Sei sulla pagina 1di 24

Head of Department: Y.P.

Subject: Hygiene and Preventive medicine

Name: Chua Yen Sheng

Country: Malaysia
Group Number: 31
Teacher: A.A.Alsabounchi

Topic Page
World Health Organization 1

Constitution and History 1

Main Principles of WHO 2
Core Functions of WHO 2
Strategic Directions of WHO 2
Contents of Present WHO Program 4

Structures 5
Members 5
World Health Assembly 5
Finance 6
Regional Offices 6
Country Offices 8
Staffs 10

Activities 11
Publishing 11
Journals 13
Programs and Projects 13
Conventions 17
Other Sources of Information 18

Private Sector Partnership 18

Sources 21
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the
United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international
public health. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva,
Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its
predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the
League of Nations.

WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United
Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health
matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards,
articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to
countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.

The WHO's constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all
peoples of the highest possible level of health." Its major task is to combat
disease, especially key infectious diseases, and to promote the general health
of the people of the world.

Since 1851 in Paris, there were activities which started by different

organization to work against sanitary diseases. First international sanitary
conference was in 1907 in Rome. This is followed by foundation of WHO
by states members of UN.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the original agencies of the
United Nations, its constitution formally coming into force on the first
World Health Day, (7 April 1948), when it was ratified by the 26th member
state. Prior to this its operations, as well as the remaining activities of the
League of Nations Health Organization, were under the control of an Interim
Commission following an International Health Conference in the summer of
1946 (February). The transfer was authorized by a Resolution of the
General Assembly. The epidemiological service of the French Office
International d'Hygiène Publique was incorporated into the Interim
Commission of the World Health Organization on 1 January 1947.

WHO Main Principles

Health is now a world responsibility-for health, like peace, is one and

WHO Core Functions

In carrying out its activities WHO focuses on the following core functions:

• providing leadership matters critical to health and engaging

in partnerships where joint action is needed;
• shaping the research agenda, and stimulating the generation,
dissemination and application of valuable knowledge;
• setting norms and standards, and promoting and monitoring
their implementation;
• articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options;
• providing technical support, catalyzing change and building
sustainable institutional capacity;
• monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends.

WHO Strategic Directions

The Corporate Strategy focuses WHO’s work on 13 strategic objectives.

• To reduce the health, social and economic burden of

communicable diseases.
• To combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.
• To prevent and reduce disease, disability and premature death
from chronic non-communicable conditions, mental disorders,
violence and injuries.
• To reduce morbidity and mortality and improve health during
key stages of life, including pregnancy, childbirth, the neonatal
period, childhood and adolescence, and improve sexual and
reproductive health and promote active and healthy ageing for all
• To reduce the health consequences of emergencies, disasters,
crises and conflicts, and minimize their social and economic
• To promote health and development, and prevent or reduce risk
factors for health conditions associated with use of tobacco,
alcohol, drugs and other psychoactive substances, unhealthy diets,
physical inactivity and unsafe sex.
• To address the underlying social and economic determinants of
health through policies and programmes that enhance health
equity and integrate pro-poor, gender-responsive, and human
rights-based approaches.
• To promote a healthier environment, intensify primary
prevention and influence public policies in all sectors so as to
address the root causes of environmental threats to health.
• To improve nutrition, food safety and food security throughout
the life-course and in support of public health and sustainable
• To improve health services through better governance, financing,
staffing and management, informed by reliable and accessible
evidence and research.
• To ensure improved access, quality and use of medical products
and technologies.
• To provide leadership, strengthen governance and foster
partnership and collaboration with countries, the United Nations
system, and other stakeholders in order to fulfil the mandate of
WHO in advancing the global health agenda as set out in the
Eleventh General Programme of Work.
• To develop and sustain WHO as a flexible, learning organization,
enabling it to carry out its mandate more efficiently and
Contents of Present WHO Program
• Development of the health organization and health services in
different countries.
• Development and support the PHC program especially in
developing countries.
• Training and advanced training programmes for medical
• Prophylactic program against the negative influence of the
environmental factors
• Scientific medical researches.
• Identifying resource needs and possible external sources for
supplying them
• Facilitating technical cooperation among countries
• Organization of global programmes to support the strategy
A) Members
The WHO has 193 Member States, including all UN Member States except
Liechtenstein , and 2 non-UN members, Niue and the Cook Islands.

