open-ended (harder)
T asks: What color is his hair? ‘His hair is….’
5.3. A Final Word on Adapting Materials
T asks: Is she wearing a coat? ‘No, she is wearing a…’
Teachers should feel confident enough to expand on
materials when they feel it is necessary, for example:

1. If the material for class seems too difficult for


5.2. Adapting Material for an Adult
the learner
2. If the material for class seems too easy for the
learner
3. If the material for class seems a little short, or if
the teacher finishes early
4. If the material seems uninteresting or unrelated
to the learner
5. If the teacher wants to add some variety to the
lesson
6. If the student asks specific questions

Remember!
Adapting materials
- is  not  always required
- but, a technique teachers should at least be
aware of.

- teachers should stick to the material closely


and follow the teaching notes provided by
Acadsoc when teaching young learners

* This makes the lessons simpler and easy to follow.

Personalization Questions 
Do you like National Holiday? Why?
Do you do overtime?

What did you do last week?


Is your hometown big or small?
Some learners like being corrected, some don't.
Some want to get feedback straight away, whilst others
may want their teacher to summarize it at the end of
5.4. Reflection Exercise the lesson.

In the following sections you will learn more about how


these two techniques are conceptualized in TESOL.

Remember!
Receiving Notes from Students:
- sometimes the cas
- that teachers receive notes on the student
they will be teaching before the start of class.

- note will inform the teacher on the student's


preferences, e.g. 'does not like to be corrected',
etc.

6.1. Positive or Negative feedback?

Beginner Level
Feedback - the information that learners get from their
teacher about their performance.
Imagine you are teaching a young learner this slide.
The learner is a beginner and the words are new to
Negative Feedback
them. Using what you know about Chinese learners,
- Traditionally, people think of feedback as being
describe how you would go about teaching this slide?
‘correction’, where the teacher says something like:
‘No, that’s not right.’ or ‘You should say….’

- because it is obvious that the student has made a


mistake.
Elementary Level
The opposite approach to this is giving positive
Now imagine you are teaching a different young learner
feedback; for example:
whose English is at elementary level and can read the
 
words easily. Using what you know about adapting
Teacher:  What did you eat?
materials by using ‘open-ended’ questions, describe
Student:  I ate noodle.
how you could make this slide more challenging?
Teacher:  Oh, you ate noodles.
Student:  Yes, I ate noodles.
 
In this exchange, feedback is recognized as being more
positive because the teacher does not explicitly tell the
student that they made a mistake, instead they make it
clear that they did actually understand what the student
6. Giving Feedback and Making Corrections was saying, it just contained a grammatical error.
- not a random process
- TESOL teachers need to make sure that their
approach matches both the needs and expectations of
the person who they are teaching.
6.2. Direct Feedback (for accuracy) 6.3. Indirect Feedback (for fluency)

TWO USEFUL WAYS OF GIVING FEEDBACK ANG 2. Indirect feedback


CORRECTING ERRORS: - less explicit
- more positive than direct feedback.
1. Direct feedback
- is instant and explicit. - more natural, because it copies more closely
- when they see or hear that their student has the interaction young learners have with adults
made a ‘big’ mistake that is stopping them from when learning their first language.
being understood.

- a kind of negative feedback, but this For example: (Recasting)


does not mean that it should be avoided, just
used properly. Teacher:  What can you see?
Student: At the picture there are a boy.
Many Chinese learners will expect to be Teacher: In the picture there is a… what?
corrected by their teachers and see it as their job! But Student: Oh. In the picture there is a boy.
teachers still need to know how and when to do this Teacher: Yes, good. In the picture, there’s a boy.
most effectively.
When deciding this, try to think about who you Recasting
are teaching and what they are learning. - teacher recasts (remodels) what the student
says, but in the correct way.
EXAMPLE:
If teaching a young learner general spoken English - helps preserve fluency because there is no
- choose only to correct big mistakes or the m break in dialogue
istakes they keep repeating. On the other hand,
- less negative
If you are teaching an accent or pronunciation lesson - more positive because the teacher is making it
- give more direct feedback about individual clear that they understand what the student is
sounds and pronunciation problems. saying.

Remember! *But be aware that this feedback strategy may not be


Direct feedback enough sometimes, as some students need to be told
- important in lessons where accuracy is clearly what mistakes they keep making so that they can
important recognize and improve on them.
1. grammar lessons
2. accent lesson
3. spelling activities
4. grammar activities, etc.

- also important when correcting repeated


mistakes and mistakes that prevent good
communication.

*But be aware that too much negative feedback can


affect motivation if a student feels they are making too
many mistakes.
Online Teaching Methods
Idea of Scaffolding as a highly influentian concept. 2. Start of Lesson
1. Kindly greet your student giving them your
1. Acadsoc Online name ("I'm Teacher...")

