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2 visualizzazioni10 pagineMODELING OF THE CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTED T-STUBS SUBJECTED TO VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING

CN031 - CTA 2001 - salerno-trento

© © All Rights Reserved

MODELING OF THE CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTED T-STUBS SUBJECTED TO VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING

© All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

2 visualizzazioni10 pagineCN031 - CTA 2001 - salerno-trento

MODELING OF THE CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTED T-STUBS SUBJECTED TO VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

GIORNATE ITALIANE DELLA COSTRUZIONE IN ACCIAIO

Isola di San Giorgio Maggiore – Venezia: 26 – 27 – 28 Settembre 2001

SUBJECTED TO VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING

BULLONATI SOGGETTI A STORIE DI CARICO AD AMPIEZZA VARIABILE

1

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica Strutturale, Università degli Studi di Trento

2

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Università di Salerno

ABSTRACT

The present work deals with the analysis of the low-cycle fracture behaviour of semi-rigid steel connections. In order to investigate

the failure mechanism of connections, the material was characterised from a mechanical and microstructural standpoint. A procedure

for predicting the cycle behaviour of bolted T-stubs starting from the knowledge of their geometrical and mechanical properties has

been proposed. Hence, 3-D non-linear finite element analyses were carried out in order to tune model material parameters and

additional analyses were performed to examine details able to reduce loading-induced toughness demands. Analyses have shown

that fracture driving force demands quantified in terms of crack tip opening displacement, are reduced by using fillet welds matching

the end plate material by increasing the yield-to-ultimate strength ratio and finally, by reducing welding-induced residual

stresses.

SOMMARIO

Nel seguente lavoro si presentano le analisi condotte sul comportamento a frattura oligociclica di connessioni semirigide in acciaio.

Al fine di investigare il meccanismo di frattura delle connessioni, il materiale è stato caratterizzato sia da un punto di vista meccanico

sia microstrutturale. E’ stata quindi proposta una procedura semianalitica capace di predire il comportamento ciclico di elementi T-

stub partendo dalla conoscenza delle loro caratteristiche geometriche e meccaniche. Successivamente, sono state effettuate analisi 3-

D ad elementi finiti in campo non-lineare al fine di calibrare i parametri meccanici del materiale da impiegare nei modelli ad elementi

finiti. Quindi, sono state condotte ulteriori analisi per determinare i dettagli costruttivi capaci di ridurre la richiesta di resistenza alla

frattura indotta dai carichi. Si è riscontrato come la richiesta di resistenza alla frattura, espressa in termini di crack tip opening

displacement, è ridotta impiegando metallo di saldatura con proprietà meccaniche simili a quelle del metallo base, aumentando il

rapporto tra la resistenza allo snervamento e quella ultima ed infine, riducendo le tensioni residue indotte dal processo

di saldatura.

1. INTRODUCTION

In high seismic risk areas like California and Japan, steel-framed buildings have been employed

frequently because of their excellent performances in terms of strength and ductility. Nonetheless, a

large number of severe brittle cracks of welded beam-to-column connections entirely unexpected

occurred in the recent Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes [Bertero & al. (1994);

Kuwamura (1998)]. The majority of the thoroughly investigations have established that premature

cracking in welded steel connections resulted from a combination of factors, such as high strain

demands coupled with large inherent flaws and stress concentrations, overreliance on low-

toughness materials, deficient field welding and insufficient quality control.

In the framework of a research programme devoted to the analysis of semi-rigid beam-to-column

connections, a series of tests on substructures, subassemblages, full-scale connections and

connection components subjected both to monotonic and cyclic displacement regime has been

carried out [Deng et al. (2000); Faella et al. (1998, 1999, 2000)]. The study has been limited to one

basic connection typology representative of the common European design practice, viz. bolted

extended end plate connections with overmatching fillet welds. However, different design

parameters, among which the end plate thickness and the bolt diameter were addressed.