Territories that are not UN Member States may join as Associate Members
(with full information but limited participation and voting rights) if approved
by an Assembly vote: Puerto Rico and Tokelau are Associate Members.

Entities may also be granted observer status: examples include the

Palestine Liberation Organization, Vatican City, and Chinese Taipei.

B) World Heath Assembly

WHO Member States appoint delegations to the World Health Assembly,
WHO's supreme decision-making body. All UN member states are eligible
for WHO membership, and, according to the WHO web site, “Other
countries may be admitted as members when their application has been
approved by a simple majority vote of the World Health Assembly.”

The WHO Assembly generally meets in May each year. In addition to

appointing the Director-General every five years, the Assembly considers
the financial policies of the Organization and reviews and approves the
proposed programme budget. The Assembly elects 34 members, technically
qualified in the field of health, to the Executive Board for three-year
terms. The main functions of the Board are to carry out the decisions and
policies of the Assembly, to advise it and to facilitate its work in general.
C) Finance
The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and from
donors. In recent years, the WHO's work has involved more collaboration;
there are currently around 80 such partnerships with NGOs and the
pharmaceutical industry, as well as with foundations such as the Bill and
Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. Voluntary
contributions to the WHO from national and local governments, foundations
and NGOs, other UN organizations, and the private sector, now exceed that
of assessed contributions (dues) from the 193 member nations.

D) Regional offices
Uncharacteristically for a UN Agency, the six Regional Offices of the WHO
enjoy remarkable autonomy. Each Regional Office is headed by a Regional
Director (RD), who is elected by the Regional Committee for a once-
renewable five-year term. The name of the RD-elect is transmitted to the
WHO Executive Board in Geneva, which proceeds to confirm the
appointment. It is rare that an elected Regional Director is not confirmed.

Each Regional Committee of the WHO consists of all the Health

Department heads, in all the governments of the countries that constitute the
Region. Aside from electing the Regional Director, the Regional Committee
is also in charge of setting the guidelines for the implementation, within the
region, of the Health and other policies adopted by the World Health
Assembly. The Regional Committee also serves as a progress review board
for the actions of the WHO within the Region.

The Regional Director is effectively the head of the WHO for his or her
Region. The RD manages and/or supervises a staff of health and other
experts at the regional headquarters and in specialized centers. The RD is
also the direct supervising authority—concomitantly with the WHO Director
General—of all the heads of WHO country offices, known as WHO
Representatives, within the Region.
The Regional Offices are:

• Regional Office for Africa (AFRO)

Headquarters: Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

AFRO includes most of Africa, with the exception of Egypt, Sudan,

Tunisia, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and Morocco which belong
to EMRO. Somalia is also not counted as it does not have an official
government, though it is in the process of getting one.

• Regional Office for Europe (EURO)

Headquarters: Copenhagen, Denmark.

EURO includes all countries in Europe, including Russian


• Regional Office for South East Asia (SEARO)

Headquarters: New Delhi, India.

Most South East Asian countries and North Korea is served by


• Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO)

Headquarters: Cairo, Egypt.

EMRO includes the countries of Africa, and particularly in the

Maghreb, that are not included in AFRO, as well as the countries of
the Middle East, except for Israel.

• Regional Office for Western Pacific (WPRO)

Headquarters: Manila, Philippines.

WPRO covers all the Asian countries not served by SEARO and
EMRO, and all the countries in Oceania. South Korea is served by
• Regional Office for the Americas (AMRO)

Headquarters: Washington, D.C., USA.

It is better known as the Pan American Health Organization

(PAHO). Since it predates the establishment of WHO, PAHO is by
far the most autonomous of the 6 regional offices.

E) Country offices
The World Health Organization operates 147 country and liaison offices in
all its regions. The presence of a country office is generally motivated by
a need, stated by the member country. There will generally be one WHO
country office in the capital, occasionally accompanied by satellite-offices in
the provinces or sub-regions of the country in question.

