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This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general
notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as a warranty of
specific properties of the products described or a warranty for fitness for a particular purpose.
Classified according to EU Directive 1999/45/EC
For further information see our “Material Safety Data Sheets”.

Edition 3, 08.2007
The latest revised edition of this brochure is the English version,
SS-EN ISO 9001
which is always published on our web site
SS-EN ISO 14001

Introduction ............................................ 3
The basic principles of EDM ................ 4
The effects of the EDM process
on tool steels .......................................... 4
Measuring the effects ............................ 6
Achieving best tool performance ....... 9
Polishing by EDM .................................. 11
Summary ................................................. 11


Introduction The basic able circumstances jeopardize the

working performance of the tool.
The use of Electrical Discharge principles of EDM In such cases it may be necessary to
Machining (EDM) in the production Electrical discharge machining (spark subordinate the first three factors,
of forming tools to produce plastics erosion) is a method involving elec- when choosing machining para-
mouldings, die castings, forging dies trical discharges between an anode meters, in order to optimize the
etc., has been firmly established in (graphite or copper) and a cathode fourth.
recent years. Development of the (tool steel or other tooling mate-
process has produced significant rial) in a dielectric medium. The
refinements in operating technique, discharges are controlled in such a The effects of
productivity and accuracy, while
widening the versatility of the pro-
way that erosion of the tool or the EDM process
work piece takes place. During the
cess. operation, the anode (electrode)
on tool steels
Wire EDM has emerged as an works itself down into the work- The influence of spark erosion on
efficient and economic alternative piece, which thus acquires the same the machined material is completely
to conventional machining of aper- contours as the former. different to that of conventional
tures in many types of tooling, e.g. The dielectric, or flushing liquid machining methods.
blanking dies, extrusion dies and for as it is also called, is ionized during As noted, the surface of the steel
cutting external shapes, such as the course of the discharges. The is subjected to very high tempera-
punches. positively charged ions strike the tures, causing the steel to melt or
cathode, whereupon the tempera- vaporize. The effect upon the steel
ture in the outermost layer of surface has been studied by Udde-
the steel rises so high (10–50,000°C/ holm Tooling to ensure that the
18–90,000°F) as to cause the steel tool maker may enjoy the many
there to melt or vaporize, forming benefits of the EDM process, while
tiny drops of molten metal which producing a tool that will have a
are flushed out as “chippings” into satisfactory production life.
the dielectric. The craters (and In the majority of cases, it has
occasionally also “chips” which have been impossible to trace any influ-
not separated completely) are easily ence at all on the working function
recognized in a cross section of a of the spark-eroded tool. However,
Special forms of EDM can now be machined surface. See figure 1. it has been observed that a trim-
used to polish tool cavities, produce ming tool, for example, has become
Four main factors need to be taken
undercuts and make conical holes more wear resistant, while in some
into account when considering the
using cylindrical electrodes. cases tool failure has occurred pre-
operating parameters during an
EDM continues to grow, there- maturely on changing from conven-
EDM operation on tool steel:
fore, as a major production tool in tional machining to EDM. In other
• the stock-removal rate
most tool making companies, cases, phenomena have occurred
machining with equal ease hardened • the resultant surface finish during the actual electrical discharge
or annealed steel. • electrode wear machining that have caused un-
• the effects on the tool steel. expected defects on the surface of
Uddeholm Tooling supplies a full
The influence of the EDM operation the tool. This due to the fact that
range of tool steels noted for con-
on the surface properties of the the machining has been carried out
sistency in structure. This factor,
machined material, can in unfavour- in an unsuitable manner.
coupled with very low sulphur lev-
els ensures consistent EDM per-
This brochure gives information on:
• The basic principles of EDM
• The effects of the EDM pro-
Fig.1. A “rough-machined”
cess on tool steels EDM surface with a cross
• Achieving best tool perform section through chips and
ance craters. Material: Uddeholm
Orvar 2 Microdized.

