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NHPC LTD.

(A GOVT. OF INDIA ENTERPRISE)

TENDER DOCUMENT
FOR

CIVIL, HYDRO-MECHANICAL AND ELECTROMECHANICAL WORKS


FOR CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE POWER HOUSE BUILDING
INCLUDING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS ,TAIL RACE CHANNEL ETC.
OF 2.4 MW (3X0.8MW) HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT AT TOE OF DAM
IN KISHANGANGA H.E. PROJECT, JAMMU AND KASHMIR

(2018)
VOLUME-2

Section VII Technical Specifications (Employer’s Requirement)

CONTRACTS (CIVIL) DIVISION


REGD. OFFICE: NHPC OFFICE COMPLEX, SECTOR-33,
FARIDABAD – 121003

CIN: L4010HR1975GOI032564

1
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Volume Section Description Reference


Page

Notice Inviting E-Tenders

Section I Part-I: Instructions to Bidders(ITB)

Qualification Forms including Tender Form, Form of


Section II
Declaration, Qualification Information

Section III Information for Bidders


Separate
Volume-1 Conditions of Contracts Volume

Section IV
Part-A: General Conditions of Contract (GCC) and
Schedules
Part-B: Special Conditions of Contract (SCC)

Section V Part-B:
Forms Special Conditions of Contract (SCC)

Section-VI Schedule of Quantities and Prices.

Technical Specifications (Employer’s Requirement) Separate


Volume
Part-A: Civil Works

Part-B: E&M Works

B-I: General Technical Specifications (GTS)

B-II: Particular Technical Specifications (PTS)


Volume-2 B-III: Technical Data Sheets (TDS)
Section VII

Part-C: HM Works

C-I: General Technical Specifications (GTS)

C-II: Particular Technical Specifications (PTS)

C-III: Technical Data Sheets (TDS)

Model Quality Assurance Plan (MQAP) Separate


Section VIII Volume

Volume-3 Section IX
Tender Drawings

Section X Safety Manual

2
SECTION VII

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS (CIVIL)


PART-A

3
KISHANGANGA DAM TOE POWER HOUSE

CONSTRUCTION OF ALL CIVIL WORKS COMPRISING POWER HOUSE, TAIL RACE


CHANNELS AND RIVER JOINING WORKS ETC.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(Including criteria for Measurement and Payment)
PART A
SECTION A.1 PREAMBLE TO THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
SECTION A.2 SITE INSTALLATIONS, SERVICES AND ENVIRONMENTAL
OBLIGATIONS
SECTION A.3 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SECTION A.4 SURVEYING AND SETTING OUT WORK
SECTION A.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE
SECTION A.6 COMMISSIONING

SECTION B.1 DEWATERING DURING CONSTRUCTION


SECTION B.2 SURFACE EXCAVATION
SECTION B.3 NOT USED
SECTION B.4 NOT USED
SECTION B.5 NOT USED
SECTION B.6 EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION AND BACKFILL
SECTION B.7 NOT USED
SECTION B.8 NOT USED
SECTION B.9 CONCRETE
SECTION B.10 FORMWORK
SECTION B.11 REINFORCING STEEL
SECTION B.12 WATER STOPS AND JOINTS
SECTION B.13 METAL WORKS
SECTION B.14 NOT USED
SECTION B.15 BUILDING AND ARCHITECTURAL WORKS
SECTION B.16 MISCELLANEOUS AND ANCILLARY WORKS
SECTION B.17 SLOPE PROTECTION
SECTION B.18 NOT USED

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SECTION B.19 SERVICE WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE SYSTEM AND
SANITARY INSTALLATION

5
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS (CIVIL)

PART A

6
SECTION A.1
PREAMBLE TO THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
List of Contents

1.1 GENERAL
1.2 SUBMITTALS
1.3 STANDARDS AND CODES
1.3.1 General
1.3.2 Indian Standards, Codes, Laws and Regulations
1.3.3 International Standards and Codes
1.4 SYSTEM OF UNITS
1.5 DEFINITION OF TIME AND KEY DATES

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SECTION A.1
PREAMBLE TO THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

1.1 GENERAL
1) The following Specifications are part of the requirements for the work related to
the Permanent and Temporary Works, which are to be provided by the
Contractor according to the stipulations of the Contract. Hence, the instructions
given herein form an integral part of, and are applicable to, all technical and
Contract Documents issued for the Works. Addenda to these Specifications may
be issued as required during bidding and construction phases.
2) These Specifications shall be read in conjunction with the Conditions of
Contract, the Drawings and the Bill of Quantities, consisting of Quantities, Rates
and Amounts, and the Contractor shall comply with all provisions contained
within the Contract Documents and Engineer-in-Charge's instructions.
3) It is the intent of these Specifications, together with other relevant documents
issued as part of the Tender and Contract Documents or to follow later on, to
provide the Contractor with complete and detailed information and subsequent
instructions necessary to enable him to submit a well planned Tender, to carry
out the design, where and when required, and to execute properly the work
prescribed.
4) It is the intent of these Specifications to establish acceptable standards of
quality. Minor deviations in details due to manufacturer's standard shop process
will be considered for acceptance provided that, in the opinion of the Engineer-
in-Charge, the proposed substitutions are equal in quality to those specified. All
deviations shall be called out in writing in the Tender, and shall be specifically
indicated on the shop drawings
All work shall be executed according to the Construction Drawings and
requirements released for construction, in a professional and diligent manner,
and all supplies and work shall comply with the quality requirements defined in
the relevant Sections of these Specifications and other Contract Documents. The
Contractor shall endeavour to provide all such necessary efforts in order to
comply with the intent of these Specifications to the satisfaction of the Engineer-
in-Charge.

1.2 SUBMITTALS
1) The Contractor shall provide the Engineer-in-Charge with all submittals as
requested for in these Specifications and other Contract Documents. Although
their extent shall be to the discretion of the Contractor, they shall be complete
enough to illustrate adequately the problem of the aspect concerned for the
understanding of the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) At any time the Engineer-in-Charge may call either for additional information,
completion of the submittals or request the Contractor not to submit some of
them.

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3) The Contractor shall submit these documents to the Engineer-in-Charge so that,
even if not specifically expressed, reasonable time will be given to the Engineer-
in-Charge to comment or approve the submittals.

1.3 STANDARDS AND CODES


1.3.1 General
1) Indian Standards as far as possible are referred to in these Specifications.
Pertinent provisions of these standards shall apply to the work, and are hereby
incorporated in these Specifications. Where a manufacturer is named, other
manufacturers’ product will also be acceptable provided the designated material
or workmanship is of equivalent or better quality and do satisfy the relevant
Indian Codes.
2) All standards and codes employed or referred to, shall be the latest current issue
in effect at the date 28 days prior to the tender submission date.
3) One complete set of standards and codes adopted for the Works shall be
submitted free of charge by the Contractor to the Engineer-in-Charge,
immediately after the Contract has come into force or upon the Engineer-in-
Charge's request. Such copies shall also be available at the Contractor's business
domicile(s) and at Site, for the use also of the Engineer-in-Charge.
4) In case of discrepancies between these Specifications and National or
International Standards and Codes, these Specifications being part of Contract
Documents shall govern, unless otherwise established by the Engineer-in-Charge
in each particular case.

1.3.2 Indian Standards, Codes, Laws and Regulations


1) Throughout the duration of the Contract, the materials, equipment, services,
design and workmanship shall conform to applicable Indian codes, standards,
laws and regulations in force in India, if not otherwise specified.
2) It is the Contractor's duty to acquaint himself with all available Indian codes,
standards, laws and regulations related to the Works in any way and he shall
procure and keep at the Site a copy of each of such applicable documents.

1.3.3 International Standards and Codes


1) The following International Standards/Codes series may be adopted:
a) International Standardisation Organisation (ISO)
b) Japanese (JIS)
c) US (ACI, ASTM, ANSI, USACE, USBR, AASHO)
d) German (DIN, VDI)
e) Swiss (SIA, SEV)
f) British (BS)

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Provided that:
a) The standards/codes proposed are at least as stringent as the equivalent
National ones relevant to the Works, or if there is no applicable National
Standard/Code for the specific item concerned.
b) The Contractor states, prior to starting the work, the International
Standard/Code he proposes to apply, giving full identification of each of
them. These proposals are subject to the approval by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
2) Where reference is made in the technical documents to standards/codes of the
country of origin for a supply item, it shall be a recognised National
Standard/Code of the country where the specific supply item is manufactured.
To be acceptable under these Specifications, such standards/codes must comply
in all respects with the quality requirements of above mentioned Indian
standards/codes In case the Indian codes are not available, other International
Standards as mentioned above must be approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.

1.4 SYSTEM OF UNITS


1) The SI system of units has been used throughout these Specifications and this
system of units shall be used consequently throughout the duration of Contract
for all technical or contractual purposes.
2) Following abbreviations are used in these Specifications and other related
Contract Documents:

Unit Abbreviation
Length millimeter mm
centimeter cm
meter m
kilometer km
Area square millimeter Mm2
square centimeter cm2
square meter m2
Volume cubic meter M3
Mass kilogram kg
ton t
Metric ton MT
Density ton per cubic meter t/m3
Force Newton N
Kilo-Newton Kn
Mega-Newton MN
Moment Newton meter N.m
Stress Newton per square millimeter N/mm2
Kilo-Newton per square millimeter kN/mm2
Pressure bar bar

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Pascal Pa
Mega-Pascal Mpa
Time second S
hour H
Rate of Flow litres per second or minute l/s, l/min
cubic meters per second m3/s
cubic meters per minute m3/min
Velocity meter per second m/s
kilometer per hour Km/h
Speed of rotation revolutions per minute rpm
Temperature degree Celsius °C
luminous Intensity lux Lx
Energy Kilowatt hour kWh
Power Watt W
Kilowatt kW
Megawatt MW
Slope Vertical: horizontal v: h
Gradient Percentage (Vertical: horizontal) %

(3) The term "day" as used in these Specifications means calendar day.
(4) Any other system of units utilised shall have only a descriptive value and shall in
no case replace the above-mentioned SI system.

1.5 DEFINITION OF TIME AND KEY DATES


The periods of time and key dates used throughout these Specifications have the
meanings as assigned to them in the General Conditions of Contract and the
Conditions of Particular Application (COPA).

END OF SECTION A.1

11
SECTION A.2
SITE INSTALLATIONS, SERVICES AND ENVIRONMENTAL
OBLIGATIONS
List of Contents

2.1 SCOPE OF WORK


2.2 SUBMITTALS
2.3 SITE OFFICE, STORES, WAREHOUSES, MATERIAL YARDS
2.4 CONCRETE AND MATERIALS PROCESSING PLANTS
2.5 MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY
2.6 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
2.6.1 Site Communications
2.6.2 Outside Communications
2.7 SERVICE & INSPECTION VEHICLES
2.8 CAMPS FOR CONTRACTOR'S EMPLOYEES
2.9 COMMERCIAL CONCESSIONS
2.10 MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES
2.11 POWER SUPPLY AND ILLUMINATION
2.12 WATER SUPPLY
2.13 SANITATION AND SEWERAGE
2.14 WASTE AND GARBAGE DISPOSAL
2.15 FENCING AND SITE SECURITY
2.16 INSPECTION BY THE ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE
2.17 FINAL CLEAN-UP
2.18 ENVIRONMENTAL OBLIGATIONS
2.19 PAYMENT FOR SITE INSTALLATION AND SERVICES

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SECTION A.2
SITE INSTALLATIONS, SERVICES AND ENVIRONMENTAL
OBLIGATIONS

2.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) The Contractor shall be responsible for providing plant, equipment, materials
and labour for the provision of all necessary Temporary works, site installations
and services required for the realisation of the Works under this Contract.
2) The Contractor shall design, furnish, set-up, maintain and operate at the Site all
Temporary Works, site installations and Contractor's Equipment for his own use
as specified in this Section, or required by the Contractor, including camps,
workshops, warehouses, storage and assembly areas, all machinery, vehicles,
scaffolding, equipment, water and power supply, etc.
3) Temporary Works and services provided and operated by the Contractor shall
conform to the applicable Indian laws, regulations, standards, codes and sanitary
requirements stipulated for such purpose. In addition, they shall comply fully
with all Indian laws and regulations relating to environmental protection,
mitigating measures for reducing environmental impacts and remedial works on
completion of the Works.
4) The design, construction, operation and maintenance of the Contractor's
Temporary Works and services may be subject to inspection by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
5) All plants, camp facilities, installations and services provided by the Contractor
shall at all time remain his property, except when otherwise specified
hereinafter. Should, after the Completion of Contract, the Contractor wish to sell
his plants, facilities and equipment in India, he shall pay all taxes and duties
required by law as stipulated in the Conditions of Contract, and have to obtain
relevant permission from the Government for such sale.
6) The temporary site roads which the Contractor shall construct, and maintain for
the various working areas, camps, facilities and other temporary works are
covered in the Section "Roadwork".

2.2 SUBMITTALS
1) Within 21 days from the date of issue of the Notification of Award, the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge updated layout plans
showing, at adequate scale, the locations and arrangement of all Temporary
Works and facilities. These plans shall be consistent with the plan submitted by
the Contractor with his Tender as well as with any amendments and additions
subsequently agreed to by the Engineer-in-Charge and the Contractor, and shall
include:
a) Camps for Contractor's employees,

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b) Offices, parking areas, warehouses, storage areas, and medical care
services,
c) Water supply, sewerage, sewage treatment and disposal, power supply and
illumination, telephone service (radio and cable),
d) Temporary roadwork, including public road diversions,
e) Equipment pools and mechanical workshops,
f) Spoil areas, borrow, quarry and stockpile areas,
g) Concrete and materials processing plants, including cement storage,
h) Materials testing laboratory,
i) Explosives magazines,
j) Underground ventilation system,
k) Security and safety arrangements,
2) Within 28 days from the date of issue of Notification of Award, the Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge the following:
a) Detailed drawings at scale 1:500 showing the camp layout, buildings,
roads, recreation areas, all utilities, etc., and drawings at scale 1:50
showing typical building construction details,
b) Drawings and specifications for the establishment of an infirmary and first
aid stations, and details of the ambulances,
c) Detailed design for industrial and potable water supply to the camps and
working areas as well as sewerage systems, sewage treatment and disposal
with and estimate of number of people to be supplied with water,
d) Detailed layout drawings for electrical installations and distribution
systems at the Site, showing voltages, outlets, and routing of power lines,
e) Detailed design and drawings including manufacturer's drawings for
concrete and materials processing plants in accordance with the
requirements of the pertinent Sections of these Specifications,
f) Detailed break-up of all equipment to be used for material testing and in
the field laboratory in accordance with the requirements of the pertinent
Sections of these Specifications,
g) Details of the drilling and grouting equipment,
h) Details of the dewatering system
3) Within 28 days from the date of issue of Notification of Award, the Contractor
shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge an environmental monitoring and
protection plan which will describe all measures to be taken by the Contractor to
comply with the requirements of § 2.18 of this Section. This plan will cover all
measures to be taken by the Contractor to prevent, minimize or make good all
possible environmental effects of the construction work, in particular:
a) Deterioration of the quality of water in rivers and streams, and of ground
water.
b) Accumulation of and pollution by solid and liquid waste material
anywhere in the project area.
c) Undesirable levels of noise, air pollution and dust both at the construction
site as well as along the access road, in quarries and borrow areas.

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d) Occurrence amongst site workers and their families of water-borne and
other communicable illnesses, and the deterioration of levels of hygiene in
the camps and construction areas.
This environmental plan will also describe the procedures to be adopted by the
Contractor for reporting on the environmental protection programme and for
informing and communicating with government institutions. The plan will also
give details of arrangements made by the Contractor with local land-owners for
the leasing of land for site installations, camps etc., and will include drawings
detailing the areas in question.

2.3 SITE OFFICES, STORES, WAREHOUSES, MATERIALS YARDS


1) The Contractor shall provide and equip, for his own and his subcontractors' use,
main and secondary offices, warehouses, materials storage areas, fuel storage
areas and explosives magazines, all of which shall be maintained in good
conditions until the Completion of Works.
2) Listed hereunder are the buildings, shops and warehouses expected to be
constructed and equipped by the Contractor for use in the performance of the
Work under this Contract, in addition to facilities explicitly specified elsewhere
in these Specifications:
a) Mechanical repair shop,
b) Electrical repair shop,
c) Metalwork and wood fabrication shop,
d) Main warehouse and parts store,
e) Bulk cement silo,
f) Bagged cement store,
g) Spare parts store,
h) Gasoline and oil stations.
i) Explosive Magazine.
3) The Contractor is required to have at the Site at least one month's minimum
reserve of materials both for construction activity and other requirements. For
the monsoon months, from May to September, when transport to and from site
may be made difficult, his reserve requirements may need to be increased.

2.4 CONCRETE AND MATERIALS PROCESSING PLANTS


The Contractor shall install and erect all necessary concrete and materials
processing plants of sufficient capacity to meet the planned peak requirements
during construction. The plants shall be subject to approval by the Engineer-in-
Charge and shall be well designed and fabricated and kept in good running order
to ensure compliance with the materials quality specifications. All control and
measuring equipment shall be regularly serviced and calibrated.

2.5 MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY


1) The Contractor shall build and equip an adequate field laboratory for the
sampling and for testing of materials for concrete, steel reinforcement, earth,

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rock or any other materials as specified in the pertinent Sections of these
Specifications.
2) The laboratory shall be located in a dust-free building properly equipped with
electricity, water, etc., and shall have enough room for storing the samples tested
as required.
3) The equipment to be supplied and the methods of testing shall be in accordance
with the relevant Indian Standards or with requirements of the US army corps of
engineers (USACE), or USBR Concrete Manual and USBR Earth Manual. All
apparatuses and equipment shall be brand new, of the latest design,
manufactured by a reputed manufacturer, and properly calibrated with
calibration certificate from Indian or International Authority. The proposed type
and number of items of laboratory equipment shall be presented to the Engineer-
in-Charge prior to purchase.
4) The Contractor shall operate and maintain the laboratory until the Completion of
Works and make all facilities and services available to the Engineer-in-Charge
as required. All sampling and testing to be undertaken shall be under the direct
supervision of the Engineer-in-Charge. The laboratory shall be run by
Contractor's personnel experienced in sampling and testing of materials, and
quality control.
5) Specialised testing which may be required and which cannot be performed in the
Contractor's laboratory due to lack of time or equipment shall be assigned to an
independent organisation. The Contractor shall accept all results, instructions or
restrictions stipulated by the Engineer-in-Charge based on such tests.
6) Upon the Completion of Works, all laboratory equipment shall remain the
property of the Contractor. However, the NHPC reserves the right to purchase
some or all of the equipment.

2.6 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS


2.6.1 Site Communications
1) The Contractor shall supply, install, operate and maintain a telephone
switchboard, and wireless mode as alternative communication system, complete
with standby power supply, to connect his offices with the Engineer's-in-Charge,
campsite, laboratories, workshops, stores, aggregate plants, quarry/borrow areas,
batching plants, ice plant, infirmary and first aid stations and all other work
areas within the Site.
2) The Contractor shall furnish a directory of the telephones installed at the Site
and make it available to the Engineer-in-Charge.

2.6.2 Outside Communications


1) The Contractor may install, operate and maintain a radiotelephone system(s),
UHF and/or microwave, at the Site to provide the access to the National and
International telephone grid.
2) The NHPC will endorse the necessary license applications of the Contractor.

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3) Upon the Completion of Works, the Contractor shall dismantle and remove from
the Site the installed outside communications. However, the NHPC reserves the
right to purchase some or all of the equipment.

2.7 SERVICE & INSPECTION VEHICLES


The Contractor shall operate and maintain sufficient service vehicles for use by
its own staff and employees in the management for the supervision and
performance of the work.

2.8 CAMPS FOR CONTRACTOR'S EMPLOYEES


1) The Contractor shall design, construct, provide furnishings, maintain, and
operate two separate construction camps; one for Contractor's Indian and
expatriate staff of mid and upper level, employed at site and the other for
Contractor's labour.
2) The construction camps shall provide for the housing, feeding and recreation of
the Contractor's employees and those of his subcontractors as per Indian labour
law and other relevant regulations. The camps shall be large enough to
accommodate the anticipated peak work force.
3) The Contractor shall be responsible for the acquisition of, and the expenses for
the required land.
4) The Contractor shall be responsible for the necessary topographical surveys,
clearing, and work required for the landscaping and to provide satisfactory
foundations for buildings, streets and auxiliary facilities.
5) Food handling, preparation and serving shall be arranged by the Contractor in
properly equipped canteen buildings for all his and his subcontractors'
employees.
6) The Contractor shall be responsible for keeping the camp and the buildings in
good hygienic conditions. The standards and regulations presently in force in the
project area with regard to personnel treatment, sanitary conditions, and fire and
accident prevention shall be duly taken into account.
7) The prices charged by the Contractor for food, beverages, etc., available in the
camp shall be calculated on a non-profit basis.

2.9 COMMERCIAL CONCESSIONS


1) Commercial concessions such as for laundry, catering, shops, etc., granted to a
third party by the Contractor for the use of the employees and residents at the
Site, shall be subject to approval by the Engineer-in-Charge. Any concession
shall be revoked if the concessionaire violates the law or the provisions
governing the granting of the concession. Concessions shall automatically
terminate upon Completion of the Works or in the event of the termination of
the Contract.
2) No concession shall be granted for activities that are contrary to statutory
regulations or law of the land or are declared by the Engineer-in-Charge to be
offensive to the community.

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3) Concessionaires will be regarded as subcontractors of the Contractor.

2.10 MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES


1) The Contractor shall comply with laws and health standards presently in force in
India. In the event of illness of an epidemic nature breaking out, the Contractor
shall carry out and comply with all orders, arrangements or regulations which
may be issued by the Government or local authorities.
2) The Contractor shall construct, equip, and maintain at the Site, the following
medical care facilities:
a) One clinic and infirmary with ambulance and driver within his main camp,
b) One first aid station at each work site.
3) The construction of these facilities shall be such as to provide reasonable quiet,
privacy, communications, adequate ventilation, heating, light, hot and cold
water, toilet facilities, electrical outlets, and impervious floors, walls and roofs.

2.11 POWER SUPPLY AND ILLUMINATION


1) The Contractor shall provide, install and keep operational throughout the time
for completion, own generating facilities of such capacity necessary to supply all
participants at the Site and in the camps. The power generating sets shall be
installed in separate concrete or steel structure buildings on concrete
foundations. The power supply to the construction sites, camps etc. shall be
designed for continuous operation, 24 hours a day, with sufficient capacity to
satisfy peak and emergency demands.
2) The Contractor shall install, operate and maintain electrical distribution systems
which shall include all other necessary transformers, circuit breakers, disconnect
and safety switches, voltage regulators, transmission lines, poles, pole hardware,
conductors, meters and other equipment necessary for power distribution
throughout the Site and temporary facilities.
3) Local standby generating units to prevent the interruption of work during the
failure of the primary power source and capable of maintaining minimum
services such as illumination, water supply, dewatering, etc., safety and security
shall also be provided.
4) The Contractor shall ensure adequate illumination for all his operations at the
Site and at the camp, including illumination of the streets. The minimum
intensities for illumination in general shall be as follows:

Luminous
Area or Operation
Intensity
a) Excavation and spoil areas, and outdoor access ways 35 Lux
b) General construction areas, outdoor concrete 55 Lux
placement, active storage areas, loading, platforms,
refuelling, and field maintenance areas
c) Indoor construction areas 110 Lux

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d) General construction plant and shops, e.g. batching 110 Lux
plants,mechanical and electrical, equipment rooms,
carpentry shops,active storerooms, barracks or living
quarters, lockers or dressing rooms, mess halls, and
indoor toilets
e) First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices 550 Lux
f) General interiors warehouses, corridors, hallways 55 Lux
and exit ways
g) Welding 330 Lux

5) Contractor shall maintain illumination upto the luminous intensity as specified


above and will not withdraw the same till completion of all the works but not
earlier than commissioning/taking over of first unit with written permission of
Engineer-In -Charge.

