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# ‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ‬

## REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN-I

(CE 370)

LECTURE #7
Flexural Behavior of RC Beams at Ultimate Stage

By

Contents
2

##  Objectives of the present lecture

 Beam Failure-Ultimate Strength Stage
 Definitions of Effective depth and distance to extreme layer of tension
reinforcement
 Simplifications in Flexure Theory for Design
 Whitney Stress Block
 Balanced Conditions and Balanced Steel Ratio
 Code definitions of tension controlled and compression controlled
sections
 Steps in determining the design moment capacity

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Objectives of the Present lecture
3

##  To provide an overview of flexural behavior of RC

beams at ultimate stage
 To derive expressions for the calculation of
nominal moment strength of singly reinforced
sections

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

when failure occurs, concrete is crushed here
Beam Failure- Ultimate
Strength Stage
4
f c'
ec
 After the concrete compression stresses
exceed about 0.50 fc’, they no longer N.A.
x c

## vary directly as a straight line rather d

they vary as shown. As f
 The tensile cracks occur in concrete and fy
es  e y
neutral axis move upward (for positive b
moment). (a) Beam (b) Strain (c) Actual
section variation Stress variation
 The reinforcing bars yield. Moment

##  Moment-Curvature: After the steel

yields, the beam has very little Rebars yield
Failure

## additional moment capacity, and only a M yield

M service Service or working
substantially increase rotations as well load range
as deflections. The slope of the diagram M cr
Concrete cracks
is now very flat.
in tension

Curvature , f
CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017
Definitions of Effective depth and distance to
extreme layer of tension reinforcement
5

##  The effective depth, d, is measured

from the extreme compressive fiber to the b
centroid of the longitudinal e cu  0.003
reinforcement.
 The net strain at the centroid of tension c
reinforcement at nominal-strength
conditions (or at ultimate load) is denoted d dt
by es As
 The depth dt is measured from the es
extreme compression fiber to the extreme
layer of tension reinforcement. et
 The net strain at the extreme layer of (a ) Beam section (b) Strain distributi on
tension reinforcement at nominal-
strength conditions (or at ultimate load)
is denoted by et
 For single layer of longitudinal
reinforcement, d= dt ; es=et

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Simplifications in Flexure Theory for Design
6

Other than the three basic assumptions of flexure theory, for design
purposes, the following additional assumptions are introduced to
simplify the problem with little loss of accuracy:
• The tensile strength of concrete is negligible in flexure.
• Concrete is assumed to fail (crush) when its compressive strain
at the extreme fiber reaches its ultimate value εcu = 0.003
• The nonlinear compressive stress block for concrete can be
replaced by an equivalent rectangular one with constant stress
of 0.85 fc’ and a depth a = 1 c (Whitney Stress block)
 Note: The shapes of the stress-strain curves for high strength concrete are skewed.
This shifts the centroid of the area (below the curve) closer to the origin, and thus
reduces the length of the equivalent rectangle. Thus 1 must be smaller for high
strength concrete.

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Whitney Stress Block

## Whitney replaced the curved stress block with an equivalent

rectangular block of intensity 0.85 f c' and depth a  1c, where
Area of the rectangular block  Area of the curved stress block.
The centroids of the two blocks coincide.
Values of 1 from tests of concrete prisms
1 ksi  7 MPa
'
For concretes with f  30 MPa, 1  0.85; and
c

For concretes with f c'  30 MPa, 1  0.85  0.008( f c'  30)  0.65

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui 7 May 28, 2017

Analysis of Nominal Moment Strength for Singly
Reinforced Sections
8

##  Two requirements are satisfied throughout the

flexural analysis and design of reinforced concrete
beam and columns:
 Stress and Stain Compatibility.
 The stress at any point in a member must correspond to the
strain at that point.
 Except for short, deep beams, the distribution of strains over
the depth of the member is assumed to be linear.
 Equilibrium
 Internal forces must balance the external load effects.