“Surface strength”— invariably follows the direction of Tempered layer

an important factor the crystals. In normal rough In the tempered layer, the steel
machining, this layer has a thickness has not been heated up so much as
All the changes that can be ob-
of about 15–30 µm. to reach hardening temperature and
served are due to the enormous
The carbon content in the surface the only thing that has occurred is
temperature rise which occurs in
layer can also be affected, for in- tempering-back. The effect naturally
the surface layer.
stance, by carburization from the decreases towards the core of the
In the surface layer, it has been ob- flushing liquid or from the elec- material – see the hardness curve in
served that the four (main) factors trode, but decarburization can also figure 2.
associated with the all-important occur. In order to study the structural
“surface strength” of the steel are
changes incurred with different
affected by this temperature in- Rehardened layer machining variables, different tool
In the rehardened layer, the tem- steels—see table 1—were “rough-
• the microstructure
perature has risen above the auste- machined” and “fine-machined” with
• the hardness
nitizing (hardening) temperature graphite electrodes.
• the stress condition
and martensite has been formed.
• carbon content.
This martensite is hard and brittle.
Figure 2 shows a section from a
normal rough-spark-machined
surface with the typical, different
structural changes.

Melted and resolidified layer

The melted and resolidified
layer produced during the EDM
process is also referred to as the
“white zone”, since generally no
etching takes place in these areas
during metallographic preparation.
Figure 3, nevertheless, shows clearly
that it is a rapidly solidified layer,
where long pillar crystals have
grown straight out from the surface 1000 x
of the metal during solidification. Fig. 3. Pillar crystals formed during
A fracture occurring in this layer solidification.

400 600 800 1000

Melted and
resolidified layer

Rehardened layer

Tempered layer

Unaffected matrix

200 X
Typical hardness distribution
in the surface layer

Fig. 2. Section from a spark-machined surface showing changes in structure.

Material: Uddeholm Rigor, hardened to 57 HRC.


Austenitizing, time 20 min Tempering, time 2 x 30 min Hardness

Uddeholm Temperature Temperature Hardened Annealed
steel grade AISI °C °F °C °F HRC HB Note: As Uddeholm Corrax is
a precipitation hardening steel
ARNE O1 810 1490 220 430 60 190 the EDM surface has different
CALMAX – 960 1760 200 392 58 200 characteristics. The “white
RIGOR A2 940 1725 220 430 60 – layer” consists of melted and
SVERKER 21 D2 1020 1870 250 480 60 220
resolidified material with a
IMPAX SUPREME P20 850 1560 580 1075 30 –
hardness of approx. 34 HRC.
ORVAR SUPREME H13 1025 1875 560 1040 50 180
There will be no other heat
affected zone of importance.
Table 1. The tool steels were tested in the hardened and tempered condition, and some of them
also in the annealed condition.

Thickness µm
Measuring 80
Graphite electrode
the effects 60 Fig. 4a. Layer thicknesses and
fissure frequency in the surface
40 Melted zone
The thicknesses of the heat- layer in electrical discharge
20 machining of hardened (52 HRC)
affected zones have been measured. Hardended zone
The hardnesses in these zones 0 Uddeholm Orvar Supreme at
Matrix different pulse durations.
have also been measured, as have
100 200 500 1000 ti µ sec
crack frequencies and crack 21 25 43(A)
depths. Strength values have – – 3(B)
– – –(C)
been obtained through bending
tests. No. of cracks per cm: (A) in melted zone
The layer thicknesses appear to (B) in hardened zone
(C) in matrix
be largely independent of both steel
grade and electrode material. On Thickness µm
the other hand, there is a definite
difference between the specimens Graphite electrode
which have been hardened and
those which were in the softanneal- Fig. 4b. As above, but for
ed condition. Figure 4 shows, in the 20 Melted zone
electrical discharge machining of
form of graphs, the layer thicknesses 0 Hardended zone Uddeholm Orvar Supreme in
Matrix the annealed condition.
and fissure frequency with different
100 200 500 1000 ti µ sec
pulse durations for Uddeholm 5 19 15(A)
Orvar Supreme. – – –(B)
– – –(C)
In the annealed material, the zones
are thinner and the fissures fewer. No. of cracks per cm: (A) in melted zone
(B) in hardened zone
The brittle, hardened zone is scar- (C) in matrix
cely present at all (figure 4b).
The layer thicknesses can vary
considerably, from 0 µm to maxi-
mum values slightly below the Rmax
specified in the machining directions.
In the rough-machining stages
(ti ≥100µ sec), the thicknesses of the
layers vary far more substantially
than in the fine-machining stages. Fig. 5. Fine-machined Uddeholm
The thickness of both the melted Rigor, pulse duration 10µ sec.
100 x
and the hardened zone increases
with spark duration, which appears the beneficial effect of “fine-finish-
to be the most important single ing”, i.e. to produce a very thin re-
controlling variable. Figure 5 shows melted and heat-affected zone.