2.12 WATER SUPPLY


1) The Contractor shall design, install, operate and maintain two separate water
supply systems at the Site:
a) Industrial water: for general construction use, treated to the extent
necessary to meet specified requirements. (e.g. for concrete),
b) Potable water: for supply to all buildings and plants requiring high quality
water meeting statutory requirements for drinking water.
2) Water shall be supplied by the Contractor from suitable natural sources available
within the Project area. The water shall be free of contamination and unaffected
by the Site construction work. In isolated areas with no natural sources, the
Contractor shall provide sufficient number of water carts to cover the
requirements on both the industrial as well as potable water.
3) The Contractor shall furnish, install, operate and maintain all pumps, piping,
fittings, valves, storage tanks, purification plant and chlorination for the water
supply and distribution systems, adequate in quantity and pressure. Industrial
water shall be used for construction purposes only if of adequate quality. There
shall be no cross connections of any kind between the industrial and potable
water supply systems. Only potable water shall be piped into buildings.
4) Throughout the duration of the construction, the Contractor shall take regular
samples from all water supplies to examine it for suitability and treatments
required, and make the bacteriological tests periodically from potable water
systems.

2.13 SANITATION AND SEWERAGE


1) All offices, workshops, laboratory and other occupied work buildings shall be
provided with toilets connected to properly constructed and regularly maintained
septic tanks approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The campsites shall be provided with a complete, properly maintained and
operated sewerage system, including septic tanks, sewage treatment and disposal

19
facilities. Facilities for washing clothes shall also be provided and linked to the
sewerage system.

2.14 WASTE AND GARBAGE DISPOSAL


1) The Contractor shall collect waste material and garbage from camp, offices and
workshops on a daily basis and transport it to an area approved by the Engineer-
in-Charge where it shall be incinerated and buried.
2) The Site shall be kept clean and free of refuse at all times. No waste shall be
dumped in areas other than those approved by the Engineer-in-Charge for waste
disposal. No waste of any kind shall be deposited in any watercourses.

2.15 FENCING AND SITE SECURITY


1) The Contractor's offices, workshops and storage compounds, campsites and all
construction areas where exclusion of unauthorised personnel is necessary for
safety and security, shall be adequately fenced, gated and guarded.
2) The Contractor shall employ an adequate force of properly trained security
guards at the work site and at the construction camp on 24-hour duty including
Sundays and holidays. Storage areas shall be fenced, lighted and regularly
patrolled by security guards. Warehouse buildings and explosive magazines
shall be kept locked and keys accounted for at all times.
3) All employees engaged in the execution and maintenance of the Works shall
wear identification badges when at the work site.
4) The Contractor shall be responsible for the losses occurring in his installations
and those of the NHPC resulting from carelessness on the Contractor's part.

2.16 INSPECTION BY THE ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE


The Owner and the Engineer-in-Charge have the right at any time to inspect any
part of the Contractor's temporary facilities, without advance notification, and to
require immediate rectification of any contravention of the specified
requirements.

2.17 FINAL CLEAN UP


1) Upon the Completion of Works, or when any plant has completed its functions
the Contractor shall dismantle and demobilise all temporary facilities erected by
himself or his subcontractors, and remove all debris, objectionable material, and
all other refuse which may have been deposited on Site during the construction
period. Such materials may be deposited only in areas approved by the Engineer-
in-Charge.
2) All excavated areas shall be filled, graded and dressed in a clean and orderly
condition acceptable to the Engineer-in-Charge. As far as possible, such areas
should conform to the natural appearance of the landscape.
3) No demobilisation or removal of temporary facilities and equipment shall be
made without prior approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.

20
2.18 ENVIRONMENTAL OBLIGATIONS
1) The Contractor shall, during the whole period of the Works comply fully with all
Indian laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, mitigating
measures for reducing environmental impacts and remedial works on completion
of the Works. This obligation shall extend to the construction sites, all the
Contractor’s site installations, all quarries, borrow areas and spoil tips.
2) Notwithstanding any specific obligations as these may be specified in prevailing
Indian laws and regulations, the Contractor shall at all times comply with the
following particular requirements for the protection of the environment, the local
population and the workers at the construction site:
a) Collect, treat, remove from site and dispose of in accordance with the
regulations and to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-charge all domestic
and industrial waste and excess construction materials (both solid and
liquid), fuel, chemicals and other matter.
b) Make every effort to minimise the harmful effects of transport to and from
the site, in particular vehicle emissions and noise and the control of dust on
roads.
c) Provide its work force with fuel for cooking and heating and ensure that
workers on the site do not cut wood or other vegetation as firewood.
d) Take measures and construct works, on the instructions of the Engineer-in-
charge, to prevent soil erosion from slopes in the construction area.
e) Not clear any areas of forest or woodland without the authority of the
Engineer-in-charge and statutory authorities.
3) In order to reduce adverse effect on public health resulting from the influx into
the project area on construction workers, the Contractor will be obliged to
undertake during the whole construction period the following preventive
measures:
a) Ensure that all construction staff and workers, prior to being accepted to
work on site, submit certificates of good health and, during the
construction period, ensure that all employees are given a periodic
physical examination (at least once a year and following any serious
illness) by a qualified medical practitioner.
b) Ensure that workers suffering from noticeable contagious illnesses are
removed from the site for treatment and are not permitted to return to the
site without an updated medical certificate.
c) Carry out regular spraying of all parts of the site and site installations to
control mosquito vector diseases, using approved insecticides.
d) Implement a control programme to ensure the maintenance of
satisfactory sanitary conditions on the site and in the living areas, and
report to the Engineer-in-charge all cases of serious enteric and/or water-
borne illness.
4) The Contractor will send representatives to constituted project environmental
monitoring committees, as instructed by the Engineer-in-charge, and will at all
times comply with the requests of said committees with regard to the need for

21
environmental or health protection measures. He will also maintain close contact
with local authorities and government institutions in addressing issues arising
from the construction activities. Such issues needing particular attention are the
following:
a) Pollution caused by construction work.
b) Disputes related to the leasing of land for construction activities and/or site
installations etc.
c) Disputes arising from traffic congestion and restrictions on the use of the
main project access road and roads in the project area.
d) All matters relating to road safety and measures to minimize the risk of
traffic accidents.
5) The Contractor will submit to the Engineer-in-charge monthly reports on
environmental performance and control. These reports will give details of all
environmental protection measures taken during the months, as well as:
a) Any environmental problems encountered during the month.
b) Details of health conditions, in particular any occurrence of contagious
illness and any accidents.
c) Any notices received from government or state institutions relating to
environmental matters, and the action taken by the Contractor as a result.
6) In view of the limited space available for the site accommodation facilities and
in order to avoid problems of assimilation with the present population of the
project region, the Contractor will be obliged to keep the number of workers
imported from other areas to the minimum required for him to complete the
Works on time and in accordance with the specifications. The Contractor will
co-operate with the local authorities at all times to prevent migration to the area,
of unauthorised persons not involved directly in the construction work. To this
end, he will at all time strictly control the movement of persons into and out of
the construction areas and camps.

2.19 PAYMENT FOR SITE INSTALLATION AND SERVICES


The initial mobilisation costs such as purchase and transport of Contractor's
Equipment and materials to the Site, planning, designing, installing, operating,
maintaining and removing of all Temporary Works, site installations, services
and facilities specified in this Section, making submittals to the Engineer-in-
Charge, recruiting and transferring staff, obtaining rights of way, statutory
permits and clearances, clearing, grading and excavating in areas for temporary
facilities, and any other costs involved in preparation for constructing Permanent
Works will not be paid separately and the entire cost thereof shall be included in
the Unit Prices for other items of the Works.
No separate measurement for payment or payment shall be made for complying
with any environmental obligations required by Indian national and state laws
and regulations, and/or as described in this Section, and all such costs incurred
by the Contractor to this end shall be considered as being included in the
Contractor’s Unit Prices.

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Contractor if fails to comply with the environmental obligations, the
Engineer-in-Charge shall get the required compliance done from third party
at Contractor’s risk and cost.

END OF SECTION A.2

23
SECTION A.3
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
List of Contents

3.1 SAFETY PROGRAMME AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION


3.2 SAFETY STANDARDS
3.3 PERSONAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT
3.3.1 General
3.4 RESCUE TEAM
3.5 ILLUMINATION AND EARTHING
3.5.1 General
3.5.2 Earthing, Wet Work Areas, Control of Electricity Discharges
3.6 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC AND SAFETY ON PUBLIC ROADS
3.7 STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF EXPLOSIVES
3.8 BLASTING
3.8.1 General
3.8.2 Underwater Blasting
3.9 FIRE PRECAUTION
3.10 DUST ABATEMENT
3.11 POLLUTION OF STREAMS AND RIVERS
3.12 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

24
SECTION A.3
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

3.1 SAFETY PROGRAMME AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION


1) Within 28 days from the date of issue of Notification of Award, the Contractor
shall submit, in writing, his proposal for a comprehensive safety programme
covering all aspects of the Works.
2) This safety programme shall detail policies, procedures, and plans, which the
Contractor intends to implement to ensure the safety and health of his
employees. It shall comply with the standards and regulations in force in India
applicable to construction safety.
3) The Contractor shall designate a competent employee specially trained and
experienced to act as Safety Officer, who will administer and be responsible for
the implementation of the safety program. He shall carry out frequent and
regular safety inspections of the working areas, materials, and equipment. The
name and qualifications of the Safety Officer shall be submitted for approval to
the Engineer-in-Charge prior to his appointment.
4) The Contractor shall be responsible for enforcement of the health and safety
provisions for his subcontractors to be employed at the Site.
5) Prior to the start of any major construction activity or hazardous operation, the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge for approval, a specific plan
for safety precautions covering such operation.
6) All accidental occurrences with serious accident potential such as major
equipment failures, contact with high-voltage lines, exposure to hazardous
materials, slides, cave-ins, etc., shall be immediately reported to the Engineer-in-
Charge.
7) All serious and fatal injuries and diseases caused by the progress of work shall
be immediately investigated by the Contractor and a comprehensive report shall
be submitted to the Engineer-in-Charge.
8) In case of a fatal accident, only rescue and emergency teams and operations shall
be permitted at the place of the occurrence until the Engineer-in-Charge gives
permission to resume normal operations.

3.2 SAFETY STANDARDS


In addition to the requirements specified herein, the Contractor shall comply
fully with all applicable national and state governments safety regulations and
standards in force in India, as well as with the:
a) NHPC safety manual
b) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE),
c) U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Construction Safety Standards.

25
3.3 PERSONAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT
3.3.1 General
1) The Contractor shall provide his and his subcontractor's personnel as well as the
Engineer's-in-Charge representatives and visitors with appropriate personal
safety equipment. The use of such equipment shall be compulsory.
2) Every person entering the working area shall wear a protective helmet.
3) The safety-toe footwear with steel caps shall be worn by all employees engaged
in work having an inherent danger to the feet. Light footwear such as sandals,
canvas or tennis shoes shall not be permitted for construction work.
4) During the drilling works and in the areas where the employees are exposed to
harmful noise levels, ear protectors shall be made available and required to wear.
5) Employees engaged in work having an inherent danger of eye or face injury shall
be furnished and required to wear protection glasses, goggles or masks. Where
irritant or toxic substances may come in contact with the skin or clothing,
employees shall be wearing the protective clothing or shall be required to apply
a protective ointment by a competent physician.
6) Employees working on steep slopes or otherwise subject to possible falls from
levels not protected by fixed guardrails or safety nets, shall be secured by safety
belts and lifelines.

3.4 RESCUE TEAM


1) Prior to the commencement of construction, the Contractor shall organise and
train a Rescue Team composed of his employees. This Rescue Team shall be
capable to render help after accidents caused by fire, gas, explosion, avalanche,
etc.
2) The Rescue Team shall be organised in such a way that sufficient number of
members will be ready for action at any time until the Completion of Works.
3) The Rescue Team members shall be instructed and trained for their task by a
qualified and experienced person. If required, the Contractor shall hire an
outside specialist to perform such training. A refresher training for all members
of the Rescue Team shall be conducted at least every six months.
4) Each Rescue Team member shall be skilled in giving the first aid, dealing with
the appliances for artificial respiration, and fire fighting equipment and shall
possess a good local knowledge. Adequate equipment for reaching even the
remotest working area shall be at their disposal.

3.5 ILLUMINATION AND EARTHING


3.5.1 General
All working sites in the open, transit areas, excavation sites, etc., shall be
adequately illuminated during night work by electrical lights as specified in the
Section "Site Installations and Services".

26
3.5.2 Earthing, Wet Work Areas, Control of Electric Discharges
1) All equipment and appliances, which are exposed to lightning, shall be earthed
electrically, and the effectiveness of such earthing shall be periodically checked
by the Contractor's specialised personnel.
2) No equipment electrically powered by more than 24 Volts shall be operated by
personnel standing in water.
3) Only air, battery-powered or hydraulic tools shall be permitted in the wet areas.
4) Where electrical blasting will be used, equipment shall be installed to control
possible electric discharges in the ground due to storms, electrical motors, etc.
As soon as such discharges are noted, electrical blasting operations shall be
suspended, or the detonator type changed.

3.6 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC AND SAFETY ON PUBLIC ROADS


1) The Contractor shall be responsible for the safety along the roads related to the
Site, and he shall take all necessary precautions for the protection of the work
and the safety of the public on the roads affected by his activities. Where the
work will be carried out at the site of, or close to an existing road, the Contractor
shall maintain the vehicular and pedestrian traffic safe at all times. If his
operations can cause traffic hazards, he shall repair or fence or take such other
measures for ensuring safety which are satisfactory to the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Roads subject to interference by the work shall be kept open or suitable detours
shall be provided and maintained by the Contractor, who shall provide, erect,
and maintain all necessary barricades, suitable and sufficient flashlights,
flagmen, danger signals, and signs.
3) Roads, which will be closed to traffic, shall be protected by effective barricades
on which acceptable warning and detour signs shall be placed. All barricades
shall be kept illuminated and all lights shall be kept on from sunset to sunrise.
4) The Contractor shall submit his weekly activities schedule and the locations of
his work along the existing public roads to the authorities concerned, and obtain
all necessary approvals prior to commencement of the respective work.
5) At the road crossings or in heavy traffic locations, the Contractor shall carry out
the work during the working hours as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge, and
after the completion of the work he shall immediately make the necessary
backfill and pavement at the crossings.
6) The Contractor shall provide temporary passes and bridges to give an access to
the existing villages, houses, etc., to the satisfaction of the authorities concerned
whenever he disturbs such existing way during the execution of the Works.

3.7 STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF EXPLOSIVES


1) The Contractor shall at an appropriate time apply to concerned departments,
police and military or other responsible authorities for all permits needed to
allow him to transport, store and use the explosives required for the Works. The
Contractor must allow in his work programme for the time needed to obtain said
permits.

27
2) The Contractor is responsible for proper care and handling of detonators and
explosives and he shall strictly comply with the rules and regulations in force in
India regarding transport, storage, handling and use of explosives.
3) Explosive magazines shall be reinforced concrete buildings with walls and slabs
of a minimum 250 mm thickness. Doors shall be made of double sheets having a
minimum thickness of 5 mm each and shall be fitted with safety type locks.
4) Explosive magazines shall be kept at a safe distance from working areas and
living quarters. They shall be surrounded with barbed wire, protected by safety
locks, ventilated, and fitted with lightning arrestors. An air space shall be
provided between the ceiling and the roof to prevent temperatures from reaching
dangerous levels.
5) Blasting caps and detonators shall not be stored in the same magazines as
explosives, but shall be located in separate magazines at least 15 m away if
barricaded and 30 m if not barricaded.
6) Explosives shall be stored only in their original containers and with the top side
up as designated on the container.
7) Access to the magazines and permission to handle explosives shall be granted
exclusively to trustworthy personnel, adequately instructed and experienced in
the use and handling of explosives.
8) The Contractor shall provide adequate security measures necessary to prevent
loss or theft of explosives. Storage of explosives and detonators outside of the
magazines shall not be permitted.
9) The Contractor shall maintain a record of storage and withdrawal of all
explosives. This record shall be made available to the Engineer-in-Charge on
request. The Engineer-in-Charge shall be promptly notified of any loss or theft
of explosives.
10) Between the magazines and the place of use, the explosives and detonators shall
be transported separately in lockable metallic containers loaded on a special
wagons destined for the purpose of explosives transport only. These wagons
shall be painted with striking colours for easy recognition. The inside of the
containers shall be lined with wood in order to prevent a direct contact of the
explosive or detonators with the metal.

3.8 BLASTING
3.8.1 General
1) All blasting shall be carried out in a workmanlike and safe manner by a
competent, licensed and experienced blasting engineer or foreman. No blasting
shall be done without his approval.
2) Blasting will be permitted only after adequate provisions have been made for the
protection of persons, the Works, and public or private property. The Engineer-
in-Charge’s approval of any of the Contractor's blasting operations shall not
relieve the Contractor of his sole responsibility for the safety of persons and
property. The Contractor shall be liable for all claims resulting from personal
injury and damage to property and equipment that may result from its blasting

28
operations. Any damage done to the Works or property by blasting shall be
repaired by the Contractor.
3) Blasting in the open air shall be carried out only at certain hours of the day in
accordance with a schedule mutually agreed upon by the Contractor and the
Engineer-in-Charge. Barriers shall be erected and warning shall be given to the
workers at the Site and to the public immediately before blasting, so that no
person will enter the danger zone until blasting is finished. Any restriction
imposed on the blasting schedule to ensure safety of structures, properties and
lives shall not be accepted as a basis for a claim by the Contractor.
4) Upon completion of blasting, an "all clear" signal shall be given by the
responsible blasting engineer after he has satisfied himself that all charges
loaded have detonated and that no delay-explosions or misfiring are to be
expected.
5) Such methods of blasting shall be employed that shock and vibration are
minimised.
6) No blasting shall be permitted within 25 m of any concrete placed within the
previous 7 days. After 7 days, blasting may be performed only with the approval
of the Engineer-in-Charge. Blasting will not be permitted within 10 m of
structures or installations vulnerable to damage by blasting.
7) No charging and firing will be permitted during thunderstorms and other
electrical disturbances.
8) Mats or rubber tires tied together with rope shall be used as protection from
flying debris to cover the charges where blasting may expose persons or property
to injury or damage.

3.8.2 Underwater Blasting


1) Only water resistant blasting caps and detonating cord shall be used in
underwater blasting operations.
2) Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be permitted because of
possible electrical transient current from galvanic action.
3) When more than one charge is placed underwater, a float device shall be
attached to an element of each charge in such manner that it will be released by
the firing.
4) No drilling, digging or excavating shall be permitted until all misfires have
detonated or the explosives are removed from the missed holes.

3.9 FIRE PRECAUTION


1) The Contractor shall deploy a fire brigade equipped for the fighting of any fires,
which could break out on the construction sites, in temporary structures, stores,
residential quarters, etc.
2) An adequate number of fire extinguishers shall at all times be available at each
construction site and in each building in camps and in offices and they shall be
kept in satisfactory working order.

29
3) Fire fighting equipment shall be of the gas, dry powder or other suitable
chemical or pumped water type. Their number, type and location will be subject
to the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.

3.10 DUST ABATEMENT


During the performance of the work and any operations appurtenant thereto, the
Contractor shall carry out proper and efficient measures, such as sprinkling with
water or other means, whenever necessary to reduce the dust nuisance, and to
prevent dust which has originated from his operations from damaging crops,
cultivated fields, and dwellings, or causing a nuisance to persons. The
Contractor will be held liable for any damage resulting from dust originating
from his operations.
If contractor fails to fulfil its obligations to control the dust menace, then
Engineer-in-Charge shall take the suitable measures to control the dust nuisance
at the cost of Contractor.

3.11 POLLUTION OF STREAMS AND RIVERS


1) The Contractor shall take all possible steps to prevent pollution of streams,
rivers, and other water supplies, at or in the vicinity of the Site and shall comply
with applicable laws, orders and regulations in force in India concerning the
control and abatement of water pollution.
2) Under no circumstances shall the sewage from the camps, or other contaminated
water, be released directly into river or other natural streams or any open areas
without prior treatment.

3.12 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


1) No extra measurement for payment or payment whatsoever will be made for the
safety precautions required to be provided by the Contractor and the entire cost
thereof shall be included in the Unit Prices for other items of the Works.
2) Any repair work or any indemnities required due to Contractor's non-compliance
with the safety requirements shall be at the Contractor's expense. Nothing
contained in these Specifications shall prevent Contractor from providing, at its
own cost, such amount of rock reinforcement, steel ribs or other supports for
ensuring safety of excavation performed under the Contract, as it may consider
necessary, in excess of that specified by Engineer-in-Charge.

END OF SECTION A.3

30
SECTION A.4
SURVEYING AND SETTING-OUT WORK
List of Contents

4.1 EXISTING SURVEY CONTROL POINTS


4.2 OBLIGATIONS OF THE CONTRACTOR
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Bench Marks and Triangulation Stations
4.2.3 Accuracy of Surveying
4.2.4 Auxiliary Works
4.2.5 Damage to Crops and Vegetation
4.3 CHECKING OF CONTRACTOR'S WORK BY THE ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE
4.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

31
SECTION A.4
SURVEYING AND SETTING-OUT WORK

4.1 EXISTING SURVEY CONTROL POINTS


1) Basic survey network consisting of fixed triangulation polygon points and
benchmarks exists in the project area. In addition, these data have been
supplemented by surveys carried out by the Survey of India. These data will be
at the Contractor's disposal to serve as a base for the setting-out and checking
work.
2) Prior to commencing any construction work, the Contractor shall undertake
survey for the purpose of checking these reference data and in order to satisfy
himself as to their accuracy. Should he have any objections to these data and the
relevant drawings; he shall inform the Engineer-in-Charge in writing within two
2 weeks of receiving them from the Engineer-in-Charge.