The country office is headed by a WHO Representative (WR), who is a

trained physician, not a national of that country, who holds diplomatic rank
and is due privileges and immunities similar to those of an Ambassador
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. In most countries, the WR (like
Representatives of other UN agencies) is de facto and/or de jure treated like
an Ambassador – the distinction here being that instead of being an
Ambassador of one sovereign country to another, the WR is a senior UN
civil servant, who serves as the "Ambassador" of the WHO to the country to
which he or she is accredited. Hence, the title of Resident Representative, or
simply Representative.

The country office consists of the WR, and several health and other experts,
both foreign and local, as well as the necessary support staff. The main
functions of WHO country offices include being the primary adviser of that
country's government in matters of health and pharmaceutical policies.

International liaison offices serve largely the same purpose as country

offices, but generally on a smaller scale. These are often found in countries
that want WHO presence and cooperation, but do not have the major health
system flaws that require the presence of a full-blown country office.
Liaison offices are headed by a liaison officer, who is a national from that
particular country, without diplomatic immunity.
WHO Country Office, Russian Federation
The role of a WHO/Europe country office is to respond to requests from the
host country to support policy-making for sustainable health development,
taking a holistic health-system approach. This includes providing guidance,
building up local relationships to implement technical cooperation, making
standards and agreements, and ensuring that public health measures are
coordinated and in place during crises.

The WHO Country Office, Russian Federation was established in

December 1998 in Moscow to design and deliver WHO humanitarian and
development programmes in consultation with the Russian authorities.

The Office is the focal point for WHO activities in the Russian Federation.

The country team consists of 36 people, including 22 experts on:

• tuberculosis
• road safety
• family and community health
• disaster preparedness and response
• avian influenza
• the International Health Regulations
• tobacco control
• vaccine-preventable diseases and immunization.

The priorities for the Country Office are set out in the biennial collaborative
agreement between WHO/Europe and the host country. The Office
implements the agreement in close collaboration with national institutions
and international partner agencies.
F) Staffs
All the staffs who are working in World Health Organization (WHO) should
meet the following requirements:-

• Demonstrate a high level of technical knowledge.

• Be motivated and have a strong commitment to the policies and
programmes of WHO.
• Possess good analytical skills and a keen interest in and an
understanding of policy issues especially in the area of public health.
• Be able to work well in a multicultural team.
• Have working experience at national and/or international level, in a
field relevant to the World Health Organization's work.
• Be proficient in at least one of the official languages of the
Organization (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish)
and have a working knowledge of a second. Additional languages are
an asset.

Recruitment Principles

"The paramount consideration in the appointment, transfer or

promotion of the staff shall be the necessity of securing the highest
standards of efficiency, competence and integrity. Due regard shall be
paid to the importance of recruiting and maintaining the staff on as
wide a geographical basis as possible." - (WHO Staff Regulation 4.2)

• We do not discriminate on any ground (race, creed or sex). We are

committed to promoting diversity in our workforce.
• We aim to achieve a broad representation of member country
nationals with particular emphasis on developing countries, and
improve gender balance.
• We strive to provide an environment where the contribution of each
individual is valued.
• Selection of staff is normally made on a competitive basis.
Policy on Non-Recruitment of Smokers

Smokers and other tobacco users will not be recruited by WHO as and from 1 December
2005. This policy should be seen in the context of the Organization's credibility in
promoting the principle of a tobacco-free environment.

A) Publishing
International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
The international standard diagnostic classification for epidemiological
and health management purposes.

The information is available online on the WHO website. This information

is indexed and available in hard-copy versions. The WHO does not permit
simultaneous classification in two separate areas.

The annual World Health Report

It is first published in 1995, is the WHO's leading publication. Each year the
report combines an expert assessment of global health, including statistics
relating to all countries, with a focus on a specific subject. The main purpose
of the report is to provide countries, donor agencies, international
organizations and others with the information they need to help them
make policy and funding decisions. The report is also offered to a wider
audience, from universities, teaching hospitals and schools, to journalists
and the public at large - anyone, in fact, with a professional or personal
interest in international health issues.