Structures of The cause of “arcing” must have time to become de-

spark-machined layers Short off-times, or pause times, give ionized. Too short an off-time can
more sparks per unit of time and result in double sparking “ignitions”
With longer pulse duration, the
thus more stock removal. During which lead to constantly burning
heat is conducted more deeply into
the off-time, the dielectric fluid arcs between the electrode and the
the material. Higher current inten-
work piece, resulting in serious
sity and density (and thus spark
surface defects. The risk of arcing is
energy) do, indeed, give a higher
increased if flushing conditions for
“amount of heat” in the surface, but
the dielectric fluid are difficult.
the time taken for the heat to dif-
As a result of “arcing”, i.e. a con-
fuse, nevertheless, appears to have
dition in which arcs are formed
the greatest significance. The pic-
between local parts of the elec-
tures below show how the surface
trode and the workpiece, large cra-
zones are changed in Uddeholm
ters or “burns” are formed in the
Sverker 21 (in hardened and tem-
surface. These have frequently been
pered condition) with different
confused with slag inclusions or
pulse durations and electrode mate-
ti = 200 µs. Magnification 500 x porosity in the material. Figures 7
Figur 6d. Copper electrode and 8 show the surface of a tool
with a section through one of the
suspected “pores”.
One of the primary causes of this
type of defect is inadequate flushing,
or machining of narrow slots, etc.,
resulting in chips and other loose
particles forming a bridge between
the electrode and the workpiece.
The same effect can be obtained
with a graphite electrode which
ti = 10 µs. Magnification 500 x ti = 500 µs. Magnification 500 x bears traces of foreign material.
Figur 6a. Copper electrode Figur 6e. Graphite electrode On modern machines featuring so-
called adaptive current control, the
risk of “arcing” has been eliminated.

ti = 10 µs. Magnification 500 x Figur 7. The suspected “pores” can
Figur 6b. Graphite electrode be seen on the surface of the tool

ti = 100 µs. Magnification 500 x 65 x

Figur 8. A section through one of the
Figur 6c. Graphite electrode suspected “pores”

Fissure frequency Melted Hardened

also increases with pulse zone zone Matrix

duration High-alloy cold-work steel

UDDEHOLM SVERKER type 20–50 2–10 0–5
With times in excess of 100µ sec, Hot-work steel
all steels reveal several cracks in UDDEHOLM ORVAR type 10–40 2–5 0–2
the melted layer. High-carbon and/ Cold-work steels
or air-hardening steels show the UDDEHOLM ARNE types 10–30 0–5 0–2
highest frequency of fissures. The Plastic-moulding steel
annealed specimens contain no UDDEHOLM IMPAX SUPREME type 0–5 0–2 0
cracks at all in the matrix.
The number of cracks which con- Table 2. The table shows the occurrence rate of fissures.
tinue down into the hardened zone
is roughly 20%, while only a very
few cracks penetrate into the ma-
trix. In the matrix, the fissure depth The difference in hardness and vol- be eliminated, some different
is seldom more than about some ume between the layers gives rise related operations can be used:
tens of a µm. Here too, it applies to stresses which, upon measure- • Stress-relief tempering at a
that cracks in the matrix are mainly ment, have been found to have the tempering temperature approx.
encountered in the highly-alloyed same depth as the affected surface 15°C (30°F) lower than that
cold-working steels. Table 2 shows layers. These stresses can be sub- previously used tempering tem-
the occurrence rate of fissures in a stantially reduced by extra heat- perature, lowers the surface
number of tested tool steels. treatment operations. hardness without influencing the
Renewed tempering (235°C/ hardness of the matrix.
The difference in stock-removal 455°F 30 min) of the specimen in
• Grinding or polishing will re-
rate amounts to a maximum of figure 9 resulted in lowering of the
move both the surface structure
approx. 15% between the different hardness level to the curve drawn
and cracks, depending of course
grades of tool steel with the same with a broken line.
on how deeply it is done (approx.
machine setting data. If electrical discharge machining is
5–10 µm in fine-machining).
The hardnesses in the different properly performed with a final
layers can also vary considerably, fine-machined stage, surface defects
but in principle the same pattern are largely eliminated. If this is not
applies to all grades. Figure 9 shows possible for one reason or another,
a typical hardness distribution. or if it is necessary for all effects to

