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LAN,Hub, Switch, Router & Internet Browsing

Arun Aggarwal

GM ( NW) Tel: +91-120-2728294(O)

+91-120-2728410(R)

E-Mail: arun_aggarwal@bsnl.in

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Need for Networks

To share resources (files, printers, modems, fax machines) To share application software (MS Office, Adobe Publisher) Increased productivity (makes it easier to share data amongst users)

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Characteristics of a LAN

physically limited distance (< 2km) high bandwidth (> 1mbps) inexpensive cable media (coax or twisted pair) data and hardware sharing between users owned by the user

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Classification of a LAN

• The factors that determine the nature of a LAN are :

Topology Transmission medium Medium access control technique

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LAN Topologies

Basic topologies are Bus

Star

Ring

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LAN Topology - BUS

WS

LAN Topology - BUS WS WS Server WS Broadcast Peripheral BUS Tap Head end or Terminator.
LAN Topology - BUS WS WS Server WS Broadcast Peripheral BUS Tap Head end or Terminator.

WS

Server WS Broadcast Peripheral BUS Tap
Server
WS
Broadcast
Peripheral
BUS
Tap

Head end or Terminator.

•A transmission from any station propagates throughout the length of the median in both directions & can be received by all other stations. • At each end of the bus is a terminator to avoid reflection of signals.

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LAN Topology - STAR

LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )

Two pt to pt link

LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )
LAN Topology - STAR Two pt to pt link CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH )

CENTRAL NODE (HUB or SWITCH)

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STAR TOPOLOGY

In the Star type topology, each station is directly connected to a common central node. In general, there are two alternatives for the operation of the central node:

The central node operates in a broadcast fashion. The transmission of a frame from one station to the Central Node is retransmitted in all of the outgoing links. In this case, although the arrangement is physically a star, it is logically a bus(HUB)

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STAR Topology

Another method is for the central node to act as a frame switching device. An incoming frame is buffered in the node and then retransmitted on an outgoing link to the destination station. (LAN Switch)

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LAN Topology - RING

Ring unidirectional
Ring
unidirectional
LAN Topology - RING Ring unidirectional Repeaters without Buffers.
LAN Topology - RING Ring unidirectional Repeaters without Buffers.
LAN Topology - RING Ring unidirectional Repeaters without Buffers.
LAN Topology - RING Ring unidirectional Repeaters without Buffers.
LAN Topology - RING Ring unidirectional Repeaters without Buffers.
LAN Topology - RING Ring unidirectional Repeaters without Buffers.

Repeaters without Buffers.

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LAN Components

• Network Interface Card (NIC)

• Cabling (Inter connecting media)

• Drivers

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Network Adapter/ Interface Card

are the physical interface or connection between the computer and the network cable

are installed in an expansion slot in each computer

network cable is attached to the card’s port to make the actual physical connection between the computer and the network.

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Functions of NIC

Prepare data from the computer for the network cable.

Send the data to another computer.

Control the flow of data between the computer and the cabling system

Receives incoming data from the cable and translates it into bytes

Implements the LLC and Media Access Control functions (i.e the Data Link layer function of the OSI model).

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Transmission Media

• Twisted Pair

– Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) – Shielded twisted pair (STP)

• Coaxial

• Optical fiber

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Transmission Media Considerations

• Cost

• Distance

• Number of computers involved

• Bandwidth

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Medium Access Control

Medium Access Control (CSMA/CD) 1) If the medium is idle, transmit; otherwise go to step 2.

(CSMA/CD)

Medium Access Control (CSMA/CD) 1) If the medium is idle, transmit; otherwise go to step 2.

1) If the medium is idle, transmit; otherwise go to step 2. 2) If the medium is busy, continue to listen until the channel is idle, then transmit immediately. 3) If a collision is detected during transmission, transmit a brief jamming signal to assure that all stations know that there has been a collision & then cease transmission. 4) After transmitting the jamming signal, wait a random amount of time, then attempt to transmit again. (repeat from step 1)

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ETHERNET LAN

ETHERNET LAN Most common & preferred network architecture. Bus or Star Bus-based technology. Uses baseband

Most common & preferred network architecture. Bus or Star Bus-based technology. Uses baseband signalling & CSMA/CD to arbitrate network access. Network Adapters are used to drive the signals over the network. Transfer speed:10/100 mbps. Cable Types: Thicknet, Thinnet, UTP.

