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VISIONS WITH ENERGY

PV Compass

Pioneering Photovoltaic Technology

VISIONS WITH ENERGY PV Compass Pioneering Photovoltaic Technology
VISIONS WITH ENERGY PV Compass Pioneering Photovoltaic Technology

Introduction

VISIONS WITH ENERGY

Imprint:

Publisher:

HaWi Energietechnik AG, Eggenfelden

Text, Concept:

HaWi Energietechnik AG, Eggenfelden

Graphic Design, Setting, Repro:

Graswald & Heiligtag GmbH & Co. KG, Passau

Photography:

Products Solar Modules, GCBs:

Photo Haberland, Eggenfelden

Products Fastening Systems, Cable:

Lisa Neumeier, Eggenfelden

All Other Products and Company Logos:

Berndt Lorentz GmbH & Co. KG Danfoss Solar Inverters A/S Fronius International GmbH Hoppecke GmbH & Co. KG Kaco New Energy GmbH LG Electronics, Inc. Meteocontrol GmbH Power-One Italy S.P.A. Q-Cells SE S-Energy Co., Ltd. SANYO Component Europe GmbH SCHOTT Solar AG SMA Solar Technology AG Solar Frontier, Ltd. Sunfilm AG Steca Elektronik GmbH Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd. Victron Energy B.V.

Print:

Ortmaier Druck GmbH, Frontenhausen

Copyright:

April 2010, HaWi Reprinting, even of extracts, is only permitted with prior written agreement of HaWi Energietechnik AG

Edition II, April 2010

CONTENT

Modules p. 18 – 51

Modules p. 18 – 51  
 
 

Inverters p. 52 – 79

Inverters p. 52 – 79

Generator Connection Boxes p. 80 – 85

Generator Connection Boxes p. 80 – 85

Mounting Systems p. 86 – 103

Mounting Systems p. 86 – 103
Mounting Systems p. 86 – 103

Monitoring p. 104 – 109

Packages p. 110 – 119

Packages p. 110 – 119

Off-Grid Systems p. 120 – 135

 
 

Cables & Plugs p. 136 – 141

Cables & Plugs p. 136 – 141

Alternative Heating Technololgy p. 142 – 149

 
 

Introduction

VISIONS WITH ENERGY

Foreword

Introduction VISIONS WITH ENERGY Foreword Dear Readers, Company founder and Chairman of the Board Hans Wimmer

Dear Readers,

Company founder and Chairman of the Board Hans Wimmer

On the road into the future of regenerative energies, we particularly accompany photovoltaic power genera- tion. Due to the great demand and thanks to your help, we have been able to increase the sales of our range constantly and substantially and are extremely positive about the future development of this trend.

HaWi Energietechnik AG is on its way to becoming one of the most successful full-range providers of PV systems. Constant analysis of our portfolio and the exclusively high quality of our products and services are a matter of course for us. An ever-growing number of highly motivated employees, a quality management sys- tem regarding services and delivery times and excellent reliability have made a major contribution to our success.

The HaWi PV Compass leads you through our extensive full range of solar modules of various technologies from leading manufacturers as well as of all other components for the successful installation of inverters through all technical and electrical systems up to system monitoring. We would also like to introduce to you the fields of independent power supply and alternative heating technology.

In addition to our wide range of products, we support you with a large number of services in the areas of financing, insurance and above all advice in the matter of photovoltaic energy. We will assist you in the search for investors and the project planning of large PV plants.

We do not leave you alone with the abundance of information and offer a comprehensive range of training courses. You can rely upon our technical know-how and upon our services and products.

Let us work together to ensure that the use of regenera- tive energies will remain a never-ending success story.

Yours

energies will remain a never-ending success story. Yours Hans Wimmer Chairman of the Board HaWi Energietechnik

Hans Wimmer Chairman of the Board

HaWi Energietechnik AG – exceptional

and certified:

Board HaWi Energietechnik AG – exceptional and certified: Certified to DIN EN ISO 9001 The technology

Certified to DIN EN ISO 9001

– exceptional and certified: Certified to DIN EN ISO 9001 The technology and logistics centre in
– exceptional and certified: Certified to DIN EN ISO 9001 The technology and logistics centre in

The technology and logistics centre in Eggenfelden in Lower Bavaria is the headquarters of the company.

HaWi – reliability is our strength

For more than 20 years we have been dealing with innovative environmental technologies. The market for renewable energy is growing unstoppably and the range of products is becoming bigger and bigger. We maintain an overview of this market and provide our customers with the best technology available, take up new trends early and are thus able to offer the optimal individual solution.

Constant development work for individual solutions, a functioning quality management system and strong cus- tomer orientation make us a valuable and reliable partner.

Germany France Italy Spain Greece HaWi has subsidiaries in the most important European growth markets:
Germany
France
Italy
Spain
Greece
HaWi has subsidiaries in the most important European growth
markets: France, Spain, Italy and Greece. The headquarters are
in Eggenfelden, Bavaria.
growth markets: France, Spain, Italy and Greece. The headquarters are in Eggenfelden, Bavaria. 4 | HaWi
growth markets: France, Spain, Italy and Greece. The headquarters are in Eggenfelden, Bavaria. 4 | HaWi

VISIONS WITH ENERGY

VISIONS WITH ENERGY Introduction
VISIONS WITH ENERGY Introduction
VISIONS WITH ENERGY Introduction
VISIONS WITH ENERGY Introduction

Introduction

VISIONS WITH ENERGY Introduction
Visions with Energy With electricity and heat from renewable energy sources, there is the splendid

Visions with Energy

With electricity and heat from renewable energy sources, there is the splendid opportunity to actively counter the looming problems of resource scarcity and global climate change. Renewable energies allow independence from energy imports, strengthen industrial and economic growth and promote innovations in technical develop- ments. The amount of energy that the sun beams onto our planet every day is around 10000 times larger than the world’s energy consumption and does not cost us a cent. The solar energy that falls a square metre per year in Germany, corresponds to the energy content of 100 litres of oil. The available roof areas alone would secure half of the whole of Germany’s electricity requirements. The energy supply of the future will be a mix of regen- erative energies in which photovoltaic power will have a constantly increasing share. This will require first-class and long-lasting PV installations using high-quality prod- ucts and technological know-how.

The PV Market Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

At the end of 2007, PV plants across the world had a combined power of around 8 GW on the grid, just over half of those were in Germany. These plants produced less than 0.1 % of global electricity requirements, which demonstrates the enormous growth potential of photovoltaic power. In 2008, about 4 GW of photovoltaic power generation were newly installed, around 1.5 GW of it were in Germany. The global growth in PV installa- tions is enormous, at 56 % in 2007 and 73 % in 2008.

How the market is going to develop in 2010 and beyond is of course of greatest interest for all involved, and so there are many surveys that allows us a glimpse into the future. Accelerated growth is to be expected in the long term. Until the year 2020, the global growth in PV instal- lations will not fall below 20 %. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) is intended to ensure that the share of renewable energy in the power supply increases to 30 % by the year 2020 and that it continues to grow afterwards. The development of photovoltaics into a glo- bal key industry with hundreds of thousands of new jobs can no longer be held back.

General Construction of a Photovoltaic System

Solar modules are fastened sturdily and permanently onto a substructure and connected to each other electrically. The direct current produced by the modules is gathered via the cables and conducted to so-called inverters which convert the direct current effectively into the alternating current that is used in the public supply grid (230 volt, 50 hertz). From here the electricity is fed into the public grid via a counter. The counter records the amount of electricity supplied, which is then remunerated by the energy supplier. In so-called stand-alone systems, the electricity is not fed into the grid, but is instead used on-site, e.g. in order to supply remote villages, hospital wards etc. in so-called isolated networks.

160 % 160 140 % 140 120 % 120 100 % 100 1 80 %
160
%
160
140
%
140
120
%
120
100
%
100
1
80
%
80
60
%
60
40
%
40
2
20
%
20
3
0 %
0
5
4
Newly installed per year (right scale)
Annual growth (left scale)
Source: Bank Sarasin, Nov. 2009
Growth rate
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
GW

Sarasin long-term forecast for the global PV market

Important main components of a photovoltaic system connected to the grid:

1.
1.

The photovoltaic generator supplies direct current. (PV generator = electrically connected PV modules)

4.
4.