Teaching Method (or Methodology) 2. And confirm if they can see and hear you.
- a system for language teaching
- based on a particular theory about language 3. Also confirm that you and the student are
and language learning. viewing the same material and then mention
the lesson title.
Traditional Methods
- can feel too fixed and outdated in reality
- grammar translation, audiolingualism, etc 3. During Lesson

Scott Thornbury (2017) 1. Follow the content of the lesson


- a famous TESOL writer 2. And use the teacher's tips on the bottom of the
- states that there has been a shift in attitude slides you are teaching from.
away from fixed, predictable methods towards 3. Pay attention to the time allowed per slide (if
‘customizing teaching approaches’ to suit the shown)
local needs of learners. 4. Remember to adapt the material to your
student's needs.
This statement makes a lot of sense when we think
about the huge number of students now individually *Internet connection status and  time remaining  will be
learning English online, and how different this kind of show in A-Classroom and ClassIn.
learning is compared to traditional face-to-face, group
and classroom learning.
4. End of Lesson
1. Avoid rushing the end of a lesson by paying
Acadsoc online classes are 25-minutes long and in order attention to what the slide you are on and how
to make the most of this time you will need to know much time is remaining.
what approach to take before, during and after your 2. End lessons with a wrap up that includes a
lessons. quick review of the main language points and a
friendly "Good bye".
The materials you teach at Acadsoc will have already
been designed, written and chosen for you. It will be
your job as an Acadsoc tutor to deliver these in the 5. After the Lesson
most effective and enjoyable way you can, so that both Leave a useful comment after class to document
you are your students have fun and keep learning! performance.
Make comments:
1. brief, positive and useful
FIVE STAGES TO BE AWARE OF IN EVERY 2. by mentioning one or two main problems the
learner had in class.
LESSON YOU TEACH:
1. Before Lesson
- Be logged into the Tutor's System at least 30
minutes before class.

* Use this time to make sure you have the right class
materials ready and that your devices and internet are
working properly.
2. Scaffolding Techniques 2.1. Reflection Exercise
- the support you give your learners as they
practice and produce English themselves, Helping students develop their speaking skills will be a
similar to how adults help infants speak as major part of your role as an Acadsoc Online Teacher.
they develop.
With this in mind, take a look at the following lesson
- a natural and common-sense approach to slides and think about what 'scaffolding techniques' are
teaching that most teachers do without even being used.
realizing.

- a very useful concept, and the better you (Teen – Intermediate CEFR B2)
understand it, the more individualized and
adaptive your lessons will become.

- relates to how you support the learner’s


feelings towards your class.

(Young Learner - Elementary CEFR A2)

** Acadsoc recommends A-Classrooms and


ClassIn’s built-in translation function, and Google
Translate. 3. Observing Lessons

An important part of any teacher training includes


observing real teachers at work.

Observing other teachers and paying attention to the


methods they use and how they manage their class
will help you a lot when it comes to delivering your
own lessons.
Here is a table of key questions to help, divided into
three main categories: Teacher Behavior; Teaching
Skills and Lesson Management.

Take a moment to look over the questions and then


watch the video clip(s).

(watch Jha
Oliveros)

TRIAL LESSONS
Basic requirements and procedures for giving online
lessons. Providing evidence of successful teaching

The following guidelines have been taken


from the Acadsoc 'New Tutor Self-Training Pack'. All
new TESOL candidates should be aware of these
before giving a trial class. Teacher management will
help arrange trial classes and record performance
scores.

For existing teachers: Acadsoc Teacher Management


will provide evidence of your TM scores to the TESOL
program after you have completed this unit.

Pre-class requirements:
1. Ensure that your background is clear, bright
and noise-free.
2. Your appearance is decent, neat and
presentable.
3. Technology is working.
4. Camera check; Mic check; Speaker check;
Internet speed check
5. Contact/call the student 1 minute before the
class to make sure the class can start on time!

In-class requirements:
1. Focus on the lesson. Please refrain from doing
anything else.
2. Do not ask students to talk about themselves
during the warm up phase.
3. Do not make only reading from material the
priority of any regular lesson. 
4. Give the student at least five new words,
and/or 3-5 sentences.
5. Give corrections using the chat box as well as
spoken corrections.
6. Run a speed test if there is a connection
problem during the lesson and send the result
to the CS Team immediately after the lesson.

Before the lesson ends, try to:


1. Give feedback based on the student’s
performance during the lesson.
2. Give specific advice addressing the student’s
area of improvement.
3. Ask the student whether he/she has any
questions about the lesson.

After-class requirements:
Write the class remarks for the student describing
performance and advice.