In the following section, the main experimental results regarding connection components (ITS:

isolated Tee stubs) subjected to variable amplitude loading are presented. They have been

performed both to investigate the deterioration mechanism exhibited by the specimens and to obtain

parameters relevant to the their modelling, both semi-analytical and numerical.

The satisfactory results obtained through the component method in predicting the rotational

behaviour of bolted connections have suggested the possibility of extending this approach to the

case of connections under cyclic loads. With reference to this topic, the existing mechanical models

aimed at the prediction of the cyclic behaviour of beam-to-column joints are limited by the gap of

knowledge regarding the degradation of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation capacity of each

joint component as the number of cycles increases. For this reason, a preliminary experimental and

theoretical analysis has been developed aiming at the modelling of the most important component

(bolted T-stubs) of bolted connections under cyclic loads including the degradation laws due to low

cycle fatigue. On the basis of this analysis, a procedure for predicting the cycle behaviour of bolted

T-stubs starting from the knowledge of their geometrical and mechanical properties has been

proposed [Faella et al. (1999,2000)] and is herein applied to model specimens subjected to variable

amplitude cyclic loading.

Finally, inelastic finite element (FE) analyses, carried out by means of the ABAQUS 5.8 code

[Hibbit, et al (1998)] are discussed.

2. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

The joints under investigation are isolated bolted T-stubs [Deng et al. (2000)]. In detail, an exterior

joint connecting an IPE beam with an HE external column within a plane frame is considered. The

experimental programme is based on a reduction method, viz. an approach that relies upon the

assembling of the overall joint response from component part contributions. Along this line, ITS

connections (Figure 1a) and CJ (complete joint) connections (Figure 1b) have been tested.

Dimension in mm

180

90

75

1350

75

300

IPE 300

220

105 180

(a) (b)

Figure 1: Specimen: (a) isolated T-stub; (b) complete Figure 2: Fracture of an end plate in an

joint isolated T-stub

Both monotonic and variable amplitude alternate displacement tests have been carried out in

accordance with the ECCS recommendations (1986). ITS specimens subjected to monotonic

displacements are characterized with a four plastic hinges (Mode 1) failure according to Eurocode 3

[CEN, (2000)]. Conversely in the cyclic displacement regime, besides to stiffness degradation,

strength deterioration and pinching effects, low-cycle fatigue failure happened. In detail, owing to

unavoidable imperfections and defects, a phase encompassing the initiation and the stable growth of

microcracks at the weld toe took place. Then, a sudden propagation of the crack in a brittle fracture

mode followed, characterized with a low-cycle fatigue collapse as illustrated in Figure 2. A series of

laboratory tests has been carried out to characterize the end plate material in its different

microstructural states. Indeed, owing to the filler metal and the uneven temperature distribution, a

welded joint is a compound of three different metallurgical regions: the fusion zone, the heat-

affected zone (HAZ), and the unaffected base metal. The HAZ is the area adjacent to the fusion

zone where the material has undergone a thermal cycle that alters the microstructure of the base

material, though it is too low to determine fusion. In addition, uniaxial tension tests have been

conducted on samples extracted from end plates and welds. The relevant results are collected in

Table 1. From this table one may observe that fillet weld joints exploit by design an overstrength

condition that assures elastic behaviour for the weld metal and plastic deformation for the base

metal.

Table 1: Mechanical properties of isolated T-stubs and complete joints

t, φ εy εu εu ε y fy fu fu/fy

Component Material

(mm) (%) (%) (MPa) (Mpa)

TC-2 End Plate 12 0.15 28.60 191 293 448 1.53

Weld 5.4 0.20 8.08 40 521 640 1.23

TC-3 End Plate 18 0.15 22.22 148 316 450 1.42

Weld 5.4 0.21 7.20 34 542 646 1.19

Bolt - 20 0.43 4.5 10 888 947 1.07

Successively, cyclic tests have been carried out to characterize material properties under cyclic

loading. To this scope, the parameters exploited in the evolution law of the non-linear

isotropic/kinematic hardening model proposed in Lemaitre & Chaboche (1990) and adopted in the

ABAQUS 5.8 code [Hibbit, et al (1998)] have been evaluated. The identification of the

characteristic coefficients is obtained from stabilized hysteresis loops. More specifically, three tests

were carried out relevant to three total deformation levels on coupon specimens extracted from

connections.