An input metre measures the electricity fed into the public grid.

2.
2.

The generator connection box collects the individual cables.

5.
5.

The consumption metre measures the electricity consumption of the inhabitants.

3.
3.

An inverter turns the direct current into alternating current.

of the inhabitants. 3. An inverter turns the direct current into alternating current. 8 | HaWi
of the inhabitants. 3. An inverter turns the direct current into alternating current. 8 | HaWi
The Principle of Photovoltaics The world is made of atoms, and atoms consist of a

The Principle of Photovoltaics

The world is made of atoms, and atoms consist of a core and an external shell of electrons. If these electrons are excited by the supplying of energy, e.g. heating or irradiation, and if these mobile electrons in an electrical

field are moved in a particular direction electricity flows. Only in a few materials can one observe this effect, and the best-known example is crystalline silicon. When the sun shines on pure crystalline silicon, however, nothing happens at first except that it becomes warmer. If, how- ever, one has cut the silicon into flat slices beforehand (“Wafer”) and selectively contaminated their surfaces with particular foreign substances (in the technical jargon: “doped”) so that an electrical field exists from the top side to the bottom side, this silicon wafer becomes

a power supplier when exposed to the sun. For this

purpose, electrical contacts are attached to the top and bottom side of these modules, e.g. by applying very fine, meshed solder filaments, to which a cable can then be connected. If one connects the cables from the top and

bottom sides of such a solar cell then electricity flows. In

a solar module, several such cells are connected electri-

cally into a long series in which the electric voltages are added together, as when there are several batteries in a pocket lamp.

The Construction of a Solar Module:

The most important things in the solar module are the solar cells. These cells are normally square with an edge length of 5 or 6 inches (about 12½ or 15 centimetres) and have a thickness of only about 0.18 to 0.3 millime- tres. Highly pure silicon must in the long run be pro- tected against damp and dirt, which is why the electri- cally interconnected solar cells are completely encased with a transparent plastic shell, the so-called laminate. In most solar modules, this is ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA), an extremely long-lasting and robust material. The top of the solar module is covered with a glass pane, and a special film – or, more rarely, also glass - is used for the under- side. The whole thing is stiffened with an aluminium frame. On the back of the module is a small flat plastic box (“junction box“), emerging from which are only two one-metre cables, with one representing the positive and

the other the negative pole of the solar module. Currently, plugs are attached to the cable ends, allowing effortless and lastingly secure attachment of the cables. It depends on the solar module itself, but also on various other things, as to how many solar modules can be connected with each other in a row. This is an important part of the so-called “system layout“.

Where does Silicon come from?

Silicon is the second most common element on the Earth’s crust, after oxygen. It occurs there in the form of siliceous minerals or as silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ). Sand con- sists primarily of silicon dioxide. Quartz, for example, is pure silicon dioxide. The transformation of this silicon di- oxide into raw silicon and its subsequent cleaning require the largest part of the energy that has to be expended in the manufacturing of solar modules. At the end of the

current-producing efficiency is created. The manufactur- ing process determines which of these two is created. In both cases, after the molten mass has cooled off, the result are massive blocks that then have to be cut to the right shape and finally into thin slices. As an alternative to this, some manufacturers use other methods that avoid the costly sawing-apart of the silicon blocks. At last the surface get so called “doped” and the electrical contacts are attached. As an end-result one has poly- or monocrystalline solar cells. In the new generation of thin-film modules another form of silicon is used, which is deposited in very thin layers from a gas onto a backing material, such as a glass pane. Also, in thin-film modules, silicon can be entirely dispensed. More about this on page 42.

Aluminium frame Seal Glass EVA Cells Tedlar-film
Aluminium frame
Seal
Glass
EVA
Cells
Tedlar-film
Aluminium frame Seal Glass EVA Cells Tedlar-film negative electrode n-doped silicon Barrier layer positive
negative electrode n-doped silicon Barrier layer positive electrode p-doped silicon
negative
electrode
n-doped silicon
Barrier layer
positive
electrode
p-doped silicon

Schematic layout of a solar module

manufacturing process, either polycrystalline silicon with a purity level of over 99.999 % or monocrystalline silicon with an even higher level of purity and somewhat better

Pure silicon

Construction and functioning of a crystalline solar cell

purity and somewhat better Pure silicon Construction and functioning of a crystalline solar cell 10 |
purity and somewhat better Pure silicon Construction and functioning of a crystalline solar cell 10 |
What is Efficiency of a Solar Module? The efficiency of a solar module states how

What is Efficiency of a Solar Module?

The efficiency of a solar module states how much of the radiant energy supplied by the sun is transformed into

electrical energy. Since the electricity production of solar modules varies very strongly in different weather and light conditions, the efficiency of each module is calcu- lated for so-called standard conditions. Solar modules are irradiated in test laboratories, with an illuminance of 1000 watt per square metre at a temperature of 25 °C and with

a defined light spectrum.

At the same time the values for current and voltage are measured on the solar module and the electrical perform- ance in watts per square metre of module surface is cal-

culated from this. The ratio of this electrical output to the originally beamed in light output of 1000 watt produces

is the efficiency. An example: If this irradiation results in

an electric output of 170 watt per square metre of the module surface in the test laboratory, then this ratio of 170 watt to 1000 watt is equal to 17 %. The efficiency for crystalline solar modules typically lies between 12 and now up to 20 %, and 5 to 12 % for thin-film modules.

As one would expect, with the current yield from the irradiated solar energy at 5 to 20 %, research is being carried out all over the world with the aim of increasing the efficiency and new technologies are being developed to increase the efficiency of photovoltaics. It is also worth pointing out two things here. Firstly, the photovoltaic effect in semiconductor elements such as silicon has physical limits (not even an efficiency of “only” 50 % can be achieved), and secondly that the energy received from the sun is free. So even if only 15 % of this energy is con- verted into electricity by a module, this electricity is still at no charge. Much more important in this context is keep- ing the production costs of the module within limits that are reasonable for everyone. Increasing the efficiency and simultaneously reducing the price are the central ele- ments for developing photovoltaics into a “global player” in the energy supply of the future.

How much Electricity is produced by Photovoltaic Plants?

If on a fine sunny day the combined output of e.g. six

modules is precisely 1000 W for one hour, then this small photovoltaic system has produced precisely one kilowatt hour (kWh). This amount of energy is known as a unit of energy consumption for both electricity and heat. With this amount of energy one could use a vacuum cleaner with a power of 1000 W for one hour. In order to be able to compare different photovoltaic systems with each other, it has been agreed to always relate the kilowatt hours produced by them to the installed rated power of the PV plant. The unit of yield of photovoltaic plants is thus the kilowatt hour per installed rated power, or kWh/ kWpeak. Since the PV systems produce more electricity in summer with plenty of sun and correspondingly less in

winter, it is useful to state each of the yields for a whole year. For example, a plant that consists of modules with

a total rated power of 4000 wattp (= 4 kWp) and has

supplied 4160 kilowatt hours of energy in its first year of

operation thus has a yield of 1040 kWh/kWp /year. If one aussumes that the irradiation on that PV plant does not on average differ greatly from year to year, then one has a good indication of what level of energy yield is to be expected in future.

Because the majority of all PV plants are currently financed by the sale of electricity, knowledge of the yield to be expected over long periods of time is the most important aspect of planning any plant. Recognised com- puter programmes (“PV software”) are used to simulate future income from the energy yield. It is understandable that the yields do not only depend on the plant itself but also on the place where they are set up. In that context, the number of hours of direct sunlight at the respective site is of particular importance. In this respect, south- ern regions of Germany such as Bavaria and Baden- Württemberg have an advantage over the country’s northern regions. The so-called irradiance maps, which are published by various publishing houses and websites, provide an indication of yields to be expected.

by various publishing houses and websites, provide an indication of yields to be expected. 12 |
by various publishing houses and websites, provide an indication of yields to be expected. 12 |
by various publishing houses and websites, provide an indication of yields to be expected. 12 |
How expensive is Solar Electricity? As a rule of thumb, a manufacturer of solar modules

How expensive is Solar Electricity?

