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# THERMODYNAMICS - HOMEWORK

1. A container made of the metal has a mass of 3.6 kg and contains 14 kg of water. A 1.8 kg piece of the metal initially at a
temperature of 180°C is dropped into the water. The container and water initially have a temperature of 16.0°C, and the final
temperature of the entire (insulated) system is 18.0°C. Calculate the specific heat of the metal.

2. How much energy must be removed from 0.510 kg of ethyl alcohol that is initially a gas at 78.0°C so that it becomes a solid
at -114°C? Knowing that ethyl alcohol has a boiling point of 78.0°C, a freezing point of – 114°C, a heat of vaporization of 879
kJ/kg, a heat of fusion of 109 kJ/kg, and a specific heat of 2.43 kJ/kg.K.

3. A 150 g copper bowl contains 220 g of water, both at 20.0°C. A very hot 300 g copper cylinder is dropped into the water,
causing the water to boil, with 5.00 g being converted to steam. The final temperature of the system is 100°C. Neglect energy
transfers with the environment.

(a) How much energy (in calories) is transferred to the water as heat?

## (c) What is the original temperature of the cylinder?

4. What mass of steam at 100°C must be mixed with 150 g of ice at its melting point, in a thermally insulated container, to
produce liquid water at 50°C?

5. Two 50 g ice cubes are dropped into 200 g of water in a thermally insulated container. If the water is initially at 25°C, and
the ice comes directly from a freezer at -15°C, what is the final temperature at thermal equilibrium? What is the final
temperature if only one ice cube is used?

6. A gas is taken through cycle abca shown in the p-V diagram below. The net work done is +1.2 J. Along path ab, the change
in the internal energy is +3.0 J and the magnitude of the work done is 5.0 J. Along path ca, the energy transferred to the gas as
heat is + 2.5 J. How much energy is transferred as heat along (a) path ab and (b) path bc?

7. As a gas passes through the cycle shown below. Determine the energy transferred by the system as heat during constant-
pressure process CA if the energy added as heat QAB during constant-volume process AB is 20.0 J, no energy is transferred as
heat during adiabatic process BC, and the net work done during the cycle is 15.0 J.

8. A gas sample expands from V0 to 4.0V0 while its pressure decreases from p0 to p0/4.0, as shown below. If V0 = 1.0 m3 and
p0 = 40 Pa, how much work is done by the gas if its pressure changes with volume via path A, path B, and path C?

9. A gas within a closed chamber undergoes the cycle shown in the p-V diagram as shown below. The horizontal scale is set
by Vs = 4.0 m3. Calculate the net energy added to the system as heat during one complete cycle.
10. A sample of an ideal gas is taken through the cyclic process abca shown below. The scale of the vertical axis is set by pb
= 7.5 kPa and pac = 2.5 kPa. At point a, T = 200 K. (a) How many moles of gas are in the sample? What are (b) the temperature
of the gas at point b, (c) the temperature of the gas at point c, and (d) the net energy added to the gas as heat during the cycle?

11. Container A (Figure below) holds an ideal gas at a pressure of 5.0 x 105 Pa and a temperature of 300 K. It is connected by
a thin tube (and a closed valve) to container B, with four times the volume of A. Container B holds the same ideal gas at a
pressure of 1.0 x 105 Pa and a temperature of 400 K. The valve is opened to allow the pressures to equalize, but the temperature
of each container is maintained. What then is the pressure?

12. Figure below shows a cycle undergone by 1.00 mol of an ideal monatomic gas. The temperatures are T1 = 300 K, T2 = 600
K, and T3 = 455K. For 1  2, what are (a) heat Q, (b) the change in internal energy %Eint, and (c) the work done W? For 2 
3, what are (d) Q, (e) %Eint, and (f) W? For 3  1, what are (g) Q, (h) %Eint, and (i) W? For the full cycle, what are (j) Q, (k)
%Eint, and (l) W? The initial pressure at point 1 is 1.00 atm (= 1.013 x 105 Pa).What are the (m) volume and (n) pressure at
point 2 and the (o) volume and (p) pressure at point 3?

13. The motor in a refrigerator has a power of 200 W. If the freezing compartment is at 270 K and the outside air is at 300 K,
and assuming the efficiency of a Carnot refrigerator, what is the maximum amount of energy that can be extracted as heat from
the freezing compartment in 10.0 min?

14. (a) During each cycle, a Carnot engine absorbs 750 J as heat from a high-temperature reservoir at 360 K, with the low-
temperature reservoir at 280 K. How much work is done per cycle? (b) The engine is then made to work in reverse to function
as a Carnot refrigerator between those same two reservoirs. During each cycle, how much work is required to remove 1200 J
as heat from the low-temperature reservoir?

15. Figure below represents a Carnot engine that works between temperatures T1 = 400 K and T2 = 150 K and drives a Carnot
refrigerator that works between temperatures T3 = 325 K and T4 = 225 K. What is the ratio Q3/Q1?
16. A mixture of 1773 g of water and 227 g of ice is in an initial equilibrium state at 0.000°C. The mixture is then, in a
reversible process, brought to a second equilibrium state where the water–ice ratio, by mass, is 1.00:1.00 at 0.000°C. (a)
Calculate the entropy change of the system during this process. (The heat of fusion for water is 333 kJ/kg.) (b) The system is
then returned to the initial equilibrium state in an irreversible process (say, by using a Bunsen burner). Calculate the entropy
change of the system during this process. (c) Are your answers consistent with the second law of thermodynamics?

17. A 10 g ice cube at -10°C is placed in a lake whose temperature is 15°C. Calculate the change in entropy of the cube–lake
system as the ice cube comes to thermal equilibrium with the lake. The specific heat of ice is 2220 J/kg.K.

18. Figure below shows a reversible cycle through which 1.00 mol of a monatomic ideal gas is taken. Assume that p = 2p0, V
=2V0, p0 = 1.01 x 105 Pa, and V0 = 0.0225 m3. Calculate (a) the work done during the cycle, (b) the energy added as heat during
stroke abc, and (c) the efficiency of the cycle. (d) What is the efficiency of a Carnot engine operating between the highest and
lowest temperatures that occur in the cycle? (e) Is this greater than or less than the efficiency calculated in (c)?

19. Figure below shows a reversible cycle through which 1.00 mol of a monatomic ideal gas is taken. Volume Vc = 8.00Vb.
Process bc is an adiabatic expansion, with pb = 10.0 atm and Vb = 1.00 x 10-3 m3. For the cycle, find (a) the energy added to the
gas as heat, (b) the energy leaving the gas as heat, (c) the net work done by the gas, and (d) the efficiency of the cycle.

20. Expand 1.00 mol of an monatomic gas initially at 5.00 kPa and 600 K from initial volume Vi = 1.00 m3 to final volume Vf
= 2.00 m3. At any instant during the expansion, the pressure p and volume V of the gas are related by p = 5.00 exp[(Vi-V)/a],
with p in kilopascals, Vi and V in cubic meters, and a = 1.00 m3. What are the final (a) pressure and (b) temperature of the gas?
(c) How much work is done by the gas during the expansion? (d) What is the entropy change for the expansion?