4.2 OBLIGATIONS OF THE CONTRACTOR


4.2.1 General
1) The Contractor shall perform all calculations, surveys and setting-out necessary
to establish the accurate location of the structures as shown on the Construction
Drawings and shall carry out all necessary surveys to verify the topographical
data used by the Engineer-in-Charge for the project design and measuring
purposes.
2) Within 28 days from the date of issue of Notification of Award, the Contractor
shall submit his proposed survey plan to the Engineer-in-Charge. The proposed
plan shall indicate the order of accuracy for all surveys.
3) In advance of any setting-out work associated with all principal project features,
the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge for approval a description
of the method and procedures he intends to use in establishing bench marks and
base lines.
4) If the Contractor chooses to use triangulation points or bench marks other than
those furnished by the Engineer-in-Charge, he shall do so at his own expense
and risk.
5) The Contractor shall carry out topographical surveys of the original ground
surface in each sector of the Works where surface excavation will be necessary,
and produce sufficient and adequate cross-sections which will permit later to
evaluate the volume of excavation for the measurement purposes and payment
of excavation.
6) The Contractor shall entrust the surveying works only to persons who by their
training and experience have sufficient qualifications and knowledge to ensure
proper fulfilment of the survey tasks assigned to them. For the performance of
the survey, the Contractor shall use a sufficient number of reliable and accurate
instruments.
4.2.2 Bench Marks and Triangulation Stations

32
1) Existing survey control point bench marks and base lines shall be verified with
respect to permanent control point and bench mark and base lines established
afresh as necessary to construct each portion of the Works.
2) Permanent survey control points shall be established prior to starting the work
and such permanent points shall be preserved during construction.
3) From the primary survey control points the construction surveys shall be
performed as required to locate, layout and construct each portion of the Works.
4) Complete and adequate logs of all control and survey work shall be maintained
as it progresses. Such logs shall be available for the Engineer-in-Charge's
inspection at all times.
5) The Contractor shall protect, preserve and keep accessible the bench marks and
triangulation stations of the basic survey and those provided by himself. Any
damage or removal of benchmarks and stations, including such of other parties
shall be prevented. Any accidental damage shall immediately be brought to the
attention of the Engineer-in-Charge. It is expressly stated that the Contractor
will be made responsible for the damage and its consequences.
6) Benchmarks shall be of stainless steel or cast iron. In softer soil, the steel bolt
shall be embedded in a block of concrete of suitable size, and absolutely stable.
Inscriptions shall be durable and clearly legible.
7) Subordinate points may be marked by steel pipes or pegs, subject to the approval
of the Engineer-in-Charge. Every newly fixed point shall be checked, as far as
possible through other elements than those, which served to establish the point.
4.2.3 Accuracy of Surveying
1) Horizontal distances shall normally be measured with optic or electronic
distance measuring instruments. Chaining with metallic tape shall be restricted
to measuring of short distances and will be rejected for use in survey of traverse
nets.
2) Elevations shall be determined by differential horizontal levelling.
3) Angles shall be measured by Theodolite.
4) Traverse nets shall be executed with the precision and as per Survey of India
practice and as per IS codes.
5) Levelling shall be checked by closing the loop to the initial benchmark.
4.2.4 Auxiliary Works
1) The Contractor shall perform auxiliary works with regard to surveying which
include, but not be limited to, the following:
a) Perform all necessary calculations with clear presentation of calculations
and results in order to facilitate verification,
b) Expose covered bench marks,
c) Provide bench marks in lieu of and/or in addition to those in existence,
d) Remove machinery and obstructions from the required sight-lines,
e) Provide adequate lighting or shut off sources of interfering light to ensure
the necessary clear view,

33
f) Provide adequate labour, and materials as deemed necessary and suitable
by the Engineer-in-Charge for the control and auxiliary surveys,
g) Remove all obstructive accumulation of water,
h) Carry out additional topographical surveys in cases where the existing
topographical data is, in the opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge, insufficient
for accurate measurement of the Works,
i) Carry out all necessary topographical surveys for the incorporation of
measuring equipment and instrumentation located in the Permanent
Works,
j) Carry out all necessary topographical surveys for the observation of the
behaviour of structures during construction.
2) All the above shall be done in close co-ordination with the Engineer-in-Charge.

4.2.5 Damage to Crops and Vegetation


1) No trees or crops of economic value existing at the Site shall be damaged or
removed by the Contractor during survey and cross-sectioning works prior to
their enumeration and evaluation.
2) Throughout the surveying and setting-out the Contractor shall work closely with
the authorised local appraisers of crops and vegetation in question and shall
provide them with facilities necessary for the expeditious performance of their
duties.
3) As soon as a section of work has been defined and valued, the Contractor shall
delineate the boundaries of the areas to be cleared by approved markings.

4.3 CHECKING OF CONTRACTOR'S WORK BY THE ENGINEER-IN-


CHARGE
1) All elements of the Contractor's survey work associated with the setting-out of
principal project features will be regularly checked by the Engineer-in-Charge
during the course of the work, and the Contractor shall provide assistance at any
time as required in the performance of such control work.
2) The Contractor may be required to provide the Engineer-in-Charge with any
information, readings or computations for checking.
3) The regular checks will usually be made during work breaks, but in case of
urgency, the Contractor shall restrict or stop the affected work.
4) Any checks by the Engineer-in-Charge shall not relieve the Contractor of his full
responsibility for the accuracy of structures and parts of them with regard to
their position and dimensions.
4.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for Contractor's
survey and setting-out work including the assistance in check/confirmation
surveys, and the entire cost thereof shall be included in the Unit Prices for
relevant items of the Works.

34
SECTION A.5
QUALITY ASSURANCE
List of Contents

5.1 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN EXECUTION OF WORKS


5.2 CONTROL OF PROGRESS OF THE WORK
5.3 CONTRACTOR’S QUALITY CONTROL STAFF
5.4 CONTRACTOR’S LABORATORIES
5.5 MATERIAL DELIVERED TO SITE
5.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

35
SECTION A.5
QUALITY ASSURANCE

5.1 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN EXECUTION OF WORKS


1) The Contractor shall establish staff, equip and operate a comprehensive quality
assurance set-up at the site during the full period of the Works. The principal
responsibility and duty of this set-up shall be to ensure that all work carried out
and materials produced or supplied by the Contractor comply fully with the
Specifications.
2) With his tender, the Bidder shall submit his detailed proposal (in terms of
experienced supervisory staff, trained workmen, procedures of work,
equipments, obtaining support from outside agencies) for achieving quality in
respect of the minimum following:
a) Workmanship in concrete placement.
b) Grouting activities particularly the mix designs and selection of mixes for
particular application.
c) Final clean up.
The Bidder’s proposal shall be specific enough to assure that all works are
executed in a professional manner and Bidder has included in his bid the
provision of employment of the best international practices of construction in the
implementation of the work.
3) At the time of award of work, the Bidder’s proposal at the time of tender
proposal at the time of tender shall be confirmed again and shall be improved, if
so required.
4) Immediately after the award of work, during mobilization phase, the Contractor
shall take systematic steps to implement all the proposals given by him for
achieving the desired quality in construction.
5) During course of execution, the quality of the work in progress shall be reviewed
atleast once in 3 months in the Quality Assurance meeting specifically called by
the Engineer-in-Charge and participated by Contractors Project organisation. In
case Engineer-in-Charge is not satisfied with the resources employed vis-à-vis’
the commitments made in the proposal, the contractor shall take additional steps
to supplement his efforts.

5.2 CONTROL OF THE PROGRESS OF WORK


1) Close progress control, and the preparation of corresponding progress reports,
shall be an important part of the Contractor’s quality control responsibilities.
The contractor must at all times provide the Engineer-in-charge with up to date
information on the progress of work and must without delay bring to the
attention of the Engineer-in-charge all delays or occurrences which could lead to
delay or additional costs.

36
2) The Contractor shall submit detailed monthly progress reports to the Engineer-
in-charge, in which the contractual programme for the works is updated and
information is given on the quantitative completion of civil works (in the form
of tables indicating the quantities of completed work).
3) The monthly progress reports shall give full details of any delays to work in
progress or planned delays in transport to/from the site, together with detailed
proposals for overcoming or preventing delays, and for regaining any lost time.
4) The Contractor shall at any time, at the request of the Engineer-in-charge,
submit detailed reports on particular matters relating to the execution and
progress of the works, if such reports are required in order to assess the quality
or progress of specific activities or works.

5.3 CONTRACTOR’S QUALITY CONTROL STAFF


1) The Contractor shall assign one experienced engineer to site as full-time quality
control manager, responsible with complying with all requirements of Technical
Specifications.
2) The experience and qualifications of this engineer shall be given in the
contractor’s tender and shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer-in-
charge.
3) The positions, qualifications and duties, of the contractor’s quality control staff
shall be indicated in the QC organisation plan, and shall likewise be subject to
approval by the Engineer-in-charge.

5.4 CONTRACTOR’S LABORATORIES


1) The Contractor shall establish, equip and operate on site laboratories for the
testing of the following principal construction materials:
a) Concrete, including also the testing of sand, aggregates, cement, water and
admixtures.
b) Any site testing and/or calibration of monitoring instrument.
2) The numbers of samples to be tested, and the timing of testing, shall be as may
be given elsewhere in these specifications, or as may be instructed by the
Engineer-in-charge.
3) The staff of the Contractor’s laboratory shall have proven experience in similar
previous work and their qualifications shall be subject to approval by the
Engineer-in-charge.
4) Complete records shall be kept of all laboratory tests carried out and shall be
available at any time to the Engineer-in-charge on request.
5) The Engineer-in-charge shall be permitted at any time and without notice to
observe tests being carried out in any of the Contractor’s laboratories, to inspect
equipment or to study results.

37
5.5 MATERIAL DELIVERED TO SITE
1) The Contractor’s quality control staff shall keep full records of all materials
delivered to site for use in the Works, and of all tests made on such materials
either prior to or following delivery to site.
2) These records shall be available at all times to the Engineer-in-charge, together
with any factory testing certification.

5.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


1) No measurement for payment will be made for any of the Contractor’s QC
activities required in this Section. All costs of these activities will be included in
the Unit Prices for work listed in the Schedule.

END OF SECTION A.5

38
SECTION A.6
COMMISSIONING
List of Contents

6.1 GENERAL
6.2 INSPECTION OF CIVIL STRUCTURE
6.2.1 General Requirement for Concrete Structures
6.2.2 Other Aspects
6.3 COMMISSIONING OF THE PROJECT AS A WHOLE
6.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

39
SECTION A.6
COMMISSIONING

6.1 GENERAL
1) The Contractor will be required to co-ordinate his work with
subcontractors/joint venture partners working for the Project and make due
allowance for the installation, testing and commissioning of items of hydro-
mechanical equipment and E&M equipments.
2) During the installation, testing and commissioning of equipment the Contractor
will allow full access to the staff of the sub contractor/joint venture partner of
HM/E&M works, and for their equipment and materials, and must make full
allowance in his work activities and programme for any delays, restrictions or
changes of working methods which may result from this requirement.
3) The Contractor will be expected to agree with the sub contractor/joint venture
partner providing him with materials, consumables and electric power as these
may be needed during the installation and testing of hydro-mechanical
equipment, at costs to be agreed directly between them and at no cost to NHPC.
4) The Contractor will be expected to make available to the sub contractor/joint
venture partner as available storage space for equipment items and plant during
the installation of hydro-mechanical equipment, again at costs to be agreed
directly between them and at no cost to NHPC.

6.2 INSPECTION OF CIVIL STRUCTURE


On completion of civil works of all components, contractor shall submit
(within7 days) a report for conditions covering the following aspects:

6.2.1 General Requirement for Concrete Structures


Visual Examination for
- Width and pattern of cracks
- Spalling, swelling and scaling of concrete surface
- Honey combing, cold joints, exposed aggregates and reinforcement
- Water Leakage: Surface dampness, Seepage/leakage through joints or cracks
- Adverse movements such as deflection, heaving, settlements etc.

6.2.2 Other Aspects


a) Steel penstocks have been checked and defects, if any, have been rectified.
b) All joints have been examined for water tightness. On filling of complete
water conductor system upto FRL, there should not any leakage from the
penstocks.
c) Concreting around penstocks is complete as per drawings.
d) Access to all the floors are hindrance free, safe & illuminated.
e) All the defects in concrete works have been rectified.
f) All drainage systems are operational and pumps are functional.

40
g) All embedded pipes have been tested for leakage and is free of blockages.
h) All embedded pipes used in construction stage dewatering/drainage have
been checked and plugged.
i) Fire fighting system to be tested and functional in all aspect.
j) The access to gate operation in the bypass pipe and TRC outlet is safe,
hindrance free and illuminated.
k) The hydro mechanical equipments viz. gates, hoisting arrangement etc., are
in place and functional.
l) All embedded pipes have been tested for leakage and are free of blockages.
m) Construction joints have been examined and are watertight.
n) Consolidation grouting is complete in all the specified areas and water
pressure tests carried if specified.
o) Concrete Lining in the TRC has been checked and defects rectified.
p) Proper physical check of all joints has been carried out for water-tightness.
q) River joining works are complete as per construction drawings and TRT
outlet is clear and hazard free with proper illumination.
r) TRT outlet area is properly fenced.

On submission of report by the Contractor, Engineer-in-charge shall study the report


and constitute a committee comprising of members from Project, Design (Civil),
Geology, HM Design, Design (E&M) etc for inspection of all the components before
filling and after filling of Water Conductor System.
The defects if any reported by committee shall be rectified by the Contractor at the
earliest before filling and also after filling within defect liability period according to
the requirement.

6.3 COMMISSIONING OF THE PROJECT AS A WHOLE


The Commissioning of the project as per the schedule is the sole responsibility of the
Contractor. The commissioning shall include filling of the water conductor system
and commissioning of individual units in the Power House.

6.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


There will be no measurement for payment for any of the activities related to
equipment commissioning as well as commissioning of the Project as a whole. All
costs related thereto will be covered by the Unit Prices given in the Bill of Quantities.

END OF SECTION A.6

41
SECTION B.1
DEWATERING DURING CONSTRUCTION
List of Contents

1.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1.2 SUBMITTALS
1.3 EXECUTION
1.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

42
SECTION B.1
DEWATERING DURING CONSTRUCTION

1.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) The Contractor shall provide all labour, material, and equipment necessary to
design, build, operate, maintain, and remove the temporary dewatering facilities
for protecting the Works under construction against flood flows in the rivers and
creeks, and to design, build, install, operate, maintain and dismantle the
temporary dewatering facilities required to remove service water and natural
surface flow or groundwater seepage from the working areas.
2) The Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining work sites free of water at
all times. Contractor shall make good any damage whatsoever caused by
flooding of the work sites due to failure of equipment, improper maintenance of
protective works, and acts of negligence in his performance of the Work. The
Contractor shall indemnify NHPC against claims arising out of any such failure,
made by other contractors, land holders or other persons.
3) The work shall be executed in accordance with the Contractor's design and
specifications, and sequences as approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
4) Temporary dewatering facilities shall be removed upon Completion of Works.
5) The Contractor shall not withdraw temporary drainage and dewatering system
from any interfacing site till completion of all the works.

1.2 SUBMITTALS
1) Within 28 days after the date of issue of the Notice to Commence, the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge the detail planning of all
diversion, protection and dewatering systems and the necessary flow
measurements.
2) This design shall be consistent with the outline description submitted by the
Contractor with his Tender, and shall include the following:
a) Design assumptions and calculations,
b) Layouts of diversion and drainage facilities,
c) Layout and capacity of pumps and pipes, sumps, drains, both open and
covered, well points, etc., including efficiency and heads, piping
arrangement and discharge points,
d) Details of standby dewatering arrangements,
e) Proposal for treating polluted water either by settling basins, filters, traps
for separating silt or any other suitable method,
f) Any other arrangements or installations the Contractor may propose for
temporary protection of the Works and dewatering of the working areas.
3) At least 14 days prior to scheduled construction of the particular work the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge full details of equipment to be
installed and all necessary construction details required for the dewatering
purposes.

43
4) The Engineer-in-Charge reserves the right to require any additional information
deemed necessary to be included in submitted documents.

1.3 EXECUTION
1) Dewatering systems (electrically operated) of adequate capacity shall be
provided by the Contractor for carrying out dewatering of construction sites. The
Contractor shall supply, install, maintain, and operate all dewatering pumps,
pipes, supports, channels, troughs, electrical installations, and necessary
accessories, and other consumables required to maintain the work sites free of
water during construction.
2) The Contractor shall provide standby power supply unit commensurate with the
capacity of the pumps as to cope with the water inflow into construction sites
during periods of breakdown and maintenance of his main power supply units.
3) Dewatering of the construction sites shall be undertaken by gravity whenever
possible. Only where dewatering by gravity is not practical, pumping shall be
resorted to after this mode has been approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
4) The Contractor shall propose the permanent sumps locations for approval of the
Engineer-in-Charge. The energy meters for the purpose of measuring energy
consumed in dewatering for payment shall be installed at those locations.
5) The pumped water carried in pipes or flumes shall be discharged at point
sufficiently away from the edge of the excavation. Care shall be taken to ensure
that there is no seepage or backflow to the working areas.
6) The Contractor shall ensure that all drainage water will be disposed of without
causing interference to his own or other contractors operations elsewhere at the
Site and that no drainage water runs into adjacent works. Water discharged from
work areas shall not be polluted or endanger the environment. Any polluted
water coming from the working sites shall be suitably treated prior to its
discharge from the Site. Particular attention shall be paid to possible pollution
from oil or solvents coming into contact with the water prior to its discharge
from the Site. Oil separators shall be provided within the drainage system as
necessary.
7) The dewatering systems shall not adversely affect any of other project activities
and structures or works of other agencies, if any. Where more than one agency
are working in the same or adjacent area, the Contractor who has already
provided the drainage facility, shall extend this facility to other agencies also. In
case of dispute the apportioning of such expenditure as applicable shall be
decided by the Engineer-in-Charge, whose decision shall be final. In no case
shall the Contractor stop the drainage activity.
8) In case the flow from the Contractor's site is passing through the site of other
contractors or agencies, the drainage shall be attended by the Contractor in
whose site the origin of the water is located.
9) If at any time during construction, in the opinion of Engineer-in-Charge,
dewatering pumps in addition to the installed dewatering capacities are required

44
in any working area; the Contractor shall provide and install such additional
capacity of dewatering system as necessary.
10) The Contractor shall perform all works necessary to drain the construction sites
of rain, groundwater and service water. The work shall include, but not be
limited to the following:
a) Design and construction of drainage, ditches, pits, pump sumps and
settlement ponds with oil separators,
b) Design, furnishing, operation and maintenance of dewatering equipment,
c) Relocation of dewatering facilities required for the performance of other
works,
d) All auxiliary works required for safe and continuous dewatering of the
construction sites.
11) The Contractor shall design and install complete facilities at the construction
sites. All the components of the dewatering systems shall be installed and
operated in accordance with the agreed method and the construction time
schedule, or approved modification thereof.
12) Dewatering near the river or stream shall be done down to natural water level by
gravity. Suitable drainage shall be made joining the course downstream of the
construction site to provide required gradient to facilitate proper and efficient
dewatering. Below the natural water table dewatering shall be done by pumping
water collected in the sumps and discharging the same into the river course
downstream of the construction site.
13) The Contractor shall provide, install, maintain, and operate adequate pumping
and other equipment, including standby units, to handle all water entering into
any of surface construction sites. In addition, he shall provide sumps and pumps
and/or well points in the immediate vicinity of the structure foundations using
such water conductors as are necessary to conduct the water away from the
excavation and concrete placement operations in an approved manner, so that
such operation shall be kept free from standing or running water.
14) The Contractor shall provide the necessary power and energy for operating the
pumps and well point system, if any. The standby power supply shall undergo
weekly trial runs lasting at least 30 minutes.
15) The dewatering systems shall be designed and installed in such a way that
modifications and extensions to the systems are possible while they are in full
operation.
16) Drainage ditches shall be excavated along the top of excavated slopes and on the
berm. Such ditches shall be kept well back from the excavation edges in order to
prevent saturating the upper part of the slopes. The ditches shall have sufficient
longitudinal gradient and shall be regularly cleaned by the Contractor out of all
accumulated silt and other matter so that water may flow freely at all times.
17) The Contractor shall take measures to ensure that the foundation surfaces
remain free of standing water and undamaged by the passage of construction
traffic. All ditches shall be outside the foundation areas.

45
18) Where excavation is to be made below the groundwater table in loose material,
the Contractor shall lower the water table sufficiently below any working surface
in advance of the excavation by means of properly screened wells and pumps.
Where excavation extends below the water table in rock, the Contractor shall
drill holes 6 m deep below the final grade, no further 100 m apart, and measure
the piezometric head in the hole for 2 days prior to blasting any rock. Excess
hydrostatic pressure in the rock shall be relieved in approved manner to prevent
upheaval of, or any other damage to the foundation.
19) Where concrete is to be placed, the water table shall be maintained below the
lowest part of the finished excavation for minimum one day following the
raising of structure above the natural groundwater table, and for such additional
time as may be necessary to preclude damages to structure foundation.
20) Upon completion of dewatering, temporary pipes and pump sumps beneath
permanent structures shall be closed off and completely filled with grout, mortar
or concrete as required by the Engineer-in-Charge.

1.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


1) Measurement for payment or payment for the dewatering of construction sites
will be based solely on the energy consumed in pumping water.
2) Payment will be made at the Unit Price per kilowatt-hour (kWh) entered in the
Bill of Quantities, which shall include the entire cost of:
a) Supply, transportation, installation, operations including cost of electricity,
maintenance, testing, and removal of pumps, pipelines with all accessories,
and other dewatering equipment for pumping water, regardless of the
amount of water,
b) Design of all dewatering systems,
c) All costs and labour for excavation, construction and protection of
drainage ditches, wells, pits, pump sumps, and settlement ponds,
d) Multistage pumping,
e) Capturing and conveying the water into the drainage system,
f) Moving of the pumps and pipes as necessary between different locations,
g) All auxiliary work required.
3) The stipulated Unit Price for dewatering will be payable to the Contractor for the
measured actual energy consumed in dewatering. This Unit Price shall hold
good for any quantity of dewatering required to be done by Contractor without
any variation/deviation limit.
4) The Contractor shall ensure that dewatering pumps supplied by him perform in
accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. In the event of any of
dewatering pumps provided by Contractor consume energy in excess of the
values specified by manufacturer, the same shall be repaired and replaced by
Contractor at his own cost, without delay and to the entire satisfaction of
Engineer-in-Charge.
5) Each pump installed shall undergo a trial testing at least once a week or as and
when directed by the Engineer-in-Charge to demonstrate that it is actually

46
discharging the water at its rated capacity and head. If significant deviations
(more than 10% below) are discovered the Unit Price for pumping through that
pump will be proportionally reduced for the period of the past 7 days, or until
the time of the last pump testing, whichever may apply. Where several pumps
are installed at the same site, the weighted average of the capacity of all installed
pumps shall be calculated and the Unit Price proportionally reduced. The pump
capacity will be measured at the outlet of the installed pipeline.
6) The meters and other electrical connections shall be installed by the Contractor
at his own expense. Meters shall be tested by the electrical department of NHPC
before installation. Approved test report of the meters shall be submitted to the
Engineer-in-charge before installation. In case NHPC does not have the facilities
for such testing, the same shall be got done by the contractor at his own cost at a
standard test house approved by Engineer-in-charge or at the facilities of the
State Electricity Department in the presence of the representative of the
Engineer-in-charge. In either case the test report shall be approved by the project
electrical department of NHPC. Meters shall be calibrated and tested before
installation and the test reports shall be submitted to the Engineer-in-Charge
prior to installation.
7) The Contractor shall not be entitled to any claim or compensation due to failure
or interruptions in electric supply.
8) No extra measurement for payment or payment shall be made for dewatering
construction sites by gravity and the entire cost thereof shall be included in the
Unit Prices for other items of the Works.
9) Payment for drainage trench excavated along the top of excavated slopes will be
made at the appropriate Unit Prices for excavation, concrete, rock paving or
others as the case may be. Drain ditches on berms will not be measured for
payment and the cost thereof shall be included in the Unit Prices for surface
excavation.
10) No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for the following,
and the cost thereof shall be deemed to be included in the Unit Prices for other
items of the Works:
a) Excavation of drains and sumps required for dewatering purpose,
b) Piping arrangement, consumables, maintenance and repairs/replacement of
dewatering system,
c) Caulking or plugging,
d) Construction, operation and maintenance of the settlement ponds, or other
devices for treatment of polluted water,
e) Any dewatering done by pumping in contravention of the instructions
given by the Engineer-in-Charge.
12) Any repair work or any liability, which result from non-compliance by the
Contractor with any requirements of this Section shall be at the Contractor’s full
responsibility and at his expense.