As a rule of thumb, a manufacturer of solar modules can reduce his costs by half with every tenfold increase of the production and sales figures. With the current growth forecasts and slightly increasing prices for electricity from fossil fuels (even uranium is becoming scarcer), solar electricity will be as cheap or even already cheaper than electricity from the public grid by 2020. Another reason for the costs pressure on the manufacturers is the year-by-year lowering of the feed-in tariff, stipulated in the EEG. For example, in Germany in 2020 one will only receive between 11.2 and 15.4 cent/kWh with the new installation of a PV plant. Anyone wanting to generate a high return from sales will set up his plant in the next few years, and anyone who simply wants to buy clean, cheap electricity can look to a sustainably bright future with photovoltaics.

Is a Photovoltaic Plant economical?

Due to the very costly process of manufacturing the required purest silicon and the production plants itself, photovoltaics is a very cost-intensive technology. The solar electricity produced is currently among the most expensive types of electricity. On the other hand, this form of energy has turned out to be so advantageous, due to its sustainability, environmentally friendly nature and universal availability, that many countries, most of all Germany and Europe,

have decided with political requirements to financially support the development and spread of PV plants. The decisive element here was the introduction of feed-in tariffs that guarantee to the producer of electricity from renewable sources the long-term purchasing of his elec- tricity at attractive conditions.

This decision has lead to a genuine boom in photovolta- ics, first in Germany and later across the world, because it immediately became profitable to invest in a PV plant. In 2004 a lot of PV systems were installed that represent- ed one of the most lucrative investment forms of recent years, with returns of more than 12 %. The remuneration for solar power has now sunk so far, due to annual reduc- tion of the feed-in tariff, that “normal“ returns between 3 % and 8 % can be striven for and also reached. Here, the financial institutions, such as banks for example, have recognised that investments in solar plants are very se- cure. In order for a solar current plant to also remain eco- nomical in future, the prices of the required components must sink to at least the same extent as the payments for the solar electricity.

PV

Ground

Plant

mounted

up to 30 kW (ct/kWh)

30 kW - 100 kW (ct/kWh)

100 kW - 1 MW (ct/kWh)

> 1 MW (ct/kWh)

current

status

39,14

37,23

35,23

29,37

28,43

*Source: Bundesnetzagentur, January 20th 2010 The decrease of the feed-in tariff by the federal government is scheduled for a period of less than a year. Please don’t hesitate to contact us about the newest information on the feed-in rate.

Due to the global growth of the PV industry with the cost-reducing effect of the mass production of solar modules this trend is also noticeable. For orientation, one can assume that a solar plant will amortizeds itself after about fifteen years; also up to three years earlier depend- ing on the financing model. The electricity will be bought at set conditions for twenty years.

ing on the financing model. The electricity will be bought at set conditions for twenty years.
ing on the financing model. The electricity will be bought at set conditions for twenty years.
ing on the financing model. The electricity will be bought at set conditions for twenty years.
Solar Power is sustainable Climate Protection According to a study of the European PV Industry

Solar Power is sustainable Climate Protection

According to a study of the European PV Industry As- sociation (EPIA), the output of photovoltaic plants installed around the world will in 2030 be 912 gigawatts and will produce more than 1200 terawatt hours of solar electricity. The amount of CO 2 emissions cut out by this measure, as against fossil fuels, would then be 7775 million tons per year, corresponding to the emissions from over 200 coal power stations*. In 2007, the saving on CO 2 compared with the supply mix at that time was 683 g CO 2 per kWh of solar electricity**. The total amount avoided due to PV plants was 2.4 million tons. With the right handling of the currently existing trade in emission rights, the influence of renewable energies as a whole can have an enormously positive influence on the atmosphere’s CO 2 levels. A solar plant has produced the energy necessary for its manu- facture after about 1 to 5 years (depending on the level of technology), whereas the thin-film modules of the future, in particular, will already have achieved this value within less than a year. According to the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), just over every tenth kWh of electricity consumption in Germany in 2008 were produced from renewable energy resources, of which 4.4 billion kWh*** were produced by photovoltaic plants.

What is a good PV Plant?

A good PV plant is characterised by the fact that it meets

a large number of quality requirements. In the end, it

will only be seen in retrospect how well a PV plant was planned and installed. During at least the whole period in which it feeds electricity into the grid to finance itself – normally over 20 years in Germany – it must produce the yield initially calculated.

The more this yield exceeds the expected value, the bet- ter the plant has been designed and / or the higher the quality of the components used. Essentially, the require- ments can be divided into three groups: Good planning, first-class installation and high-quality solar modules (see tables on the right).

2020:

Terawatt hours/year 278 TWh 300 Forecast Geothermic 250 Water power (regenerative) Photovoltaic Bio-energy 200
Terawatt hours/year
278 TWh
300
Forecast
Geothermic
250
Water power (regenerative)
Photovoltaic
Bio-energy
200
Wind power
150
2007:
88 TWh
100
50
0
2000
‘02
‘04
‘06
‘08
2010
‘1 2
‘ 14
‘1 6
‘ 18
2020

Source: Industry forecast 2020 BEE (German Renewable Energy Federation), date: 1/2009

Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources in Germany by 2020

16 | HaWi

*Source: moderate scenario in: Solar Generation V-2008 EPIA and GREENPEACE ***Source: “Sonne Wind und Wärme“, Edition 2/2009

**Source: “Renewable Energies in Figures“, BMU, June 2008

“Renewable Energies in Figures“, BMU, June 2008 Requirements for a good PV Plant: Good planning takes

Requirements for a good PV Plant:

Good planning takes into account at least the following aspects:

Climate data, site conditions (irradiance, temperatures, snow) Clouding (also future) Nature of the installation site/area

Climate data, site conditions (irradiance, temperatures, snow) Clouding (also future) Nature of the installation site/area (substrate, fastening) Orientation and angling of the modules Financing, yield simulation, yield losses to be expected Possibilities of financial support Customer requests (also for grid-independent systems) Energy supplier (next feed-in point, etc.) Delivery times and supplying of the construction site Selection of suppliers Planning reliability Insurance, protection against theft Financial reserves for maintaining function (e.g. replacement of inverters) Maintenance and operating costs

Good installation takes into account at least the following aspects:

Electrical key statistics (V, I, etc.) of modules and inverters Modules per string, strings per

Electrical key statistics (V, I, etc.) of modules and inverters Modules per string, strings per inverter Optimal use of the available area Aesthetics Ventilation of the solar modules Output ratio of PV generator to inverter String or series inverters Inverter technology and its efficiency Installation site of the inverter Module technology Safety: Excess voltage, back current, lightning protection, potential equalisation, earthing Long-term stability

Optimal cabling concept

voltage, back current, lightning protection, potential equalisation, earthing Long-term stability Optimal cabling concept

High quality of the solar modules takes at least the following aspects into account:

Solar cells (origin, characteristics, technology) Long life (resistance to UV and weathering, strain from snow

Solar cells (origin, characteristics, technology) Long life (resistance to UV and weathering, strain from snow and wind) Lamination (holds the different layers together, mostly EVA) Front glass (transparency, strength, light exposure, thickness/weight) Rear side (glass, sheet) Frame (material, strength, protection, fastening) Cable (UV protection, length) Plugs (compatibility, convenience, UV-resistance, weather-resistance) Junction box (weather-resistance, bypass diode, tensile strength)

HaWi | 17

UV-resistance, weather-resistance) Junction box (weather-resistance, bypass diode, tensile strength) HaWi | 17

Solar Modules

VISIONS WITH ENERGY

Solar Modules VISIONS WITH ENERGY Solar Modules Overview of Modules, Module Suppliers One of the core
Solar Modules VISIONS WITH ENERGY Solar Modules Overview of Modules, Module Suppliers One of the core
Solar Modules VISIONS WITH ENERGY Solar Modules Overview of Modules, Module Suppliers One of the core
Solar Modules VISIONS WITH ENERGY Solar Modules Overview of Modules, Module Suppliers One of the core

Solar Modules

Overview of Modules, Module Suppliers

One of the core competences of HaWi

Crystalline Modules

from p. 20

Energietechnik AG is the in-depth analy-

ScHOtt

from p. 20

sis of all international manufacturers of

Sanyo

from p. 26

solar modules using any kind of technol-

Suntech Power

ogy. Our partners are always chosen according to the highest standards of sustainability and quality, regarding the supplier partnership as well as the mod- ules. Our product range includes mod- ules from globally well-known manufac- turers with many years of experience.