A semi-analytical model for predicting the cyclic behaviour of bolted T-stubs starting from the

knowledge of their geometrical and mechanical properties has been recently proposed [Faella et. al,

(1999, 2000)]. In this Section, a brief description of the model is provided and, successively, the

degree of accuracy of the model is investigated by comparing the results coming from its

application to the specimens previously described with the experimental evidence.

The model is based on a preliminary prediction of the monotonic force-displacement curve. Such

prediction can be developed by means of a theoretical approach [Piluso et al., (2001a, 2001b)]. As

soon as the monotonic behaviour has been predicted, the cyclic behaviour of bolted T-stubs can be

modelled provided that the rules for strength and stiffness degradation and for the pinching of the

hysteresis loops are available. In addition, a conventional criterion for identifying the collapse

condition is required. The model can be considered semi-analytical, because the monotonic

envelope is theoretically predicted; conversely, degradation rules have been directly derived from

experimental tests concerning the cyclic behaviour of bolted T-stubs under constant amplitude

loading. Such degradation rules are extended to the case of variable amplitude loading.

With reference to constant amplitude tests, regarding the collapse criterion, it is conventionally

assumed that failure occurs in any cycle when the energy dissipated by the cycle is less than or

equal to 50% of the energy dissipated by the first cycle. The energy cumulated up to failure can be

related to the plastic displacement amplitude. On the basis of the results coming from an

experimental program devoted to the analysis of the ultimate behaviour of bolted T-stubs under

constant amplitude cyclic loading, the following relationship has been proposed:

tfδp (1)

b

E cc

= a

2

E0 2Cm

where Ecc is the energy cumulated up to conventional failure, E 0 is the energy absorbed under

monotonic loading conditions up to a plastic displacement amplitude δ p , t f is the flange thickness

of the T-stub, C is a constant depending on material properties and m is the distance between the

bolt axis and the section corresponding to the flange-to-web connection where plastic hinge

develops. The coefficients a and b have been derived by means of a regression analysis providing,

for welded T-elements, the values 0.4848 and 1.1173, respectively, with a correlation coefficient

equal to 0.73. The term in bracket represents the ratio between the plastic displacement amplitude

of the cycles and the theoretical value of the ultimate plastic displacement for type-1 mechanism

(flange yielding) of Eurocode 3 [CEN, (2000)].

Eq. (1) allows to estimate the energy cumulated up to conventional failure provide that the

monotonic force versus displacement curve has been properly predicted.

It has been observed from experimental results [Faella et al., (1999)] that, under constant amplitude

loading, the point corresponding to the load inversion remains practically unchanged during the

loading process. These points (A and D in Fig. 3) can be identified starting from the maximum load

achieved in the first cycle and by the initial stiffness. Therefore, the unloading branch is strictly

identified for all the cycles, provided that the strength degradation law is known.

F

F max B

Fy

C

Kο Kο

1 K1 1

δy 1 α

A

α D δ max

δ

Fy

Fmax

Figure 3: Model for constant amplitude cyclic loading

On the basis of a regression analysis of the experimental results, for each cycle the load degradation

has been related to the corresponding cumulated energy and displacement amplitude. The following

relationship has been obtained:

a2

δ max E ci 3

a (2)

Fi

= 1 − a1

2δ E

Fmax y cc

where E ci is the energy cumulated up to the i-th cycle and δ max is the displacement amplitude (Fig.

