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The power systems operate on the normal frequency during the steady state condition. Under

this condition all the generating units are operating in synchronism and there is complete balance

between the sending and receiving ends voltages. Also a balance of generated and consumed

active and reactive power. Modern power system is a very complicated network to analyse. The

task to do an analysis of a power system during the normal steady state condition is somewhat

easy but to analyse the system when it is subjected to any small or large disturbances is very

difficult.

Power system faults, switching of transmission lines, disconnection of major generator and

sudden implementation or loss of a large amount of load results in a sudden change of an

electrical power. At the same time the mechanical power input to generators remains relatively

constant. These system disturbances upset the equilibrium, resulting acceleration and

deceleration of the rotor of synchronous machines takes place, which result in severe power flow

swings due to oscillations in machine rotor angles. The power system should be designed to

withstand such power swings and should regain its synchronism [40]. The configuration of the

network and the severity of the disturbance decide the nature of swing. After the disturbance if

the system may attain a new equilibrium stable state, it referred as a stable power swing. While

in case of severe disturbances causes large separation of generator rotor angles. Ultimately, it

results in a large fluctuation of voltages and currents, large swings of power flows and eventually

loss of synchronism between groups of generators or between neighbouring utility systems. Such

a state of the system is referred as unstable power swing. [41]

It is important that a generator or system area lost synchronism should be separated immediately

to avoid widespread outages and equipment damage. These power swings stable or unstable are

responsible for undesired operations of the relay at unwanted system locations, which further

increases the intensity of the system disturbance resulting possible cascade outages and large

Using a simple two machine model the effect of power swing on a power transfer capacity and

stability of a system can be understood. It does not require to simulate complete network.

Consider a model of a generator and a motor connected to a transmission line as shown in Fig.

3.1. To simplify the analysis, it assumed that all network elements are lossless. The generator

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 30

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

having a voltage VS and a load of a motor with the voltage Vr. As the mechanical load on the

motor is assumed to be zero no current flows over the line and the generator voltage is in phase

with the motor voltage.[43]

As the mechanical load on the motor is increases a current starts to flow, which creates a voltage

drop over the line. A phase angle between the generator and the motor will increase as shown in

the Fig. 3.2. Under this condition, power is flowing from the generator to motor therefore

generator leads the motor by an angle . The relation between active power of the line and the

angle between two voltages can be expressed by following equation

(3.1)

The maximum power transfer between the generator and the motor is restricted by sum of source

impedances and line impedance. From eqn. 3.2 it is seen that the maximum power can be

transferred for an angle 900. This is explained in a power angle curve as shown in Fig. 3.3.

Fig. 3.2 Voltages representation of Fig. 3.3 Relation between voltage angles

The two machine model and load power transfer

0

When the power angle is between 0 to 90 the generator power, Ps is greater than a motor load

power Pr. During this period generator successfully supply the active power so it is known as a

stable working area. On other hand angle greater than 900 the generator power becomes smaller

than load power and the system becomes unstable because the generator fails to supply load

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 31

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

power. Normally the power system grid runs on the voltage angle below 600 to make sure system

stability.

To study the effect of unstable power swing or fault considers a two machine model having

parallel line connected between them as shown in Fig.3.4.

Considered a three phase bolted fault on line 2. Lines will tripped by circuit breaker from both

ends. Under this condition the impedance between two machines becomes infinite and all power

will supply to a fault. Under this condition the power angle between two machines will increase

as the generator will accelerate because the mechanical power driving the generator is smaller

than electrical power and motor will slow down because delivered electrical power is smaller

than the required mechanical power. After the clearance of fault power transmission will

continue.[44] At each step the maximum real power transmission could change due to changing

impedance between two machines. As shown in Fig. 3.5

At position 0: System is under the steady state (Perrault) condition. Under this condition, there is

a balance between the mechanical power into the generator and electrical power transmitted.