LG

from p. 30 from p. 34

We also have our own requirements for the realisation of “Visions with Energy“ and observe all innovations and develop- ments on the German and international PV market. We already have partnership agreements with the manufacturers of the world’s most promising products in the field of thin-layer technologies. According to our analysis, around every fourth to sixth PV system installed in the world will already be equipped with thin- layer modules by 2010.

Thin-Layer Modules ScHOtt (a-Si) Sunfilm (a-Si/µ-Si) Q-cells (cIGS) Solar Frontier (cIS)

from p. 38 from p. 42 from p. 44 from p. 46 from p. 50

(a-Si) Sunfilm (a-Si/µ-Si) Q-cells (cIGS) Solar Frontier (cIS) from p. 38 from p. 42 from p.

Solar Modules

SCHOTT solar

POLY 175

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

165, 170, 175, 180

Sorting tolerance

0 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

0.48 %/°c

Efficiency

12.6

% to 13.7 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1620

mm x 810 mm

thickness

50 mm

Weight

15.5

kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m 2

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

IP65, with 3 bypass diodes

cable

4.0 mm² solar cable

Plug

tyco

Technology

72 MAIN cells

5-inch cells (125 mm x 125 mm)

polycrystalline

isotextured cell surfaces

x 125 mm) polycrystalline isotextured cell surfaces Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable

Detail view

polycrystalline isotextured cell surfaces Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug Electrical

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

Electrical Module Data

POLY 165

POLY 170

POLY 175

POLY 180

Maximum Power (P max )

≥ 165 Wp

≥ 170 Wp

≥ 175 Wp

≥ 180 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

35.1

V

35.5

V

35.9

V

36.3

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

4.7 A

4.78

A

4.87

A

4.95

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

43.6

V

44.0

V

44.3

V

44.6

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

5.27

A

5.30

A

5.34

A

5.39

A

Item Number

10005672

10005137 10004992

10006336

Safety

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“;

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“; IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark.

Back current resistance (I R ): 17 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 10 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SCHOTT solar POLY 175 ScHOtt Poly

SCHOTT solar

POLY 175

upon request and free of charge. SCHOTT solar POLY 175 ScHOtt Poly 175 the “all-rounder“ SCHOTT

ScHOtt Poly 175

the “all-rounder“ SCHOTT Poly 175 is one of the most-sold modules from ScHOtt Solar. It is designed for long-lasting use on roofs. With a permitted pressure or pulling load of 550 kg/m² it can be used practically everywhere, even in areas with strong winds and heavy snow. the 50 mm thick, anodised frame, free of hollow spaces, also ensures high torsional stiffness and also protects the module for more than 25 years.

Advantageous Installation

thanks to the robust and yet manageable construction, with typical frame dimensions of 1.62 m x 0.81 m and a weight of under 16 kg, the module can be worked upon very well and safely during the installation. the permitted system voltage of 1000 V with open circuit voltages of 43.6 V to 44.6 V allows flexible and convenient designing of the PV plant. the modules are equipped with strictly checked multi-crystalline solar cells having a solely positive sorting tolerance. the positive tolerance in the nominal power rating has certainly made a contribution to the success of Schott modules.

Quality

the Poly 175 from Schott Solar is certified to all required and common quality standards (see left, Safety). Schott itself also ensures its quality standards with a tried-and-tested quality management system, which is certified to ISO 9001.

quality management system, which is certified to ISO 9001. Your advantages at a glance: • double

Your advantages at a glance:

• double of the required standard

• high resistance to mechanical loads

• high performance output

• long-term reliability

• increased resistance to reverse current

reliability • increased resistance to reverse current 20 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted. For

Solar Modules

SCHOTT solar

POLY 225

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

217, 220, 225, 230

Sorting tolerance

0 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

0.47 %/°c

Efficiency

13.0 % to 13.7 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1685

mm x 993 mm

thickness

50 mm

Weight

approx. 23 kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m 2

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

IP65 with 3 bypass diodes

cable

4.0 mm² solar cable

Plug

tyco

Technology

60 MAIN cells

6-inch cells (156 mm x 156 mm)

polycrystalline

isotextured cell surfaces

x 156 mm) polycrystalline isotextured cell surfaces Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable

Detail view

polycrystalline isotextured cell surfaces Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug Electrical

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

Electrical Module Data

POLY 217

POLY 220

POLY 225

POLY 230

Maximum Power (P max )

≥ 217 Wp

≥ 220 Wp

≥ 225 Wp

≥ 230 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

29.6

V

29.7

V

29.8

V

30.0

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

7.33

A

7.41

A

7.55

A

7.66

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

36.4

V

36.5

V

36.7

V

36.9

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

8.10

A

8.15

A

8.24

A

8.33

A

Item Number

10006417 10007895

10006416

10008258

Safety

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“;

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“; IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 20 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 10 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SCHOTT solar POLY 225 ScHOtt Poly

SCHOTT solar

POLY 225

upon request and free of charge. SCHOTT solar POLY 225 ScHOtt Poly 225 the SCHOTT Poly

ScHOtt Poly 225

the SCHOTT Poly 225 is a consistent further development of the 175

module from Schott. It is somewhat larger than the Poly 175 and comes

in the rated output classes 217 to 230 Watt. In this module, ScHOtt

Solar installs high-quality and uncompromisingly tested 6-inch polycrys- talline cells. With a permitted pressure or pulling load of 550 kg/m² it can be used practically everywhere, even in areas with strong winds and heavy snow. the 50 mm thick, anodised frame, free of hollow spaces, also ensures high torsional stiffness and protects the module for more than 25 years.

Advantageous Installation

Despite the somewhat larger dimensions of 1.69 m x 0.993 m, the module

is still very easy to work with, with a weight of about 23 kg. the permit-

ted system voltage of 1000 V with open circuit voltages of 36.4 V to 36.9

V allows flexible and convenient designing of the PV plant, even with

long strings. these modules have only a positive tolerance in the nominal power rating, a fact that has certainly contributed to the success of Schott modules.

Quality

the Poly 225 from Schott Solar is certified to all required and common quality standards (see left, Safety). Schott itself also ensures its quality standards with a tried-and-tested quality management system, which is certified to ISO 9001.

quality management system, which is certified to ISO 9001. Your advantages at a glance: • double

Your advantages at a glance:

• double of the required standard

• high resistance to mechanical loads

• high performance output

• long-term reliability

• increased resistance to reverse current

reliability • increased resistance to reverse current 22 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted. For

Solar Modules

SCHOTT solar

POLY 300

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

280, 290, 300

Sorting tolerance

0 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

0.47 %/°c

Efficiency

12.7 % to 13.6 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1685

mm x 1313 mm

thickness

50 mm

Weight

approx. 41.5 kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m 2

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Glass and sheet

connection Box

tyco, IP65 with 4 bypass diodes

cable

tyco, 4.0 mm²

Plug

tyco

Technology

80 MAIN cells

6-inch cells (156 mm x 156 mm)

polycrystalline

isotextured cell surfaces

x 156 mm) polycrystalline isotextured cell surfaces Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable

Detail view

polycrystalline isotextured cell surfaces Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug Electrical

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

Electrical Module Data

POLY 280

POLY 290

POLY 300

Maximum Power (P max )

≥ 280 Wp

≥ 290 Wp

≥ 300 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

39.1

V

39.5

V

39.7

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

7.16

A

7.33

A

7.55

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

48.1

V

48.5

V

48.9

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

7.95

A

8.10

A

8.24

A

Item Number

10008280

10007480

10007481

Safety

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“;

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“; IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 20 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 10 years (90 %), 30 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

SCHOTT solar

POLY 300

Similar to illustration
Similar to illustration

Double Glass Module ScHOtt Poly 300

the SCHOTT Poly 300 is the result of the consistent continuation of the polycrystalline product range of ScHOtt Solar. It is the largest model in this series and permits the efficient installation of a high power density in your PV system: a welcome reduction of the workload in the case of larger systems. In addition, the installation of this module reinforces the system’s homogeneous appearance. In this module, high-quality and uncompromisingly tested 6-inch polycrystalline cells are installed by ScHOtt Solar. With a permitted pressure or pulling load of 550 kg/m² it can be used practically everywhere, even in areas with strong winds and heavy snow. the 50 mm thick, anodised frame, free of hollow spaces, also ensures high torsional stiffness and also protects the module for more than 30 years.