3). The coefficients a1, a2 and a3 are given in Table 2 for bolted T-stubs made of both rolled T-

elements and T-elements composed by welding.

Rolled T-elements Welded T-elements Rolled T-elements Welded T-elements

a1 0.086 0.345 b1 0.693 0.849

a2 0.716 0.158 b2 0.126 0.053

a3 3.029 3.595 b3 0.099 0.137

The displacement δ y corresponds to the limit of the elastic range and it is equal to the ratio Fy K 0

between the force corresponding to first yielding and the initial stiffness without bolt preloading

which is exhibited in the experimental curve during unloading. Eq.(1) is characterised by a

coefficient of correlation equal to 0.86 for rolled specimens and 0.96 for welded specimens.

The stiffness degradation and the pinching phenomenon are promoted by the detachment of the

flanges at the bolt axis due to the plastic flexural and extensional deformation of the bolts. The

reloading branch can be approximated by means of two straight lines with a different slope (Fig. 3).

The point C, corresponding to the intersection of the two straight lines, is approximately lined up

with the point A which corresponds to the inversion of the load sign and with the point B (Fig. 3).

Therefore, the slope of the straight line connecting the above mentioned points (A, B and C) can be

assumed equal to:

Fmax (3)

tgα =

F

δ max − 2 max

K0

In addition, in order to completely describe the pinching phenomenon, the knowledge of the

stiffness K i of the first part of the reloading branch is necessary (Fig. 3). On the basis of a

regression analysis of the experimental results, the following relationship has been derived [Faella

et al. (2000)]:

b2

δ max Eic 3

b (4)

Ki

= 1 − b1

2δ E

K0 y cc

where the coefficients b 1, b2 and b3 are given in Table 2.

It is useful to observe that 2δ y is the threshold amplitude of δ beyond which degradation

phenomena begin (Fig. 3). Eq.(4) is characterised by a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.86 for

rolled specimens and 0.81 for we lded specimens.

As a conclusion, the modelling of the cyclic behaviour of bolted T-stubs under constant amplitude

loading requires the following steps:

• prediction of the monotonic force-displacement curve [Piluso et al. (2001a; 2001b)];

• computation of the energy E 0 dissipated under monotonic conditions up to the displacement

δ max ;

• estimation, through Eq. (1), of the energy dissipation capacity under cyclic action for the

imposed displacement amplitude δ max ;

• computation of the force Fmax corresponding on the monotonic F − δ curve to the

displacement amplitude δ max of the imposed cyclic action;

• definition of the strength degradation rule by means of Eq. (2);

• definition of the stiffness degradation rule and of the pinching phenomenon by means of

Eq.(4) and of the parameter α given by Eq.(3).

Regarding the application of the semi-analytical model to variable amplitude tests, the following

rules have to be applied:

• for each displacement amplitude δ i the load level Fmax to be adopted in Eq. (2) is assumed

to be coincident with the load level corresponding to δ i in the predicted monotonic F − δ

curve;

• the load level Fi corresponding to the first cycle with amplitude δ i and to the following

ones, having the same amplitude, is computed considering in Eq. (2) the energy dissipated

by all the cycles up to the i-th cycle E ci and by assuming Ecc equal to the cumulated energy

to conventional failure (for constant amplitude cyclic loading) corresponding to the

displacement amplitude δ i ;

• the value of the parameter α , required for simulating the pinching of the group of hysteresis

loops having amplitude δ i , is still computed by means of Eq. (3) where Fmax is computed

according to the first step above and δ max = δ i ;

• the initial stiffness of the reloading branch K i is still computed by means of Eq. (4) where

δ max = δ i is assumed; in addition, E ci is the energy dissipated by all the cycles up to the i-th

cycle and Ecc is equal to the cumulated energy to conventional failure (for constant

amplitude cyclic loading) corresponding to the displacement amplitude δ i .

