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INDEX

S. NO. PARTICULAR PAGE NO.

1. Introduction. Pg.1-2

2. Content; Pg.3-8

a) Data. Pg.3

b) Information. Pg.3

c) Data Processing. Pg.3

d) Functions of Data Processing. Pg.3

e) Need for Data Processing. Pg.4

f) Importance of Data Processing. Pg.4

g) Methods of Data Processing. Pg.4

h) Process of Data Processing. Pg.5

i) Data Processing Cycle. Pg.6

j) Types of Data Processing. Pg.7

k) Components of Data Processing. Pg.8

3. Findings Pg.9

4. Conclusion. Pg.10
COMPONENTS OF DATA PROCESSING

INTRODUCTION:

In this assignment, We are going to understand what is data, how this data is processed and what
are its various components.

Firstly, What is data?

Data are individual units of information. Data describes a single quality or quantity of some
object or phenomenon. In analytical processes, data are represented by variables.

Secondly, What is data processing?

Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce
meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing,
"the change or processing of information in any manner detectable by an observer."

The term "Data Processing" has also been used to refer to a department within an organization
responsible for the operation of data processing applications.

Now the question arises, What is the need of data processing?

data processing is important to be aware about the related aspects right starting from the methods
of data collection, data processing, data processing cycle, information processing cycle, methods
of data processing, types of data processing, data presentation and analysis till the data
management best practices

Now comes the process of Data processing;

Data processing may involve various processes, including:

1. Validation – Ensuring that supplied data is correct and relevant.


2. Sorting – "arranging items in some sequence and/or in different sets."
3. Summarization – reducing detailed data to its main points.
4. Aggregation – combining multiple pieces of data.
5. Analysis – the "collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of
data."
6. Reporting – list detail or summary data or computed information.
7. Classification – separation of data into various categories.

Now we can finally understand what are the various components of data processing;

It consists of four major components,

1. Input:
Input refers to all the activities associated with recording data and making it available for
processing. The input component represents the process of transforming data into a form
that a computer understands. Input equipment includes devices that convert data into
acceptable form, transform punched card and paper tape code to binary numbers and put
data into the computer's main storage area. Some examples of these machines are key
punch machines, flexowriters and magnetic tape units.

2. Processing:
After data is recorded and converted into an appropriate form, it must be processed.
Processing includes different arithmetic and logical operations, so to process data means
to do the classifying, sorting, summarizing, comparing and other manipulation techniques
that convert data into information.

3. Output:
Data processing converts data into information that must be transmitted to persons who
need it. The communication function that enables this is called output. If the information
is not in a form that is readable by humans, then output will also include a decoding
process. This process will convert the information into the right form. Computers
generate three types of output: soft copy, hard copy and sound. Output devices show the
final result of the whole process.
4. Storage:
The storage area is the area that contains the processed data and the instructions that must
be followed during the data processing. It also includes information for future use. A
storage device is a hardware component of a computer, and it permanently stores data on
storage media. A storage media is nonvolatile. Storage is of two types;
 Random Access Memory.
 Read Only Memory.

Now let us discuss each aspects briefly;

DATA:

Data is any set of characters that is gathered and translated for some purpose, usually analysis. It
can be any character, including text and numbers, pictures, sound, or video. If data is not put into
context, it doesn't do anything to a human or computer.

Although the terms "data" and "information" are often used interchangeably, these terms have
distinct meanings.

INFORMATION:

Data are simply facts or figures — bits of information, but not information itself. When data are
processed, interpreted, organized, structured or presented so as to make them meaningful or
useful, they are called information. Information provides context for data.
DATA PROCESSING:

Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce
meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing,
"the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer."

The term Data Processing (DP) has also been used to refer to a department within an
organization responsible for the operation of data processing applications.

FUNCTIONS OF DATA PROCESSING:

Data processing may involve various processes, including:

1. Validation – Ensuring that supplied data is correct and relevant.


2. Sorting – "arranging items in some sequence and/or in different sets."
3. Summarization – reducing detailed data to its main points.
4. Aggregation – combining multiple pieces of data.
5. Analysis – the "collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of
data."
6. Reporting – list detail or summary data or computed information.
7. Classification – separation of data into various categories.