At position 1: The fault occurs and resultant impedance will increase, which will not allow the

system to supply required electrical power. So the mechanical power becomes larger than the

electrical power. The mechanical power will not change as fast as possible and is assumed as

constant during this consideration. This will accelerate the generator and the angle increases. On

other hand motor will decelerates because the mechanical load on the motor as we considerate as

constant becomes larger than the electrical power.

On position 2: The fault is cleared from one side. This will decrease the impedance and increase

the power transfer. Because the mechanical power is still larger than the electrical power going

the generator accelerates more

At position3: The fault is cleared from both sides. A required power will be transmitted as the

value of impedance becomes small. Angle increases and mechanical power become smaller than

electrical power. As the power difference decreases the increment in angle becomes slower. As

shown in Fig. 3.5 the accelerating power indicated by the green area under P load line.

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 32

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

At position 4: The faulted line 2 is reclosed successfully. The deceleration of generator is more

and angle increases. The increase of angle should stop before point 5 for stable operation of the

system. Red area in the figure indicates the deceleration area. For the stable operation of the

system the red area should be greater than or equal to the green area. If the system is not

equipped with proper damping oscillations of power around points and will take.

These oscillations known as Power Swing. If angle stops to increase before point 5 the system

restored at the new equilibrium point . This is known as Stable Power Swing. If power angle

continues to increase beyond point 5 the acceleration area becomes greater than the deceleration

area and the system lost its synchronism [45]. This loss of synchronism is termed as Unstable

Power Swing or Out-of-step condition.

3.2.1 Causes of Power Swings

- Various transient faults

- Sudden variation of loads

- Line switching’s

- Connection or disconnection of generators to the power system

- Loss of excitation

From a machine viewpoint, power swing occurs when the mechanical torque produced by

the prime mover is greater than the electromagnetic torque used to produce the output

power.

If this condition persists for too long, the rotor would become unable to stay in

synchronism

Loss of Synchronism: The point where the generator’s real power output becomes zero

and in this situation, the generator will briefly accelerate into a motoring condition,

during which time it will absorb power from both the prime mover and the system.

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 33

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

Encroachment of load into the zone 3 characteristics is one of the major causes for the

mal operation of the distance relays which results into several cascaded tripping of power

transmission lines. Such mal-operations can be avoided by careful setting of zone 3

distance relay by calculating maximum loadability of a line connected to an each bus.

A generator supplying a high capacity network, the currents during the unstable power

swing can exceed up to fault levels.

These high currents cause damage both through mechanical forces on the conductors and

overheating.

It also produces pulsations in shaft torque and it might lead to occurrence of a generator

shaft resonance.

Failure of circuit breaker due to Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) :

A significant value of TRV produced when a circuit breaker tries to operate during a

power swing. Circuit breaker fails in its operation in a particular extreme case when the

system voltages across the breaker contacts are 180 degrees out-of-phase during the

interruption.

Isolating Load and Generation:

If unstable power swing is not detected it may be possible that protective system may trip

network at a point which force the system into islanding at an undesired location where

the balance of load and generation is not maintained.

Unwanted Cascading Tripping of Generating Units

Pole slopping or loss of synchronism may occur after the relay fails to trip a line during

an unstable power swing. A system separation at the desired point during the unstable

power swing may prevent unnecessary loss of generation.

Equipment Damage

Critical equipment like generator-turbine set experiences huge thermal and mechanical

stresses.

Cascading Tripping of Lines

Indiscriminate breaker tripping may take place without an effective power swing

protection scheme. Some relays are more susceptible against recoverable power swing.

These unnecessary relay trips may increase the severity of the system, which result in

cascaded tripping of lines by causing other relay operations.

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 34

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

Swings.

The phenomenon of power swing can be understood using simple two machine system, as it is

very easy to explain the impedances measured by distance relays during power swings.

Let’s assume that the sending end voltage leads the receiving end voltage by an angle

degree. Also assume the ratio of both voltages as K.

(3.2)

So the value of line current is

(3.3)

.

