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1. Cells are the smallest basic unit of a plant or animal.

A basic animal cell has


cytoplasm, a cell membrane and a nucleus. Cells make up tissues and organs
in the body.
Nucleus
2.

Nucleus
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall Chloroplasts

Cytoplasm Vacuole

Cytoplasm

4.

• Cell Membrane- A barrier which controls which substances enter and leave
the cell.
• Vacuole- A large space filled with (cell sap) a solution of salts and sugars.
• Nucleus- The control centre: contains DNA, the genetic code for building the
cell and making it work.
• Chloroplast- Contains chlorophyll and is where photosynthesis happens.
• Cell Wall- A rigid barrier around the cell provides support and helps the cell
keep its shape.
• Cytoplasm- Jelly like substance and contains organelles, substance and
enzymes needed for cell reactions.
5.

Plant Cell Animal Cell


Nucleus Nucleus
Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Vacuole
Chloroplasts

Biology/Human Biology Summer h/w


1.

Element Symbol
Hydrogen H
Oxygen O
Carbon C
Nitrogen N
Sulphur S
Phosphorous P

2. Water= H2O, Oxygen= O2, Carbon Dioxide= CO2


3. **** see asterix heading on last page
4.

Biological Molecule Digestive Enzyme Where It’s Produced Product of Digestion


Starch/Carbohydrates Carbohydrase Salivary Glands, Pancreas, Simple Sugars
Small Intestine
Proteins Protease Stomach (known as Amino Acids
Pepsin), Pancreas, Small
Intestine
Fats/Lipids Lipase Pancreas, Small Intestine Fatty Acids and
Glycerol

5. a) In order for two chemicals or particles to react together the particles must
collide with enough energy to get the reaction started this is called the activation
energy.
b) Factors affecting the rate of reaction: Surface area, concentration (or in a gas
pressure), temperature, catalyst.
c) Adding a catalyst to an experiment would speed up the rate of reaction because
catalysts speed up chemical reactions. In order for a reaction between two chemicals
to take place the particles must collide with enough energy to get the reaction started
and that minimum energy is called the activation energy. A catalyst increases the rate
of reaction because it increases the number of successful collisions by providing an
alternative route for the reaction and this alternative route has a lower activation
energy meaning that less energy is used up to get the reaction started and more
particles react; however for all experiments there is not necessarily a known catalyst.

Biology/Human Biology Summer h/w


Changing the temperature changes the rate of reaction because the collision theory
states that when two chemicals react their particles have to collide with enough
energy for the reaction to take place, so two particles can only react if they have
enough energy. This means that by heating or cooling the mixture the rate of reaction
changes because the particles will move with more or less energy. The hotter the
mixture the more energy the particles will have so the faster they will move, and the
faster they move the more collisions that are likely to occur. To double the rate of
reaction in a temperature experiment you would have to increase the temperature of
the acid before the experiment by 10o, because this increase in temperature would
increase the movement in the liquid of the particles therefore increasing the amount
of collisions in the same period of time as a lower temperature. So more collisions in
the same amount of time causes the reaction to take place quicker and raises the rate
of reaction.
Concentration affects the rate of reaction by again changing the amount of
collisions between particles. Increasing the concentration in an experiment increases
the rate of reaction by increasing the number of collisions between the two chemicals;
if the concentration of the acid is higher then it increases the chances of a collision.
This is because increasing the concentration means that you are increasing the
number of particles in the mixture which increases the chances of particles colliding.
To double the rate of reaction you need to double the concentration of the acid this
doubles the rate because there are twice as many particles which means there are
twice as many collisions occurring in the same amount of time.
Increasing the pressure of a gas has a similar effect to increasing the concentration
of an acid. If you increase the pressure you are compressing the gas and are therefore
forcing the same amount of particles to be squeezed into a smaller volume of space
meaning there are more particles in one area which increases the likelihood of
particles to collide.
Increasing the surface area of a solid increases the rate of reaction because it
increases the chances of a collision taking place. You only get a reaction if the
particles collide, and increasing the surface area means that a collision is more likely
to take place because the more collisions per second the greater the rate of reaction
because more particles are open to the collisions of the acid (because more are
exposed to the acid) so more particles are able to react in the same amount of time
causing the same reaction to take place in a shorter time.
6. a) An enzyme is a biological/natural catalyst.
b)

Biology/Human Biology Summer h/w


At low temperatures enzymes are inactive. The activity of enzymes increases when
the temperature increases (so the reactions that they work on, or catalyse, will also
become faster). Each enzyme has a special temperature at which they are most active.
This is the optimum temperature for that enzyme. Each enzyme has its own optimum
temperature. -After the optimum temperature the enzyme is denatured (as shown in
the graph).

c)

Different enzymes work best at different pH. The pH that makes the enzyme most
active is known as the optimum pH. - If the pH is very high or very low, enzymes can
be denatured.

Biology/Human Biology Summer h/w


a) Oxygen crosses the alveoli of the lungs and enters the blood-D
b) Water enters guard cells in the leaves from surrounding cells- O
c) Water moves from the moist stomatal space to the drier atmosphere-D
d) Water enters blood capillaries from surrounding body cells- O
e) Water in the soil crosses into the root hairs- O
f) Water is absorbed out of the kidney tubules and back into the blood stream- O
g) In the blood vessels in the lungs, oxygen enters red blood cells- D

a) The potato slice in the water became larger (i.e. got longer and fatter),
indicating that more water molecules went into the potato than came out.

The potato slice from the sugar solution became smaller (i.e got shorter)
indicating that more water molecules came out of the potato than went in.

Both of these results can be explained by osmosis, the water molecules pass
through the membrane of the potato to even out the concentrations of the
potato and surrounding solutions.

b) The solution and the potato piece contained the same concentrations so there
was no need for osmosis to occur.

a) Water enters the amoeba by diffusion.


b) i) The oxygen is needed for respiration.
ii) All the oxygen the amoeba needs passes through the outer surface inwards.
c) i) Carbon dioxide is a waste product that would be harmful to the amoeba if it
could not get rid of it.
ii) This product gets into the water by diffusion.

Biology/Human Biology Summer h/w