NEED OF DATA PROCESSING:

Importance of data processing includes increased productivity and profits, better decisions, more
accurate and reliable. Further cost reduction, ease in storage, distributing and report making
followed by better analysis and presentation are other advantages. The need to process data is
now widely realized and reflected in every field of work. Let the work be done in a business
atmosphere or for educational research purpose. It is a multidimensional process which is
involved in almost every field of human life.
IMPORTANCE OF DATA PROCESSING

1. Data processing makes it easier to validate actions and changes and transactions easily
and reduce dependence on computational power for collecting them on demand from a
basic form.
2. Insurance claims can be easily handled and settled with properly processed data and
make it time-saving for the police authorities as well.
3. Data processing can also be made to include image processing and make it easier to
present any data to users in a readable format that is liked by them.
4. Invoices can be easily generated for services which have been used and make the
customer experience better.
5. Data processing in the form of word processing can help in making documents which are
readable and likeable by readers and be made even more engaging.

METHODS OF DATA PROCESSING:

1. Manual Data Processing –


Manual data procession is totally depended upon human being’s brain power and efforts.
Not a single or simplest device is used to calculate data. Every calculation is done by the
staff and there is a big chance of errors. When you are running a complete setup, you
need to switch yourself among different jobs. This increases the chances of error. Manual
data processing is slow and there is a higher chance or errors and omissions.
2. Mechanical Data Processing –
Secondly, there is another kind of data processing where all of the calculation is done by
calculator. This type is called mechanical data processing. Though manual and
mechanical data processing are obsoleted now a day, there are a few small organizations
which cannot afford to have a complete computerized setup. This requires them to use
mechanical data processing.
3. Electronic Data Processing –
The third, modern and most common form of data processing is called electronic data
processing. In this all the data is processed and calculated through computers and there
are negligible chance of errors and mistakes. There are various applications which are
designed to process data and this technique is the fastest of all three kinds. Electronic data
processing methods makes it more organized, accurate and less time-consuming as well.

PROCESS OF DATA PROCESSING:

1. Collection:
Collection is the first stage of the cycle, and is very crucial, since the quality of data
collected will impact heavily on the output. The collection process needs to ensure that
the data gathered are both defined and accurate, so that subsequent decisions based on the
findings are valid. This stage provides both the baseline from which to measure, and a
target on what to improve.
2. Preparation:
Preperation is the manipulation of data into a form suitable for further analysis and
processing. Raw data cannot be processed and must be checked for accuracy. Preparation
is about constructing a data set from one or more data sources to be used for further
exploration and processing. Analyzing data that has not been carefully screened for
problems can produce highly misleading results that are heavily dependent on the quality
of data prepared.
3. Input:
Input is the task where verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so
that it can be processed through an application. Data entry is done through the use of a
keyboard, scanner, or data entry from an existing source. This time-consuming process
requires speed and accuracy. Most data need to follow a formal and strict syntax since a
great deal of processing power is required to breakdown the complex data at this stage.
Due to the costs, many businesses are resorting to outsource this stage.
4. Processing:
Processing is when the data is subjected to various means and methods of powerful
technical manipulations using Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence algorithms to
generate an output or interpretation about the data. The process may be made up of
multiple threads of execution that simultaneously execute instructions, depending on the
type of data. There are applications like Anvesh available for processing large volumes of
heterogeneous data within very short periods.
5. Output and Interpretation:
Output and interpretation is the stage where processed information is now transmitted and
displayed to the user. Output is presented to users in various report formats like graphical
reports, audio, video, or document viewers. Output need to be interpreted so that it can
provide meaningful information that will guide future decisions of the company.
6. Storage:
Storage is the last stage in the data processing cycle, where data, and metadata
(information about data) are held for future use. The importance of this cycle is that it
allows quick access and retrieval of the processed information, allowing it to be passed
on to the next stage directly, when needed. Anvesh use special security and safety
standards to store data for future use.

DATA PROCESSING CYCLE:

The data processing cycle is the set of operations used to transform data into useful information.
The intent of this processing is to create actionable information that can be used to enhance a
business. This cycle involves the following steps:

1. Collection of data.
2. Preparation of the data into a format suitable for data entry, as well as error checking.
3. Entry of the data into the system, which may involve manual data entry, scanning,
machine encoding, and so forth.
4. Processing of the data with computer programs.
5. Transmitting the resulting information to the user, typically via screen or printed report,
so that it can be acted upon.
6. Storing the input data and output information for future use.
TYPES OF DATA PROCESSING:

There are number of types of data processing methods.