(3.5)

During power swing condition the direction of current will remain the same during. The change

in voltage with respect to each other will take place. Using equations 3.3 and 3.5 for k = 1

condition the voltage and current at relay location S are

and

(3.6)

Finally Eqn. 3.6 indicate the locus of the positive sequence impedance seen by relay with

changing value of rotor angle during power swing.

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 35

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

The two vector components in above equation 3.6 are a constant in R – X plane. The first

Thus, the trajectory of the impedance measured by relay during the power swing is

a straight line intersects the total impedance segment orthogonally at its centre point as shown in

Fig. 3.7. The point at which the two segments are intersecting orthogonally, the angle between

the two sources is 180 degrees is known as Electrical Centre. At the electrical centre both the

sources are out of step. It can be seen that the impedance trajectory during the power swing when

will enter into the protective zone of the relay so relay may mal operate for a

recoverable power swing.[46]

In another condition where the k ≠ 1, from Fig. 3.8 it is seen that the impedance trajectory will

correspond to circles. The centre and radius of a circle is a function of the value of k.

Fig. 3.7 Impedance locus for two machine Fig. 3.8 Impedance locus during power

system with K = 1 swing with K ≠ 1

Practically during power swing the instantaneous values of two voltage sources are changing

continuously. So the ratio of it is not remaining constant and makes the locus of impedance to

switch from one circle to another.

The voltage profile across the transmission system at the point of occurrence of electrical centre

is shown in the figure below.

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 36

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

At the electrical centre, the voltage is exactly zero. This means that relays at both ends of the line

perceive it as a bolted three phase fault and immediately trip the line. Thus, we can conclude

that existence of Electrical Centre means system instability which can introduce nuisance ripping

of distance relay [47].

Relaying Scheme

Since an unstable power swing or loss of synchronism or an out-of-step condition is a balanced

three-phase phenomenon, so the prime concern is the effect of the power swing on different

transmission line relaying and there responds. An unstable power swing generated due to severe

disturbances will affect the transmission line relays in many ways. Relaying system such as

differential relay will not respond to an unstable power swing. On the other way the performance

of other relaying systems like distance relay, over current relay and directional relays is greatly

influenced by loss of synchronism or out-of-step and prone to mal operate and to trip their circuit

breakers[48].

3.4.1 Effect on Differential Relays

A differential relaying system which is used for the protection of transformers, generators, buses

and lines will not be affected by a loss of synchronism swing. During a loss of synchronism

between two sources of Fig. 3.6 where a system at sending end swings ahead of system at

receiving end, a "through" current will flow from sending end to receiving end. The swing would

appear as an external fault condition to a current differential scheme. If a swing locus happens to

go through a bus, a transformer or a line which has piloted wire or phase comparison relaying

and if system separation is desired at the point, some other form of relaying either for backup or

supplement, will have to be provided to detect the swing.

3.4.2 Effect on Overcorrect Relays

An over current and directional over current relaying system basically used for phase fault

protection. The protection criterion of these systems is simple they will operate as the magnitude

of current during the disturbances exceed the pickup setting. So these protective systems will

operate if the currents during the "swing” exceed the pickup settings of these relays. This

behaviour reveals one of the major shortcomings of this type of relaying system is that they may

operate during stable swings from which the system may recover and remain stable.[45]

The distance relay normally measures positive sequence impedance during power swing and

fault condition. The distance relay element may operate if the locus of impedance seen by relay

enters its operating characteristic. The operation of the relay to trip its breakers depends on the

time taken by the swing locus to travel the relay characteristic and zone of protection.

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 37

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

Let’s consider a transmission line with double end- fed having a three stepped Z1, Z2 and Z3

protection zones. The mho relays are used and characteristics are plotted on R-X plane. As k = 1

trajectory of the swing impedance is perpendicular to line AB. For stable power swing the

maximum rotor angle allowed is max .When swing just enters the zone Z1, Z2 and Z3 the rotor

angles are z1, z2 and z3 respectively.