END OF SECTION B.1

47
SECTION B.2
SURFACE EXCAVATION
List of Contents

2.1 SCOPE OF WORK


2.2 SUBMITTALS
2.3 LINES AND GRADES
2.4 SLOPES, SLIDES, GEOLOGICAL OVERBREAK & UNSUITABLE
FOUNDATIONS
2.5 EXECUTION
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Classification of Excavation
2.5.3 Common Excavation
2.5.4 Rock Excavation
2.5.5 Minor Excavation Work
2.5.6 Additional Excavation
2.6 EXCAVATED MATERIALS
2.7 DISPOSAL OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS
2.8 PREPARATION AND PROTECTION OF EXCAVATED SURFACES
2.9 MONITORING AND PROTECTION FROM BLASTING
2.10 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
2.10.1 General
2.10.2 Geological Over-break and Unsuitable Foundations
2.10.3 Common Excavation
2.10.4 Rock Excavation
2.10.5 Minor Excavation Work
2.10.6 Additional Excavation
2.10.7 Exclusions

48
SECTION B.2
SURFACE EXCAVATION

2.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) This Section covers all surface excavation work to be performed under this
Contract, which shall consist of removing all existing material of whatever
nature to the lines and grades shown on the Construction Drawings or as
otherwise directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. This work shall include the
excavation under all conditions of saturation and involve drilling and blasting,
loading, hauling and disposal of materials in designated spoil, stockpile areas or
directly as construction materials.
2) The Contractor shall also be responsible for excavation which is not specifically
required for the construction of Permanent Works, but incidental to the
installation of temporary facilities such as site roads, office buildings, camp site,
construction plants etc.
3) Slope protection and stabilisation measures, which may be needed in
conjunction with surface excavation work, are covered in other Sections of these
Specifications.
4) The approval given by the Engineer-in-Charge to the Contractor’s methods and
equipment shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the proper
and safe execution of surface excavations, or of liability for injuries to, or death
of persons, or any obligations under this Contract.

2.2 SUBMITTALS
1) With his tender, the Contractor will be required to submit a detailed method
statement, drawings and work programme for the excavation. This statement
must indicate all proposed access and haul roads, stockpiles, spoil tips/ disposal
areas for excess material etc. The method statement shall give details on the
plant and equipment which the Contractor proposes to use for excavation and
haulage, blasting methods, drainage and safety precautions and procedures for
the installation of rock supporting and stabilisation works.
2) At least 28 days prior to the commencement of any surface excavation, the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-charge an updated method statement
and programme for the activities set out in (1) above, giving full details of the
proposed excavation methods and sequences, including necessary site drainage
and safety precautions. Any variations from the corresponding data submitted
with the Contractor’s tender will be explained and justified to the satisfaction of
the Engineer-in-charge. The data shall include the following:
a) Location and area of blasts.
b) Diameter, spacing, depth, pattern and orientation of blasting holes.
c) Type, strength, amount, column load and distribution of explosives to be
used per hole, per delay and per blast.

49
d) The type of detonators, powder factor and sequence and pattern of delays
to be used per blast.
e) Description and purpose of any special methods or equipment to be
adopted by the Contractor.
3) The method statement shall include the excavation methodology by mechanised
means and planning for its movement and access to various components of the
Project.
4) The plans shall be in conformity with detailed requirements of Indian laws and
regulation for excavation sequencing, blasting and precautions to be taken in
proximity of concrete and grouting operations, public roads and for the safety of
construction workers and members of the public.
5) Within 14 days of receipt of the overall updated excavation method statement
and programme, Engineer-in-Charge will advice the Contractor in writing of his
acceptance of, or comments on the submitted plans. The Engineer-in-charge
reserves the right to reject the proposed plan if in his opinion undesirable
damage to permanent rock surfaces or existing structures would result from
performing the blasting as proposed. If rejected, a new plan in whole or in part
shall be submitted. Drilling and blasting shall only be carried out in areas for
which the plan has been accepted by Engineer-in-Charge.
6) In addition to preparing a detailed blasting plan; the Contractor shall submit, not
later than 24 hours in advance of each proposed blast, a detailed proposal
showing the final details of the proposed blast. The Contractor shall not proceed
with the blast until permission to load holes with explosives has been given by
Engineer-in-Charge in writing.
7) At least 14 days prior to dumping or stockpiling any material, the Contractor
shall submit the layout of spoil or stockpile areas, which will be within the areas
designated on the Tender Drawings or as approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
All pertinent data of working methods and provisions for the security, stability
and temporary and permanent drainage of the areas shall be included. Details of
volumes, material types, heights and grades shall be provided.
8) Prior to starting any excavation in any particular area, the Contractor shall
confirm in writing his agreement with the existing surveys and topographical
data showing the original ground surface for the area in question, which will be
used for measurement purposes. Should the Contractor have any doubts as to the
correctness, or sufficiency, of such data, he shall carry out an independent check
survey of the site before starting excavation and set properly all lines and
establish levels for various works on his own and submit his survey to the
Engineer-in-Charge for approval. In case of disagreement, the Engineer-in-
Charge and Contractor shall mutually review the existing data. The agreement
concerning the original ground surface must be reached before commencing
excavation work. Contractor's failure to follow the procedure outlined above will
forfeit his right to claim any other original ground surface than that established
by the Engineer-in-Charge.

50
9) To enable the Engineer-in-Charge to verify all necessary elevations and cross-
sections of the original ground surface, prepared by the Contractor, the latter
shall notify the Engineer-in-Charge in writing, giving at least 7 days notice
before the commencement of any excavation. The Contractor shall clear, in
advance, all vegetation that may interfere with this survey work.
10) The Contractor shall submit and agree with the Engineer-in-charge upon a
monitoring plan for the excavation to observe potential or actual movement of
the slopes excavated in the rock and overburden. This plan shall also give details
of the procedures and equipment to be employed by the Contractor to stabilise or
protect as quickly as possible any areas in which it is determined that untoward
movement or deformation is occurring or is apprehended.

2.3 LINES AND GRADES


1) The Contractor shall be responsible for setting-out all the structures and slopes
as shown on the Construction Drawings, in accordance with the Section
"Surveying and Setting-out Work". All extra work and over excavation caused
by improper setting-out by the Contractor shall be corrected by himself
immediately upon the request of the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The final excavation grades shall in general be rock of required quality.
However, where the final excavation grades are defined by line and grade, the
Contractor shall take every precaution, and use the most appropriate method of
excavation, to avoid the loosening of material or the breaking of rock beyond the
lines and grades shown on the Construction Drawings.
3) The bottoms of all excavations shall be trimmed to line and grade as directed by
the Engineer-in-charge. The final 200 mm of any loose geological formation in
excavations where concrete is to be placed, shall be excavated by hand, when
directed, to avoid disturbance of the bottom.
4) If, for any reason, excavation is carried out beyond the lines and grades shown
on the Construction Drawings, the Contractor shall remove the excess material
and take the necessary measures to restore the required lines and grades with
approved backfill or concrete, as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
5) Should the Contractor wish to excavate beyond the limits given on the Drawings
for his own convenience, he may do so only with the prior consent of the
Engineer-in-Charge.
6) No rough excavation short of actual lines and grades as shown in the
construction drawings shall be allowed to be taken up to enhance the progress or
otherwise as this may trigger movements in the strata to be excavated.

2.4 SLOPES, SLIDES, GEOLOGICAL OVERBREAK AND UNSUITABLE


FOUNDATIONS
1) If geological conditions during the performance of the work do not permit
excavation of slopes as shown on the Construction Drawings, or where the
material is unsuited to form a firm foundation for the structures, the Engineer-in-

51
Charge will modify the drawings accordingly or issue direct order to change the
slopes and grades.
2) Excavation beyond the lines and grades shown on the Construction Drawings, or
as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge, is defined as over-break.
3) If over-break, slides or rock falls occur, which, in the opinion of the Engineer-in-
Charge are due to improper working methods or negligence by the Contractor,
and the effective excavated surfaces are beyond the excavation lines shown on
the Construction Drawings, the Contractor shall remove all excessive material
and, if required, place approved backfill in the excavated voids as directed by the
Engineer-in-Charge.
4) Geologically accepted over-break in surface excavation is defined as that over-
break which occurs while both of the following conditions are simultaneously
fulfilled:
a) The Engineer-in-Charge is informed and given an opportunity for
inspection while both the cause and the extent of the over-break are clearly
visible.
b) The over-break did not occur while, in the opinion of the Engineer-in-
Charge, the Contractor was using improper working methods or was
otherwise negligent, and it could not have been prevented by prompt and
appropriate installation of supports.

2.5 EXECUTION
2.5.1 General
1) The Contractor shall conduct all excavation procedures and operations so as to
produce the required lines and grades.
2) The surface excavation shall be performed by any approved method using any
excavating and hauling equipment suitable for the work in accordance with the
submitted detailed plans and time schedule, or approved modifications thereof.
3) The surface excavation shall be performed with the provision of benches of
sufficient width to accommodate catch water drains and movement of
equipments. Adequate slope protection/ stabilisation measure as shown on the
construction drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-charge, shall be taken
prior to the excavation to the next bench.
4) All excavated areas shall be drained to the satisfaction of Engineer-in-Charge.
Any surface or subsurface water shall be satisfactorily controlled by methods
acceptable to Engineer-in-Charge. When underwater excavation is to be
performed, suitable equipment shall be used.
5) At all times during construction, Contractor shall adopt excavation procedures
such that at no time shall the stability of any slope be impaired. Excavation shall
always be started from top and worked down after putting designated supports.
In no case should the excavation be carried out from the toe or any intermediate
level. The acceptance by Engineer-in-Charge of excavation procedures or
equipment shall in no way relieve Contractor of his sole responsibility for

52
safeguarding the stability of all the rock faces and slopes excavated under this
Contract.
6) The Contractor shall carry out periodic cleaning to ensure that no hazardous
accumulations of loose material occur on the slopes or on any berm or ledges
forming part of the excavation profile. The removal of mud and slush resulting
from rain or flooding of the sites shall be performed by the Contractor when, in
the opinion of Engineer-in- Charge, it is considered necessary to ensure the safe
and effective performance of the work.
7) Excavation for foundations of various components shall be performed under
various conditions of saturation. Final surfaces shall be protected against
damage by erosion and movement of construction equipment. Any damage
caused shall be repaired by the Contractor at his cost.
8) The Contractor shall exercise particular care when excavating in the vicinity of
existing structures or those under construction. He shall be liable for any damage
to structures or equipment caused by his operations. Particle acceleration due to
the blasting shall be monitored as specified hereinafter.
9) The Contractor shall protect the subsoil and particularly the ground water from
contamination by fuel or oil from his equipment.
10) Water shall be sprinkled on work sites by the Contractor to ensure dust free
atmosphere at no extra cost. If the contractor does not heed to the instructions in
this regard, the Engineer-in-charge shall be at liberty to get sprinkling done at
the cost of contractor.

2.5.2 Classification of Excavation


1) Surface excavation is classified according to the method used to carry out the
work, as follows:
a) Common Excavation
b) Rock Excavation by blasting
c) Minor Excavation Work
d) Additional Excavation
2) The dismantling of any concrete structure shall be included in the item “Rock
excavation”.
3) Excavation of rock by ripping may be used at the Contractor’s discretion, subject
to the approval of the Engineer-in charge and providing that the work complies
fully with the quality requirements of these specifications for rock excavation by
blasting or mechanised means. Any such ripping work will be paid for as rock
excavation.

2.5.3 Common Excavation


1) Common excavation including riverbed overburden excavation comprises
clearing and grubbing, stripping, and all kind of loose excavation other than
solid mass of rock under all conditions of saturation.
2) Clearing shall consist of cutting and disposing of all shrubs, stumps, debris and
any other vegetation and organic topsoil, existing structures, foundations of

53
structures (except concrete or masonry in mortar), fences and other materials on
the surface of the ground within the areas to be cleared as indicated on the
Construction Drawings, or as required by Engineer-in-Charge.
3) All inflammable material resulting from clearing shall be either burnt or
disposed of by the Contractor in a manner acceptable to the Engineer-in-Charge.
The Contractor shall be responsible for taking all safety measures required for
burning of the materials, and he shall be responsible for any damage done by fire
resulting from his work. The fire shall at no time be left unattended, until it has
been fully extinguished. The Contractor shall have suitable equipment and
supplies for fighting fire during the burning of material and shall take all
necessary precautions to prevent fire from spreading. None of the disposed
material shall be piled in stream of river or in a location where in the opinion of
Engineer-in-Charge it is liable to be washed away by floods.
4) Stripping consists of removing all rubbish, humus, vegetable material and all or
part of the organic topsoil in the areas and to the depth as indicated on the
Construction Drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
5) Common excavation means general excavation of material such as organic
topsoil, clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulders of up to 2-cubic meter in volume
and soft or disintegrated rock, which can be removed by common earth moving
equipment without ripping or blasting.
6) Stripping and loose excavation shall be accomplished by proper excavation and
hauling equipment suitable for the work which allows for an efficient work
progress adopted to the soil conditions encountered.
7) When the bottom of the excavation as indicated on the construction drawings is
not rock and the natural foundation material is loosened or disturbed, for any
reason, the Contractor shall improve it by compaction or replace it with
approved fill and compact as directed by Engineer-in-charge.
8) The contractor shall submit a detailed plan accompanied by the drawings along
with the tender document showing detail proposal of excavation, layout of
haulage road, intermediate berms for excavation pit, dewatering arrangement,
disposal proposal etc. The plan has to be accompanied by equipment and
manpower planning and also detailed scheduling of different activities.

2.5.4 Rock Excavation


1) Rock excavation consists of the removal of rock by blasting or mechanised
means includes all solid rock in place which cannot be removed until loosened
by blasting, barring or wedging, removal of all boulders or detached pieces of
solid rock larger than 2-cubic meter in volume, as well as any existing structural
foundation made of concrete or masonry placed in mortar which cannot be
removed during common excavation or by ripping.
2) Lines shown on the Tender or Construction Drawings such as “Rock line”,
"sound rock", "top of rock" etc., are approximate and for information only. They
will not be used for measurement purpose.

54
3) All excavation shall be performed using methods and techniques that will
produce smooth and sound rock surfaces with minimum over-break and
fracturing beyond the lines and grades or limits of excavation shown on the
Construction Drawings, or as required by Engineer-in-Charge, and will preserve
the structural integrity of the excavated openings. All precautions shall be taken
the Contractor to achieve this result and also preserve, in a soundest possible and
undisturbed condition all the materials beyond the limits of the excavation of
lines and grades shown on the drawings. Particular care shall be exercised where
vertical or near vertical faces are required.
4) Drilling and blasting shall be done in such a manner as to ensure that the rock
will break along the desired lines and grades. Rock shattered by blasting
operations outside the established limits of excavation shall be removed and
replaced by concrete if necessary. Rock faces and slopes shall be scaled or
cleaned of loose or overhanging rock immediately after excavation. Rock
surfaces, both temporary and permanent, shall be regularly inspected by the
Contractor and rectified whenever necessary.
5) The diameter and the spacing of the blast holes shall be constantly reviewed
with respect to the actual conditions at the Site. The Contractor shall develop the
blasting techniques as the work progresses to obtain the best possible excavation
surface after blasting. The techniques used shall be at all times subject to the
agreement of the Engineer-in-Charge, who may order blasting tests to be
undertaken by the Contractor to substantiate his proposed methods of blasting.
The Contractor shall engage a qualified professional blasting consultant to assist
in establishing satisfactory techniques
6) Shattering or splitting of rock, or the opening up of seams and joints in the rock,
beyond the limits of excavation, shall be avoided. If in the opinion of Engineer-
in-Charge such damage occurred due to Contractor's negligence, then additional
rock support shall be installed and any resultant shattered material beyond such
lines shall be removed and replaced with rock fill or concrete as directed by
Engineer-in-Charge.
7) Immediately following the blasting, and at any time throughout the duration of
the Contract, the Contractor shall scale and remove from the excavations all
loose material, which appears to be unsafe or to endanger persons, work or
property. The fact that such scaling and removal may enlarge the excavation
beyond the required excavation lines shall not relieve the Contractor from the
necessity of performing such scaling and removal.
8) After scaling and prior to excavation of the next bench or round, the Contractor
shall install rock stabilisation and reinforcement, and provide any surface
treatment needed, as shown on the Construction Drawings or as directed by the
Engineer-in-Charge.
9) All blasted rock shall be removed from the bench toe before the succeeding
bench is excavated. The maximum bench height shall be as indicated on the
Drawings and may be changed only with approval of Engineer-In-Charge.

55
10) The excavation shall be made to sufficient depths to secure foundations of
structures on sound rock free from weathered materials or other objectionable
defects, as determined by the Engineer-in-Charge. The exploratory
investigations of the foundations are not sufficiently complete to disclose all
seams, defects, and other irregularities that may exist in the foundation rock. The
lines of excavation shown on the Construction Drawings shall therefore not be
interpreted as indicating the final or actual lines of excavation or that no defects
exist. The excavations at all elevations shall be so shaped as to produce as
uniform and regular a profile as is practicable using excavation methods
described herein.
11) The final excavated surfaces shall have no abrupt changes in slope and sharp
projections greater than 500 mm. Projections in excess of 500 mm shall be
treated where necessary by supplementary excavation as determined by the
Engineer-in-Charge, to produce the desired surface of contact between concrete
and rock.
12) Whenever, in the opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge, further blasting may injure
the rock upon or against which concrete is to be placed, or is otherwise
undesirable, the use of explosives shall be limited to light charges or
discontinued, and the excavation shall be completed by wedging, barring, or
other suitable methods approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
13) Should the presence of rock appear to make excavation for the foundations of
any structures unnecessary to the extent, which is shown on the Construction
Drawings, the Contractor shall consult the Engineer-in-Charge before
proceeding with such work. The Engineer-in-Charge will issue an order in
writing on whether to proceed with the work as shown or to define how the work
shall be modified.
14) When the excavation has been completed to the approximate grade, as shown on
the Construction Drawings or established by the Engineer-in-Charge, the surface
shall be cleaned off by barring, wedging, picking or other approved methods,
and with an air and/or water jet under pressure for purpose of inspection. If the
foundation is found to be not satisfactory, as determined by the Engineer-in-
Charge, supplementary excavation shall be made as directed, and the surface
again cleaned for inspection. This procedure shall be repeated until a satisfactory
foundation is obtained. Just prior to placing the concrete, a final cleanup of the
rock surface shall be made. All loose, shattered, or disintegrated material shall
be removed, and the final surface cleaned with jets of air and/or water under
pressure.
15) Contractor shall regularly monitor and inspect all excavations made under this
Contract, and shall forthwith promptly remove and dispose of any rock, which
Contractor or Engineer-in-Charge deems loose, unsound or disintegrated, or in
any other way unsafe.

56
2.5.5 Minor Excavation Work
1) Minor excavation work consists of excavation, in all materials, of trenches or
holes of less than, or equal to, 2 m width, and in other small or restricted areas,
which will be carried out manually or using small equipment.
2) The Contractor shall excavate to the limits, lines and grades shown on the
Construction Drawings.
3) Bracing, shoring or other methods of supporting the excavation shall be carried
out as necessary.
4) Mechanical excavation of trenches, except those in rock, shall be stopped not
less than 100 mm above final bottom level. The remainder of the excavation
shall be removed, shaped, and graded manually.
5) In rock, the trenches shall be excavated to such depth that provides space for
placing of compacted sand bedding at least 10 cm thick between the rock and the
underside of any equipment or pipe.

2.5.6 Additional Excavation


1) The Contractor may be directed by the Engineer-in-Charge to perform
excavation beyond the lines and grades of already completed work. Such
excavation shall be defined as additional excavation.
2) Additional excavation may consist of any or all classes of excavation stipulated
in this Section.
3) Excavation outside the excavation limits, which is required by the Contractor for
his own convenience, may be performed only with agreement by the Engineer-
in-Charge, who may direct the Contractor to refill it with concrete or rock fill in
a satisfactory manner at no additional cost to NHPC.

2.6 EXCAVATED MATERIALS


1) All suitable materials from the excavations shall be utilised to the fullest extent
as practicable, as construction materials in Permanent Works.
2) The Contractor's blasting and excavating techniques shall be such that, as far as
practical, construction materials of satisfactory quality will be obtained.
Wherever possible, such materials shall be excavated separately from materials
needing to be disposed of to spoil tip.
3) Whenever possible, excavated material which is suitable for construction
purposes shall be transported directly from the excavation area to the designated
final locations for its use.
4) If the immediate placement in the final location is not possible, the materials
shall be stockpiled. If the moisture content of excavated materials which would
be suitable for embankments or backfill is too high after excavation, such
material shall be drained and dried in the stockpile until the moisture content is
sufficiently reduced to allow for placement.
5) The Contractor shall remove any cobbles, boulders or rock fragments found in
otherwise approved materials which are greater or smaller than permitted for

57
specific embankment zones and place them in other zones or dispose them of
appropriately.

2.7 DISPOSAL OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS


1) Excavated materials, which are not suitable for, or are in excess of the
construction requirements shall be disposed of in the spoil area shown on the
Tender Drawings, or in areas designated as such by the Engineer-in-Charge in
the course of the work. The Contractor shall be responsible for the stability of all
fills, embankments and stockpiles created by the disposal of excavated materials.
2) The spoil tips shall be located where they will not interfere with the natural flow
of streams or rivers, with construction operations in the borrow areas, with
reservoir operation, with flow of water to or from spillway or outlet works, or
with accessibility to the Site.
3) Excavated materials shall be transported to the disposal areas in such a way that
spillage onto roads etc. is avoided. Any materials, which despite the Contractor
taking reasonable care, does fall onto roads etc. shall be promptly cleared and
removed by the Contractor.
4) No rock material may be dumped into any rivers or creeks. Earth or soil material
may only be dumped into natural watercourses with the agreement of the
Engineer-in-Charge, and if prior written confirmation of this is obtained.
5) The surfaces of all disposed excavated materials which are to remain
permanently exposed shall be finished to prescribed lines and to stable slopes
approved by Engineer-in-Charge. Adequate diversion of water courses in such
areas and drains shall be constructed to prevent the undesirable accumulation of
water in or around the disposal or stockpile areas.
6) The Contractor shall be liable for any damage to Temporary or Permanent
Works or to third parties and their property caused by inadequate drainage of the
spoil or stockpile areas.