In order to verify the reliability of the proposed model, the comparison with the experimental

results has been performed. From the qualitative point of view, Figures 4 and 5 show for TC2 and

TC3 specimens, respectively, the degree of accuracy of the model in predicting the cyclic

behaviour.

400

300

200

100

Force (kN)

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-100

-200

-400

Displacement (mm)

Figure 4: Comparison between model and experimental results for specimen TC2

600

400

200

Force (kN)

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-200

-600

Displacement (mm)

Figure 5: Comparison between model and experimental results for specimen TC3

However, the reliability of the model can be better verified by means of a comparison in terms of

energy dissipation. In Fig. 6, the results of this comparison are shown. It can be observed that, for

the two specimens, the scatters between the experimental values of the energy dissipation and the

ones predicted by means of the proposed model, are not particularly significant and always on the

safe side.

1 Specimen ITS TC2 1 Specimen ITS TC3

E ci Eci

0.9 Semi-analytical model 0.9 Semi-analytical model

E cc Experimental Ecc Experimental

0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

cycle number cycle number

Figure 6: Comparison between experimental results and predictions based on the model

First of all, a validation of the C and γ values

performed. Thereby, a three-dimensional (3D) FE model of coupon specimens (Figure 7a) has been

analysed. One of the three uniaxial cyclic tests carried out with different strain ranges is illustrated

in Figure 7b with numerical simulation using C = 49500 MPa and γ= 350.

The analyses account for material non-linearities through classical metal plasticity based on the Von

Mises yield criterion. Isotropic hardening is assumed for monotonic analyses, whereas to describe

the hysteretic behaviour of steel subjected to cyclic loading the non-linear kinematic hardening

model is exploited. Geometric non-linearities are accounted for through a small strain, large

displacement formulation (NLGEOM option of the ABAQUS code). The elastic modulus and the

Poisson’s ratio were assumed as E=210.000 and ν=0.3, respectively. As far as welding-induced

residual stresses are concerned, an idealised stress magnitude/distribution has been introduced in the

models.

600

(a)

(c)

450

BOLT WELD

300

T R U E S TR E S S (M P a)

150

-150

INTERFACE

-300

(b)

-450

Exp erim ent

Simu latio n

-600

-0.02 5 -0.02 -0.01 5 -0.01 -0.00 5 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025

N A T U R A L S T R A IN

(a) (b)

Figure 7: (a) 3D FE model of a coupon; (b) Experimental Figure 8: (a) 2D FE model of isolated

and simulated loops at a total deformation of ± 2% T-stub; (b) details of the shank-hole

contact zone

2D models endowed with plane stress elements were adopted to reduce the computational expense.

2D models exploited FE layers to reproduce the end plate and an additional FE layers to simulate

the bolt shank. The prestressing condition was introduced in the model imposing a stretching of the

shank, which ensued a final average shank stretch equal to 0.065 mm, like the one detected during

testing. A crack endowed with an initial depth of 0.26 mm (small-to-moderate root defect) was

modelled at the weld toe to investigate its effect on the response. The finite element model relevant

to the ITS joints is represented in Figure 8a. Specimen symmetry permits that only one half of the

specimen is modelled. The initial crack faces and crack propagation path lie parallel to the

symmetry axis. Moreover, different mechanical properties are assigned to the base metal, the weld

metal and the HAZ. Two-noded gap contact elements are located below the end plate surface to

satisfy the unilateral contact condition imposed by the rigid counter beam. Thereby, the contact

between the shank and the end plate is modelled by using contact surfaces whilst the contact

between the end plate and the nut is reproduced with gap elements as highlighted in Figure 8b.

For the sake of brevity hereinafter, only ITS endowed with an end plate thickness of 18 mm, see

Table 1, are analysed. The numerical simulation of the TC-3 isolated joint relevant to the cyclic

regime with and without the presence of the crack are reported in Figure 9. In detail, the prediction

of the model that embodies the crack is able to reproduce the strength deterioration with respect to

the response without the crack. Moreover, the model can simulate the severe strain-softening

phenomenon owing to the crack propagation through the end plate thickness.