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Analysis of Nominal Moment Strength, Mn
0.85 f c'
e cu

## 1c  a C c  0.85 f c' ab

Neutral
Axis a
h d d
2
As
T  As f y

b
e s  e y ( assumed)
(a) Beam section (b) Strain distribution (c) Stress distribution and internal forces
As f y f y d As
For equilibrium, Cc  T  0.85 f c' ab  As f y  a   
bd
 tensile steel ratio.
0.85 f c' b 0.85 f c'
The reinforcing steel is
 a  a limited to an amount
Nominal strength : M n  T  d    M n  As f y  d   that it will yield well
 2  2 before the concrete
 a reaches its ultimate
Design strength : fM n  fAs f y  d   strength
 2
CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui 9 May 28, 2017
Problem-1
10
Determine the values of a, c, and ε s for the beam shown in the Figure.
Take f y  420 MPa and f c'  20 MPa.

0.003

c
525
d c
3  28f
es
350

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Solution
11

  
 3   282   420
As f y  4 
a '
  130.3 mm
0.85 f c b 0.85  20  350
1  0.85 for 20 MPa concrete
a 130.3
a  1c  c    153.3 mm
1 0.85
es 0 .003
 Yield strain for 420 Grade steel :
d c c fy 420 MPa
ey    0 .0021  0 .002
 es 
d c
0.003   525  153 .3  0.003 Es 2  10 5 MPa
c 153 .3
 e s  0 .00727
This value of strain is much greater than the yield strain of 0.002.
This is an indication of ductile behavior of the beam, because the steel is well
into its yield plateau before concrete crushes.

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Definition of Balanced Conditions
12
In Balanced condition, at the ultimate load, the concrete and steel
simultaneously reach to their ultimate (0.003) and yield strains (e y  f y /E s ) respectively.
0 .85 f c'
0 .003

c  1c  a C  0 .85 f c' ab
N.A.
d
As
T  As f y
fy
b ey 
Es

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Balanced Steel Ratio
13

 C  T  0.85 f c' ab  As f y
As f y f y d As
a  where   ;
0.85 f c' b 0.85 f c' bd
f y da
 a  c1  c   f y d 0.003d
1 0.851 f c'  
0.85 1 f c' fy
0.003 
Es
c d c c 0.003 b f y
   0.003
0.003 ey d 0.003  e y   '

fy
( E s  2  10 6 MPa)
0.851 f c
0.003d 0.003 
c 2000000
 f  b f y  600 
 0.003  y 
Es   
  0.851 f c  600  f y 
' 

 b    
 fy  
  600  f y 

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Code Definitions of Tension-Controlled and
Compression-Controlled Sections
14

As
  tensile steel ratio.
bd

 b   
 600  f 

 fy  y 

##    b  Steel yields before concrete crushes (Ductile failure)

 called Tension Controlled Sections
   b  Concrete crushes before the steel yields (Brittle failure)
 called Compression Controlled Sections
   b  Steel reaches yield when concrete crushes.
 called Balnced Sections
CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017
Compression-Controlled or Brittle Sections
15

##  A compression-controlled section has a tension reinforcement area such that

when the beam reaches its nominal flexural strength (i.e. ultimate load), the net
tensile strain in the extreme layer of tensile steel, εt, is less than or equal to the
yield strain εy.
 For such sections concrete crushes before steel yields.
 Deflections are small and there is little warning of failure.
b c d c c 0.003
e cu  0.003  t  
0.003 et d t 0.003  e t 

c For e t  e y  0.002
c 0.003 0.003 3
  
d dt d t 0.003  0.002  0.005 5
As 3
es  cCCL   d t  0.60d t
5
et  e y Clearly if a calculated value of c is
(a ) Beam section (b) Strain distributi on
greater than 3/5 dt, the strain εt
will be less than 0.002.
CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017
Transition-Zone Sections
16

##  A transition-zone section has a tension reinforcement area such that when

the beam reaches its nominal flexural strength (i.e. ultimate load), the net
tensile strain in the extreme layer of tensile steel, εt, is between εy and 0.005.