2.8 PREPARATION AND PROTECTION OF EXCAVATION SURFACES


1) Excavation surfaces against or upon which concrete, embankment fill, or
backfill will be placed shall be prepared and protected as specified herein and in
combination with specifications contained in the pertinent Sections of these
Specifications or as shown on the Construction Drawings.
2) If, during excavation work, material beyond the limits of excavation shown on
the Construction Drawings is loosened or disturbed, the Contractor shall re-
compact the loosened material or remove it altogether and replace it with other
compacted fill as directed.
3) If, during excavation in rock for concrete structures, the rock beyond the limits
of excavation shown on the Construction Drawings becomes broken or
shattered, the Contractor shall remove all loose material and replace it with
concrete.
4) Foundation excavation shall be kept well drained and free of standing water. The
Contractor shall provide all necessary drains, ditches and sumps, and use pumps

58
when necessary; in order to ensure that foundation surfaces are not harmed by
water. When foundations are damaged, the affected material shall be removed
and replaced with approved backfill.

2.9 MONITORING AND PROTECTION FROM BLASTING


1) The Contractor shall adequately protect existing structures from the effects of
blasting, both from impact with rock or debris and from excessive shock.
Structures at risk shall be inspected both before and after blasting, and shall be
monitored during the blasting operations by appropriate means, if so directed by
the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The Engineer-in-Charge may monitor part or all of the blasting operations
utilising velocity transducers, vibrographs or other equipment. The Contractor
shall cooperate with Engineer-in- Charge in placing, operating and recording of
monitoring equipment.
3) In case of concrete structures and cement grout maximum particle velocities that
result from blasting operations shall not exceed the following limits:
a) For concrete and grout in place for more than 60 hours, the maximum
particle velocities shall not exceed 5 cm/sec.
b) For concrete or grout in place for less than 60 hours, the maximum particle
velocity shall not exceed 1 cm/sec.
c) For complete or partially complete portions of platforms in fill, peak
particle velocity shall not exceed 5 cm/sec and the maximum particle
acceleration shall not exceed 1.0 g.
4) Blasting within 25 m of concrete will be permitted only after concrete is 7 days
old and only after submission by Contractor, and approval by Engineer-in-
Charge, of a plan showing the relative positions of structures and the area to be
blasted, Contractor’s proposed drilling and blasting plan, together with outline
of precautions being taken. All concrete and other completed work within 25 m
of blasting shall be protected by limiting the size of blasts. Blasting will not be
permitted within 10 m of structures or installations vulnerable to damage by
blasting. Replacement or repair of work damaged by blasting shall be carried out
by the Contractor at no expense to NHPC.
5) The blasting restrictions stated above are given as a guide only and may be
revised by Engineer-in-Charge on the basis of seismic measurements and
observations during the progress of the work. If results of blast monitoring
indicate that Contractor's blasting methods endanger excavation, or concrete
work, Contractor shall be required to alter his blasting methods accordingly at
no expense to NHPC.

2.10 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


2.10.1 General
1) Measurement for payment for any class of excavation specified herein will be of
the in-situ volume as measured from a survey performed by the Contractor and
approved by the Engineer-in-charge prior to any excavation work and the lines

59
and grades shown on the Construction Drawings or established at the Site by the
Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per cubic meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall include the entire cost of the following:
a) Provision of all labour, equipment and materials required for excavation,
including any hand work necessary for trimming excavated surfaces;
preparation, protection and maintaining excavated surfaces in satisfactory
conditions until concrete or fill is placed; all additional excavation for
Contractor's convenience; any temporary supports necessary to support the
sides of the excavations.
b) Loading, hauling and dumping the excavated material on stockpiles, spoil
tips or points of incorporation in Permanent Works up to 3km distance
measured along the road i.e. nearest points along the road from designated
excavated area and disposal area; clearing of the spoil areas and formation
of spoil tips as specified; clearing of the stockpile areas, formation and
maintenance of stockpiles and spoil tips, drainage and dealing with water
in stockpiles and spoil tips, re-handling of suitable materials including
segregating, grading, draining and drying of materials suitable for use in
concrete, embankment construction or as backfill.
c) All delays during excavation work resulting from installation of rock
supports, stabilisation and protection works required by the geotechnical
conditions of the material encountered.
d) Complying with all requirements of statutory laws and regulations relating
to blasting work and any restrictions resulting there from; obtaining all
necessary permits and licenses for the purchase, use, storage and transport
of explosives or any other material and equipment.
e) Surveying, setting-out, checking of excavated profile and alignment, and
any subsequent rectification works resulting from undue or incorrect
surveys, provision of suitable equipment for, and delays due to carrying out
this work.
3) Measurement for payment of additional volumes of excavation resulting from
modification of slopes and grades shown on the construction drawings, which
may be necessary in the course of the work and is not required by the contractor
for his own convenience, will be of the in-situ volume as measured between the
original and the modified lines and grades.
4) Payments will be made for protection works (like boulder wire-crates, random
rubble masonry walls, etc.) for the dumped material in spoil tips as mentioned in
relevant BOQ items.

2.10.2 Geological Over-break and Unsuitable Foundations


1) Measurement for payment for the removal of material arising from geological
over-break accepted by the Engineer-in-Charge as occurring entirely for
geological reasons, will only be made if the Contractor requests measurement to

60
be agreed immediately after excavation, and only provided that the over-break
can clearly be determined as being wholly due to adverse geological conditions.
2) Excavation and refill ordered in writing by the Engineer-in-Charge due to slides
or over-break for geological reasons or unsuitable foundations will be measured
for payment and paid for as follows:
a) Removal of material resulting from slides/ geological over-break accepted by
the Engineer-in-Charge will be paid per cubic meter in-situ, at the Unit Price
entered in the Bill of Quantities.
b) In-situ volumes of the additional excavation required in connection with
geological over-break will be measured in cubic meters and payment will be
made at the Unit Price for excavation of approved classification.
c) The concrete placed for refilling additional excavation in rock foundation
will be measured in cubic meter of the in-situ compacted volume and
payment will be made at the Unit Price per cubic meter for the concrete class
as ordered by the Engineer-in-Charge.

2.10.3 Common Excavation


1) No extra payment will be made for clearing, cutting, burning and disposing of
trees and bushes, cost of which is deemed to be included in the unit prices.
2) Measurement for payment for common excavation (including clearing, stripping
and loose excavation) will be of the in-situ solid volume of the material
removed between the original ground surface levels and the lines and grades
shown on the Construction Drawings or the surveyed and agreed surface levels
for the classification "Rock Excavation".
3) Payment will be made at the Unit Price per cubic meter entered in the Bill of
Quantities.
4) The removal of mud and slush resulting from rain or flooding of the sites will
be, when ordered by the Engineer-in-Charge, considered as common excavation.

2.10.4 Rock Excavation


1) Measurement for payment for rock excavation will be of the in-situ solid volume
of the rock material removed between the actual jointly surveyed rock surface
and the lines and grades shown on the Construction Drawings or as directed by
the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Payment will be made at the Unit Price per cubic meter, entered in the Bill of
Quantities, which shall, in addition to work included and described under
"General", include the entire cost of removal of rock material which cannot be
removed by common excavation; protection of structures, properties,
installations, trees, etc.; drilling holes for blasting and blasting, development and
using controlled blasting methods, blasting tests, and any cost associated with
establishing satisfactory blasting techniques.
3) In addition to material actually removed under this title the following shall also
be classified as "Rock Excavation ", and shall be measured and paid for under
this item:

61
a) Large boulders and detached pieces of rock that cannot be removed by
ripping or by excavation machinery used for common excavation.
b) Rock removed by drilling, wedging or barring, or other approved methods
in areas where blasting would be required but not possible or permitted for
whatever reason.

2.10.5 Minor Excavation Work


1) Measurement for payment for minor excavation either in loose material or in
rock will be of the in-situ volume removed between the original surface as
surveyed jointly, and the lines and grades shown on the Construction Drawings
or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Payment will be made at the Unit Price per cubic meter entered in the Bill of
Quantities.

2.10.6 Additional Excavation


Any additional excavation in areas where surface excavation has already been
completed, which the Contractor may be directed by Engineer-in-charge to carry
out, will be measured and paid for at the same Unit Prices entered in the Bill of
Quantities as for the original excavation. No increase in Unit Prices will be
allowed for such additional excavation.

2.10.7 Exclusions
1) All costs of dewatering and keeping the surface excavation sites dry will be as
specified in the Section "Dewatering during Construction".
2) No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for the following:
a) Extra work caused by the Contractor's negligence in setting-out the
structures and slopes,
b) Surveys to verify the original ground surface, or for recording the top of
the rock surface,
c) Provision and cleaning of drain ditches on the berms,
d) Removal of the materials resulting from the slides or overbreak caused by
Contractor's inappropriate working methods and for the additional
materials required to fill the voids so created,
e) Additional work of removing material, backfilling voids with approved
material, and installing additional rock supports where overbreak due to
adverse geological conditions coincides with that due to Contractor's poor
working methods or negligence,
f) Excess excavation required for Contractor's convenience and the resulting
additional backfilling with approved materials,
g) Additional work resulting from the Contractor changing slopes without
prior approval by the Engineer-in-Charge. In such event, payment will be
made only to the lines and grades shown on the Construction Drawings,
h) Excavation which is incidental to the installation of Temporary Works,

62
i) Shoring, bracing, and supporting of excavation surfaces except as specified
in the Sections "Rock Supports" and "Slope Protection",
j) Clearing, grubbing and stripping in the borrow and quarry areas, and spoil
and stockpile areas,
k) Draining, shaping, and trimming the dumped material in the spoil tips to
the lines and grades as directed or approved by the Engineer-in-Charge,
l) Preparation and protection of foundation and slopes.
m) Stockpiling of construction materials from required excavation material,
which cannot be incorporated directly into Permanent Works.
n) Work or materials required when foundation surfaces have been allowed to
become unsuitable due to the action of ground or surface water,
o) Extra work or material required for repairing damages to the final
excavation surfaces caused by the erosion or travel of the construction
equipment,
p) Monitoring of existing structures during blasting operations.

END OF SECTION B.2

63
SECTION B.3
NOT USED

64
SECTION B.4
NOT USED

65
SECTION B.5
NOT USED

66
SECTION B.6
BACKFILL
List of Contents

6.1 SCOPE OF WORK


6.2 SUBMITTALS
6.3 PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT
6.3.1 Compaction Equipment
6.3.2 Transportation Equipment
6.3.3 Water Supply and Sprinkling Equipment
6.4 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
6.5 BACKFILL/FILL WORKS
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Random Backfill/Fill
6.5.3 Compacted Backfill/Fill
6.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
6.6.1 General
6.6.2 Backfill / Fill
6.6.3 Exclusions

67
SECTION B.6
EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION AND BACKFILL

6.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) This Section covers all labour, materials, equipment and services related to the
foundation preparation and construction of backfill/fill below, around and
above structures, and other fill which the Contractor shall execute under this
Contract.
2) Most of the backfill/fill materials will be available from the required
excavations for the Permanent and Temporary Works. The Section “Surface
Excavation” covers these excavations.
3) The work includes processing if required, placing and spreading, compaction,
and sprinkling with water as needed for the materials specified hereinafter.
4) The Contractor shall be required to undertake related works of the flood
protection and dewatering during construction specified in relevant sections.
5) The backfill/fill shall be constructed to the lines, grades and dimensions as
shown on the Construction Drawings, provided that at any time before or
during construction the Engineer-in-Charge may order modifications in the
lines, grades as well as thickness of layers specified herein, or any other
modification which he deems to be necessary.
6) The slopes exposed to permanent view shall be levelled according to current
construction practice.
7) The approval given by the Engineer-in-Charge to the Contractor’s methods
and equipment shall not relieve the Contractor of his full responsibility for the
proper and safe execution of the fill embankment or backfill works, or of
liability for injuries to, or death of persons, or any obligations under this
Contract.

6.2 SUBMITTALS
1) Not less than 28 days before the backfill/fill placement begins, the Contractor
shall submit detailed information on his proposed methods for placing and
compacting material. All details, specifications and number of each proposed
equipment shall be indicated in the technical report, as well as the type and
number of special equipment to be used in places inaccessible for the normal
compacting equipment.
2) The Contractor shall submit all results of material tests carried out prior to,
and during the placement of materials in the backfill/fills as well as results of
compaction tests as per the direction of Engineer-in-Charge.

68
6.3 PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
6.3.1 Compacting Equipment
1) Vibrating plate mechanical tampers weighting 600-800 kg will be required for
compacting fills not accessible to larger items of compacting plant. The
tampers shall be capable of compacting layer thickness of 50 cm.
2) Compaction of material in areas where it is impracticable to use a roller or
larger tamper shall be performed by approved hand power tampers.
3) The type of compacting equipment used for the backfill/fill shall be proposed
by the Contractor.

6.3.2 Transportation Equipment


1) The Contractor shall provide and maintain in perfect working condition
adequate no. Of transportation equipment capable to transport all types of
materials required for the construction of backfills/fill works.
2) The transportation equipment, trucks, conveyor belts, etc., shall have the
necessary capacity to transport any kind of material from the place of its origin
or from stockpiles to the designated final location as required for the proper
execution of the work. The number and capacity of the items of transport
equipment shall be sufficient to ensure the construction schedule requirements
are met, with an adequate allowance for reserve.
3) The material transporting methods and placement procedures shall be such that
segregation or separation of material components during transport or during
unloading and spreading is prevented.
4) Spreading and grading equipment shall be provided as required.
5) The Contractor shall provide and maintain in perfect working conditions
adequate equipment for spreading and grading of materials brought to the
fills/backfills in accordance with these Specifications and capable to fulfil the
approved construction schedule.

6.3.3 Water Supply and Sprinkling Equipment


The Contractor shall provide and maintain in perfect working conditions suitable
equipment such as pumps, tanks, hoses, and sprinkler trucks to provide water for
dust prevention and for watering of the backfill/fill works, amounting to 200
litre water per m3, or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

6.4 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


1) Materials originating from the excavation of river bed excavations shall
generally be used for backfill/fill construction.
2) Part of the material may also be obtained from borrow areas and quarries as
already identified or as may be designated in the course of the work and
approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. Contractor’s operations in the quarries
and borrow areas shall be as specified in the Section “Surface Excavation”.

69
3) Construction materials from the required excavation areas, from approved
quarries or from borrow areas shall be brought to the fill/backfill directly,
stockpiled or prepared by processing to meet the requirements specified in this
Section, as proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
4) Construction materials shall be obtained, transported, prepared, processed, and
stockpiled in such a manner that fill/backfill construction can proceed without
delay.
5) The characteristics of the placed materials shall conform to the requirements
stipulated herein. All such requirements stipulated in the following clauses
refer to the materials after placing and compaction in the final locations.

6.5 BACKFILL/FILL WORKS


6.5.1 General
1) The Contractor shall place and compact backfill/fill of the specified type to the
lines, grades and dimensions in the locations shown on the Construction
Drawings, behind structures, in over-break, over-excavation, or where directed
by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Material to be used as backfill/fill shall be subject to the consent of the
Engineer-in-Charge, and shall be, as far as possible, obtained from required
excavation for Permanent or Temporary Works.
3) The distribution and gradation of backfill/fill material shall be such that the
finished backfill/fill is free from lenses, pockets, streaks or layers of material
differing substantially in texture or gradation from the surrounding material.
Backfill material shall include no organic matter and the Engineer-in-Charge
reserves the right to reject entire loads of material, which contain high
percentage of organic matter, which can not be satisfactorily removed.
4) The traffic over the backfill/fill shall be adequately controlled to avoid rutting
or cutting the placed backfill/fill. Each load of material shall be placed in such
a way as to achieve the best practicable distribution of material. The operation
of trucks and heavy equipment shall be restricted near buildings, walls, piers
or other facilities to avoid damage to any Permanent Works.
5) Any material which, in the opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge is objectionable
or inadequate shall be removed to the Contractor's own cost. If the compacted
surface of any layer of material is determined to be too smooth and
impermeable to bond properly with the succeeding layer, it shall be loosened
by harrowing or by other approved method before the succeeding layer is
placed thereon.

70
6) Backfilling/fill adjacent to the concrete structures 1m and over in height shall
not commence before 7 days from concrete placement. Prior to backfilling/fill,
forms shall be removed and the area cleaned of trash and debris. All Works to
be covered by backfill/fill shall be inspected and approved by the Engineer-in-
Charge prior to start of backfilling/fill works. Backfill/fill shall be placed in
proper sequences so that no differential earth pressures occur on footings,
pipes, or other structures.
7) Backfilling/fill operations shall not be performed with frozen materials and
lumps and during low temperatures if the material will affect adversely the
Works.
8) The Contractor shall maintain and protect the finished backfill/fill in
satisfactory conditions at all times until completion and acceptance of the
Works. After backfilling/fill operations have been finished and prior to finish
grading, the Contractor shall slope the surfaces to prevent ponding of water.

6.5.2 Random backfill/fill


1) Random backfill/fill shall consist of earth and rock fill of unspecified
gradation placed as it comes from excavations. It shall be placed and
compacted in horizontal layers 20 to 50 cm of loose thickness, depending on
equipment used. The final thickness will be determined by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
2) The moisture contents prior and during compaction shall be near the optimum
moisture content distributed evenly throughout each layer of material.
3) Random backfill/fill shall be compacted to at least 80% relative density in
accordance with relevant IS specifications.
4) Random backfill/fill to be placed adjacent to structures shall be carefully
placed to prevent any displacement or damage. Material to be placed within 1
m of the structure shall contain no material greater than 100 mm.

6.5.3 Compacted Backfill/fill


1) Compacted Backfill/fill material shall consist of a well graded mixture of
sandy gravels and cobbles with a maximum particle size of 300 mm (except as
stated below), and a maximum of 3% by weight passing U. S. Standard Sieve
No.200 (0.075 mm).
2) Material to be placed within 1m of the structure shall contain no material
greater than 100 mm.
3) Compacted backfill/fill shall be placed moist in layers not exceeding 500 mm,
after compaction. It shall be compacted to 80% relative density for which
requisite testing shall be carried out as per USBR “Earth Manual”.
4) Backfill/fill shall be compacted by vibratory rollers where backfill/fill is
required to be placed adjacent to structures or in other restricted areas, it shall
be compacted by mechanical tampers or other approved method of
compaction.

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6.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
6.6.1 General
1) Measurement and payment for the clearing, stripping, excavation and concrete
will be made in accordance with the corresponding Sections of these
Specifications.
2) All costs of dewatering and keeping the foundation surface dry will be covered
in the Section "Dewatering during Construction".

6.6.2 Backfill / Fill


1) Measurement and payment for the different types of backfill/fill will be of the
in-situ volume of material placed and compacted if required.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per cubic meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall include the supply of material, placing, and
compacting as specified.

6.6.3 Exclusions
No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for the following:
a) Extra work caused by the Contractor's negligence in setting-out the
structures and slopes.
b) Rectification, removal and replacement of the materials which during the
placement or afterwards have been frozen, contaminated with foreign
matter, or lost due to erosion.
c) Extra work or material required to repair damages to the temporary or
final surfaces caused by the erosion or travel of the construction
equipment.
d) Increase of quantities caused by settlement resulting from the
consolidation of the fill/ backfill during the construction.
e) Damage and repair to the concrete structures caused by Contractor's
operations.

END OF SECTION B.6

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SECTION B.7
NOT USED

73
SECTION B.8
NOT USED

74
SECTION B.9
CONCRETE
(Excluding Formwork, Reinforcement and Joints)
List of Contents
9.1 SCOPE OF WORK
9.2 STANDARDS
9.3 SUBMITTALS
9.3.1 Submittals before Construction
9.3.2 Submittals during Construction
9.4 CONSTITUENTS OF CONCRETE
9.4.1 Cement
9.4.2 Aggregate
9.4.2.1 General
9.4.2.2 Source
9.4.2.3 Fine Aggregates
9.4.2.4 Coarse Aggregates
9.4.3 Water
9.4.4 Admixtures
9.5 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
9.5.1 General
9.5.2 High Performance Concrete
9.6 QUALITY CONTROL
9.6.1 General
9.6.2 Site Laboratory
9.6.3 Concrete Sampling and Testing
9.6.3.1 Fresh Concrete
9.6.3.2 Hardened Concrete
9.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
9.7.1 Concrete Components
9.7.2 Fresh Concrete
9.7.3 Hardened Concrete
9.8 BATCHING AND MIXING
9.8.1 General

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9.8.2 Batching Equipment
9.8.3 Mixing
9.9 COLD WEATHER PRECAUTIONS
9.10 CONVEYING
9.11 PLACING
9.11.1 General
9.11.2 Preparation for Concrete Placing
9.11.3 Placing and Compaction
9.11.4 Pumping Concrete
9.11.5 Concrete in Blockouts, Second Stage in Restricted Locations, etc.
9.12 FINISHING OF CONCRETE
9.12.1 General
9.12.2 Formed Surfaces
9.12.3 Unformed Surfaces
9.12.4 Tolerances for General Concrete Structures
9.12.5 Bush Hammer Finish
9.13 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES
9.14 CURING AND PROTECTION OF CONCRETE
9.15 REPAIR OF CONCRETE
9.16 PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR INDIVIDUAL CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
9.16.1 Concrete in the Power House
9.16.2 Special Requirements for Embedding Machine Parts in Concrete
9.16.3 Concrete in Blockouts for Equipment Embedding
9.16.4 Grouting of the Equipment Bearing Plates and Anchors
9.16.5 Precast Concrete
9.17 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
9.17.1 General
9.17.2 High Performance Concrete
9.17.3 Second Stage Concrete and Concrete in Blockouts for Equipment
Embedding
9.17.4 Grouting of Equipment Bearing Plates and Anchors
9.17.5 Precast Concrete
9.17.6 Exclusions – Concrete

76
9.17.7 Cement
9.17.8 Tests

77
SECTION B.9
CONCRETE
(Excluding Formwork, Reinforcement, and Joints)

9.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) The work under this Section includes all labour, materials, equipment and
services related to the concrete work to be carried out by the Contractor under
this Contract.
2) The concrete work shall be performed to the dimensions as shown on the
Construction Drawings or as otherwise directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. Lift
drawings shall be prepared by the Contractor.
3) The Contractor shall cooperate with all other contractors and organisations
related to the construction of Permanent Works where the material or equipment
is to be fixed to, or embedded in the concrete structures.
4) Formwork and reinforcement are covered separately in other Sections of these
Specifications.
5) The approval given by the Engineer-in-Charge to the Contractor's plants and
equipment or their operation or of any construction methods shall not relieve the
Contractor of his full responsibility for the proper and safe execution of concrete
work or any obligations under this Contract.