Graphite electrode
t = 200 µ sec




Hardness immediately
after EDM
Fig. 9. Typical hardness distribu-
200 Hardness after re- tion in hardened Uddeholm
Sverker 21 immediately after EDM
and then after re-tempering.
0 50 100 150 µm


Bending test Background to Achieving best

To evaluate the likely effect of the the bending test results
remelted layer, surface irregularities The hard, re-solidified rehardened
tool performance
and cracks produced in the EDM layers cause, in the first instance, EDM using solid electrodes
process on the strength of a tool, a those cracks which are formed (copper/graphite)
bending test was carried out. Vari- upon application of the load and in
As noted, in most cases where the
ous combinations of EDM surface the second instance those which
EDM process has been carefully
finish and post treatments, e.g. were already present to act as initia-
carried out no adverse effect is
stress-relieving/polishing, were tors of failure in the matrix. At
experienced on tool performance.
tested on 5 mm square test pieces 57 HRC, the matrix is not tough
As a precautionary measure,
of Rigor at 57 HRC. The test pieces enough to stop the cracks from
however, the following steps are
were spark-machined on one face growing and consequently the fail-
to different EDM stages and bent ure occurs already on the elastic
severely, with the EDM surface on part of the load curve. Normally,
the outside of the bend. there should have been a certain TEMPERED MATERIAL
Figure 10 shows that the sample amount of plastic bending of a test
with a fine-spark machined finish bar in this material. A Conventional machining
which had been polished afterwards B Hardening and tempering
gave the best result. The rough C Initial EDM, avoiding “arcing” and
spark-machined sample, without any excessive stock removal rates.
Finish with “fine-sparking”, i.e. low
post treatment, had the lowest current, high frequency.
bending strength. D (i) Grind or polish EDM surface
or D (ii) Temper the tool at 15°C
(30°F) lower than the original
Bending strength tempering temperature.
1200 or D (iii) Choose a lower starting
hardness of the tool to
improve overall toughness.
600 A Conventional machining
Fine spark-machined, Polished

500 B Initial EDM, as C above.

Fine spark-machined
Rough spark-machined
Rough spark-machined

C Grind or polish EDM surface.

Fine spark-machined

This reduces the risk of crack
300 formation during heating and

200 quenching. Slow pre-heating, in

stages, to the hardening tempera-
100 ture is recommended.

Fig. 10. Bending strength at different EDM stages and with

different subsequent operation. Material Uddeholm Rigor Note: When EDM’d in solution
57 HRC. The shaded areas show the spread of the results
measured. annealed condition the toughness of
Uddeholm Corrax is not affected.
It is recommended that all
EDM’ing of Uddeholm Corrax is
done after aging since an aging after
EDM’ing will reduce the toughness.
It is recommended that the
“white layer” is removed by grind-
ing, stoning or polishing.


Wire EDM These stresses take the form of In certain cases the risk can be
The observation made about the tensile stresses in the surface area reduced through different pre-
EDM surface in earlier pages are and compressive stresses in the cautions.
also mostly applicable to the wire centre and are in opposition to each 1: To lower the overall stress level
EDM-process. other. During the wire erosion pro- in the part by tempering at a high
The affected surface layer, how- cess a greater or lesser amount of temperature. This assumes the use
ever, is relatively thin (<10 µm) and steel is removed from the heat- of a steel grade with high resistance
can be compared more to “fine- treated part. Where a large volume to tempering.
sparking” EDM. Normally there are of steel is removed, this can some-
2: By drilling several holes in the
no observable cracks in the eroded times lead to distortion or even
area to be removed and to connect
surface after wire erosion. But in cracking of the part. The reason is
them by saw-cutting, before harden-
certain cases another problem has that the stress balance in the part is
ing and tempering. Any stresses
been experienced. disturbed and tries to reach an
released during heat treatment are
After heat treating a through equilibrium again. The problem of
then taken up in the pre-drilled and
hardening steel the part contains crack formation is usually only
sawn areas, reducing or eliminating
high stresses (the higher the tem- encountered in relatively thick cross
the risk of distortion or cracking
pering temperature, the lower the section, e.g. over 50 mm (2") thick.
during wire-erosion. Fig. 13 illu-
stresses). With such heavier sections, correct
strates how such pre-cutting may
hardening and double tempering is
be done.