## Yield strain for 420 Grade steel :

b
e cu  0.003 f 420 MPa
ey  y   0 .0021  0 .002
E s 2  10 5 MPa
c

d dt
As
es
e y  e t  0.005
(a ) Beam section (b) Strain distributi on

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Tension-Controlled or Brittle Sections
17

 A tension-controlled section has a tension reinforcement area such that when the
beam reaches its nominal flexural strength (i.e. ultimate load), the net tensile
strain in the extreme layer of tensile steel, εt, is greater than or equal to 0.005.
 For such sections, steel yields before the concrete crushes.
 Deflections are large and there is a warning of failure.
b c d c c 0.003
e cu  0.003  t  
0.003 et d t 0.003  e t 
c For e t  0.005
c 0.003 0.003 3
  
d dt d t 0.003  0.005 0.008 8
As 3
es  cTCL   d t  0.375d t
8
e t  0.005 Clearly if a calculated value of c is
(a ) Beam section (b) Strain distributi on
less than 3/8 dt, the strain εt will be
more than 0.005.
CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017
Note
18

b
e cu  0.003
c
 0.375 : Ductile c
dt
d dt
c As
 0.375 : Brittle
dt es
et
(a ) Beam section (b) Strain distributi on

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Upper limit on Beam Reinforcement
(Maximum Steel Ratio)
19

## In order to have the member

ductile enough steel tensile strain
should not be less than 0.005
(when the concrete strain reaches
0.003). Maximum steel ratio is
thus a steel ratio corresponding to
steel tensile strain = 0.005
 C  T  0.85 f c' ab  As f y
As f y f y d As f y d  0.851 f c'  3 
a  where   ; 3d
0.85 f c' b 0.85 f c' bd      
0.851 f c'
8  fy  8 
a f y d  
 a  c1  c  
1 0.851 f c'  0.851 f c'  3 
  max    
c d c c 0.003  fy  8 
    
0.003 0.005 d 0.003  0.005
This is the maximum steel in order to
c 0.003 c 3 3
     c  d  0.375d have section fully ductile.
d 0.008 d 8 8
CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017
Minimum Percentage of Steel
20

##  When a beam cracks in tension, the

crack usually propagates to a point
near the centroid of the section and
there is a sudden transfer of tension
force from the concrete to the  f'  1.4 
reinforcing steel in the tension As ,min   c bw d   b d
 4 fy   f  w
zone.    y
 Unless a minimum amount of where bw  web width of beams.
reinforcement is present in the
tension zone, the beam would fail As ,min  f'   1.4 
suddenly. This type of failure may   min    min  c  
bw d  4 fy   fy 
occur without warning.    
 To prevent such a possibility codes
specify a certain amount of
reinforcing that must be used at
every section of flexural members.
 According to SBC 304:

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Strength Reduction Factors f
21

## Strength reduction factors (f) account for:

• Uncertainties in material strength
• Inaccuracies in design equations
• Approximations in analysis
• Variations in dimensions
• Variations in placement of reinforcement

Typical values of f
 Tension controlled beams and slabs f = 0.90
 Shear and torsion in beams f = 0.75
 Columns f = 0.75 or 0.65
 Flexural members and Lightly loaded columns f = 0.65 or 0.75 to 0.90
 Bearing on concrete f = 0.65

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

Variation of f with Tensile Strain
22

## CE 370 (RC Design- I) : Dr. Nadeem A. Siddiqui May 28, 2017

23

from:
1. Reinforced concrete, Mechanics and Design by
James K. Wight and James G. Macgregor, Fifth
Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, USA.
2. Design of Reinforced Concrete by Jack C.
McCormac and Russell H. Brown, Eighth Edition,
John Wiley & Sons.

Thank You
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