9.2 STANDARDS
1) Unless otherwise specified, the standards and recommendations of Indian
Standards Code of Practices shall be followed in respect of all materials,
equipment and performances.
2) The following Indian Standards are specifically mentioned:
IS: 8112 - 43 Ordinary Portland cement
IS: 12269- 53 Grade Ordinary Portland cement
IS: 456 – Code of practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete
IS: 383 – Coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for Concrete
IS: 2386 (Part-IV) – Method of testing of aggregates for Concrete- Mechanical
Property
IS: 516 – Method of test for strength of Concrete
IS: 1489 – Portland Pozzolana Cement Fly Ash based
IS: 1199 – Method of sampling and analysis of Concrete
IS: 457 – Code of practice for general construction of plain and reinforced
concrete for dams and other massive structures
IS:9103 - Concrete Admixtures : Specifications
IS: 7861 (Part-I and Part-II) - Code of practice for Extreme weather
concreting, Recommended Practice (Hot weather and Cold weather
concreting)
IS: 2505 Concrete Vibrators – Immersion type general requirements

78
IS: 4031- Method of Physical test of Hydraulic Cement (Part-1 to 15)
IS: 4032- Method of Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
IS: 15388:2003- Silica Fume – Specifications
3) In absence of relevant Indian Standards and specifications the recommendations
of "ACI Manual of Concrete Practice" and U.S.B.R. Concrete Manual shall be
followed.

9.3 SUBMITTALS
9.3.1 Submittals before Construction
1) Submittals listed herein are related to items which require the consent of the
Engineer-in-Charge and are to be submitted by the Contractor before the
appropriate work may proceed.
2) Within 28 days from the date of issue of Notice to Commence, but before
procuring or mobilising to the Site the equipment, the Contractor shall submit to
the Engineer-in-Charge updated and detailed plans and descriptions, consistent
with those submitted with his Tender and any subsequent amendments and
additions agreed to by the Engineer-in-Charge and the Contractor, of the
following:
a) Batching and Mixing Equipments:
Description, flow diagrams and details of the equipment the Contractor
intends to use to determine and control the amount of each separate
concrete ingredient and mixing thereof into uniform mixture.
b) Transport and Placing of Concrete:
Full details of the equipment and methods for transporting the concrete at
the final point of placing, including numbers, type and capacity of
transport vehicles, concrete pumps, vibrators, and details of standby plants
to be installed.
c) Mode and methodology of concrete compaction and concrete curing
d) Sampling and Testing of Materials:
List and details of equipment for sampling and testing and detailed
program for quality control of concrete work.
e) Foundation and surface preparation equipment.
3) At least 28 days in advance of any concrete work being carried out at site, the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge following notifications based
on the results of the preliminary material testing:
a) Notification of any admixtures and pozzolans which the Contractor
proposes to use, manufacturers thereof, and information about the
chemical names of the principal ingredients and the effects of under or
over dosage. Should the Contractor intend to use an accelerator in any
concrete work for his own convenience, he shall give full details of the
type, dosage, influence on construction, and the cost savings involved,
b) Details of the materials for formwork and surface finishes, treatment of
construction joints, and construction techniques which the Contractor

79
proposes to use in order to achieve the required concrete surfaces and
allowable tolerances,
c) Details of special additives like micro silica for production of high
performance concrete.
4) At least 14 days prior to procuring or despatch to the Site of the particular item
of work to which the submittal relates, the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer-in-Charge the following:
a) Details of curing compounds, if any,
b) Details of epoxy mortar for concrete repair, if required.
5) Drawings showing the location of construction joints proposed by the Contractor
which differ from those shown on the Construction Drawings, including
formwork and reinforcement details, shall be submitted to the Engineer-in-
Charge at least 14 days prior to commencement of work on that particular
structure.

9.3.2 Submittals during Construction


1) Contractor shall provide the Engineer-in-Charge a concrete placing schedule
giving the detailed location of the pours, the approximate extent of pours, and
the date on which the concrete will be placed. This programme of concrete
placement shall be submitted to the Engineer-in-Charge for his acceptance at
least 2 days prior to the commencement of concrete placement.
2) Before commencement of the concrete placement the Contractor shall prepare a
checklist regarding all preparations for the specified work such as rock surfaces
and foundations, cleaning, formwork, reinforcement, embedding, and submit
this list to the Engineer-in-Charge, who after his satisfaction about the work
preparations will permit the contractor in writing to commence concrete
placement.
3) The Engineer-in-Charge reserves the right to require any additional information
deemed necessary to be included in the submitted documents.

9.4 CONSTITUENTS OF CONCRETE


9.4.1 Cement
1) The Contractor shall supply Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) conforming to
IS: 1489 Part-I. The Percentage of fly ash shall not be less than 30% in PPC.
Average compressive strength of not less than three mortar cubes tested as per IS
4031 Part 6 at 672 + 4 hr. shall not be less than 43 MPa
2) Cement which does not comply with relevant IS Code or is damaged in
consignment; handling or storage shall be promptly removed from the Site.
4) All facilities for transport and storage of cement shall be subject to approval of
the Engineer-in-Charge and shall be such that easy access for inspection is
assured.
5) Cement bags shall be stored in weatherproof buildings with a raised, well
ventilated wooden floor, and placed so that each consignment can be segregated
if required and used in order of its age. Cement shall not be stored out of doors,

80
except for immediate use, and in such event shall be protected during storage
and handling by waterproof covers and a raised floor. Unused cement shall be
placed back into the storage buildings.
6) Arrangements shall be made such that stocks of approved cement are adequate
to meet the programme of work at all times. The programme shall allow time for
testing and approval of each consignment before such cement is incorporated in
the work.
7) Cement shall be preferably used in same order in which it has been received at
the Site. Storage of cement shall be limited to 90 days in bags. Cement that has
been in storage for longer than these periods or which may have absorbed
moisture shall not be used unless it has been re-tested by the Contractor and
approved by the Engineer-in-charge. Cement that has become lumpy shall not be
used. The cements coming from different mills or of different makes shall be
stored separately.
8) The temperature of cement upon arrival to the Site shall not exceed 70°C and
when entering the mixers shall not exceed 50°C unless otherwise approved.
9) The Contractor is solely responsible for the timely supply of cement meeting the
requirements of these Specifications and the Works. The delay due to the lack of
suitable cement will not give the Contractor any right for the extension of time
for the Completion of Works, or any claims resulting there from.

9.4.2 Aggregate
9.4.2.1 General
1) Unless otherwise specified, concrete aggregates shall conform to the
requirements of IS: 456 and IS: 383.
2) Aggregates shall consist of clean, hard, dense, durable and uncoated materials,
and shall have stable moisture content and grading when delivered to the
batching plant. Aggregates shall not contain substances which may impair the
quality of the concrete, attack reinforcing steel or reduce bond. The following
substances are regarded as being harmful: loam, clay, pieces with large cavities,
foam-like or vitreous pieces, and organic materials such as topsoil, roots, wood,
coal, lignite, etc.
3) The flakiness and elongated aggregates will not be approved for use in the
production of aggregates.
4) The handling, transporting, and stockpiling of aggregates shall be such that
there will be a minimum amount of fines resulting from breakage and abrasion
of material resulting from free fall and improper handling. Excess in any of fine
or coarse aggregate sizes shall be disposed of in approved manner.
5) The Contractor shall remove all rejected aggregate from the Site.

9.4.2.2 Source
The aggregate source shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.
However, such approval of source shall not be construed as acceptance of all
materials to be taken from that source. The Engineer-in-Charge reserves the

81
right to reject certain localised areas, strata, or channels within the approved
areas and zones, when the material is unsatisfactory for use.

9.4.2.3 Fine Aggregates


1) The term "fine aggregate" is used to designate aggregate in which the maximum
size of particles is 4.75mm.
2) The gradation of fine aggregate shall be as given below:
Square Mesh Percentage Passing

Sieve Opening (By Weight)


4.750mm 95-100
2.360mm 80-100
1.180 mm 50-85
0.600 mm 25-60
0.300 mm 10-30
0.150 mm 2-10
0.075 mm 0-3

3) Fineness modulus of fine aggregate shall be 2.6 ± 0.4.

9.4.2.4 Coarse Aggregates


1) The term "coarse aggregate" is used to designate aggregate which is retained on
sieve opening 4.75mm. The coarse aggregate shall be well graded to obtain
dense mass of concrete..
2) Coarse aggregates shall be stored separately in stockpiles or bins in such a
manner to avoid intermixing of different size of aggregates. The storing shall be
done in following sizes:
4.75-10 mm
10-20 mm
20-40 mm
40-80 mm
80-150 mm
3) Coarse aggregate shall be hard, dense, durable, uncoated rock fragments.
4) The nominal maximum aggregate size in relation to the structure dimension
shall not be larger than:
a) 0.20 of the narrowest dimension between the side of forms,
b) 0.75 of the minimum clear spacing between the reinforcing bars,
c) 0.25 of the slab depth

9.4.3 Water
1) Adequate water storage shall be provided at the batching plant to ensure smooth
concrete production.

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2) Contractor shall familiarise himself with source and quality of water available.
Attention is drawn to the possible requirement of settling pond and other
facilities that he may be required to provide.

9.4.4 Admixtures
1) Admixtures shall be proposed by the Contractor and shall be used only upon
written approval of the Engineer-in-Charge. Only admixtures that have been
commercially used with satisfactory service in a similar type of concrete work
shall be considered for approval. All admixtures shall be manufactured by a
reputable company (ies).
2) The Contractor may use the following admixtures when required with the
approval of the Engineer-in-Charge:
a) Super plasticizer meeting requirement of ASTM C-494, Type F.
b) Air-entraining agent, (complying to IS 9103: 1999)
c) Accelerating agent (Alkali free) in the concrete, mortar or grout to increase
the rate of hydration, shorten the setting time or increase the rate of
hardening or strength development, (complying to IS 9103 : 1999)
3) Admixtures shall be stored and handled so as to avoid contamination or damage
to their properties by temperature or moisture changes or other influences.
4) The quantity of admixture used and the method of mixing shall be strictly in
accordance with the manufacturer's printed instructions, or as required to
produce specified results and approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
5) The Contractor shall be held liable for any damages and difficulties resulting
from the selection and use of admixtures such as delay in concrete placing or
damage to concrete during forms removal, and shall not be entitled to any time
extension or claims resulting here from.

9.5 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


9.5.1 General
1) Designation of concrete classes is based on characteristic compressive strength
(in Newton per square mm) and maximum aggregate size.
2) The cube compressive strength is defined as the compressive strength of 150mm
cube as measured at 28 days. The strength shall comply with the requirements of
IS: 456.
3) The following table shows, in general, the anticipated classes of concrete
required in various sections of work. However, the specific class of concrete to
be used in each area will be shown on the Construction Drawings or designated
by Engineer-in-Charge:

83
Class of Max. Size Nominal Max. 28-day Location/ Remarks
concrete of aggreg. cement slump strength
content
(mm) (kg/m3) (mm) (N/m
m2)
Second Stage Concreting
around Embedded Parts, all
RCC work exposed to weather
M35 20 375 120 35
in the power house building,
and any other specified
locations.
TRC lining and other specified
M30 40 360 120 30
locations.
Power House substructure
M25 20 350 120 25 /Superstructure or any other
locations.
M20 20 300 120 20 Various Unspecified Locations
Encasing concrete for the steel
penstock, backfill concrete, lean
M20 40 275 120 20
concrete below power house
raft
PCC below raft or any other
M15 40 225 120 15
location
HPC 20 500 120 60 -

4) At least 1 month prior to commencement of any concreting of Permanent


Works, the Contractor shall start the testing of materials, propose the
composition of concrete mixes and prepare trial mix of each of the proposed
concrete class. The Contractor shall prepare the trial mixes using the cement,
water, aggregates and admixtures intended for the work and which conform to
the requirements specified in this Section.
5) For testing of cement, aggregate, determining concrete mixes for various grades
of concrete, trial mixes etc., Contractor may establish his own laboratory or shall
get the required tests done from reputed/approved institutions/laboratories as
approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
6) Testing agency shall determine, in accordance with IS standards and/or ACI
Manual of Concrete Practice, the mix proportions for the designated classes of
concrete. The contractor shall submit the test reports to the Engineer-in-Charge
for approval. This preliminary test program shall include the determination of
following parameters:
a) Cement properties,
b) Characteristics of aggregates,
c) Mix water properties,

84
d) Admixture properties,
e) Proportion of aggregate ranges in the mix,
f) Proportion of uncrushed to crushed aggregates,
g) Cement content,
h) Water-cement ratio (W/C),
i) Workability of concrete mixes,
j) Compressive and tensile strength,
k) Entrained air,
l) Density,
m) Water-tightness.
7) These test shall be carried out until the concrete mixes show appropriate
strength, workability, density, and water-tightness without the use of excessive
cement and water. The actual cement content in the mix design shall be
optimized and justified by using cement of various manufacturers during trial
mix design.
8) Test samples shall be made in accordance with IS: 1199 and tested in
accordance with IS: 516. The test results shall be analysed in accordance with
IS: 456.
9) The mixes for different classes of concrete shall be approved by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
10) During the progress of the work, the mixes may be changed whenever, in the
opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge, such change is necessary or desirable to
secure the required strength, workability, water-tightness, density, economy, or
to limit shrinkage. The Contractor shall not change the approved mix
proportions without the written permission of the Engineer-in-Charge.
11) Water to be added to the mix shall be adjusted to compensate for any variation
in the free moisture content of the aggregate as they enter the mixing plant.
Water beyond the specified water-cement ratio shall not be added without the
written permission of the Engineer-in-Charge.

9.5.2 High Performance Concrete


1) High performance concrete shall be obtained by adding micro silica or any other
equivalent Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) such as ultrafine slag
in the concrete and with the use of Superplasticizer.
Following are the design requirements:
Characteristic 28 days compressive strength 60 MPa
Maximum aggregate size 20 mm
Design slump 120 mm
Maximum water/ (cement +SCM) ratio 0.32
To achieve the above requirement, tentative mix design may consist of
the following
Cement 500 kg
SCM 50 kg.
Superplasticizer as required

85
2) Actual mix proportion to be used will be determined by trial mix design.
3) Test samples shall be made in accordance with IS: 1199, tested as per IS: 516
and analyzed as per IS: 456. Source of aggregate for high performance concrete
shall meet the requirement of wearing surface and shall be as identified by
Engineer-in-charge
4) SCM shall comply with the relevant ASTM/International Standards. However,
Silica fume shall comply with ASTM C1240-03a and it shall meet the following
requirements:
Chemical Requirements
(a) SiO2 , min. % 85
(b) Moisture Content % 3
(c) Loss on ignition % 6
Physical Requirements
Oversize:
Percent retained on 45m (no.325), % 10
Percent retained on 45m (no.325), max. variation 5
from average, percentage points
Accelerated pozzolanic strength activity index with 10
portland cement at 7days
Min. percent of control 5
2
Specific Surface, min, m /g 15
The Contractor shall present the results of quality control tests carried on a
representative sample by the supplier. Once approved, the silica fume
shall only be supplied from the same production plant. Deliveries shall be
in impervious sacks weighing about 40 kg and shall be accompanied by
manufacturer’s quality assurance certificates.

9.6 QUALITY CONTROL


9.6.1 General
1) The Contractor shall be completely responsible for performing detailed quality
control program during the execution of the work. This quality assurance
program shall be subject to inspection and checking by the Engineer-In-Charge.
2) The Contractor shall keep records of test results which shall be presented to the
Engineer-in-Charge upon request.
3) Should the Contractor wish to reduce his approved testing program he shall
notify the Engineer-in-Charge of these changes 2 weeks in advance.
4) Aside from Contractor's testing program the Engineer-in-Charge will make
control test to the extent as he deems necessary. The Contractor shall give all
required assistance in sampling and provide for the proper storage and transport
of the specimens to be tested by the Engineer-in-Charge.

86
9.6.2 Site Laboratory
1) The Contractor shall build, equip, and operate site laboratory in which the tests
included in the Quality Control Programme will be carried out or shall get the
tests done in other specialised laboratories after approval by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
2) The tests necessary to ensure quality of concrete are indicated below.
a) Tests on cement
- Standard Mortar Compressive Strength (IS 4031 (6))
- Setting Time (IS 4031 (5))
c) Tests on Fresh concrete
- Consistency through Slump Test (IS 1199)
- Workability
d) Tests on hardened concrete
- Compressive Strength on all classes of concrete (IS 516)
- Shrinkage (IS 4031 (10))

9.6.3 Concrete Sampling and Testing


9.6.3.1 Fresh Concrete
1) The following tests shall be carried out by the Contractor on fresh concrete
samples:
a) Consistency (slump tests) on all concrete classes (sieved at 40 mm for 80
mm and above size of aggregate concrete),
b) Temperature.
2) These tests shall be carried out at the beginning of production of the concrete
for each work or part of the work and for large quantities once every 100 m3.
3) All consistency tests shall be determined on that portion of the total sample
which passes a 40 mm size.

9.6.3.2 Hardened Concrete


1) Set of six samples for compressive strength tests at 7 and 28 days will be taken
and tested for each part of the work, being defined as the volume poured in one
concreting operation.
2) For large concreting operations, this set of sample will be taken every 200 m3.
3) Compressive strength specimens shall be prepared by the Contractor and shall
be performed in accordance with Indian Standards and Code of Practice.
4) All coarse aggregate larger than one quarter the minimum dimension of the
mould will be removed by wet screening. Portions of samples of concrete used
for slump, air content, unit weight, etc. will not be used to mould specimens for
compressive strength testing.

9.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA


9.7.1 Concrete Components
1) The measured values shall be within the specified range of values indicated
above.

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2) Any unsuitable material should be eliminated and the concrete manufacturing be
suspended until the Contractor justifies that the replacing component is
acceptable.

9.7.2 Fresh Concrete


Any controlled batch which will not satisfy the specified conditions in terms of
consistency and temperature will be eliminated and concreting suspended until it
is shown that corrections brought to the following batches are satisfactory.

9.7.3 Hardened Concrete


1) The acceptance criteria for hardened concrete shall be as per IS: 456.
2) If analysis of test cube results indicate poorer concrete in the structure as per the
acceptance criteria of clause 15 of IS:456, the Engineer-in-Charge will order the
Contractor to provide core tests. Location and number of cores will be decided
by the Engineer-in-Charge. The Contractor shall take out the specified sizes of
cores from the structure.
3) In case the concrete cores fail to meet the specifications and the Engineer-in-
Charge is not satisfied with various tests results and quality, he will then instruct
the Contractor for removal or subsequent suitable strengthening measures for
such works.

9.8 BATCHING AND MIXING


9.8.1 General
1) The Contractor shall provide, operate, and maintain at the Site suitable
equipment to determine and control the amount of each individual material
entering the concrete. Batching equipment shall be designed for such capacities
which will permit performance of the concrete work in accordance with
Contractual Construction Program.
2) Water, cement, admixtures, and fine aggregate and coarse aggregate shall be
measured separately and not cumulatively. The accuracy of the measuring
devices shall be maintained so that the indicated measure does not vary by more
than 1 per cent from true measure throughout their range of use. The devices
shall be capable of being operated to control the delivery of materials so that the
combined inaccuracies in feeding and measuring do not exceed the following
limits:
Material Percent (by weight)
Cement 1
Water 1
Aggregates 3
Admixtures 1

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9.8.2 Batching Equipment
1) The batching equipment shall include an accurate recorder for providing a
continuous visible record of the measurement of each separate material,
including all added water and admixture.
2) Volume batching will not be permitted.

9.8.3 Mixing
1) Concrete shall be mixed in power-driven mixers of approved type and size. They
shall be kept clean and in proper working order.
2) The mixing equipment shall be capable of combining the aggregate, cementing
materials, water and other ingredients, within the time hereinafter specified, into
a thoroughly mixed and uniform mass, and of discharging the mixture without
segregation.
3) The mixers shall be so charged that some water will enter in advance of cement
and aggregate and all materials shall continue to flow in as rapidly as possible.
The construction of the mixers should prevent loss of materials during charging.
4) Unless otherwise authorised by the Engineer-in-Charge for mixers of 1m3
capacity or less, the mixing of each batch shall continue for not less than +1.5
minutes as specified in IS:456 (but not more than 5 minutes when mixing
air-entrained concrete) after all materials, except the full amount of water, are in
the mixer. For mixers of larger capacity, the minimum mixing time will be
increased by 15 seconds for each additional 0.5 m3.
5) The mixing time shall be increased when, in the opinion of the Engineer-in-
Charge, the charging and mixing operations fail to result in the required
uniformity of composition and consistency within the batch and from batch to
batch.
6) Each mixer shall be cleaned after each period of continuous operation and shall
be maintained in such a condition that the mixing action will not be impaired.
7) On no account shall any addition be made to any component of a concrete
batched once that batch has been mixed and discharged from the mixer, whether
for the purpose of retempering or for any other reason.

9.9 COLD WEATHER PRECAUTIONS


1) The Contractor shall furnish, install, operate, and maintain equipment and make
the necessary provisions in order to maintain the temperature of concrete, when
being placed, above the minimum temperatures specified.
2) Following means shall be employed to attain the specified concrete
temperatures:
a) Mixing water shall be heated under such a control and in sufficient
quantity as to avoid appreciable fluctuation in temperature from batch to
batch.
b) Insulating the water tanks and water supply lines, cement silos, mix drums,
exposed pipelines for pumped concrete and sheltering the aggregates.
c) Mixing and placing the concrete at day.

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3) The Contractor's concreting operations shall be in accordance with the
recommendations contained in IS: 7861 (Part II).

9.10 CONVEYING
1) The method and facilities for concrete transport shall be selected by the
Contractor within the limitations of these Specifications, and he shall be
responsible for adequacy and suitability of the transporting system. The time
elapse between mixing and the initial set of the concrete shall be taken into
consideration. All methods used shall be reviewed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The concrete transporting methods and facilities shall be such that will prevent
segregation of coarse aggregate, excessive loss of slump, and loss of ingredients.
3) The use of chutes to convey concrete will not be permitted, except that chutes
less than 3m in total length may be used immediately adjacent to or in the forms
with acceptance of the Engineer-in-Charge. Where chutes are used, they shall be
so constructed and arranged as to permit continuous flow of the concrete
without separation of the ingredients.
4) There shall be no vertical drop greater than 1.5m, except where equipment
satisfactory to the Engineer-in-Charge is used to confine and control the falling
concrete.
5) Concrete may be dropped through flexible elephant-trunk chutes, provided
methods are used at the lower end to retard the speed of the falling concrete and
prevent it from segregating. Where it is necessary to drop concrete from more
than 1.5m it shall fall into a hopper with a capacity of 1m3 more than the total
capacity of the full trunk.

9.11 PLACING
9.11.1 General
1) Contractor shall place concrete in a given location only after the Engineer-in-
Charge has agreed with the placement of such concrete. All concrete shall be
placed in presence of the representative of Engineer-in-Charge. Concrete placed
without prior knowledge and approval of the Engineer-in-Charge may be
required to be removed and replaced at Contractor's debit.
2) When placing the concrete by pumping, direct communication shall be
maintained between the concrete placing crew and the pump operators.
3) In order to reduce bleeding, slump shall not be higher than necessary to achieve
proper placement and consolidation. Concrete shall be placed before initial set
has occurred, i.e. 60 to 90 minutes after adding water to the mix.
4) No concrete shall be placed when the atmospheric conditions are, in the opinion
of the Engineer-in-Charge, such that proper placing and hardening of the
concrete are not guarantied. Specifically, the Contractor shall have the
responsibility for meeting the cold weather concreting requirements and for
postponing concreting whenever such requirements cannot be met or, based on
weather forecast, probably cannot be met. Even if the above requirements are

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fulfilled, the Contractor has the responsibility of delivering concrete product that
meets specified requirements.

