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Submit your solutions before 3rd May, 2020

Joyful Mathematical Olympiad 2020

JoMO 2020 Day 1

§I General Guidelines
§I.1 The duration of this paper is 4 hours. There are three problems: Problem 1.1, Problem
1.2 and Problem 1.3, which are worth 10 points each. However, it is recommended to
distribute your time in 1 : 2 : 3 ratio for the problems.
§I.2 You need to PM me your solutions, either scanned from your notebook, or typed in LATEX
before 3rd May, 2020, 23:59:59 IST(GMT+5.30).
§I.3 If you have any further doubt/confusion regarding any problem, which is not mentioned in the
Clarifications section, then please PM it to me and don’t discuss elsewhere! All the Best!
Enjoy the problems!

§II Problems of Day 1

Problem 1.1
Find all pairs (n, k) of positive integers such that, whenever d is a positive divisor of n, then so is |d − k|.

Problem 1.2
In a company, each employee has at least two friends among the other employees. Now, call a friend of a
friend of an employee to be his/her associate.a Initially, we have that all the employees are either friends or
associates. Moreover, if an even number (greater than 2) of employees meet for a round table discussion, then
we can find two neighbouring members who are not friends.
Prove that, some friendships can be broken owing to certain circumstances such that, at the end, each
employee has exactly 1 or 2 friends.
a Please refer to the clarifications section for detail!

Problem 1.3
In a parallelogram ABCD, let I be the incenter of triangle ABD and H be the orthocenter of triangle BCD.
Let A0 be the reflection of A about I. If X is the foot of perpendicular of A0 onto BD, then, prove that the
line IX bisects the angle A0 XH.

JoMO 2020 Day 1 1

Submit your solutions before 3rd May, 2020

§III Clarifications
§III.1 Problem 1.1
This version of the problem is due to Evan Chen1 .
The initial version of the problem, as stated by the proposer, was:
Let Dn denote the set of positive divisors of a positive integer n. Find all positive integer n such
that, there exists a function f : Dn 7→ Dn satisfying f (d) = |d − k| for some positive integer k.

It is a matter of fact that both the versions are essentially the same. So, you may submit your
solution to any one of both the versions. It won’t affect the gradation!

§III.2 Problem 1.2

Each and every person who test-solved the paper, found this problem as the most interesting one!
Still, the original version had some conflicts, which we were brought into notice by the test-solvers.
The conflicts arose due to the definition of friends and associates. We define it more clearly here.
Suppose the friends of an employee E are denoted by F1 , F2 , . . . , Fn . Pick a random employee Fi for
some i = 1, 2, . . . , n. If the friends of Fi , who are not friends with E are denoted by Ai1 , Ai2 , . . . , Aik ,
then we have that, each Aij for j = 1, 2, , . . . , k is an associate of the employee E. Analogously, the
friends of each employee Aij who are not friends with employee E are said to be E’s associates. We
can proceed on like this to any length of friends and associates.

§III.3 Problem 1.3

Point A0 is the point on the line AI such that AI = IA0 . This is for anyone who wants to omit the
word “reflection” in the problem.

1 User of name v_Enhance at AoPS!

JoMO 2020 Day 1 2