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WATER LEVEL

INDICATOr

Scope, researches and key features:

 Circuit designing and PCB designing


 Design of power supply
 Understanding basic components like resistors etc.
 Testing the components using the multi-meter
 Using DIP IC 7404,7408 ,seven segment and its function
 Implementation and testing

Introduction:
This water-level indicator uses a 7-segment display, instead of LEDs, to indicate the water level
(low, half and full) in the tank. Moreover, a buzzer is used to alert you of water overflowing
from the tank. The circuit shows the water level by displaying L, H and F for low, half and full,
respectively. The circuit uses five sensors to sense the different water levels in the tank. When
water starts overflowing the tank, the buzzer blows. The buzzer sounds to indicate that water is
overflowing the tank and you need to switch off the motor pump.

Block Diagram:
COMPONENTS
 7404 IC
 7408 IC
 7 SEGMENT DISPLAY 3
 CAPACITOR 1000Uf
 RESISTORS 4X 1M OhM :: 3X330 OhM
 VOLTAGE REGULATOR LM7805
 BATTERY 1X9V
 BUZZER 1
 LED 1
7404 IC

Features
Output Drive Capability - 10 LSTTL Loads
Outputs Directly Interface to CMOS, NMOS and TTL
Large Operating Voltage Range
Low Input Current
High Noise Immunity

Pin Description Dimension Drawing

Pin Number Description


1 A Input Gate 1
2 Y Output Gate 1
3 A Input Gate 2
4 Y Output Gate 2
5 A Input Gate 3
6 Y Output Gate 3
7 Ground
8 Y Output Gate 4
9 A Input Gate 4
10 Y Output Gate 5
11 A Input Gate 5
12 Y Output Gate 6
13 A Input Gate 6
14 Positive Supply

7408

7408 - Quad 2-Input AND Gate


Pin Layout Features
Output Drive Capability - 10 LSTTL Loads
Outputs Directly Interface to CMOS, NMOS and TTL
Large Operating Voltage Range
Low Input Current
High Noise Immunity

Pin Description Dimension Drawing

Pin Number Description


1 A Input Gate 1
2 B Input Gate 1
3 Y Output Gate 1
4 A Input Gate 2
5 B Input Gate 2
6 Y Output Gate 2
7 Ground
8 Y Output Gate 3
9 B Input Gate 3
10 A Input Gate 3
11 Y Output Gate 4
12 B Input Gate 4
13 A Input Gate 4
14 Positive Supply

7 SEGMENT DISPLAY:

A seven segment display is the most basic electronic display device that can display digits from
0-9. They find wide application in devices that display numeric information like digital clocks,
radio, microwave ovens, electronic meters etc. The most common configuration has an array of
eight LEDs arranged in a special pattern to display these digits. They are laid out as a squared-
off figure ‘8’. Every LED is assigned a name from 'a' to 'h' and is identified by its name. Seven
LEDs 'a' to 'g' are used to display the numerals while eighth LED 'h' is used to display the
dot/decimal.
 
A seven segment is generally available in ten pin package. While eight pins
correspond to the eight LEDs, the remaining two pins (at middle) are
common and internally shorted. These segments come in two
configurations, namely, Common cathode (CC) and Common anode (CA). In
CC configuration, the negative terminals of all LEDs are connected to the
common pins. The common is connected to ground and a particular LED glows when its
corresponding pin is given high. In CA arrangement, the common pin is given a high logic and
the LED pins are given low to display a number.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
WORKING:
Power supply: In this kit there is a power supply through 9 volt DC battery by using battery cap
PIN-20 and power jack male type connector. This DC voltage passes through bridge rectifier to
maintained the polarity and bypass through 1000uF capacitor. This DC is fed to 7805 regulator
IC to fetch 5V regulated output.

Note: You can also used a step down transformer (12-0-12) which the input is 220V and output
is 12 V AC. The 12V ac input is fed to the bridge rectifier to gives 12V pulsating DC. This DC
voltage is filtered through the capacitor of 1000uf to remove the ripples. The filtered DC is fed
to 7805 regulator to fetch +5v regulated output.

How to place the wire (levels) in tank

The sensing is done by using a set of five probes which are placed at five different levels on the
tank walls with probe 1 to probe 5 placed in increasing order of height, common probe
(Grounded probe 1) is placed at the base of the tank and last probe means fifth probe is place
at the top of the tank.

The four sensing wire (2 through 5) are connected to the inputs of NOT gate IC 7404. When
there is a high voltage at the input pin of the NOT gate, it outputs a low voltage. Similarly, for a
low voltage at the input pin of the NOT gate, it outputs a high voltage. When the tank is empty,
the input pins of IC 7404 are pulled high via a 1-mega-ohm resistor. So it outputs a low voltage.
As water starts filling the tank, when the water in the tank rises to touch the low level means
ground connected to first level (touches first and second wire). As a result, positive supply is
applied to first 7 segment display and it shows ‘L’ indicating low level of water in the tank.
Similarly, when water in the tank touches the half level, means connected first, second and
third wire. As a result, positive supply is applied to second 7 segment display and it shows ‘H’
indicating Half level of water in the tank. When the water tank becomes full, means connected
first, second, third and fourth wire. As a result, positive supply is applied to third 7 segment
display and it shows ‘F’ indicating Full level of water in the tank. When water starts overflowing
the tank means connected first, second, third, fourth and fifth wire. As a result the buzzer
sounds to indicate that water is overflowing the tank.

.
Applications:
 The water level indicator is used to measure water levels in standpipes and wells.
 Can be used in household tanks and commercial tanks