Fig. 13. Pre-drilled holes connected

by a saw-cut, before hardening and
tempering, will help to prevent
distortion or cracking when wire
eroding thick sections.

Fig. 12. This block of D2 steel, approx.

50 x 50 x 50 mm (2" x 2" x 2"), cracked
during the wire EDM operation.

Fig. 11. Wire erosion of a hardened and tempered

tool steel blanking die.


Wire erosion layer produced is very thin and in connection with the working
of cutting punches equal in the these grades. The thick- performance of spark-machined
ness is about 2–4 µm. Since there is tools should arise, however, there
When producing a cutting punch
no sign of any heat-affected layer, are some relatively simple extra
by wire erosion, it is recommended
the influence of the EDM on me- operations that can be employed, as
(as with conventional machining) to
chanical properties is negligible. indicated above.
cut it with the grain direction of the
A slightly striped appearance has
tool steel stock in the direction of
been re-ported in materials rich in
the cutting action. This is not so
carbides, such as high-carbon cold-
important when using PM steels
due to their non-directional grain
Summary work steels and high-speed steels,
In summing up it can be said that where there is always a certain
properly executed electrical dis- amount of carbide segregation or in
charge machining, using a rough and material with high sulphur content.
a fine machining stage in accordance The difference in bending strength
Polishing by EDM with the manufacturer’s instruction, between rough-spark-machined and
Today some manufacturers of EDM- eliminates the surface defects ob- fine-spark-machined test pieces is
equipment offer, by a special tech- tained in rough machining. Naturally, largely due to the difference in the
nique, possibilities to erode very certain structural effects will always distribution of the cracks and to the
fine and smooth surfaces. It is pos- remain, but in the vast majority of presence of the in spots distributed
sible to reach the surface finish of cases these are insignificant, pro- white layer on the fine-spark-
about 0,2–0,3 µm. Such surfaces are vided that the machining process machined specimens. The rougher
sufficient for most applications. The has otherwise been normal. Struc- surface finish of the rough-machined
greatest advantages are when com- tural effects, more-over, need not specimen has not really been signi-
plicated cavities are involved. Such necessarily be regarded as entirely ficant. Regardless of circumstances,
cavities are difficult, time consuming negative. In certain cases the surface such surface irregularities are rela-
and therefore expensive to polish structure, i.e. the rehardened layer, tively harmless as crack initiators
manually, but can be conveniently has—on account of its high hard- compared with the solidification
done by the EDM- machine during a ness—improved the resistance of cracks. During the polishing of the
night-shift, for example. the tool to abrasive wear. In other fine-machined test piece which was
Investigations made on our grades cases it has been found that the carried out, the depth of the white
Uddeholm Impax Supreme, Udde- cratered topography of the surface and rehardened layer was merely
holm Orvar Supreme, Uddeholm is better able to retain lubricant reduced and not completely elimi-
Stavax ESR and Uddeholm Rigor than conventional surfaces, resulting nated. Further polishing would
show that the hard re-melted white in a longer service life. If difficulties probably result in complete restora-
tion of the bending strength.
Highly stressed tools and parts
thereof, e.g. very thin sections that
are far more liable to bending, can
justify an extra finishing operation.
The lower the hardness in the
matrix, the less sensitive the mate-
rial will be to adverse effects on the
strength as a result of electrical
discharge machining. Lowering of
the hardness level of the entire tool
can, therefore, be another alterna-

Fig. 14. This Uddeholm Stavax ESR mould insert was finished
by EDM “polishing”.


Germany Lithuania Branch office

BE PLIENAS IR METALAI Barrio San Martín de Arteaga,132
Austria Hansaallee 321 T. Masiulio 18B Pol.Ind. Torrelarragoiti
Representative office LT-52459 Kaunas ES-48170 Zamudio (Bizkaia)
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Telephone: +370 37 370613, -669 Telephone: +34 94 452 13 03
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El Salvador Branch offices