Advantageous Installation

the big advantage in the installation is the time saved per kilowatt: One difference to the Poly 225 is that two additional, complete, vertical rows of cells are built into the ScHOtt Poly 300. the module thus reaches dimensions of 1.69 m by 1.31 m and with a weight of 41.5 kg it should be carried by two people. the open circuit voltage of 48.1 V to 48.9 V and a maximum system voltage of 1000 V still allows 17 modules to be connected in series in the string, with the temperature coefficient of – 0.47 %. the cables of the connection box are substantially longer than with the smaller models in the Poly range, measuring 0.9 m at the negative pole and 2.1 m at the positive pole.

0.9 m at the negative pole and 2.1 m at the positive pole. Your advantages at
0.9 m at the negative pole and 2.1 m at the positive pole. Your advantages at

Your advantages at a glance:

long life through double glazing

• double of the required standard

• high resistance to mechanical loads

• high performance output

• long-term reliability

• increased resistance to reverse current

reliability • increased resistance to reverse current 24 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted. For

Solar Modules

SANYO

HIt-240HDE4

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

235, 240

Output tolerance

+ 10 / – 5 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.3 %/°c

Efficiency

17.0

% to 17.3 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1610

mm x 861 mm

thickness

35 mm

Weight

16.5

kg

Snow Load

240 kg/m 2

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

Kitani

cable

4.0 mm² solar cable

Plug

Mc4

Technology

HIT-Solarzelle:

monocrystalline hybrid wafer coated with thin amorphous silicon

Electrical Module Data

HIT-235HDE4

thin amorphous silicon Electrical Module Data HIT-235HDE4 Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable

Detail view

silicon Electrical Module Data HIT-235HDE4 Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

HIT-240HDE4

Maximum Power (P max )

235 Wp

240 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

35.1

V

35.5

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

6.7 A

6.77

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

43.4

V

43.6

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

7.33

A

7.37

A

Item Number

10008288

10008287

Safety

IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark Back current

IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 15 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 10 years (90 %), 20 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SANYO HIt-240HDE4 SANYO HIt-235-240HDE4 there is

SANYO

HIt-240HDE4

upon request and free of charge. SANYO HIt-240HDE4 SANYO HIt-235-240HDE4 there is no doubt about it:

SANYO HIt-235-240HDE4

there is no doubt about it: this solar module HIT-235-240HDE4 from SANYO with its honeycomb-shaped cell structure is among the best that are on the PV market in regard to efficiency and quality. With the intelligent combination of monocrystalline and amorphous silicon the advantages of two technologies are combined in one product. this al- lows the model to achieve phenomenal efficiency up to 17.3 % under standard testing conditions. the temperature coefficient of the output is also positively affected by the portions of amorphous silicon and at – 0.3 %/°c is unbeatable for a crystalline module. this product is not a new invention, however, but has instead been used and proven in many different applications for quite some time. the light absorption is also positively influenced by using hybrid technology, so that higher yields can be achieved compared to purely crystalline technology. Sanyo itself says matter-of-factly: “this product is produced with the most modern manufacturing processes and possesses one of the highest degrees of efficiency and energy yields in the industry”. this product is certified to all common and necessary IEc and quality standards. SANYO is one of the fifteen biggest electronics companies in the world and is a guarantee of quality standards over the long term.

and is a guarantee of quality standards over the long term. Your advantages at a glance:

Your advantages at a glance:

HIt technology

• innovative design

• world-leading efficiency in commercial solar products

• high efficiency even at high temperatu- res

• reliable manufacturer

even at high temperatu - res • reliable manufacturer 26 | HaWi technical data and errors

Solar Modules

SANYO

HIP-215NKHE5

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

214, 215

Output tolerance

+ 10 / – 5 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.3 %/°c

Efficiency

17.0 % to 17.1 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1580

mm x 798 mm

thickness

35

mm

Weight

15

kg

Snow Load

240 kg/m 2

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

Kitani

cable

4.0 mm² solar cable

Plug

Mc3

Technology

72 HIt solar cells

5-inch cells (125 mm x 125 mm)

monocrystalline hybrid wafer coated with thin amorphous silicon

hybrid wafer coated with thin amorphous silicon Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable

Detail view

hybrid wafer coated with thin amorphous silicon Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

Electrical Module Data

HIP-214NKHE5

HIP-215NKHE5

Maximum Power (P max )

214 Wp

215 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

41.9

V

42.0

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

5.12

A

5.13

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

51.5

V

51.6

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

5.60

A

5.61

A

Item Number

10008517 10007918

Safety

IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark Back current

IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 15 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 10 years (90 %), 20 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SANYO HIP-215NKHE5 SANYO HIP-215NKHE5 HIt cells

SANYO

HIP-215NKHE5

upon request and free of charge. SANYO HIP-215NKHE5 SANYO HIP-215NKHE5 HIt cells and modules have a

SANYO HIP-215NKHE5

HIt cells and modules have a world-leading efficiency in the field of commercial solar products. With the intelligent combination of monoc- rystalline and amorphous silicon, the advantages of two technologies are combined in one product. the module HIP-215NKHE5 from SANYO achieves phenomenal degrees of efficiency of up to 17.1 % under stand- ard conditions.

the temperature coefficient of the output is also positively affected by the portions of amorphous silicon and at – 0.3 %/°c is unbeatable for a crystalline module. this product is not a new invention, however, but has instead been used and proven in many different applications for quite some time. the light absorption is also positively influenced by using hybrid technology, so that higher yields can be achieved as compared purely crystalline technology. Sanyo itself says matter-of-factly: “this product is produced with the most modern manufacturing processes and possesses one of the highest degrees of efficiency and energy yields in the industry”. this product is certified to all common and necessary IEc and quality standards. SANYO is one of the fifteen biggest electronics compa- nies in the world and is a guarantee for ensuring a high quality standard over the long term.

for ensuring a high quality standard over the long term. Your advantages at a glance: •

Your advantages at a glance:

• HIT technology

• innovative design

• world-leading efficiency in commercial solar products

• high efficiency even at high temperatures

• reliable manufacturer

even at high temperatures • reliable manufacturer 28 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted. For

SUNTECH Power

StP 210-18/Ud

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

205, 210

Output tolerance

+5 W / –0 W

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.47 %/°c

Efficiency

13.9

% to 14.3 %

Mechanical Module Data

 

Dimensions

1482

mm x 992 mm

thickness

35 mm

Weight

16.8

kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m 2

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

Huber & Suhner, IP 67

cable

Huber & Suhner, 4.0 mm²

Plug

Huber & Suhner

Technology

polycrystalline silicon

6-inch cells (156 mm x 156 mm)

Electrical Module Data

STP 205-18/Ud

cells (156 mm x 156 mm) Electrical Module Data STP 205-18/Ud Detail view STP 210-18/Ud Maximum

Detail view

STP 210-18/Ud

Maximum Power (P max )

205 Wp

210 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

26.3

V

26.4

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

7.80

A

7.95

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

33.6

V

33.6

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

8.33

A

8.33

A

Item Number

10009085

10007265

Safety

IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 20 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 5 years (95 %), 12 years (90 %), 18 years (85 %), 25 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SUNTECH Power StP 210-18/Ud SUNtEcH StP

SUNTECH Power

StP 210-18/Ud

upon request and free of charge. SUNTECH Power StP 210-18/Ud SUNtEcH StP 210-18/Ud SUNtEcH Power is

SUNtEcH StP 210-18/Ud

SUNtEcH Power is one of the world’s biggest manufacturers of modules, with five ISO9001- and ISO14001-certified production sites in china and Japan and numerous branches all over the world. Due to the company’s great success, production capacity is expected to rise to above 1 GW.

the polycrystalline module STP 210-18/Ud from SUNtEcH is the contin- uation of the successful preceding series -18/Ub and is available in three output classes. Efficiency from 13.9 % to 14.3 % compete successfully with those of products from other well-known manufacturers. Despite the somewhat larger dimensions of 1.48 m by 0.99 m, the module is simple to install with a weight of only 16.8 kg. thanks to a special textur- ing and antireflective coating of the cell surfaces, the module produces a maximum yield even in poor light conditions. A sturdy aluminium frame keeps the module – only 35 mm thick - in shape and stands up to all weather conditions. All certificates necessary for the European market (incl. IEc 61730, 61215) have successfully been achieved and Suntech of- fers you a 5-year product guarantee and a 25-year service guarantee. Due to its attractive price-performance ratio, this module is one of our most popular products.