In order to reduce the computational effort, parametric analyses of ITS connections were performed

through the onset of cracking method. Thereby, focused meshes are set to induce the singularity at

the crack tip (Figure 10a) and the crack propagation is not traced. A detail of the mesh with a

“spider web” configuration is reported in Figure 10b where the inner-most ring of elements are

degenerated to triangles.

800

(b)

600

(a)

400

R EAC TIO N FO R C E (kN )

BOLT

200 WELD BEAD

CRACK

0

-2 0 0

-4 0 0 INTERFACE

-6 0 0 S im ulation w /o cra ck

S im ulation w ith crack

(b)

-8 0 0

0 1 2 3 4

D ISPLAC EM EN T (m m )

Figure 9: Predicted force versus displacement of TC- Figure 10: (a) 2D FE model of isolated T-

3 specimen stub; (b) details of the “spider web” mesh

FE analyses are relevant to monotonic loading conditions only. It is assumed indeed, that

conclusions drawn from these results are qualitatively applicable to cyclic condition. The

parametric analyses conducted hereinafter regard some design parameters which influence the

fracture resistance of steel bolted extended plate connections. In detail, the effects of the weld-to-

base metal yield strength ratio, the end plate yield-to-ultimate strength ratio and the residual stress

influence are determined. Toughness demands are quantified in the analyses by means of the CTOD

index, that represents the tearing at the crack tip. Another index adopted in this study to evaluate the

performances of different analysis configurations is the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) index,

defined as the equivalent plastic strain and can be considered as a measure of the local strain

demand.

Analyses with different weld matching conditions were carried out to investigate the joint response

in term of toughness demand. In detail, two models have been analysed: the first one with

overmatching welds which corresponds to the use of the mechanical properties reported in Table 1;

the second one with matching welds in which the mechanical properties of the welds are rendered

equal to those of the end plate material. The above-mentioned conditions are designated ITS3-1 and

ITS3-2, respectively. The reaction force vs. the applied displacement is reported in Figure 11a

where one may notice that the overall response is virtually identical in both conditions. However,

differently from the overall behaviour, the corresponding CTOD demands are similar till a total

displacement of 0.4 mm but quite dissimilar for larger displacements (Figure 11b). For the joint

configuration under exam, the matching weld condition, viz. ITS3-2, is the most beneficial in terms

of fracture toughness demand. This behaviour can be explained through Figure 12, where the

equivalent plastic strains (PEEQ) are shown. During the loading process, the yielded material in the

weld metal corresponding to the ITS3-2 condition shields the crack tip from a stress increase. The

aforementioned effect is less marked in the overmatching weld condition.

The plastic hinge region in a steel structure decreases as the yield-to-ultimate strength ratio

η, defined as f y f u , increases. Indeed, a smaller yielded region imposes greater inelastic strain

demands to achieve a specified plastic deformation. Since the production of American structural

steel has resulted in steel with much higher ratios, recently published specifications from AISC

(1997) recognized this effect limiting the yield-to-ultimate strength ratio to 0.85. To study the yield-

to-ultimate strength ratio effect on the joint configuration under exam, two strength ratios

he

end plate material have been considered. In detail, η has been chosen to be 0.60 and 0.90 and the

corresponding specimens are designated ITS3-60 and ITS3-90, respectively. The condition in which

η tends to one, viz. ITS3-90, is the most favourable for this connection.