X R

Zone 3

C

Zone 2

Zone 1

B

Z1

Z2

Z3

S

Fig. 3.10 Maximum rotor angle for stable power swing.

For the value max < z3 the swing impedance locus will not enter the relay

characteristics.

For the value z3 < max < z2 swing will enter in zone Z3. If it stays in zone -3 for larger

time interval than its time setting, then the relay will trip the line.

For the value z1 < max < z2, swing will enter in both the zones Z2 and Z3. If it stays in

the zone-2, for a larger time interval than its time setting, then the relay will trip on Z2.

For the value max > z1, swing will enter in the zones Z1, Z2 and Z3 and operate zone-

1protection without any intentional delay.

During power swing the performance of distance relays is also depends on the system and line

impedances magnitudes [45].

Case-I: The line impedance is smaller than the system impedances

Under this situation the zones of protection of distance relay may trip only on unstable power

swings from which the system will not recover. As shown in this Fig 3.11, the swing locus will

enter the outermost zone of distance relay characteristics only when the angular difference

between systems is greater than 120 degrees. In this case, tripping may be provided by any of the

three zones. For long transmission lines 200- 300 miles in length, the impedance locus is similar

to the k > 1 and k < 1 circles as shown in Fig. 3.12. In this case, it is assumed that k >1 and the

impedance locus will only pass through the third zone characteristic. The expression to

determining the time, the locus will take to traverse the relay characteristic [45].

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 38

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

Fig. 3.11 Swing locus when line impedance is smaller than system impedance

The distance travelled by the locus is obtained using and the slip S, is in degrees per second as

shown in eq. 3.7.

(3.7)

The distance relay may trip during unstable swings and also during stable power swings from

which the system can recover. This situation is illustrated in Fig. 3.13

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 39

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

Fig. 3.13 Swing locus when line impedance is larger than system impedance.

Distance Relay

Distance protection is widely used in modern power systems to protect transmission lines from

power system faults by using the method of step distance protection. In this method distance

relays find the apparent impedance based on voltage and current measurement. Finally, relay will

operate when the apparent impedance falls within operating zones for an appropriate amount of

time. One of the major problems of distance relay in practice is the mal-operation of zone 3

impedance relays with mho characteristics. This mal-operation is due to the increase of the load

level to the limit that the apparent impedance may enter a protective zone As a result, the

distance relay identifies the impedance encroachment as a fault and consequently trips the line

out of service .This impedance encroachment is a factor which causing major cascading failures

as seen on 30th and 31st August 2012 and several previous large scale blackouts.

For years, various methods have been used to avoid problems related to the impedance

encroachment. But irrespective of the method used, every relay will have a maximum

“loadability limit” which is responsible to operate relays under high load conditions [50]. So it is

very critical to calculate the maximum loadability limits of the relay so as to avoid unwanted

tripping due to load encroachments. Conventionally, this problem of load encroachment can be

avoided by choosing the Zone III settings carefully under normal operating conditions But,

during the regular setting process of Zone III settings the load encroachment prevention under

extreme conditions is not included. So it is very difficult to decide the setting of a distance relay

under different contingency conditions.In this chapter the basic problem of load encroachment

and its implications are discussed and try to find out best setting of zone 3 so that mal operation

of distance relay under different load conditions can be avoided. [51]

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 40

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

In practice, we must understand the relationship between the load of the line and its impedance.

The magnitude and angle of load impedance depend upon the changing load conditions like

direction of power flow, and the power factor of the load. Consider the steady state positive

sequence model of a transmission line shown in Fig.3.14

= ( ) (3.18)

1) The apparent impedance seen by the relay is proportional to the square of the magnitude

of bus voltage. If the bus voltage drops say to 0.9 p.u from 1 p.u, then ZR reduces to 81%

of its value with nominal voltage.

2) The apparent impedance seen by the relay is inversely proportional to the apparent

power flowing on the line. If the apparent power doubles up, the impedance seen by relay

will reduce by 50%.