1. Batch Processing:
This is one of the widely used type of data processing which is also known as
serial/sequential, tacked/queued of offline processing. The fundamental of this type of
processing is the that different jobs of different users are processed in the order
received.This processing of a large volume of data helps in reducing the processing cost
thus making it data processing economical.
2. Real time processing:
This technique can respond almost immediately to various signals to acquire and process
information. These involve high maintenance and upfront cost attributed to very
advanced technology and computing power. Time saved is maximum in this case as the
output is seen in real time. For example in banking transactions.
3. Online Processing:
This is a method that utilizes Internet connections and equipment directly attached to a
computer. This allows for the data stored in one place and being used at an altogether
different place. Cloud computing can be considered as an example which uses this type
of processing. It is used mainly for information recording and research.
4. Distributed Processing:
This method is commonly utilized by remote workstations connected to one big central
workstation or server. ATMs are good examples of this data processing method. All the
end machines run on a fixed software located at a particular place and make use of
exactly same information and sets of instruction.
5. Multi Processing:
This type of processing perhaps the most widely used types of data processing. It is used
almost everywhere and forms the basic of all computing devices relying on processors.
Multi processing makes use of CPUs (more than one CPU).
COMPONENTS OF DATA PROCESSING:

What you input into a computer is called data. Because data must be in a useful form, it must be
transformed into information that you can use. The process that makes this possible is called
electronic data processing. Computers, as electronic data processing machines, perform different
operations that convert data into information. The electronic data processing cycle consists of
four stages, or components.

It consists of four major components,

1. Input:
Input refers to all the activities associated with recording data and making it available for
processing. The input component represents the process of transforming data into a form
that a computer understands. Input equipment includes devices that convert data into
acceptable form, transform punched card and paper tape code to binary numbers and put
data into the computer's main storage area. Some examples of these machines are key
punch machines, flexowriters and magnetic tape units.
2. Processing:
After data is recorded and converted into an appropriate form, it must be processed.
Processing includes different arithmetic and logical operations, so to process data means
to do the classifying, sorting, summarizing, comparing and other manipulation techniques
that convert data into information.
3. Output:
Data processing converts data into information that must be transmitted to persons who
need it. The communication function that enables this is called output. If the information
is not in a form that is readable by humans, then output will also include a decoding
process. This process will convert the information into the right form. Computers
generate three types of output: soft copy, hard copy and sound.
4. Storage:
The storage area is the area that contains the processed data and the instructions that must
be followed during the data processing. It also includes information for future use. A
storage device is a hardware component of a computer, and it permanently stores data on
storage media. A storage media is nonvolatile.

FINDINGS

In this assignment, We learnt about data, information, data processing, the need, functions,
methods, process, types, cycle, importance and components of data processing.

On going through these toipcs briefly, we can truly understand the essence and meaning of data
processing as;

1. by data processing you can reduced labor, accuracy and reduced costs.
2. In terms of speed, information stored and managed through an electronic data processing
system can be retrieved almost without delay on the Internet or on an internal network.

We also learnt about the impacts data processing have as;

The positive aspects of data processing are;

1. Highly efficient.
2. Time-saving.
3. High speed.
4. Reduces errors.

The negative aspects of data processing are;

1. Large power consumption.


2. Occupies large memory.
3. The cost of installation is high.
4. Wastage of memory.

The applications of data processing can be found in;

1. In the banking sector.


2. In the educational departments and hospitals.
3. In transactions and logistic tracking areas.

CONCLUSION

By this assignment, we can conclude that,

1. The process of converting raw data using a medium like manual or automatic tools into
meaningful output information is called data processing. The raw data like the number of
students in a class, examination results, address, etc, which is given as input to the
processor which uses certain procedures to manipulate the raw data and processes it to
provide desired meaningful output.
2. It is really difficult to work on raw data. Because every bit of information provided is
may not be that useful for you. You require to filter out relevant content.
3. You can’t every time refer to that huge pile of raw data and select that relevant
information you are looking for. This will make your work more tedious and bulky.
4. Data processing will help you arrange the filtered out content into a homogenize form so
that you can easily match those big figures as and when you require to do so.
5. It will make it easy for you to look for any relevant information and also makes your
work easy.
6. It will even make this whole procedure more cost effective too. As arranging those big
figures into well-structured tables saves you from that risk of losing your important
information. And also some of the information gets filtered out thus cost of saving that
irrelevant information is also saved.
7. Data processing is very important before you start to do data mining. It reduces your cost
of doing all the paperwork required to otherwise process the whole information and filter
out all the relevant content manually.
8. This increases the overall performance of any company as it rules out unnecessary steps
that can hinder the whole data processing process.
9. It automatically deletes all your duplicate documents and thus helps in making some
storage space in your system.