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Hub

Passive

Hub

BACK PLANE Ports
BACK PLANE
Ports

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Hub

Active

BACK PLANE R R R R Hub Ports
BACK PLANE
R
R
R
R
Hub
Ports

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Bridge

Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.
Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.
Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.
Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.
Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.
Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.

Bridge

Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.
Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.
Bridge Bridge • • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.

Bridges interconnect ethernet segments.

IEEE 802.1D specification is the standard for bridges.

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• • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments. IEEE 802.1D specification is the standard for bridges. 20
• • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments. IEEE 802.1D specification is the standard for bridges. 20
• • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments. IEEE 802.1D specification is the standard for bridges. 20
• • Bridges interconnect ethernet segments. IEEE 802.1D specification is the standard for bridges. 20

Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch

Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data

LAN

Switch

Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data

A

B

D

B

Data

Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data
Multiport Bridge/LAN Switch LAN Switch A B D B Data

C

D

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BRIDGES

BRIDGES ADVANTAGES: Since bridges buffer frames, it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different

ADVANTAGES:

Since bridges buffer frames, it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols.

buffer frames, it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols. LAN B

LAN B

buffer frames, it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols. LAN B
buffer frames, it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols. LAN B

BRIDGE

LAN A
LAN A
buffer frames, it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols. LAN B
buffer frames, it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols. LAN B

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BRIDGES

BRIDGES ADVANTAGES: Help in localising the network traffic by only forwarding data onto other segments as

ADVANTAGES:

Help in localising the network traffic by only forwarding data onto other segments as required (unlike repeaters).

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ROUTERS

ROUTERS In an environment consisting of several network segments with differing protocols & architectures, a bridge

In an environment consisting of several network segments with differing protocols & architectures, a bridge may not be adequate for ensuring fast communication among all of the segments. A network this complex needs a device :

Which not only knows the address of each segment, But also determine the best path for sending data & filtering broadcast traffic to the local segment. Such a device is called a Router.

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ROUTERS

ROUTERS Routers work at the network layer of the OSI model. ROUTER R & R ROUTER

Routers work at the network layer of the OSI model.

ROUTER

R & R

at the network layer of the OSI model. ROUTER R & R ROUTER R & R

ROUTER

R & R

layer of the OSI model. ROUTER R & R ROUTER R & R NETWORK   LLC

NETWORK

 

LLC

 

MAC

PHYSICAL

NETWORK

 

LLC

 

MAC

PHYSICAL

LAN A LAN B
LAN A
LAN B

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Router Routes the Packets Based on Network Addresses 26
Router
Routes the
Packets Based on
Network Addresses
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ROUTER

ROUTER Uses dynamic routing. Operates at the protocol level. Remote administration & configuration via SNMP.

Uses dynamic routing. Operates at the protocol level. Remote administration & configuration via SNMP. Supports complex networks. The more filtering done, the lower the performance. Provides security. Segments the networks logically. Broadcast storms can be isolated. Often provides bridge functions also.

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

The World Wide Web is an architectural framework for accessing linked documents spread out over thousands of machines all over the Internet.

The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. The World Wide Web is often abbreviated as the Web, WWW, or W3.

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

E-mail (Simple Mail Transport Protocol or SMTP)

Telnet (Telnet Protocol)