Asia & Pacific ASSAB Tooling (Dongguan) Co Ltd
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Mozart 40 SV-San Salvador 129-135 McCredie Road Dongguan 523808, China
1619-Centro Industrial Garin Telephone: +503 22 711700 Guildford NSW 2161 Telephone: +86 769 2289 7888
Garin-Prov. Private Bag 14
AR-Buenos Aires AU-Sydney
Telephone: +54 332 7444 440 Telephone: +61 2 9681 3100 ASSAB Tooling (Xiamen) Co Ltd Guatemala First Floor Universal Workshop
Apartado postal 11C Xiamen 361006, China
Brazil GT-Guatemala City, Guatemala Bangladesh Telephone: +86 592 562 4678
Estrada Yae Massumoto, 353 Jebel Ali
Hong Kong
CEP 09842-160 AE-Dubai ASSAB Steels (HK) Ltd
BR-Sao Bernardo do Campo - SP Brazil Mexico Telephone: +971 488 12165 Room 1701-1706
Telephone: +55 11 4393 4560, 4554 Head office Grand Central Plaza, Tower 2 138 Shatin Rural Committee Road
Shatin NT, Hong Kong
de C.V.
Calle Ocho No 2, Letra ”C”
North China Telephone: +852 2487 1991
Canada Fraccionamiento Industrial Alce Blanco Head office
Head Office & Warehouse C.P. 52787 Naucalpan de Juarez ASSAB Tooling (Beijing) Co Ltd
UDDEHOLM MX-Estado de Mexico No.10A Rong Jing Dong Jie India
2595 Meadowvale Blvd. Telephone: +52 55 9172 0242 Beijing Economic Development Area
ASSAB Sripad Steels LTD
Mississauga, ON L5N 7Y3 Beijing 100176, China
T 303 D.A.V. Complex
Telephone: +1 905 812 9440 Telephone: +86 10 6786 5588
Branch office Mayur Vihar Ph I Extension
Branch Warehouses NUEVO LEON Branch offices Telephone: +91 11 2271 2736
UDDEHOLM Lerdo de Tejada No.542 ASSAB Tooling (Beijing) Ltd
3521 Rue Ashby Colonia Las Villas Dalian Branch
St. Laurent, QC H4R 2K3 MX-66420 San Nicolas de Los Garza, 8 Huanghai Street, Haerbin Road ASSAB Sripad Steels LTD
Telephone: +1 514 333 8000 N.L. Economic & Technical Develop. District 709, Swastik Chambers
Telephone: +52 81 83 525239 Dalian 116600, China Sion-Trombay Road
UDDEHOLM Telephone: +86 411 8761 8080 Chembur
730 Eaton Way - Unit #10 IN-Mumbai-400 071
New Westminister, BC V3M 6J9 Peru ASSAB Qingdao Office Telephone: +91 22 2522-7110, -8133
Telephone: +1 604 525 3354 C.I.P.E.S.A Room 2521, Kexin Mansion
Av. Oscar R. Benavides No. 228 Liaoning Road, Shibei District ASSAB Sripad Steels LTD
Heat Treating (ante Colonial) No. 2066 Qingdao 266012, China Padmalaya Towers
THERMO-TECH PE-Lima 1 Telephone: +86 532 8382 0930 Janaki Avenue
2645 Meadowvale Blvd. Telephone: +51 1 336 8673 M.R.C. Nagar
Mississauga, ON L5N 7Y4 ASSAB Tianjin Office IN-Chennai-600 028
Telephone: +1 905 812 9440 No.12 Puwangli Wanda Xincheng Telephone: +91 44 2495 2371