™ Solar Modules
Solar Modules

Your advantages at a glance:

• narrow output tolerance:

• top technology

• takes 550 kg strain

• IEC 61215, IEC 61730

• takes 550 kg strain • IEC 61215, IEC 61730 30 | HaWi technical data and

SUNTECH Power

StP 185S-24/Ad

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

180, 185

Output tolerance

+5 W / –0 W

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.48 %/°c

Efficiency

14.1

% to 14.5 %

Mechanical Module Data

 

Dimensions

1580

mm x 808 mm

thickness

35 mm

Weight

17.2

kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m 2

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

Huber & Suhner, IP 65

cable

Huber & Suhner, 4.0 mm²

Plug

Huber & Suhner

Technology

72 monocrystalline silicon cells

5-inch cells (125 mm x 125 mm)

Electrical Module Data

STP 180S-24/Ad

(125 mm x 125 mm) Electrical Module Data STP 180S-24/Ad Detail view STP 185S-24/Ad Maximum Power

Detail view

STP 185S-24/Ad

Maximum Power (P max )

180 Wp

185 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

36 V

36.4

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

5 A

5.09

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

44.8

V

45.0

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

5.29

A

5.43

A

Item Number

10008214

10008523

Safety

IEc 61215 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 15 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 5 years (95 %), 12 years (90 %), 18 years (85 %), 25 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SUNTECH Power StP 185S-24/Ad SUNtEcH StP

SUNTECH Power

StP 185S-24/Ad

request and free of charge. SUNTECH Power StP 185S-24/Ad SUNtEcH StP 185S-24/Ad SUNtEcH Power is one

SUNtEcH StP 185S-24/Ad

SUNtEcH Power is one of the world’s biggest manufacturers of modules, with five ISO9001- and ISO14001-certified production sites in china and Japan and numerous branches all over the world. Due to the company’s great success, production capacity is expected to rise to above 1 GW.

the monocrystalline module STP 185S-24/Ad from SUNtEcH is the continuation of the successful predecessor series -24/Ac and is avail- able in three output classes. Efficiency from 14.1 % to 14.5 % compete successfully with those of products from other well-known manufactur- ers. the format is classic with dimensions of around 1.60 by 0.80 metres and ensures convenient installation with a weight of 17.2 kg. thanks to a special texturing and antireflective coating of the cell surfaces, the module produces a maximum yield even in poor light conditions. A sturdy aluminium frame keeps the module – only 35 mm thick - in shape and stands up to all weather conditions. All certificates necessary for the Eu- ropean market (incl. IEc 61730, 61215) have successfully been achieved and Suntech offers you a 5-year product guarantee and a 25-year service guarantee. Due to its attractive price-performance ratio, this module is one of our most popular products.

™ Solar Modules
Solar Modules

Your advantages at a glance:

• monocrystalline

• IEC certified

• positive tolerance +5 W / –0 W

• 14.5 % efficiency

• takes 550 kg strain

• sturdy quality

• attractive appearance

kg strain • sturdy quality • attractive appearance 32 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted.

LG Electronics

LG230P1c

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

220, 225, 230

Output tolerance

+ 3 / – 0 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.47 %/°c

Efficiency

13.4

% to 14.0 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1649

mm x 993 mm

thickness

42 mm

Weight

19.5

kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m²

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

Yukita

cable

4.0 mm² solar cable

Plug

Mc4

Technology

cable 4.0 mm² solar cable Plug Mc4 Technology Detail view 60 cells   6-inch cells (156

Detail view

60 cells

 

6-inch cells (156 mm x 156 mm)

polycrystalline

Electrical Module Data

LG220P1C

LG225P1C

LG230P1C

Maximum Power (P max )

220 Wp

225 Wp

230 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

28.9

V

29.0

V

29.1

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

7.62

A

7.76

A

7.91

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

36.1

V

36.3

V

36.4

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

8.21

A

8.30

A

8.39

A

Item Number

10008976

10008975 10008974

Safety

IEc 61646 certified, IEc 61730 certified, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 15 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 12 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. LG Electronics LG230P1c LG230P1c LG has

LG Electronics

LG230P1c

upon request and free of charge. LG Electronics LG230P1c LG230P1c LG has 84 subsidiaries and is

LG230P1c

LG has 84 subsidiaries and is one of the global market leaders in modern digital technologies. LG produces the solar cells for the polycrystalline and monocrystalline modules by itself.

Having a maximum admissible load of 5400 Pa, the module can also be installed in regions with high wind and snow loads. the frame of the LG modules also contributes to their attractiveness. By default, it consists of black anodized aluminium certainly giving the modules an aesthetic effect. Despite its slightly larger dimensions of 1.649 m x 0.993 m, the module having a weight of 19.5 kg can be very easily installed. In the case of this module which has a maximum open-circuit voltage of 36.4 V and an admissible system voltage of 1000 V, long strings can be generated.

Solar Modules
Solar Modules

Your advantages at a glance:

• plus-only Power Tolerance

• max. load of 550 kg/m² or 5400N/m²

• the module is uniquely designed, to drain liquid even when installed in any slopes and angles

• Product guarantee 5 years and service guarantee 12 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %)

and service guarantee 12 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %) 34 | HaWi technical data

LG Electronics

LG240M1c

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

230, 235, 240

Output tolerance

+ 3 / – 0 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.47 %/°c

Efficiency

14.0

% to 14.7 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1649

mm x 993 mm

thickness

42 mm

Weight

19.5

kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m²

Front Side

Glass

Rear Side

Sheet

connection Box

Yukita

cable

4.0 mm² solar cable

Plug

Mc4

Technology

cable 4.0 mm² solar cable Plug Mc4 Technology Detail view 60 cells   6-inch cells (156

Detail view

60 cells

 

6-inch cells (156 mm x 156 mm)

monocrystalline

Electrical Module Data

LG230M1C

LG235M1C

LG240M1C

Maximum Power (P max )

230 Wp

235 Wp

240 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

29.5

V

29.6

V

29.7

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

7.81

A

7.94

A

8.10

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

36.6

V

36.8

V

36.9

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

8.37

A

8.49

A

8.58

A

Item Number

10008979

10008978 10008977

the modules will be available from May, 2010.

Safety

IEc 61646 certified, IEc 61730 certified, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 15 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 12 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. LG Electronics LG240M1c LG240M1c LG has

LG Electronics

LG240M1c

upon request and free of charge. LG Electronics LG240M1c LG240M1c LG has 84 subsidiaries and is

LG240M1c

LG has 84 subsidiaries and is one of the global market leaders in modern digital technologies. LG produces the solar cells for the polycrystalline and monocrystalline modules by itself.

the monocrystalline sisters of the polycrystalline modules are also charac- terized by a maximum admissible load of 5400 Pa. therefore, the module can be installed in regions having a high wind and snow load. Despite its slightly larger dimensions of 1.649 m x 0.993 m, the module having a weight of 19.5 kg can be very easily installed. By default, the frame of the LG modules consists of black anodized aluminium contributing to their attractiveness. this module with an efficiency of 14.7 % works well and safely in the solar plant.

Solar Modules
Solar Modules

Your advantages at a glance:

only plus power tolerance

• max. load of 550 kg/m² or 5400 N/m²

• The module is uniquely designed, to drain liquid even when installed in any slopes and angles

• Product guarantee 5 years and service guarantee 12 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %)

and service guarantee 12 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %) 36 | HaWi technical data

Solar Modules

thin-Layer Modules

A new technology is blazing its trail

thin-layer technology is setting new standards in the production of solar modules and will conquer at least twenty-percent share of the global PV market in the medium term. Unlike crystalline technology, the photoac- tive material is applied to what are now very large pieces of backing material, by means of a deposition process. Of decisive importance here is the massive saving on energy and material, because the film is only one to two thousandths of a millimetre thick. As a comparison:

crystalline silicon solar cells are about 180 – 300 µm thick (1 mm=1000 µm). In addition, the production of thin- film modules takes place with much fewer work steps, because e.g. electrical connection within the module already occurs in the coating. As a result, thin-film mod- ules are substantially cheaper to manufacture, especially if it is carried out in a framework of mass production. the lower area efficiency of such modules erodes part of the cost advantage, with increased area and material requirements in installation, but on the other hand, for example, the yields are higher in comparison with crystal- line technology due to better functioning in weak light and other characteristics.

construction of thin-Film Modules

the structure of the photoactive film is essentially similar in all thin-Film modules: An electrically conductive and transparent film (the so-called tcO film), a photoactive film (the so-called absorber), and a rear side contact are applied onto a glass pane and cut into strips using a la- ser. the strips can be 5 to 30 mm wide, and the interrup- tions are only a few micrometres and are hardly visible. As a result means of skilful coating and laser cutting, the front film of a strip is electrically connected along its whole length to the rearmost film of the adjacent strip, through the absorbing film. A vertical strip of a thin-film module thus represents, so to speak, the single cell that is horizontally electrically connected to all the others, in series. A glass or film pane can then act as the back. With particular thin-film modules, the coating must start with the back of the module; these modules are neces- sarily double-glass modules.