The World Health Report 2007 – A safer future: global public health
security in the 21st century was published on August 23, 2006.

International Pharmacopoeia (Drugs Standardization)

The International Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Int.) comprises a collection of quality
specifications for pharmaceutical substances (active ingredients and
excipients) and dosage forms together with supporting general methods of
analysis, that is intended to serve as source material for reference or
adaptation by any WHO Member State wishing to establish pharmaceutical
requirements. The pharmacopoeia, or any part of it, shall have legal status,
whenever a national or regional authority expressly introduces it into
appropriate legislation. [ Published in accordance with World Health
Assembly resolution WHA3.10, WHO Handbook of Resolutions and
Decisions, Vol. 1, 1977, p. 127.]

The activities related to The International Pharmacopoeia are an essential

element in the overall quality control and assurance of pharmaceuticals
contributing to the safety and efficacy of medicines.

The work on The International Pharmacopoeia is carried out in collaboration

with members of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on the International
Pharmacopoeia and Pharmaceutical Preparations and with other specialists.
The process involves consultation of and input from WHO Member States
and drug regulatory authorities, WHO Collaborating Centres and national
drug quality control laboratories in all six WHO regions, standard-setting
organizations and parties, including regional and national pharmacopoeias
and with manufacturers around the world.

International Travel and Health

Publication on health risks for international travelers, vaccination
requirements and precautions to take.

International Health Regulations

With the support of WHO, the 194 States Parties to the International Health
Regulations (IHR) have been implementing these global rules to enhance
national, regional and global public health security.

Key milestones for countries include the assessment of their surveillance and
response capacities by June 2009 and the development and implementation
of plans of action to ensure that these core capacities are functioning by
Latest edition of the public health regulations that are legally binding on
WHO Member States.

B) Journals
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Monthly journal with peer-reviewed papers. Focus on developing countries.

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal

Published by the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.
Focus on policies and research in the region.

Pan American Journal of Public Health

Published by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in English,
Portuguese and Spanish. Contains technical and analytical papers.

Weekly Epidemiological Record

Epidemiological information on cases and outbreaks of communicable

WHO Drug Information

Quarterly journal on topics relating to medicines development and

C) Programs and Projects

WHO Collaborating Centres

The WHO collaborating centres are institutions such as research institutes,

parts of universities or academies, which are designated by the Director-
General to carry out activities in support of the Organization's programmes.
Currently there are over 800 WHO collaborating centres in 90 Member
States working with WHO on areas such as nursing, occupational health,
communicable diseases, nutrition, mental health, chronic diseases and health

The Genomic Resource Centre

The Genomic Resource Centre (GRC) has been developed by WHO's

Human Genetics to provide information and to raise awareness on
human genetics and more recently human genomics, a new and rapidly
developing science. This site provides an overview of the issues and
concerns around human genetics and public health and, in particular,
addresses the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomics.

Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases

GARD is a voluntary alliance of national and international
organizations, institutions, and agencies committed towards the
common goal to reduce the global burden of respiratory diseases. The
Global Alliance is part of the global work to prevent and control chronic
diseases. Because most of the chronic respiratory diseases are under-
diagnosed, under-treated and the access to essential medications in many
countries is poor, a global effort to improve the diagnosis and the medical
care is needed.

The Global Alliance was officially launched on 28 March 2006 in Beijing,

People's Republic of China.

Global Campaign for Violence Prevention

The Global Campaign for Violence Prevention was launched following the
release of the World report on violence and health, in October, 2002. The
objectives of the campaign are to raise awareness about the problem of
violence, highlight the crucial role that public health can play in
addressing its causes and consequences and encourage action at every
level of society. The Campaign serves as the main platform for
implementing the recommendations of the World report on violence and
As of January 2007 three out of six WHO regional committees (Africa, the
Americas and Europe) have adopted violence prevention resolutions; there
are over 100 officially appointed health ministry focal persons for the
prevention of violence; over 50 countries have had national launches of the
World report on violence and health, and over 25 countries have developed
reports and/or plans of action on violence and health. At the programme
level, tens of thousands of people in scores of countries have been touched
by violence prevention programmes and victim services established in
response to the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. Advocacy,
normative guidance and the planting of programme seeds in many countries
must now give way to scaled-up country-level implementation accompanied
by a concerted effort to measure effectiveness using the outcomes that really
matter - such as rates for violence-related deaths, non-fatal injuries and other
violence-related health conditions.