7 00 0.6

(a ) (b)

6 00

R E A C T IO N F O R C E ( kN )

5 00

0.4

C TO D (m m )

4 00

3 00

0.2

2 00

1 00

IT S 3 -1 IT S 3 -1

IT S 3 -2 IT S 3 -2

0 0

0 0 .5 1 1 .5 2 2 .5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

D IS P L A C E M E N T (m m ) D IS P L A C E M E N T (m m )

Figure 11: Predicted force and CTOD versus displacement of TM-3 specimens with overmatching

(ITS3-1) and matching (ITS3-2) welds

Figure 12: Equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) distribution of TM-3: (a) overmatching weld (ITS3-1);

(b) matching weld (ITS3-2)

Rapid uneven heat removal in welded connections creates large welding-induced residual stresses

that can influence the behaviour in several ways. The impact of residual stresses on fracture

toughness demand has been computed considering an overmatching weld. Results show clearly that

the presence of residual stresses increases the toughness demand.

5. CONCLUSIONS

Test results on isolated T-stubs have shown that the global behaviour of the specimens under

investigation is governed by the material endowed with the lowest strength, viz. the base metal, in

which yielding occurs, effectively. Indeed, the weld metal persists in the elastic regime whilst the

contiguous zones are weakened owing to the sharp thermal treatments and to structural as well as

shape discontinuities.

The modelling of the cyclic response of isolated T-stubs by means of a semi-analytical approach

has been presented and the corresponding degree of accuracy has been investigated in terms of

energy dissipation capacity.

Two-dimensional finite element models endowed with a debonding algorithm for mode I crack

growth permit both the state of stress and strain in a monotonic and in a cyclic loading regime to be

determined, including stiffness degradation, strength deterioration and pinching phenomena.

Finally, a number of parametric analyses has been performed by considering fractures initiating

from weld-root defects. Conclusions drawn from these analyses indicate that fracture driving force

demands are reduced by: i) using fillet welds matching the end plate material; ii) increasing the

yield-to-ultimate strength ratio, which however limits the plastic regions; and finally, reducing

welding-induced residual stresses.

6. REFERENCES

AISC (1997). Shape Material – ASTM A572 Gr. 50 with Special Requirements. Tech. Bull. 3. Chicago.

Bertero V.V., Anderson J.C., and Krawinkler H. (1994). Performance of Steel Building Structures During the

Northridge Earthquake. Rep. No. UCB/EERC-94/04. University of California, Berkeley, California.

CEN (2000). prEN 1993-1-8: Design of Steel Structures. Part 1-8: Design of Joints, European Committee for

Standardisation.

Deng, C-G., Bursi, O.S. and Zandonini, R."A Hysteretic Connection Element and Its Applications", Computers &

Structures, 78(1-3), 2000, 93-110.

ECCS (1986). Recommended Testing Procedure for Assessing the Behaviour of Structural Steel Elements under Cyclic

Loads. ECCS Publication 45.

Faella, C., Piluso, V. and Rizzano, G. (1998). Cyclic Behaviour of Bolted Joint Components, Journal of Constructional

Steel Research, Vol. 46, No. 1-3, paper number 129, Elsevier.

Faella, C., Piluso, V. and Rizzano, G. (1999). Modelling of the Cyclic Behaviour of Bolted Tee-Stubs, Fourth

International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures, Espoo, Finland.

Faella, C., Piluso, V. and Rizzano, G. (2000). Cyclic Behaviour of Bolted T-stubs: Experimental Analysis and

Modelling, Third International Conference on Behaviour of Steel Structures in Seismic Areas, STESSA 2000,

Montreal, Canada, 21-24 August.

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen Inc (1998). ABAQUS - User’s Manual, Version 5.8. Vol. 1-3.

Kuwamura H. (1998). Fracture of Steel During an Earthquake: State of the Art in Japan. Engineering Structures 20:4-6,

310-322.

Lemaitre J. and Chaboche J.-L. (1990). Mechanics of Solid Materials, Cambridge, U. Press.

Piluso, V., Faella, C. and Rizzano G. (2001). Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted T-stubs – I. Theoretical Model, Journal of

Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol.127, No.6, June, pp.686-693.

Piluso, V., Faella, C. and Rizzano G. (2001). Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted T-stubs – II. Experimental Analysis,

Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol.127, No.6, June, pp.694-704.