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB The Client Side From the user’s point of view, the Web
THE WORLD WIDE WEB
The Client Side
From the user’s point of view, the Web
consists of a vast, world-wide collection of
documents, usually just called pages for short.
Each page may contain links (pointers) to
other,related pages, anywhere in the Internet.
Users can follow a link (e.g. by clicking on it),
which then takes them to the page pointed to.
Pages that point to other pages are said to use
hypertext.
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THE WORLD WIDE WEB The Client Side Pages are viewed with a program called a
THE WORLD WIDE WEB
The Client Side
Pages are viewed with a program called a
browser.
The browser fetches the page requested,
interprets the text and formatting commands that
it contains, and displays the page properly
formatted on the screen.
Strings of text that are links to other pages,
called hyperlinks are highlighted, either by
underlining, displaying them in a special colour,
or both.
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THE WORLD WIDE WEB The Client Side To follow a link, the user places the
THE WORLD WIDE WEB
The Client Side
To follow a link, the user places the cursor on
the highlighted area and selects it (by clicking
the mouse).
Not all pages are viewable in the conventional
way. For example, some pages consist of audio
tracks, video clips, or both. When hypertext
pages are mixed with other media, the result is
called hypermedia. Some browsers can display
all kinds of hypermedia but others cannot.
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THE WORLD WIDE WEB An Overview of the Web Browser In it's basic form a
THE WORLD WIDE WEB
An Overview of the Web Browser
In it's basic form a Web browser is an application
that uses information stored at locations around
the World Wide Web, in order to perform a local
task.
To get the desired information from the Web, a
browser uses the client-server paradigm. When
given the URL of a document, the browser
becomes a client that contacts a Web Server on
the computer specified in the URL, to request
the document.
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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

HTTP allows a browser to request a specific

item,

which the server then returns. To ensure

that browser and server can inter-operate unambiguously, HTTP defines the exact format of request sent from a browser to a server as well as the format of the servers reply.

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB Besides an HTTP client and an HTML interpreter a browser can
THE WORLD WIDE WEB
Besides an HTTP client and an HTML interpreter a
browser can contain components that enable the
browser to perform additional tasks. Many browsers
include an FTP client that is used to access the file
transfer service, and an e-mail client that enable the
browser to send and receive mail.
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The user doesn't invoke such services explicitly, instead the service is invoked automatically when it
The user doesn't invoke such services explicitly, instead the service is invoked automatically when it
The user doesn't invoke such services explicitly, instead the service is invoked automatically when it
The user doesn't invoke such services explicitly, instead the service is invoked automatically when it

The user doesn't invoke such services explicitly, instead the service is invoked automatically when it is needed to perform a task. For Example file transfer can be associated with selectable object on screen , when a user selects the item the browser uses the FTP client to obtain a copy of the file. Example : click here to download a file from ftp.math.tau.ac.il

uses the FTP client to obtain a copy of the file. Example : click here to
uses the FTP client to obtain a copy of the file. Example : click here to
uses the FTP client to obtain a copy of the file. Example : click here to

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

Helper Applications and Plug-Ins

Software programs may be configured to a Web browser in order to enhance its capabilities. When the browser encounters a sound, image or video file, it hands off the data to other programs, called helper applications, to run or display the file.

A common helper application utilised on the Web is the Adobe Acrobat Reader.

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

The Server Side Every Web site has a server listening to TCP port 80 for incoming connections from clients (normally browsers).

After a connection has been established, the client sends one request and the server sends one reply. Then the connection is released. The protocol that defines the legal requests and replies is called HTTP.

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

Retrieving Documents On The Web : The URL

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. The URL specifies the Internet address of a file stored on a host computer connected to the Internet. Every file on the Internet, no matter what its access protocol, has a unique URL. Web software programs use the URL to retrieve the file from the host computer and the directory in which it resides. This file is then displayed on the user's computer monitor. URLs are translated into numeric addresses using the Internet Domain Name System (DNS).

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

Retrieving Documents On The Web :

Anatomy of a URL :

A URL contains the following information :

Protocol : Specifies the Internet protocol to access a resource. The abstract encompasses FTP, Gopher, and HTTP Internet Protocols. Network Endpoint : Internet addresses of Internet Information Server and protocol port number.

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

Retrieving Documents On The Web : The URL

service is a required field. Web server support FTP, Gopher, and HTTP services.

host is a required field. This field is the host name or IP address of the Internet Information Server.

port is an optional field. This field is an abstraction used by the network and transport layers to select a service on the server.

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This field is not frequently used. It may be specified if the service is available on a non-standard protocol port number.

path is an optional field. It specifies URL resource location. A path without a file name following must always end with a / (slash) character.

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB

Retrieving Documents On The Web : The URL

URL on the home page of the U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/pubinfo/www/news.html Structure of this URL :

1) Protocol : http 2) Host computer name : www 3) Second-level domain name : census 4) Top-level domain name : gov 5) Directory name : pubinfo 6) Directory name : www 7) File name : news.html

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