Campaign against global food security crisis

The global food security crisis endangers the lives of millions of people,
particularly the world's poorest who live in countries already suffering from
acute and chronic malnutrition.

The health implications are immense, particularly in the 21 countries that

WHO says suffer from acute or chronic malnutrition.

To respond to the health threats, WHO provides guidance to the UN

Secretary-General's High Level Task-Force on the Global Food Security
Crisis. The Task-Force was formed in April 2008 to create and coordinate
the implementation of a prioritized action plan.

WHO's fundamental considerations are to:

• Underscore the human dimension of the crisis.

• Monitor its impact on nutrition, health and poverty, plus its effect
on the Millennium Development Goals.
• Provide sound information and analyses to target the most
vulnerable groups.

International Programme on Chemical Safety

The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), established in
1980, is a joint programme of three Cooperating Organizations - WHO, ILO
and UNEP, implementing activities related to chemical safety. WHO is the
Executing Agency of the IPCS, whose main roles are to establish the
scientific basis for safe use of chemicals, and to strengthen national
capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

IARC's mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of
human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and to develop
scientific strategies for cancer prevention and control. The Agency is
involved in both epidemiological and laboratory research and disseminates
scientific information through publications, meetings, courses, and

World Health Day (7 April)

In 1948, the World Health Organization held the First World Health
Assembly. The Assembly decided to celebrate 7th April of each
year, with effect from 1950, as the World Health Day. The World
Health Day is celebrated to create “awareness of a specific
health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the
World Health Organization (WHO)”. Activities – related to that
particular theme and the resources provided – continue beyond 7
April, that is, the designated day for celebrating the World Health

Themes of World Health Days:-

2010: Be part of a global movement to make cities healthier

2009: Save lives, Make Hospitals Safe in Emergencies
2008: Protecting health from the adverse effects of climate change
2007: International health security
2006: Working together for health
2005: Make every mother and child count
2004: Road safety
2003: Shape the Future of Life: Healthy Environments for Children
2002: Move for Health
2001: Mental Health: Stop Exclusion, Dare to Care
2000: Safe Blood Start with Me
D) Conventions
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international treaty to
prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs
and of drugs with similar effects except under license for specific
purposes, such as medical treatment and research. As noted below, its
major effects included updating the Paris Convention of 13 July 1931 to
include the vast number of synthetic opioids invented in the intervening 30
years and a mechanism for more easily including new ones.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty

designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines,
barbiturates, and psychedelics.

On February 21, 1971, a conference of plenipotentiaries in Vienna signed a

new Convention worded to potentially include almost any conceivable
mind-altering substance. The Convention, which contains import and export
restrictions and other rules aimed at limiting drug use to scientific and
medical purposes, came into force on August 16, 1976. Today, 175 nations
are Parties to the treaty. Many laws have been passed to implement the
Convention, including the U.S. Psychotropic Substances Act, the UK
Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and the Canadian Controlled Drugs and
Substances Act.

World Health Organization Framework Convention on

Tobacco Control
The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
(abbreviated WHO FCTC) is a treaty adopted by the 56th World Health
Assembly on May 21, 2003. It became the first World Health Organization
treaty adopted under article 19 of the WHO constitution. The treaty came
into force on February 27, 2005.

The objective of the treaty is "to protect present and future generations
from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic
consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke."
To this end, the treaty provides a framework of national, regional and
international tobacco control measures, including the setting of broad limits
on the production, sale, distribution, advertisement, taxation, and
government policies towards tobacco.

