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Theory Werner

Constitution and configuration of compounds of higher order

Juan Diego Palomino Rojas Teacher: John Eduard Torres Gonzales

Alfred Werner was born on December 12, 1866 in Mulhouse, Alsace,
(Town at that time was part of France and in 1871, after the war
Franco-Prussian War was temporarily annexed to Germany), where he studied
school, very young and showing a strong interest in chemistry. [1]

Between 1885 and 1886 did his military service in Karlsruhe, period during
which also he attended the course of Organic Chemistry Karl Engler OV School
Superior technology that city. At the end of the service he moved to Zurich, coursing
studies at the Federal Technical School (which later would become well
known ETH) where he obtained his Diploma in Chemical Technology in 1889. [1]

Work Werner based on a hypothesis about the arrangement of atoms in molecules
contained nitrogen, however, followed a model provided by formulas constitution of
paired organic compounds, ie for the components as chains.

To have knowledge about the formation of metal amoniacos, a scientist Nordic, ie the
Danish chemist Jorgensen, broadened and deepened the field of metal amoniacos by
investigations that have become classics of chemistry. Jorgensen showed that
formulations containing double metal atoms are unsustainable, and that not only one
but two acid residues may be directly linked with the metal atom.

It was also able to show that in the output of a molecule molecule ammonia from rich
compounds in ammonia containing always six molecules of ammonia for a metal
atom, and wherein all acid residues are in linkage to a acid residue, and the output of
two ammonia molecules, two acid residues are in direct bond with the metal atom.

From this it was concluded that these two residues in acid salts valent metals
hexamine only separated from the metal atom by interposing an ammonia molecule

Theory Werner
Constitution and configuration of compounds of higher order

Juan Diego Palomino Rojas Teacher: John Eduard Torres Gonzales

This theory of constitution metal ammonia occurred by developing the hypothesis,
however, when study the behavior of the compounds was recognized that in the case
of output of a molecule of additional ammonia, the residue acid of third molecule,
binds directly to the atom metal, the latter occurring in an environment acid
hexamine, however, also in this medium, can be carried out substitutions ammonia
acid radicals in contact with the metal, these reasons, was used a formula derived for
hexamine salts of metals.

The function of the acid residues in the compounds under discussion (our hypothesis),
according to the electrolytic dissociation theory presented by Professor Arrhenius
also interpreted postulating acid residues in direct bond with the metal atom does not
they dissociate in solution, while those that are not directly linked to the metal atom
are produced as separate ions. It should be possible, therefore, to provide
physicochemical experimental evidence. This important result again confirmed by a
research carried out together with Ch. Herty. Thus he had secured an experimental
basis on which to base the new theory of the formation of inorganic compounds.

When these are saturated in respect to valence theory, the elementary atoms possess
sufficient chemical affinity to bind to other atoms and groups of atoms apparently also
saturated. This doctrine has been widely confirmed experimentally by research of
molecular compounds are now called complex, which was the starting point for new

It was found that the maximum coordination number is dictated by the nature of
elementary atoms mutually interconnected. Until then, maximum coordination
numbers four, six, eight and noted that corresponds to the theoretically possible
symmetrical groupings of a corresponding number of points around a center.
However, it should be noted that the composition of complex chemical compounds
should not be invariably corresponding with the maximum coordination number of
the central atom, because there unsaturated coordinative atoms and valence atoms
are chemically unsaturated.

Theory Werner
Constitution and configuration of compounds of higher order

Juan Diego Palomino Rojas Teacher: John Eduard Torres Gonzales

Moreover, to conclude, the coordination number 6 plays an important role, because
this expresses the predominance of complex compounds radicals, is, if in a compound,
its central atom has as number of coordination number 6 it is expected that this new
components added up to that number of coordination.

Thanks to this theory Professor Alfred Werner was awarded the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry in 1913, which presented a historical development in the chemistry of
coordination compounds. [1]


[1] Baran, EJ (sf). START coordination chemistry. Retrieved on March 28, 2020, of

Werner, A. (sf). Constitution and configuration of compounds of higher order.