9.11.2 Preparation for Concrete Placing


1) Concrete shall not be placed until all formwork, installation of embedded parts,
reinforcing steel, and surfaces against which concrete is to be cast have been
accepted by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) All surfaces of forms and embedded items that have become encrusted with
dried material from concrete previously placed shall be cleaned of all such
material before the surrounding or adjacent concrete is placed.
3) Concrete shall not be placed in any structure until all water entering the space to
be filled with concrete has been properly cut off or diverted by pipes, or by other
means, and carried out of the forms clear of the work. Water shall not be
allowed to stand on any concrete surface until it has attained its final set. Water
flow over the concrete, which may injure the surface finish, will not be allowed.
4) Pipes, conduits, dowels and other items to be embedded in concrete shall be so
positioned and supported prior to placement of concrete to be stable and provide
sufficient clearance (50 mm min.) between said items and steel reinforcement to
allow proper concreting. Securing such items in position by wiring or welding to
reinforcement will not be permitted.
5) Where excavated surfaces which are to form the foundations for structural
concrete, are absorptive or likely to become otherwise unsuitable, or where
shown on the Construction Drawings, the Contractor shall place a 'blinding
course' consisting of a layer of Class M10 or M15 concrete 50 to 100 mm thick,
as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge, uniformly over the foundation such that
the upper surface is at grade elevation. Blinding concrete shall be placed before
installing reinforcement or formwork.
6) Immediately before concreting, the forms and all other surfaces which will be in
contact with the fresh concrete shall be cleaned of all loose material and debris
including shavings, wood chips, sawdust, pieces of wire, nails, fragments of
hardened concrete and mortar. Clean-out holes which may be needed for this
purpose shall subsequently be securely closed in order to obtain the required
surface finish.
7) The use of compressed air for cleaning will be allowed only if adequate
precautions are taken to avoid the deposition of suspended oil on construction
joint surfaces, reinforcement or other items which are to be bonded to concrete.
8) The Contractor shall provide such personnel and equipment so that the
performance of the concrete work is in a satisfactory manner. The transporting
and placing equipment shall be clean and in good condition, adequate, and
properly arranged to proceed with the placing without undue delays. The number
and condition of vibrators for use and standby shall be ample for the
requirements during placement. The lighting system shall be sufficient to
illuminate the inside of the forms when concrete is placed at night.

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9) The Contractor shall have protective coverings available for fresh concrete
surfaces if there is a possibility of rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
10) Rock surfaces, if any, against which concrete is to be placed shall be clean and
free from oil, standing or running water, mud, loose rock, objectionable coating,
debris, and loose or unsound fragment. Faults, fissures and seams shall be
cleaned to sound rock, and if directed, backfilled with dental concrete, shotcrete
or dry-pack as appropriate.
11) Immediately before concrete is placed, all surfaces shall be cleaned thoroughly
by the use of high velocity air-water jets, sweeping with brooms, wet
sandblasting, bush-hammering, or other satisfactory means including
combinations of the above.
12) Rock surface, if any, against which concrete is to be placed shall be kept wet for
at least 12 hours during the 24-hour period prior to placing concrete and shall be
in a damp condition at the time of placing, with all pools of water removed.
13) Before any concrete is cast against previously placed concrete, the surface of the
old concrete shall be prepared as described in sub-section "Construction Joints".

9.11.3 Placing and Compaction


1) Concrete shall be carefully placed in designated position where dense
reinforcement or deep forms may cause segregation of concrete while placing,
suitable methods shall be used to prevent segregation. The free fall of concrete
shall not exceed 1.5 m.
2) Concrete shall be placed directly in its permanent position and shall not be
worked along the forms to that position. Vibrators shall not be used to move
concrete laterally.
3) The addition of water into concrete after batching to compensate for stiffening
of the concrete before placing shall not be permitted.
4) All concrete shall be placed in continuous approximately horizontal layers. The
thickness of the layers shall not exceed 400 mm for mass concrete, and 500 mm
for structural and all other concrete. Each layer shall be soft when a new layer is
placed upon it so that no seams or planes of weakness within the section can
form, and the two layers shall be made monolithic by penetration of vibrators.
5) The Engineer-in-Charge reserves the right to order a reduced thickness of layers
where the layers as stated above cannot be placed in accordance with the
requirements of these Specifications.
6) Time interval between successive lifts of mass concrete shall be determined by
the Engineer-in-Charge. Nevertheless a minimum of 72 hours shall elapse
between successive lifts.
7) No concrete shall be placed under water except where shown on the
Construction Drawings or specifically so required by the Engineer-in-Charge.
No concrete shall be placed in running water. Water shall not be allowed to rise
over freshly poured concrete until final set has been achieved.
8) Each layer of concrete shall be consolidated to the maximum practicable
density, be free from pockets of coarse aggregate, completely fill all recesses in

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forms and around embedded parts, and be free of all voids. The concrete shall be
compacted and worked into all corners and angles of the forms, around
reinforcement and embedded items without permitting the component concrete
materials to segregate.
9) No layer of concrete shall be placed until the previous layer in the same lift has
been thoroughly consolidated. Each layer of concrete within a lift shall be
covered with fresh concrete as soon as possible, but certainly within the period
when the lower layer is still capable of being re vibrated so that successive
layers can be thoroughly worked together.
10) The maximum permissible time between the placing successive layers in a pour
shall not exceed initial setting time of cement or 45 minutes, whichever is less,
and shall be reduced to suit the temperature, humidity and job conditions.
Concrete shall not be piled up in the forms in a manner that causes movement of
the unconsolidated concrete, or permits mortar to escape from the coarse
aggregate.
11) Concrete shall be compacted with the aid of approved immersion type
mechanical vibrators complying with IS: 2505 or electric or air driven vibrators
operating at a speed of at least 7,000 cycles/minute when immersed in the
concrete. The vibrating equipment shall at all times be adequate in number of
units and power to penetrate concrete as it is being placed, to the satisfaction of
the Engineer-in-Charge. Vibrators with flexible operating shafts shall be used
for reinforced concrete and for concrete in restricted forms. At least one extra
vibrator in working condition shall be constantly on hand at each point of
placement for emergency use.
12) Application of the vibrators shall be made systematically and at such intervals
that the zones of influence overlap and the concrete is properly compacted.
13) Every vibrator shall be operated in a near vertical position and the vibrating
head shall be allowed to penetrate under the action of its own weight. In
consolidating each layer of concrete, the vibrating head shall be allowed to
penetrate and re-vibrate the concrete in the upper portion of the underlying
layers. Extreme care shall be taken to ensure that the vibrators do not touch or
disturb the reinforcing, embedded steel or forms.
14) To ensure even and dense surfaces which are free from aggregate pockets,
honeycombing or air holes, it may be necessary to supplement internal vibration
with hand-spading along the boundaries of the concrete and around embedded
parts while the concrete is plastic under the vibratory action, should slip forms
be used, the equipment and methods shall be such that the finished concrete will
be well consolidated and homogeneous.
15) Contractor shall use any or all of the above methods of consolidation, if
required, to produce the necessary finish. Form vibrators shall not be used unless
the forms are designed for form vibration and unless specifically authorised by
the Engineer-in-Charge.

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9.11.4 Pumping Concrete
1) Positive displacement pumping or other approved methods may be used to place
concrete in locations approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. The type and
arrangement of equipment shall be subject to approval, and the equipment shall
be operated only by experienced persons. Pneumatic placing will not be allowed.
2) The equipment and its method of operation shall allow the concrete to enter the
forms at a low velocity.
3) Concrete pumps and auxiliary equipment shall be in good condition and shall be
maintained as such throughout the duration of the work. Thorough washing
down of all parts that come in contact with concrete shall be performed after
each concreting operation.
4) Pump lines shall consist of rigid steel pipe or flexible pipe made of rubber,
spiral-wound flexible metal or plastic, or combination of both. Use of
aluminium pipe for pump lines shall not be permitted. Couplings shall be leak
proof and strong enough to withstand handling during erection and poor support
along the lines. They shall provide a full internal cross section with no
constrictions of the smooth flow of concrete.
5) Immediately prior to the start of all concrete pumping, the pump and pump lines
shall be primed by pumping an approved grout mixture through the equipment.
6) Concrete pumping operations shall be planned in such a way that concrete does
not set before the succeeding layer is placed thereon. An adequate supply of
fresh concrete shall be provided at all times.

9.11.5 Concrete in Block outs, Second Stage in Restricted Locations, etc.


1) All concrete required to be placed in block outs to permit the installation and
adjustment of mechanical and other equipment, around formed holes and second
stage concrete in other locations shall be included in respective concrete as
described in these Specifications.
2) The concrete surfaces of blockouts and first stage concrete at other locations
shall be chipped and roughened as described herein before second stage concrete
is placed at such locations.
3) Exceptional care shall be taken to placing concrete in block outs in order to
ensure satisfactory bond with concrete previously placed and to secure complete
contact with all metal works in the blockouts.
4) The roughening of the first stage concrete surfaces shall be attained by chipping
or sand blasting as approved by the Engineer-in-Charge and in such a manner as
not to loosen, crack or shatter any part of concrete beyond the roughened
surfaces.
5) After being roughened, the surfaces of concrete shall be cleaned thoroughly of
loose fragments, dirt and the objectionable substances and shall be sound and
hard to ensure good mechanical bond between the existing and new concrete.
6) Second stage concrete shall be placed in lifts of not more than 3.0 m and
concrete placement rate shall not exceed 1.5 m per hour except as otherwise
approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.

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9.12 FINISHING OF CONCRETE
9.12.1 General
1) The quality of the surface finish shall be in accordance with the requirements for
the particular class of finish specified hereunder. The finished surfaces of
concrete shall be free from areas of honeycombs, segregation, loss of cement or
fine material, from damage due to stripping of forms, from bolt holes, abrupt
irregularities caused by movement of forms or components, loose knots and
similar features, and bulges or depressions in the general plane of the surface.
2) Only one type of formwork shall be used for all parts of a concrete structure
which is visible from any direction.
3) The classes of finish shall be as shown on the Construction Drawings or as
directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

9.12.2 Formed Surfaces


1) The classes of finish for formed surfaces are designated by the use of symbol F
and the shape of the formwork panels required for concrete work shall be either
plane (F1, F2, F3) or curved (F1C, F2C, F3C).
2) Surface finishes and other variations in finishing of concrete shall conform to
the tolerances indicated below:

Type of General areas of application and method of forming Tolerances


finish (in mm)
F1, F1C Formed surfaces of construction joints and other surfaces +25
which will not be permanently exposed. The surface will -10
require no treatment after form removal other than repair of
defective concrete and specified curing, or treatment as
specified for construction joints.
F2, F2C All permanently exposed formed surfaces. Immediately on +10
the removal of forms all unsightly ridges or fins shall be -10
removed; all holes left by removal of ends of form rods shall
be neatly filled with mortar and surfaces treated to meet the
required tolerances by tooling and rubbing.
F3, F3C Formed surfaces which will be exposed to flowing water. +3
These surfaces shall be hard, smooth and dense, free from -3
offsets, pits, voids, air holes and irregularities, and shall be
chipped, ground and thoroughly cleaned as necessary to
conform to the required tolerances.

9.12.3 Unformed Surfaces


1) The classes of finish for unformed concrete surfaces are designated by the use of
symbol U and shall be finished by screeding, floating and trowelling.

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2) Surface finishes and other variations in finishing of concrete shall conform to
the tolerances indicated below.
Type of General areas of application and method of forming Tolerances
finish (in mm)
U1 Unformed, screeded surfaces which will be covered by fill +10
materials. Finishing shall consist of sufficient levelling and -10
screeding to produce an even, uniform surface meeting the
required tolerance.
U2 Unformed surfaces not concealed by fill. Floating by means +5
of hand or power-driven equipment shall be started as soon -5
as the screeded surface has stiffened sufficiently, and shall be
the minimum necessary to produce a surface that is free from
screed marks and that is uniform in texture.
U3 Unformed, screeded surfaces which will be exposed to +3
flowing water. This finish shall be applied by steel troweling -3
after the concrete has hardened enough to prevent excess of
fine materials and water from being worked to the surface,
free from blemishes, ripples and trowel marks. After the
surface has nearly hardened, it shall be trowelled once more
until the surface is hard and glossy in appearance.

3) Interior surfaces shall be sloped for drainage where shown on the Construction
Drawings. Exterior surfaces, which will be exposed to the weather, shall be sloped
for drainage even if there is no such indication on the Construction Drawings. In
such case the slope shall be at least 2% but not exceed 3%.

9.12.4 Tolerances for General Concrete Structures

General Areas of Application Tolerances in


mm
Variations of the constructed line or In 6 meters 12 mm
outlines from established position in In 12 meters 20 mm
plan In 24 meters or more 30 mm
Variations of dimensions to individual In buried construction Twice the above
structural features from established amount
position

Variations from the plumb, from the In 3 meters 12 mm


specified batter or from the curved In 12 meters or more 30 mm
surface of all structures, including the In buried construction Twice the above
lines and the surfaces, walls and vertical amount
joints
Variations from the level or from the In 3 meters 6 mm

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grades indicated on the drawing In 12 meters or more 12 mm
In buried construction Twice the above
amount
Variation in cross sectional dimensions -6 mm
of columns, beams, buttresses, piers and +12 mm
similar members and variation in the
thickness of slabs, walls and similar
members.
Variation from plumb and level for sills Not greater than: 3 mm/3 m
and side walls for radial gates and
similar watertight joints

9.12.5 Bush Hammer Finish


Bush hammer finish shall be applied on the surfaces when required by the
Engineer-in-Charge. Bush hammering shall not commence until at least one
month after placement of concrete. The tool used for bush hammering shall be
electrically driven and have a head 3 cm2 with 16 pyramid shaped teeth. The
2
surfaces shall be finished at a rate of 250 to 400 cm /min. indenting the concrete
surface approximately 2 mm.

9.13 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES


1) Construction joints are defined as concrete surfaces on or against which concrete
is to be placed and to which new concrete is to adhere and which have become
so rigid that the new concrete cannot be incorporated integrally with that
previously placed.
2) Construction joints shall be located in the positions shown on the Construction
Drawings or as required by the Engineer-in-Charge and the Contractor shall not
be permitted to form any additional joints or deviate from the joints indicated on
the Drawings, without the written authorisation of the Engineer-in-Charge.
Necessary rearrangement of steel reinforcement arising from such modifications
shall be to the Contractor's debit.
3) Horizontal construction joints shall be arranged, wherever possible, to coincide
with joints in the formwork.
4) Joints at exposed surfaces of concrete shall be straight and continuous. Feather-
edged construction joints will not be permitted.
5) The faces of vertical joints shall be shuttered with expanded metal or other
approved rough material. The expanded metal shall be removed as far as
possible, before the adjacent lift is poured. If required, the surface shall be
cleaned by wet sandblasting and roughened by light bush-hammering.
6) The surface of construction joints upon or against which new concrete is to be
placed and to which new concrete is to adhere shall be clean, rough, and free of
water when covered with fresh concrete. The laitance, loose or defective

97
concrete and foreign material shall be removed from the surface of existing
concrete. The previous concrete lift shall be saturated by water but surface dry
when the successive lift is placed.
7) The surface of the hardened concrete shall be cleaned and roughened by suitable
equipment or approved method.
8) The horizontal surfaces of construction joints may be treated by cutting with air-
water jets ("green-cutting"). This shall be performed after the initial set has taken
place but before the concrete has become too hard for effective cutting. The
fresh concrete surface shall be cut with air-water jets to remove all laitance and
to expose clean, sound aggregate. After cutting, the surface shall be washed with
clean water. Care shall be taken that the treated surface does not become
contaminated before new concrete is placed upon it. Should the surface become
contaminated that a satisfactory joint with new concrete is not ensured the
Contractor shall clean it by means of wet-sandblasting.
9) Water used in cutting, washing and rinsing of concrete surfaces shall be
disposed of in such a way that it does not stain, discolour or affect exposed
surfaces of the structures.
10) When necessary, as determined by the Engineer-in-Charge, structural concrete
placement in forms shall be started with an over sanded mix with 20 mm
maximum size aggregate, an extra 50 kg of cement per cubic meter and a 100
mm slump. This mix will be referred to as a starter mix and shall be placed
approximately 50 mm thick.
11) Disturbance of the surface at a joint during the early stages of hardening shall be
avoided, and traffic on the concrete will not be permitted until the concrete has
hardened sufficiently to withstand such treatment without injury.
12) All construction joints shall be kept continuously moist until they are covered
with concrete, provided that, if it becomes necessary to delay the placement of
new concrete on or against a construction joint for an extended period, moist
curing of the surface of the joint may be discontinued at the expiration of the
regular prescribed curing period. If the moist curing is so discontinued, it shall
be resumed not later than 24 hours prior to the placement of new concrete
against the joints.

9.14 CURING AND PROTECTION OF CONCRETE


1) The water used for curing shall meet the requirements for water used for mixing
concrete. The curing water temperature shall not exceed 25oC.
2) Exposed surface of concrete which have been finished as specified shall be
protected from the direct rays of the sun for at least 2 days after placing. Freshly
placed concrete shall be protected from damage by rainfall.
3) Exposed surfaces shall be kept moist or the moisture in the concrete shall be
prevented from evaporating for at least 14 days after placing by means of
continuous sprinkling or spraying with water, or by other methods approved by
the Engineer-in-Charge.

98
4) Care shall be taken not to disturb the steel reinforcement projecting from any
placement for at least 24 hours after the completion of such placement.
5) The Contractor shall not move any load on concrete surfaces which in the
opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge have not attained sufficient strength. In case
loads are required to be moved, the Engineer-in-Charge may permit Contractor
to do so on condition that Contractor provides the means for protecting the
concrete surface subject to approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.
6) The Engineer-in-Charge may permit the use of curing by means of membrane
forming compounds. Sealing compounds proposed by the Contractor will be
subject to sampling and testing and will have to be approved by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
7) Curing compounds shall be applied according to the manufacturer's
recommendations to provide a continuous uniform membrane over all area.
Curing compounds shall be applied only after moist curing has been carried out
for at least 24 hours. Curing membranes shall be protected from damage at all
times.
8) Curing compound shall not be used on any unformed surface where, in the
opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge, the irregularities in that surface would
prevent the membrane forming an effective seal, on any surface which has a
temperature lower than manufacturer's recommended application temperature,
on any surface where a bond is required for additional concrete, or where a
bonded surface coating is to be applied. Where a curing compound is placed on
a surface where a bond is required, it shall be removed by sand blasting or by
other means satisfactory to the Engineer-in-Charge.
9) Curing compounds used for surfaces exposed to view shall degrade completely
when exposed to air for more then 3 months. They are to remain at least 80%
impermeable for 1 month after application.

9.15 REPAIR OF CONCRETE


1) Repair of damaged or defective concrete shall be performed by skilled workmen
only, and in the presence of the Engineer-in-Charge. No repair work shall be
carried out until the Engineer-in-Charge has inspected the location of the
proposed repair and accepted the method of repair proposed by the Contractor.
2) Contractor shall correct all imperfections on the concrete surface as necessary to
produce surface that conforms to the requirements specified.
3) Where concrete is exposed to flowing water or to weather, porous and fractured
concrete and surface concrete to which additions are required to bring it to
prescribed lines shall be removed by chipping openings into the concrete a
minimum of 75 mm below the reinforcing or to the depth required by the
Engineer-in-Charge if sound concrete is not encountered at 75mm. Repair areas
shall be formed and area filled with fresh concrete. If the concrete section to be
repaired contains no reinforcement, concrete shall be chipped to a minimum
depth of 100mm.

99
4) The chipped openings shall be sharp edged and keyed and shall be filled to the
required lines with fresh concrete or patching mortar, as approved by the
Engineer-in-Charge. Where concrete is used for filling, the chipped openings
shall not be less than 75 mm in depth and the fresh concrete shall be reinforced
and doweled to the surface of the openings, as directed by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
5) Dry pack mortar for patching shall consist of 1 part cementing material, 2 parts
by volume of regular sand, and just enough water so that after thorough mixing
of the ingredients the mortar will barely held together when compacted by
squeezing with the hand. The mortar shall be fresh when placed, and any mortar
that is not used within 1 hour after preparation shall be wasted. Just prior to
mortar application, the surface to which the mortar is to bond shall be kept wet
for at least 2 hours, and then scrubbed with a small quantity of cement grout
using a wire brush.
6) When repairs are more than 25 mm deep, the mortar shall be applied in layers
not more than 20 mm thick to avoid sagging. After each layer, except the last is
placed, it shall be thoroughly roughened by scratching with a trowel to provide
an effective bond with the succeeding layers. The last or finishing layer shall be
smoothened with a trowel to form a continuous surface with the surrounding
concrete. All patches on exposed surface shall be neat and smooth and as nearly
as possible of the same colour as the adjoining concrete. All patches shall be
thoroughly bonded to the surfaces of the chipped openings, shall be cured to the
satisfaction of the Engineer-in-Charge and shall be sound and free from
shrinkage cracks and drummy areas.
7) All repairs to the surface of concrete required for flowing water shall be ground
smooth to meet the tolerances specified for that surface.

9.16 PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR INDIVIDUAL CONCRETE


STRUCTURES
9.16.1 Concrete in the Power House
1) The levels of the floors in the power house and the dimensions of the concrete
elements such as beams, columns, floors, walls and openings as shown on the
Tender Drawings are typical only and may be changed in the final design to suit
the actual shapes and sizes of the equipment to be installed.
2) Blockouts, holes, pipes, pits, pedestals and embedded metalwork for equipment,
cables, anchor bolts and other accessories are not fully detailed on the Tender
Drawings and may be changed in number, location or size in the final design.
3) Concrete slabs to be covered with a floor finish or tiles shall be left at a depth
below the finished floor elevations to permit placing of the required thickness of
floor finish or tiles, and proper allowance shall be made for the finish when
anchor bolts, pipes and other metalwork are placed.
4) Concrete slabs forming floors shall be carefully screeded to the design levels
shown on the Construction Drawings. Scabbing or grinding to bring the floor to

100
the levels will not be permitted after installation or mechanical or electrical
equipment has commenced.

9.16.2 Special Requirements for Embedding Machine Parts in Concrete


1) At least two weeks prior to placement, the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer-in-Charge for approval his proposed method of placement of concrete
embedding of turbine parts. The Contractor shall ensure that there will be no
delay in placing concrete after any part of the turbine has been put in position
and accepted for concrete placement.
2) The concrete for supporting and encasing turbine parts in the structure shall be
placed in stages, places and sequence as the erection procedure requires. Delay
in concrete placement will be necessary at times to permit checking, adjusting
and grouting operations to ensure proper installation of the draft tube liner and
spiral case.
3) The units to be embedded shall be checked for alignment immediately before,
during and after concrete placing operations.
4) Unless otherwise specified or shown on the Construction Drawings, concrete
grade as shown in table 9.5.1 with the addition of an approved non-shrink agent
shall be used for blockout concrete.
5) Any damage or displacement of embedded parts caused by too rapid or careless
placement of concrete or non conformity with these specifications or the
instructions of the Engineer-in-Charge shall be corrected or replaced by the
Contractor as required.
6) Anchors, anchor bolts, structural shapes, plates shapes, plates for gates, hoists,
valves, machinery etc. and other miscellaneous parts shall be installed in the
concrete by the Contractor, as shown on the Construction Drawings or as
required by the Engineer-in-Charge. Wherever practicable, anchors shall be
installed before the concrete is placed. Except as otherwise specified, drilling
and installation of anchors in the concrete after concrete is placed, will not be
permitted. Before being placed in position, all anchors and embedded parts shall
be thoroughly cleaned of rust, grease, paint, splashed concrete, or other coatings
that will reduce bond. Where the installation of the anchors is not practicable
before the concrete is placed, formed openings shall be provided, and the
anchors grouted into the openings at a later time in a manner acceptable to the
Engineer-in-Charge.
7) Embedded anchors shall be supported during embedding and embedded so that
the tolerances specified will not be exceeded. Care shall be taken not to disturb
or displace embedded items during concrete placement.
9.16.3 Concrete in Blockouts for Equipment Embedding
1) The Contractor shall form blockouts, place reinforcement and concrete as shown
on the Construction Drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge, and in
such manner as to ensure good bond with the existing concrete, to secure
complete contact with the metalwork to be embedded in the blockout concrete
and to avoid displacement of the metalwork.