Xinyibai Road, Beichen District
U.S.A. Tianjin 300402, China ASSAB Sripad Steels LTD
Colombia Head Office Telephone: +86 22 2672 0006 19X, D. P. P. Road
AXXECOL S.A. Naktola Post Office
UDDEHOLM IN-Kolkata-700 047
Carrera 35 No 13-20 4902 Tollview Drive
Apartado Aereo 80718 Rolling Meadows IL 60008
Central China Telephone: +91 (33) 400 1645
CO-Bogota 6 Telephone: 1-847-577-2220 Head office
Telephone: +57 1 2010700 ASSAB Sripad Steels LTD
Sales phone: 1-800-638-2520 ASSAB Tooling Technology Ground floor, Plot No 11-6-8 (Shanghai) Co Ltd Opp IDPL Factory Out Gate
No. 4088 Humin Road Balanagar
ASTECO S.A. Region East Warehouse Xinzhuang Industrial Zone
Carrera 54 No 35-12 IN-Hyderabad-500 037
UDDEHOLM Shanghai 201108, China Telephone: +91 (40) 2377 8148
Apartado Aereo 663 220 Cherry Street Telephone: +86 21 5442 2345
CO-Medellin Shrewsbury MA 01545
Telephone: +57 4 2320122 Indonesia Region Central Warehouse Branch offices
UDDEHOLM Head office
ASSAB Tooling Technology
548 Clayton Ct. (Ningbo) Co Ltd PT ASSAB Steels Indonesia
Dominican Republic Wood Dale IL 60191 No. 218 Longjiaoshan Road Jl. Rawagelam III No. 5
RAMCA, C. POR A. Vehicle Part Industrial Park Kawasan Industri Pulogadung
P-2289 Region West Warehouse Jakarta 13930, Indonesia
Ningbo Economic & Technical Dev.
P.O. Box 025650 UDDEHOLM Telephone: +62 21 461 1314
Miami, Fl. 33102 9331 Santa Fe Springs Road
Ningbo 315806, China
Telephone: +1 809 682 4011 Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
Telephone: +86 574 8680 7188 Branch offices
Venezuela Jl. Berbek Industri 1/23
(Chongqing) Co Ltd
Plant C, Automotive Industrial lPark Surabaya Industrial Estate, Rungkut
IVAN BOHMAN C.A. Multicentro Empresarial del Este, Surabaya 60293, East Java, Indonesia
Chongqing Economic & Technological
Apartado 1317 Edf Libertador, Núcleo A. Telephone: +62 31 843 2277
Development Zone
Km 6 1/2 Via a Daule Piso 9, Of. A-93, Chacao
Chongqing 401120, China
Guayaquil VE-Caracas 1060 MEDAN BRANCH
Telephone: +86 23 6745 5698
Telephone: +593 42 254111 Telephone: +58 212 2655040 Komplek Griya Riatur Indah Blok A No.138
IVAN BOHMAN C.A. South China Jl. T. Amir Hamzah
Casilla Postal 17-01370 Halvetia Timur, Medan 20124
Other Countries in America Head office
Quito Telephone: +62 61 847 7935/6
Telephone: +593 2 2248001
Box 42 Room 1701–1706 BANDUNG BRANCH
SE-171 11 Solna, Sweden Tower 2 Grand Central Plaza Komp. Ruko Bumi Kencana
Telephone: +46 8 564 616 70 138 Shatin Rural Committee Road Jl. Titian Kencana Blok E Shatin NT - Hong Kong No.5 Bandung 40233
Telephone: +852 2487 1991 Telephone: +62 22 604 1364