E) Other Sources of Information

Global plan of action on workers' health is a draft to protect and promote
health in the workplace, to improve the performance of and access to
occupational health services, and to incorporate workers' health into other
policies. The WHO has emphasized the effort because, despite the
availability of effective interventions to prevent occupational hazards, large
gaps exist between and within countries with regard to the health status of
workers and their exposure to occupational risks. According to the WHO,
only a small minority of the global workforce has access to occupational
health services. The action plan deals with aspects of workers' health,
including primary prevention of occupational hazards, protection and
promotion of health at work, employment conditions, and a better response
from health systems to workers' health.

Health Sciences Online is a non-profit online health information resource

from the World Health Organization.

Private sector partnerships

Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative
The Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi) 501(c)(3) non-profit
drug research and development (R&D) organization that is developing new
treatments for neglected diseases. DNDi founded in 2003 by Médecins Sans
Frontières and five public-sector research organizations - Kenya Medical
Research Institute, Indian Council of Medical Research, Malaysian Ministry
of Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Brazil, and France's Institut Pasteur.
WHO/TDR serves as a permanent observer to the initiative. DNDi's primary
goals are to:

1. Develop new field-relevant treatments for people suffering from

neglected diseases;
2. Raise awareness through advocacy on research and development
of drugs for neglected diseases; and
3. Strengthen existing research capacity in countries where
neglected diseases are endemic.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics

The Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (abbreviated FIND) is a

swiss foundation located in Geneva. It is founded mainly by the Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation and Roche. It targets diseases of poverty such as
Tuberculosis, Malaria and Sleeping sickness

International Association for Suicide Prevention

The International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) is a suicide

prevention organization, founded by Erwin Ringel and Norman Farberow in
1960. The organization, which is in an official relationship with the World
Health Organization, is dedicated to preventing suicidal behavior and
providing a forum for mental health professionals, crisis workers,
suicide survivors and other people in one way or another affected by
suicidal behavior, and now consists of professionals and volunteers from
over fifty countries worldwide.

International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (known as IAVI) is a global not-

for-profit, public-private partnership working to accelerate the
development of vaccines to prevent HIV infection and AIDS. IAVI
researches and develops vaccine candidates, conducts policy analyses, and
serves as an advocate for the field. IAVI supports a comprehensive approach
to HIV/AIDS that balances the expansion and strengthening of existing HIV
prevention and treatment programs with targeted investments in new AIDS
prevention tools. It also works to ensure future vaccines will be accessible to
all who need them.

IAVI has offices in New York, Amsterdam, New Delhi, Nairobi and
Institute for OneWorld Health

The Institute for OneWorld Health is a nonprofit pharmaceutical company

founded in 2000 to develop safe, effective, and affordable new medicines
for people with infectious diseases in the developing countries.

International Partnership for Microbicides

The International Partnership for Microbicides or IPM is a non-profit

product development partnership (PDP) established in 2002 to prevent HIV
transmission by accelerating the development and availability of a safe
and effective microbicide for use by women in developing countries.

Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV)

Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), a not-for-profit public-private

partnership, was established as a foundation in Switzerland in 1999. It is
dedicated to reducing the burden of malaria in disease-endemic
countries by discovering, developing and facilitating delivery of new,
effective and affordable antimalarial drugs. The Chairman of the Board
of MMV is Lynda Chalker.

Program for Appropriate Technology in Health

The Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (more commonly known

as PATH) is an international, nonprofit global health organization based in
Seattle, Washington (USA), with 700+ employees in more than 30 offices
around the world.

The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization

The GAVI Alliance (GAVI) is a global health partnership between the
private and public sectors, committed to the mission of saving children's
lives and protecting people's health by increasing access to
immunization in poor countries.

A) World Health Organization Official Websites

General Information (African Region) (East Mediterranean Region) (American
Region) (South East Asia Region) (Europe Region) (Western Pacific Region)


Programs and Projects

B) Wikipedia,3604,940287,00.html


Short Textbook of Preventive Medicine

Author: Y.P.Pivovarov, A.A.Alsabounchi
Publisher: Department of Hygiene and Human Basic Ecology,
Russian State Medical University
Page: 230 and 231