Materials of thin-Film technology

Silicon can be amorphous (a-Si), microcrystalline (µ-Si) or micromorphous (a combination of a-Si and µ-Si, is also called “tandem“). these technologies are now provid- ing degrees of efficiency between 5 % (a-Si) and 9 % (micromorphous). A special feature of silicon in its non-

crystalline form is the so-called initial degradation within the first months of use: the initial output of the module

is sometimes up to 25 % above the output stated by the

manufacturer and fluctuates after a while to its stable value, which is stated in the specifications. Another

characteristic is the so-called annealing effect with amor- phous silicon, which leads to the efficiency rising again during summer.

• CdTe:

Cadmium telluride has already been used in thin-film

modules for several years. the efficiency is 10 % to 11 %. Here too, research is being carried out to increase the efficiency.

• CIS oder auch CIGS:

this is a mixture of copper, indium and (di-)selenide or

sulphide. In most cases, it also contains gallium, which

is why the term cIGS technology is also used. Increas-

ingly often, however, this technology is referred to as

cIS, regardless of whether it is with or without gallium. this technology provides a efficiency of 9 % to 12 % with

a substantial potential for increases. Modules using this

technology are produced in substrate assembly, i.e. the coating starts with the back, which is why such modules have up to now necessarily been produced as double- glass modules.

Silicon:

• Others:

Across the world, research is being carried out on other materials for photovoltaics, especially as regards the as- pects of encapsulation and cost reduction. this research includes technologies for simple printing onto e.g. film (nano-technology) or the use of plastics in so-called or- ganic photovoltaics. Flexible thin-film modules on plastic or metal films have passed the trial phase with some manufacturers and are also being used to an increasing extent.

Production

Module

Module

Capacity

Environmental

Technology

Efficiency 2008

Efficiency 2010

End 2008

Aspects

a-Si / µc-Si

-

industrial mass production

6 – 7 %

10

%

approx.

Use of harmful gases in production can be controlled.

   

1.200 MWp

 

-

complete solutions on the market

CdTe

-

industrial mass production

cdte: can be manufactured very quickly, cost leadership

7

– 10 %

12

%

approx.

cd

contained in the

-

 

600 MWp

model as stable cdte; there are no environ- mental risks. te-availabil-

   

ity

limited.

CIS

-

industrial mass production

9

– 12 %

14 %

approx.

In-availability limited

   

600 MWp

 

-

lots of different new concepts

comparison of thin-Film technologies (Source: OttI Anwenderforum Dünnschicht (thin-film user’s forum), Würzburg, January 2009)

Light

Encapsulation

Front Contact

Absorber / p/n-Structure

Rear Contact

Substrate

Light Encapsulation Front Contact Absorber / p/n-Structure Rear Contact Substrate

General substrate construction of thin-film modules. The “encapsulation” aligned towards the light and the “substrate” to be laid in the lowermost position normally consist of glass.

Production of a thin-film module

500 nm ZnO:Ga 100 nm i-ZnO 50 nm CdS 2,5 µm CulnS 2 1 µm
500 nm ZnO:Ga
100 nm i-ZnO
50 nm CdS
2,5 µm CulnS 2
1 µm Mo
glass substrate
Schematic design of a CIS-thin-film module

38

38

| HaWi

| HaWi

ttechnicalechnischedataDatenandunderrorsIrrtümerexcepted.vorbehalten.For the applicableDie gültigentermsAGBsandentnehmenconditions,Siepleasebittereferunsererto ouraktuellencurrentPreislisteprice listoderor ourunsererhomepageHomepagewww.HaWi-Energy.com,www.HaWi-Energy.comdate AprilStand2010.Februar 2009.

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ourunsererhomepageHomepagewww.HaWi-Energy.com,www.HaWi-Energy.comdate AprilStand2010.Februar 2009. HaWi | 39 HaWi | 39
ourunsererhomepageHomepagewww.HaWi-Energy.com,www.HaWi-Energy.comdate AprilStand2010.Februar 2009. HaWi | 39 HaWi | 39

HaWi | 39

HaWi | 39

ourunsererhomepageHomepagewww.HaWi-Energy.com,www.HaWi-Energy.comdate AprilStand2010.Februar 2009. HaWi | 39 HaWi | 39
ourunsererhomepageHomepagewww.HaWi-Energy.com,www.HaWi-Energy.comdate AprilStand2010.Februar 2009. HaWi | 39 HaWi | 39

Solar Modules

thin-Layer Modules

Advantages of thin-Film technology

More Yield for the Installed Output thin-Film modules have more advantageous absorp- tion behaviour, so that the output losses at times when there is weaker light and an unfavourable orientation towards the sun are normally lower than for their crystal- line counterparts. In addition to this, the temperature coefficients for thin-film modules with amorphous and micromorphous silicon are so low that the outputs also fall less with heat. And finally, thin-film modules normally only react to shadow in proportion to the share of shaded area, whereas with crystalline modules whole module parts can be affected, even when only a single cell is in the shade.

Higher Aesthetics and Solar Architecture Because of their homogeneous, dark appearance, thin- film modules “simply look better” in the opinion of many customers. In addition, thin-film modules can also be used in the façade and make a major contribution to solar architecture.

Ecology Due to the energy saving in production, the energy cost of thin-film modules is balanced out substantially earlier:

now after only a year or less.

Advice on the Use of thin-Film technology

1. Almost all manufacturers of thin-film modules demand

the electrical earthing of the negative pole of the direct current side, in order to prevent an effect that could be observed in thin-film modules a few years ago: Corrosion of the TCO Film tests showed that this effect was due to an electrical potential between the negative pole and the earth and was remedied by earthing the negative pole (in- cidentally, the positive pole is affected in the case of par- ticular crystalline technologies). As a result, galvanically separating inverters normally have to be used, which is to say transformer devices or transformerless devices with a negative-pole-neutral-line connection. On our behalf, our affiliated company EnWi-Etec GmbH has developed an earthing kit that can be used to earth the negative pole of the Dc side, regardless of the inverter manufacturer.

2. Due to the electrical characteristics of the tcO layer,

the vertical strips of the module can be made very thin in the case of many thin-film modules, which leads to a large number of individual “cells” per module and in the end to relatively high voltages due to their electrical serial connection. this makes the parallel electrical connection of modules more important in the designing of systems, especially when the permitted system voltage is limited to 800 V or 600 V.

We offer a large number of prefabricated technical solu- tions for this purpose, in order to achieve convenient parallel connections. this also includes the GcBs, for particular modules, developed on our behalf by our affili- ated company EnWi-Etec GmbH.

3. Undesired or accepted shade brings the risk of so- called back current. In the case of crystalline modules, back currents from 10 A to 20 A are normally tolerated, but thin-film modules are substantially more sensitive. this means that fewer strings can be connected in paral- lel, or that parallel strings should be specially protected against back-currents. We also always offer the right solution for this, such as in the form of a diode board - integrated in the GcB – that guarantees this protective function reliably and conveniently.

Now look at our range of thin-film modules on the following pages. For each of three technologies (amorphous silicon, micromorphous silicon and CIS technology) we offer products from two manufactur- ers. We are thus better prepared for the approaching trend than anybody else.

better prepared for the approaching trend than anybody else. Thin-film modules in the façade Thin-film in

Thin-film modules in the façade

Thin-film in

detail

Thin-film modules in the façade Thin-film in detail 40 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted.
Thin-film modules in the façade Thin-film in detail 40 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted.
Thin-film modules in the façade Thin-film in detail 40 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted.