TANGERANG BRANCH Philippines Branch offices

Pusat Niaga Cibodas
Blok C No. 7 Tangerang No. 10, Industry South 5th Road
Telephone: +62 21 921 9596, 551 2732
No. 3 E. Rodriguez Jr., Avenue Nan Kang Industry Zone Egypt
Bagong Ilog, Pasig City Nantou 540-66, Taiwan (R.O.C.) UNITED FOR IMPORT AND
Jl. Imam Bonjol No.155 TAINAN BRANCH Montaser Project No 20
Telephone: +632 671 1953/2048
R.208 Semarang 50124 No. 180, Yen He Street, Flat No 14
Telephone: +62 358 8167 Yong Kang City Al Ahram Street-El Tabia
Republic of Korea Tainan 710-82, Taiwan (R.O.C.) EG-Giza Cairo
Telephone: +886 6 242 6838 Telephone: +20 2 7797751
Iran Head office
ASSAB Steels (Korea) Co Ltd
P.O. Box 19395 116B-8L, 687-8, Kojan-dong Thailand
IR-1517 TEHRAN Namdong-ku Kenya
ASSAB Steels (Thailand) Ltd
Telephone: +98 21 888 35392 Incheon 405-310, Korea
9/8 Soi Theedinthai, SANDVIK Kenya Ltd Telephone: +82 32 821 4300
Taeparak Road, Bangplee, P.O. Box 18264
Samutprakarn 10540, Thailand Post code 00500
Branch offices Telephone: +66 2 385 5937, KE-Nairobi
Israel +66 2 757 5017
BUSAN BRANCH Telephone: +254 20 532 866
STEELS Ltd 14B-5L, 1483-9, Songjeong-dong
P.O. Box 686 Kangseo-ku, Busan 618-270, Korea
Telephone: +82 51 831 3315 United Arab Emirates
Ha-Yarkon St. 7, Industrial Zone South Africa
Telephone: +972 8 932 8182 DAEGU BRANCH
Room 27, 7-Dong2 F P.O. Box 17595 P.O. Box 539 Jebel Ali ZA-1600 Isando/Johannesburg
Industry Materials Bldg.1629
Sangyeog-Dong, Buk-Ku AE-Dubai Telephone: +27 (11) 974 2791
Telephone: +971 488 12165
Japan Korea-Daegu 702-710
UDDEHOLM KK Telephone: +82 53 604 5133
Atago East Building Tunisia
3-16-11 Nishi Shinbashi Lebanon Vietnam MCM Distribution
Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003, Japan CAM Trading Steel Co Ltd 4 Bis, Rue 8610 - Z.I.
Telephone: + 81 3 5473 4641 WARDE STEEL & METALS SARL MET
Charles Helou Av, Warde Bldg 90/8 Block 5, Tan Thoi Nhat Ward 2035 Chargula 1 District 12, Ho Chi Minh City TN-Tunis
P.O. Box 165886
LB-Beirut Vietnam Telephone: + 216 71 802479
Telephone: +84 8 5920 920
Jordan Telephone: +961 1 447228
P.O. Box 874 Zimbabwe
Abu Alanda Saudi Arabia Other Asia Representative office:
Telephone: +962 6 4161962 ASSAB INTERNATIONAL AB UDDEHOLM Africa (Pty.) Ltd.
P.O. Box 255092 Box 42 P.O. Box 539 E-171 11 Solna, Sweden
SA-Riyadh 11353 ZA-1600 Isando/Johannesburg
Telephone: +966 1 4466542 Telephone: +46 8 564 616 70 Telephone: +27 11 974 2781
Head office
ASSAB Steels (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Singapore Other African Countries
Lot 19, Jalan Perusahaan 2 ASSAB INTERNATIONAL AB
Head office Pacific
Batu Caves Industrial Estate Box 42
68100 Batu Caves ASSAB Pacific Pte Ltd
171, Chin Swee Road SE-171 11 Solna, Sweden
Selangor Malaysia Telephone: +46 8 564 616 70
Telephone: +60 3 6189 0022 No. 07-02, SAN Centre
SG-Singapore 169877
Telephone: +65 6534 5600
Branch offices
Plot 146a
ASSAB Steels Singapore (Pte) Ltd
Jalan Perindustrial Bukit Minyak 7
18, Penjuru Close
Kawasan Perindustrial Bukit Minyak
SG-608616 Singapore
14000 Bukit Mertajam, SPT Penang
Telephone: +65 6862 2200
Telephone: +60 4 507 2020


No. 8, Jalan Persiaran Teknologi
Taman Teknologi
451/A Kandy Road
81400 Senai
Johor DT, Malaysia
Telephone: +94 11 2913556
Telephone: +60 7 598 0011

New Zealand Syria

25 Beach Road, Otahuhu
Charles Helou Av, Warde Bldg
P.O. Box 13-359, Onehunga
P.O. Box 165886
Telephone: +64 9 270 1199
Telephone: +961 1 447228

Pakistan Taiwan
ASSAB International AB
Head office
P.O. Box 17595
Jebel Ali ASSAB Steels (Taiwan) Co Ltd
AE-Dubai No. 112 Wu Kung 1st Rd.
Telephone: +971 488 12165 Wu Ku Industry Zone TW-Taipei 248-87, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
Telephone: +886 2 2299 2849

Network of excellence
Uddeholm is present on every continent. This ensures you
high-quality Swedish tool steel and local support wherever you
are. Assab is our wholly-owned subsidiary and exclusive sales
channel, representing Uddeholm in various parts of the world.
Together we secure our position as the world’s leading supplier
of tooling materials.
Uddeholm is the world’s leading supplier of tooling materials. This
is a position we have reached by improving our customers’ everyday
business. Long tradition combined with research and product develop-
ment equips Uddeholm to solve any tooling problem that may arise.
It is a challenging process, but the goal is clear – to be your number one
partner and tool steel provider.

Our presence on every continent guarantees you the same high quality
wherever you are. Assab is our wholly-owned subsidiary and exclusive
sales channel, representing Uddeholm in various parts of the world.
Together we secure our position as the world’s leading supplier of
tooling materials. We act worldwide, so there is always an Uddeholm
or Assab representative close at hand to give local advice and support.
For us it is all a matter of trust – in long-term partnerships as well as in
developing new products. Trust is something you earn, every day.

For more information, please visit or