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Propulsió

Curs 2019-2020

EXERCISE 1

Boeing 707 was an airliner of the end of the 50’s, powered by 4 Pratt & Whitney JT3C-
7 turbojets with the following features operating at sea level static conditions:
- Overall pressure ratio 𝜋 12.
- Turbine inlet temperature 𝑇 1143 K.
- Thrust 𝐹 52000 N.

0 2 3 4 5 9

Using the (assumed) figures of the table below, the following is requested:
1. Mass airflow 𝑚 and the fuel consumption 𝑚 .
Considering a flight Mach number 𝑀 0.86 at an altitude of 11000 m ISA, and
assuming the same compressor pressure ratio 𝜋 and turbine pressure ratio 𝜋 of the
operation at sea level, find:
2. The final combustion temperature 𝑇 and the specific fuel consumption.

Efficiencies:

𝜋 𝜂 𝜋 𝜂 𝜂 𝜂 𝜋
0.95 0.8 0.9 0.97 0.82 0.99 0.98

Assume 𝛾 1.4 and 𝛾 1.33, with 𝑅 287 J/(kg K)

ISA equations from S/L up to 11 km:


.
𝑇
𝑇 288.15 0.0065ℎ 𝑝 101325
288.15
𝑇 in K, ℎ in m and 𝑝 in Pa.

1
Propulsió
Curs 2019-2020
Solution
1. Mass airflow at sea level ISA static operation.
Compute in the following sequence

𝜋 1
𝑇 𝑇 1 2.2924𝑇 660.6 K
𝜂
𝑚 𝑐 𝑇 𝑐 𝑇
𝐸𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟 → 𝑓 0.0163
𝑚 𝜂 ℎ 𝑐 𝑇
1 1 𝑐
𝐵𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒 → 𝑇 𝑇 𝑇 𝑇 821.6 K
𝜂 1 𝑓𝑐

𝑇𝑡5 1 𝜏
𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑠 → 𝜏 0.7188 → 𝜋 1 0.1840
𝑇𝑡4 𝜂𝑡
𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝
𝐺𝑙𝑜𝑏𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 → 1∙𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 1.8503
𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝

2 𝑝 𝛾𝑡 1 𝛾𝑡
𝐸𝑥𝑖𝑡 𝑀𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝑛𝑜. 𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑 𝑛𝑜𝑧𝑧𝑙𝑒 → 𝑀 1 0.9998
𝛾 1 𝑝

Because the nozzle is convergent and 𝑀 1, the nozzle is certainly matched, this is
𝑝 𝑝
Otherwise, the maximum possible value (for convergent nozzle) 𝑀 1 should have been taken.
𝑇
𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 𝑇 → 𝑇 𝑇 → 𝑇 705.2 K
𝛾𝑡 1
1 𝑀
2
𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 → 𝑢 𝑀 𝛾 𝑅𝑇 518.8 ms
By direct substitution in the thrust equation of the above results one gets
𝐹
𝐹 𝑚 1 𝑓 𝑢 𝑚𝑢 𝐴 𝑝 𝑝 → 𝑚 98.63 kgs
1 𝑓 𝑢
𝑚 𝑚𝑓 1.6083 kgs
2. Specific fuel consumption at cruise operation assuming the same values of 𝜏 and 𝜏 .
𝑐 𝑇 𝑐 𝑇 1 𝑐 1 𝑇
𝑓 𝜏 1 𝜃 𝜏 1
𝜂 ℎ 𝑐 𝑇 𝜂 𝑐 1 𝑓 𝑇
By iteration one gets 𝑓 0.0141 and 𝑇𝑡4 988.7 𝐾, and proceeding as before:
𝑝
𝑇 710.6 K 2.9986 𝑀 1 𝑇 610.0 K 𝑝 1.6204𝑝
𝑝
𝐹 𝑅𝑇 𝑝 1
1 𝑓 𝑢 𝑢 1 𝑓 1 376.4 ms
𝑚 𝑢 𝑝
𝑚 𝑓 0.0141
𝑐 3.7385 10 kg s N 1.3203 h
𝐹 𝐹 376.4
𝑚

2
Propulsió
Curs 2019-2020
Other results
(Not requested in the statement)
From the data and results obtained in question 1, the exit area is obtained:
𝑚 1 𝑓 𝑅 𝑇
𝐴 𝑚 1 𝑓 0.3860 m
𝜌𝑢 𝑝 𝑚 𝑀 ,𝛾
Known this area, the air mass flow for question 2 and the thrust are also found, giving
𝜌 𝑢 𝐴 1 𝑝 𝐴
𝑚 𝑚 𝑀 ,𝛾 38.47 kg s
1 𝑓 1 𝑓 𝑅𝑇
𝐹
𝐹 𝑚 38.47 ∙ 376.4 14483 N
𝑚