Solar Modules

SCHOTT solar

ASI 100

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

90, 95, 97, 100, 103

Sorting tolerance

0 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

0.2 %/°c

Efficiency

6.2

% bis 7.1 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1108

mm x 1308 mm

thickness

50

mm

Weight

18

kg

Snow Load

245 kg/m²

Front Side

Glass

 

Rear Side

Sheet

 

connection Box

IP65 with bypass diode

cable

4.0

mm² solar cable

Plug

tyco

 

Technology

a-Si/a-Si tandem (amorphous silicon)

thin-film

a-Si/a-Si tandem (amorphous silicon) thin-film Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and

Detail view

tandem (amorphous silicon) thin-film Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug Electrical

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

Electrical Module Data

ASI 90

ASI 95

ASI 97

ASI 100

ASI 103

Maximum Power (P max )

≥ 90 Wp

≥ 95 Wp

≥ 97 Wp

≥ 100 Wp

≥ 103 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

17.3

V

17.4

V

17.4

V

17.5

V

17.6

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

5.21

A

5.47

A

5.57

A

5.71

A

5.86

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

23.4

V

23.6

V

23.7

V

23.8

V

23.9

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

6.60

A

6.69

A

6.72

A

6.79

A

6.91

A

Item Number

10006320

10006421

10008273 10007360

10008281

Safety

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“;

Manufacturers with over 50 years of experience, certified to ISO 9001. Product “made in Germany“; IEc 61646 certified, IEc 61730 certified, awarded electrical protection class II, cE mark

Back current resistance (I R ): 15 A Product guarantee 5 years, service guarantee 10 years (90 %), 25 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SCHOTT solar ASI 100 ScHOtt ASI

SCHOTT solar

ASI 100

upon request and free of charge. SCHOTT solar ASI 100 ScHOtt ASI 100 the SCHOTT ASI

ScHOtt ASI 100

the SCHOTT ASI module impresses most of all with the proven quality of

the renowned manufacturer and with above-average yields over the years.

A main advantage of this module lies in the nature of the amorphous silicon

that has been used: the output-temperature coefficient of - 0.2 %/°c has yet to be equalled and ensures a substantial advantage in yield against other technologies, especially at high temperatures. In addition, with

amorphous silicon the so-called “annealing effect” leads to a regeneration

of power efficiency at hot temperatures giving an additional yield during

summer. With a low open circuit voltage of about 24 V and a back-current resistance of 15 A, this module is suitable for all normal system configura- tions and allows the connection of long strings.

With its generous dimensions and a weight of only 18 kg, this module en- sures speedy, efficient and simple installation. During the first few months, the initial output of the ScHOtt ASI is about 18 % above the output stated by the manufacturer, but the system is set up according to the rated out- put. this leads to free additional output in the first few weeks, unless the inverter cuts off the output peaks, due to excessive irradiation.

cuts off the output peaks, due to excessive irradiation. Your advantages at a glance: • high

Your advantages at a glance:

high energy output

• simple and low-cost installation

• double of the required standard

• high performance output

• long-term reliability “Made in

Germany”

• long-term stability of encapsulation

in Germany” • long-term stability of encapsulation 42 | HaWi technical data and errors excepted. For

SUNFILM

SN2

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150

Output tolerance

± 5 %

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.29 %/°c

Efficiency

7.0

% to 8.4 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1684

mm x 1056 mm

thickness

8.4

mm

Weight

37 kg

Snow Load

245 kg/m 2

Front Side

float glass

Rear Side

tempered glass

connection Box

Multicontact, PV-JB-Lc-2, IP 65, with bypass diode

cable

Multicontact, 2.5 mm²

Plug

Mc4

Technology

silicon tandem, a combination of amorphous (a-Si) and crystalline silicon (µc-Si)

thin-film

(a-Si) and crystalline silicon (µc-Si) thin-film Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and

Detail view

and crystalline silicon (µc-Si) thin-film Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

Electrical Module Data

SN2-125

SN2-130

SN2-135

SN2-140

SN2-145

SN2-150

Maximum Power (P max )

125 Wp

130.0 Wp

135.0 Wp

140 Wp

145 Wp

150 Wp

Voltage at max. power point (U mpp )

99.0

V

100.0

V

101.0

V

103.0

V

103.0

V

104.0

V

current at max. power point (I mpp )

1.26

A

1.29

A

1.33

A

1.37

A

1.40

A

1.44

A

Open circuit Voltage (U oc )

130.0 V

131.0

V

131.0

V

132.0

V

132.0

V

133.0

V

Short circuit current (I sc )

1.55

A

1.59

A

1.62

A

1.66

A

1.70

A

1.73

A

Item Number

10006872

10007551 10006873

10007552

10007554 10009005

Safety

IEc 61646 certified, IEc 61730 certified, cE certified, awarded electrical protection class II

Back current resistance (I R ): 5 A Product guarantee 2 years, service guarantee 10 years (90 %), 20 years (80 %)

For the current prices, please refer to our price-list. Of course for every solar module, we can always send you the appropriate technical data sheet of HaWi Energietechnik AG and any other information upon request and free of charge.

and any other information upon request and free of charge. SUNFILM SN2 SUNFILM SN2 Sunfilm AG,

SUNFILM

SN2

information upon request and free of charge. SUNFILM SN2 SUNFILM SN2 Sunfilm AG, Großröhrsdorf, and Sontor

SUNFILM SN2

Sunfilm AG, Großröhrsdorf, and Sontor GmbH, Bitterfeld-Wolfen, merged in July 2009 to become one of the world’s biggest suppliers of silicon- based tandem thin-film modules. the new company trades under the name Sunfilm AG. As the competition in the photovoltaic industry intensi- fies around the world, Sunfilm will thereby have the appropriate size and expertise to profit substantially from the growth market in thin-film solar modules. Sunfilm will further develop the thin-film technology and thus reduce the cost of producing solar energy in the medium term.

Module characteristics

the filmless and frameless double-glass construction of SUNFILM SN2 allows use in even difficult environments. together with the HaWi lam- inate-installation system developed by us for frameless, linear arranged modules this gives a long-lasting, valuable and extremely attractive- looking system that is practically unique. the practical dimensions of 1.684 mm x 1.056 mm and a efficiency of up to 8.4 % ensure efficient installation and consistently high yields. Despite the relatively high open circuit voltage, 5 modules can be connected in series before parallel con- nection is used. Only where there are more than 5 parallel strings are the modules protected by phase fuses against possible back currents. During the first 3 months the initial output can be 15 % higher than the stated rated output.

output can be 15 % higher than the stated rated output. Solar Modules Your advantages at
Solar Modules
Solar Modules

Your advantages at a glance:

• efficiency up to 8.4 %

• IEC certified

• lower losses caused by shade, due to crossways construction

• long-term strength due to special encapsulation and double-glass construction

• can be used with high snow loads when combined with HaWi installa- tion system

• less building-up of snow and dirt due to frameless construction

• tested safe according with 3000 V insulation testing

• tested safe according with 3000 V insulation testing 44 | HaWi technical data and errors

Solar Modules

Q-Cells

SL1-F

Output

Rated output classes in Wp

70, 75, 80, 85, 90

Output tolerance

+ 5 W / – 0 W

System Voltage

1000

V

temperature coefficient

– 0.38 %/°c

Efficiency

9.2 % to 11.8 %

Mechanical Module Data

Dimensions

1196

mm x 636 mm

thickness

36 mm

Weight

14.5 kg

Snow Load

550 kg/m²

Front Side

4

mm tempered low iron glass

Rear Side

3

mm float glass

connection Box

Mc, IP65, with bypass diode

cable

Multicontact, 2.5 mm²

Plug

Mc4

Technology

cI(G)S [cu(In,Ga)Se 2 ]

thin-film

Electrical Module Data

SL1-70F

SL1-75F

2 ] thin-film Electrical Module Data SL1-70F SL1-75F Detail view View of rear side: connection box,

Detail view

thin-film Electrical Module Data SL1-70F SL1-75F Detail view View of rear side: connection box, cable and

View of rear side: connection box, cable and plug

SL1-80F