3) The position of the R and X coordinates in the R-X plane depends on the direction of

power and the power factor.

During peak load conditions, it is quite likely that the combined effect of (1) and (2) may reduce

the apparent impedance seen by the relay to sufficiently small value so as to fall in Z2 or Z3

characteristic. This is quite likely in case of a relay backing up a very long line. In such a case,

Z3 impedance setting can be quite large. If the impedance seen by relay due to large loads falls

within the zone, then it will pick up and trip the circuit after its time dial setting requirement are

met. Under such circumstances, the relay is said to trip on load encroachment.[52] Tripping on

load encroachment compromises security and it can even initiate cascade tripping which in turn

can lead to blackouts. Practically the power system is a reactive in nature. For most power

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 41

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

+jX

Real Power In Real Power Out Reactive

Reactive Power Out Q-II Power Out

Q-I

-R ɵ +R

Reactive Power In Power In

Q-III

Q-IV

-jX

Systems, the power factor angles range from zero to +/- 40 degrees. This means that the R-X

values calculated from the P-Q values are bounded by the power factor angle (Θ). This is shown

in Fig.3.15.The load impedance is indicated by the shaded area, and it can be seen that the load

impedance can fall in any of the four quadrants.

3.5.2 Simulations

Let’s consider the system shown in Fig. 3.16. Normally the transmission line is protected by

three step distance protection using mho relay having zone 1 is 80%, zone 2 is 120% and zone 3

is 150% of the protected line impedance.

The proposed algorithm to find load relay maximum loadability to avoid load encroachment.

1. Calculate the load impedance for all three zones. Draw the zone 3 impedance vector in

the R-X diagram.

2. Draw the load impedance vector at a specified power factor.

138kV 138kV

Z=66

300:5 Line 1 Line 2

1200:1

Relay

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

3. Draw a right triangle forming the 90° relay characteristic between the load impedance

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 42

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

vector and the difference vector that is made up of Z3 – Zload. This is shown in Fig.3.17.

4. Calculate the interior angle that is made between the load and line impedance vectors.

5. Calculate the load impedance that the relay will experience at different power factor using

right triangle properties:

6. Calculate the maximum loadability of the relay in MVA by:

7. Follow the same procedure and calculate the maximum loadability of the relay for different

power factor angles.

8. It is convenient to plot the MVA loadability limit values in the P-Q diagram to distinguish

Trip vs. No trip areas.

3.6 Results

The following results are derived and tabulate in table no. as per the proposed algorithm. As

shown in Table 3.1 We can see that at a unity power factor, 734 MWs of power are necessary to

trip the line with no reactive power. At a power factor angle of 90°, 197 MVARs are necessary

to trip the line with no real power. As the power angle increases to 120°, we see that the power

flow direction has changed. Real power now runs from bus 2 to 1, and a real power of 190 MWs

and reactive power of 329 MWs are necessary to trip the line.

Table 3.1 Relay Loadability Limits for Different Power Factors

Power Factor ɵ S (MVA) P (MWs) Q (MVARs)

0º 734 732 0

15º 378 365 97

30º 269 233 134

45º 219 154 154

60º 197 99 170

75º 190 49 183

90º 197 0 197

120º 380 -190 329

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 43

3. Power Swing Phenomenon and Effect on Transmission Line Relaying

Fig. 3.18 shows the amount of real and reactive power needed to trip a line based on zone 3

settings at different power factors.

3.7 Conclusion

One of the most important factors of distance protection is to decide the loadability limits of

relays as distance relay is most prone to operate during load encroachment. These limits are very

critical while deciding the settings of the third zone of distance protection. This chapter provides

an easy and efficient method to find out loadability limits at different power factors. By avoiding

unnecessary relay operations the system reliability and safety can be improved.

[Protection Strategies To Mitigate Major Power Swings And Out-Of-Step Condition Of Power System ] 44

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