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2) Blockout concrete shall include concrete around second stage gate parts, anchor
bolts and anchor plates.
3) Before placing concrete, all parts to be embedded shall be checked to ensure that
they are firmly fixed in their required position. The surfaces of blockouts or
holes shall be thoroughly cleaned and wetted. Oil or grease shall be removed by
brushing and chipping of affected surfaces to a sufficient depth, or by
application of approved chemicals and flushed with clear water.
4) The parts to be embedded shall be cleaned of rust, mill scale, paint, oil or grease
before they are set into place. Where bond between metal parts and concrete or
grout is not desired, approved material such as flake graphite or paraffin shall be
applied to the metal parts. The metal surfaces shall be wetted before placing the
concrete or grout.
5) Only self compacting Concrete containing approved admixtures shall be used for
the concrete in second stage in blockouts for equipment embedding as shown on
the Construction Drawings.

9.16.4 Grouting of the Equipment Bearing Plates and Anchors


1) Limited spaces and small blockouts where equipment bearing plates, anchors,
rails, etc., are placed shall be grouted under pressure.
2) The grouting shall be performed using non-shrink cement-based grout or non-
shrink epoxy grout as proposed by the Contractor and approved. All mixing and
grouting shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations and shall be tested prior to grouting. Technical service by
manufacturer shall be organised by the Contractor upon request by the Engineer-
in-Charge.
3) Before placing grout, the surfaces of the base concrete to which the grout will be
bonded shall be roughened and cleaned of all laitance, loose or defective
concrete, any coatings or other foreign material, followed by thorough washing
with water.
4) Forms for grouting shall be installed where necessary and care shall be taken
that the grout fills all spaces under the plates leaving no voids. The exposed
surfaces of the grout shall be cured as recommended by the manufacturer and no
loads shall be applied until the grout has reached the design strength.

9.16.5 Precast Concrete


1) Precast concrete shall be produced in an enclosed area separate from other
construction works.
2) Precast units shall generally conform to the other parts of the same technical
specifications where applicable and as required by the Engineer-in-Charge.
3) Precast units shall be protected at all times from damage at the place of
fabrication and during handling, storage and erection.
4) Precast concrete units shall be placed in their correct relative location and
temporarily braced and secured to prevent collapse or distortion of the structure
until completion of the work to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-Charge.

102
5) Following removal of formwork, any hole, voids or other blemishes in the
surfaces of precast concrete units which are to be exposed shall be patched and a
smooth rubbed finish provided. Rubbing shall be done with a corborumdum
stone and a mixture of Portland cement and water.

9.17 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


9.17.1 General
1) Measurement for payment for each class of concrete, unless specified otherwise
hereafter, will be of the volume placed within the lines, grades, and pay-limits
shown on the Construction Drawings or as established at the Site by the
Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Unless otherwise stated, no payment will be made for concrete placed outside
these limits, other than in additional excavation directed by the Engineer-in-
Charge, and the measurement shall not include any filling of overbreak unless
recognised as due to geological conditions conforming to the limits defined in
other Sections of these Specifications.
3) Payment will be made at the Unit Prices for different classes and types of
concrete entered in the Bill of Quantities, which shall include, but not be limited
to, the following:
a) Excavation, loading, transportation, crushing, screening, washing, blending,
and storage of aggregates,
b) Batching, supply of mixing water, mixing, transportation, placing, and
compacting the concrete,
c) Provision, delivery, transportation, storage and mixing of cement at the
nominal content per different classes of concrete indicated in Sub-Section
"Concrete Mix Design", and complying with all requirements specified.
d) Labour, tools and equipment for cleaning, and preparing surfaces prior to
concreting,
e) Forming and treatment of construction joints including furnishing and
spreading of mortar layers, or starter mixes before concrete placing,
f) Surface finishing including bush-hammering,
g) Attaining the concrete temperature as specified and cold weather
precautions,
h) Protection and curing of concrete,
i) Repair of defective concrete and removal of rejected concrete,
j) Furnishing the trial bays and panels, provision of material samples and all
activities required in connection with the performance of the tests including
their transportation to the testing laboratory.
4) All associated concrete work, such as removal of forms and repairs and finishing
of concrete shall be completed as soon as practicable after concrete is placed.
Concrete will not be considered for payment until all associated works have
been completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-Charge.
5) Measurement for payment and payment for formwork and steel reinforcement
are stipulated in other Sections of these Specifications.

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9.17.2 High Performance Concrete
1) Measurement for payment of high performance concrete will be of the volume
placed. Payment will be made at the Unit Price per cubic meter entered in the
Schedule, which shall include the entire cost of preparation of contact surfaces
with parent concrete, furnishing, mixing and casting of such concrete and any
other related work.
2) Measurement for payment for micro silica / SCM (Supplementary Cementitious
Material) and Superplasticizer mixed into the concrete will be of the weight of
the dosages as ordered by the Engineer-in-Charge. Payment will be made at the
Unit Price per metric ton entered in the Schedule, which shall include the entire
cost of supply, handling, mixing of the micro silica/SCM and Superplasticizer
and provision, operation and maintenance of equipment for mixing these into
the concrete.

9.17.3 Second Stage Concrete and Concrete in Blockouts for Equipment


Embedding
1) Measurement for payment of second stage concrete and concrete in blockouts
will be of the volume of placed concrete. Only second stage concrete placed in
spaces exceeding 0.10 m3 in volume or 0.05 m2 in cross section will be
considered for payment. Concrete placed in blockouts or spaces less then stated
above shall be deemed to be included in the Unit Price for concrete in the
structure with which it is associated.
2) Payment will be made at the Unit Price per cubic meter entered in the Bill of
Quantities, which shall include, in addition to works included under "General",
the entire cost of preparation of contact surfaces with parent concrete, furnishing
of non-shrink agent where directed and any other related work.
3) No separate payment shall be made for the superplasticizer used in preparing
self compacting concrete. The cost of superplasticizer shall be deemed to be
included in the unit rate of respective concrete item entered in the Bill of
Quantities.

9.17.4 Grouting of Equipment Bearing Plates and Anchors


1) Measurement for payment for the non-shrink cement-based grout or non-shrink
epoxy grout will be of the actual grout placed in the blockouts and under bearing
plates.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per kilogram entered in the
Bill of Quantities. Technical service rendered by the manufacturer as needed,
will not be separately reimbursed but will deem to be included in the Unit
Prices.

104
9.17.5 Precast Concrete
1) Measurement for payment for precast concrete units will be of the volume of
concrete used in the various types of precast concrete units, supplied and
installed in the Permanent Works.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per cubic meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall include, in addition to works described under
"General", the entire cost of formwork, cement, admixtures, storage,
transportation, and erection. Reinforcing steel is to be paid separately.

9.17.6 Exclusions - Concrete


1) No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for the following:
a) Any rounded or bevelled edges, fillets, scoring, chamfers, or any deduction
made for voids or embedded items which are either less than 0.10m3 in
2
volumes or 0.05m in cross section. No allowance will be made for
approved temporary openings, drains, embedded pipes, or recesses created
by the Contractor for his own convenience during construction provided
they are filled as directed,
b) Any collecting of seepage water or water inflow from rock surfaces and
diverting it into the drainage systems as specified in the Section
"Dewatering during Construction",
c) Any defective and wasted concrete; concrete which has to be removed and
replaced due to Contractor's non-compliance with the Specifications or
Engineer-in-Charge's directions, and all related cost shall be at the
Contractor's expense,
d) Any concrete which the Contractor places or uses for his own installations
or for his own convenience,
e) Developing alternative sources of aggregates by the Contractor and the
resulting additional material testing,
f) Pumping of the concrete and plasticisers.
g) Any precast and precast-prestressed concrete units damaged by improper
storing, handling or transportation,
h) Any pipe work or material incorporated into the work to aid in placement
of concrete.
i) Backfill concrete in over break in surface excavation except geologically
approved over break.
j) Coring required for establishing the efficacy of void filling as ordered by
Engineer-in-Charge.
2) No separate measurement for payment or payment shall be made for any kind of
admixture including superplasticizer.

9.17.7 Cement
1) No separate payment will be made for the nominal cement content indicated in
Sub-Section "Concrete Mix Design" for the respective class of concrete.

105
2) In case the required minimum specified compressive strength of a particular
concrete class cannot be reached, or is in excess of, with the cement content
indicated therein, variation of cement content (increase or decrease) will be
assessed separately and paid for or recovered from the contractor as the case
may be.
3) Measurement for payment for variations of cement content used for concrete
will be of the quantities, by weight, of cement approved for the different classes
of concrete specified, and computed on the basis of the number of cubic meters
of concrete measured and approved for payment. The amount of cement
required per cubic meter of concrete of each class will be as established at trial
mix stage or the approved modifications thereof as established by the Engineer-
in-charge in the course of concrete work.
4) The aforesaid variation in cement shall be paid for or recovered from the
contractor as the case may be at the rates stipulated in Bill of Quantities.
5) No measurement for payment or payment will be made for cement used for:
a) Contractor's own convenience,
b) Used for defective and wasted concrete,
c) Concrete placed outside of the concrete paylines or required as a result of
careless excavation.
d) Concrete produced with overuse of admixture.
6) No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for cement used in
precast concrete units and the cost thereof shall be included in the appropriate
Unit Prices for such concrete elements.

9.17.8 Tests
1) All cost associated with testing as described in this Section shall be borne by the
Contractor, who shall make allowance for such expense in the Unit Prices for
the concrete work. These shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
a) The costs for all tests to be carried out prior to the start of concrete work,
whether carried out at Site or elsewhere,
b) Routine tests for quality control during the execution of the concrete work
carried out by the Contractor as specified herein and as directed by the
Engineer-in-Charge,
c) Other tests required during execution of the work,
d) Preparation, storage, handling, curing and delivery of samples to a
laboratory designated by the Engineer-in-Charge, if so required for
additional independent testing.
2) Should the Contractor fail to adhere to his testing program, all test deemed
necessary by the Engineer-in-charge to check concrete work will be performed
by the Engineer-in-Charge or a laboratory assigned by him, at Contractor's
expense.

END OF SECTION B.9

106
SECTION B.10
FORMWORK
List of Contents

10.1 SCOPE OF WORK


10.2 DEFINITIONS
10.3 SUBMITTALS
10.4 MATERIALS
10.5 FORM TIES
10.6 DESIGN
10.7 ERECTION OF FORMWORK
10.8 FINISHED TOLERANCES
10.9 REMOVAL OF FORMWORK
10.10 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

107
SECTION B.10
FORMWORK

10.1 SCOPE OF WORK


The work under this Section shall comprise supply of all labour, plant and
material and the performance of all work necessary for the design, fabrication,
supply, erection, maintenance and removal of formwork and false work to form
concrete structures as shown on the Construction Drawings or as otherwise
directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.

10.2 DEFINITIONS
For the sake of clarity, the terms used in this Section are defined as follows:
1) "Forms" or "Formwork" shall mean the moulds into which concrete is placed,
2) "False work" or "Shoring" shall mean the structural supports and bracings for
forms used in any part of the Works,
3) "Curved forms" shall mean any form not composed of plain surface and limits of
curved forms shall not extend beyond the lines of tangency or intersections with
flat surfaces.

10.3 SUBMITTALS
1) At least 28 days in advance of any concrete work being carried out at the Site,
the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge details of the materials for
formwork and surface finishes, and construction techniques which the
Contractor proposes to use in order to achieve the required concrete surfaces and
allowable tolerances.
2) At least 28 days prior to the construction of the steel formwork for the tunnel
lining, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge the shop drawings,
details, and structural computations of the formwork construction.
3) At least 14 days prior to commencement of work on each particular structure
the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge 4 copies of the detail shop
drawings with all formwork details and 2 copies of the structural computations
of the formwork construction.
4) Review by Engineer-in-Charge of Contractor's drawing and calculations shall
not relieve Contractor of its responsibility for the adequacy of form and
falsework, or for the safety of persons or property, for the successful completion
of the work.

10.4 MATERIALS
1) Materials used for form sheathing and lining shall be of wood, steel, plywood, or
fibreglass. All materials used in formwork construction shall be of adequate
strength and quality for their intended purpose and shall be satisfactory to the
Engineer-in-Charge.

108
2) Timber shall be sound, straight, free from warp, decay and loose knots and shall
be dressed smooth. Except as expressly approved by the Engineer-in Charge, all
timber brought to the Site for use as forms, shoring or bracing shall be new
material.
3) Plywood for use as form shall be mill-oiled and edge-sealed. Plywood shall be
non-warping, non-wrinkling and manufactured with special water proof glues.
Plywood sheets shall be of uniform width and length.
4) The surface of steel of steel lined forms shall be smooth. Forms with dents,
buckled areas or other surface irregularities shall not be used.
5) Forms for concrete surfaces exposed to flowing water shall be lined with sanded,
uncoated, plywood veneer. Steel or impermeable plastic liners will not be
permitted.
6) Rough sawn boards may be used only for the lowest grade of surface finish (F1).
7) Reuse of forms will be allowed only if they are thoroughly cleaned and repaired
and capable of producing the finish required for the concrete. Timber or
plywood forms repaired with metal patches shall not be used.
8) Damaged forms which have deteriorated through use shall not be used.
9) Where required, expanded metal fixed to the formwork shall be used in vertical
construction joints.

10.5 FORM TIES


1) The type, number and positions of internal formwork supports and ties shall be
to the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge. Form inserts or other similar
permanently embedded items shall be accurately located and securely fastened in
place. The number and location of form ties and bolts shall be such as to ensure
that forms fit tightly against the concrete previously placed and remain in tight
contact during operations.
2) The whole or part of such formwork supports and ties shall be removed without
damage to the concrete so as to leave no part embedded nearer the surface of the
concrete than the designed cover of the reinforcement or 50 mm in the case of
unreinforced concrete. Only metal portions of formwork supports and ties shall
be allowed to remain in place.
3) Through-bolts will not be permitted in water retaining walls.
4) Holes left after the removal of supports and ties shall be filled as described in
Section "Concrete - Repair of Defective Concrete", and shall be finished off
neatly to the standard of the concrete surface. Such filling shall be adequately
cured.
10.6 DESIGN
1) Contractor shall be solely responsible for the adequate design, construction and
maintenance of any and all formwork and falsework required in the Works.
Forms shall be designed to permit the concrete to be deposited as nearly as is
practicable directly in its final position, and to allow inspection, checking the
cleanup of the formwork and reinforcement to be completed without delay.

109
2) Formwork and falsework shall be designed, fabricated, erected and removed in
accordance with the applicable provisions of the recommended practice for
concrete form of IS:456.
3) All falsework shall be designed to withstand safely all live and dead loads which
might be applied to the falsework during all stages of construction, service and
removal.
4) For the purpose of formwork and falsework design, the Contractor shall assume
a value of 2.5 t/m3 for the density of concrete.
5) Detailed drawings of shoring and formwork shall be prepared by Contractor.
The calculations and drawings shall show the size and specification of the
formwork, including the type and grade of all materials used in the construction,
design loads on the formwork supports, horizontal forces imposed on the false
work and used for design purpose, and details of splices and connections,
including nailspikes and other fasteners. If mechanical equipment such as
concrete buggies, screeding machines, etc. is to be used, this information shall
be shown on these drawings.
10.7 ERECTION OF FORMWORK
1) Formwork and falsework shall be constructed only after the formwork drawings
have been accepted by Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The Contractor shall construct the falsework in strict accordance with the
approved formwork drawings, one set of which shall be kept at the Site at all
times. No change will be allowed without prior written acceptance of such
change by Engineer-in-Charge.
3) Formwork shall be erected and maintained such as to confine the concrete
without loss of mortar and produce required finished surfaces. Forms shall be set
and maintained within the specified tolerance limit such that the complete
concrete surfaces are within these limits.
4) Forms for concrete against which backfill is to be placed or which will not be
exposed to view may be constructed of smooth tight boards not less than 25 mm
nominal thickness.
5) Forms for concrete exposed to view shall be constructed of steel or plywood
which is smooth and free from defects with matched and sanded joints to give a
symmetrical pattern over the entire area. Chamfer strips, 35 mm by 35 mm shall
be used on all exposed corners, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
6) Any forms which in the opinion of the Engineer are unsafe or inadequate in any
respect may, at any time, be rejected and the Contractor shall promptly remove
the rejected forms from the Works and replace them.
7) An adequate number of temporary clean-out holes or short pipes shall be
provided in the forms to secure the draining of rainwater.
8) When a second lift is placed on hardened concrete, the number, location and
tightening of ties at the top of the old lift and bottom of the new shall be such as
to prevent any damage to concrete. The form of a new lift shall overlap the
hardened concrete by 100 mm, to prevent abrupt irregularities.

110
9) Forms for sloping concrete surfaces shall permit their placing board-by-board or
panel-by-panel immediately ahead of concrete placement so as to enable access
for placement, vibration, and inspection of the concrete.
10) All form surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned before erection and shall be
lubricated with a non-staining mineral oil. All excess shall be wiped off the
forms prior to placement of concrete. Oil shall not be allowed to come into
contact with reinforcement steel or other embedded items.
11) Immediately before concrete is placed, all forms shall be inspected to ensure that
they are properly placed, sufficiently rigid, clean, tight, properly surface treated
and free from excess of oil or other foreign materials. No concrete shall be
placed until formwork has been inspected and accepted by Engineer-in-Charge.
12) The formwork for the gate groove areas shall be accurately drilled to be held
with first stage anchor couplings/plates to be embedded in primary concrete.
Both shall be fixed through formwork into the first stage anchors
couplings/plates to ensure that the couplings/plates remain flush with primary
concrete face and the couplings do not get plugged.

10.8 FINISHED TOLERANCES


Forms shall be so constructed that the finished concrete surfaces shall be of
uniform texture in accordance with the types of finish specified in Section
"Concrete".

10.9 REMOVAL OF FORMWORK


1) Removal of forms shall be performed with care so as to avoid injury to the
concrete and as soon as permissible in order to avoid delay in curing and repair
of surface imperfections. Forms shall not be removed without the consent of the
Engineer.
2) Forms shall not be removed until the concrete has attained sufficient strength to
prevent damage to concrete. Damaged concrete shall be repaired or treated by
the Contractor as soon as possible, but not before the Engineer has inspected
such damage and agreed to the remedial works.
3) The elapsed time between the completion of concrete placing and the removal of
forms shall generally be in accordance with IS: 456, but not less than the
following:
Undersides of beams, deck type slabs, undersides
of openings generally 7 days
Piers, columns and walls
- lifts 2 m and under 24 hours
- lifts over 2 m 48 hours
Mass concrete 24 hours
Removing time for propping under beams, slabs etc. will be taken as per IS: 456
4) The minimum periods indicated above are only indicative. The governing rule to
be observed in the 28-day compressive strength, which shall be determined by
the cube test in addition to those required by the provisions as described in

111
Section "Concrete - Test during Execution of the Work". When fixing the
minimum period for formwork removal, the shrinkage and creep of the concrete
shall be taken in to consideration.
5) Considering the weather conditions and type of pour, the Engineer-in-Charge
may modify the minimum elapsed time required before formwork can be
removed from individual pours, and in case of formwork for beams and deck
slabs it shall remain in place until concrete has developed the specified design
strength.
6) Notwithstanding the above or any approval given by Engineer-in-Charge,
Contractor shall be fully responsible for ensuring that sufficient time has elapsed
for the concrete to attain adequate strength before removal of formwork.
7) Forms shall be removed so as to avoid cracking, spalling, peeling, breaking of
edges or surfaces, or other damage to concrete. If it is necessary to use wedges,
only wooden wedges shall be used against the concrete. Damaged concrete shall
be repaired or treated by the Contractor as soon as possible, but not before the
Engineer-in Charge has inspected such damage and agreed to the remedial
works.

10.10 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


1) Measurement for payment for formwork will be of the formed area for the class
of finish shown on the Construction Drawings.
2) Payment will be made at the Unit Prices per square meter entered in the Bill of
Quantities for various classes of flat and curved formwork, which shall include
the entire cost of design, provision, maintenance, oiling, erection, all necessary
ties and fixings, access scaffoldings, forming of chamfers up to 500 mm² either
internal or external and edges up to 50 mm width and removal of formwork.
3) Openings in the forms for blockouts, niches, etc., which area is smaller than
0.05m2 will not be deducted from the area measured for payment.
4) Measurement for payment for formwork used for open – air works and to form
contraction and expansion joints will be made of the flat area in square meters of
joints shown on the Construction Drawings. No extra payment will be made for
key boxes shown on the Construction Drawings or for joints which the
Contractor adds for his own convenience.
5) No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for the following:
a) Any kind of construction joints,
b) Formwork used for manufacturing of precast and precast concrete units,
c) Unformed surfaces,
d) Any forms rejected by the Engineer and the replacement thereof,
g) Any damage caused by Contractor's negligence during forms removal.
The cost thereof shall be included in the applicable Unit Price for concrete
in the structure with which it is associated.

END OF SECTION B.10

112
SECTION B.11
REINFORCING STEEL
List of Contents

11.1 SCOPE OF WORK


11.2 STANDARDS
11.3 SUBMITTALS
11.4 MATERIALS
11.5 TESTING
11.6 STORAGE
11.7 FABRICATION
11.8 PLACING
11.9 TOLERANCE ON PLACING OF REINFORCEMENT
11.10 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

113
SECTION B.11
REINFORCING STEEL

11.1 SCOPE OF WORK


The Contractor shall furnish, fabricate, and install all reinforcement steel as
shown on the approved detailed reinforcement drawings and bar lists prepared
on the basis of Engineer-in-Charge's Construction Drawings. The work shall
further include the furnishing and installation of all tie wires, clips, supports,
chairs, spacers, couplers and other appurtenances necessary to produce finished
concrete structures.

11.2 STANDARDS
1) Cutting, bending, cleaning, placing and fastening in position shall conform to
the requirements of the following Indian Standards (latest edition):
IS: 432(Part 1) – Specifications for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and
hard drawn steel bars for concrete reinforcement
IS: 456 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete
IS: 1786 Specifications for high strength deformed steel bars and wires for
concrete reinforcement
IS: 2502 code of practice for bending and fixing of bars
IS: 2571 – code of practice for welding of mild steel bars
IS: 13920- Code of practice for Ductile detailing of reinforced concrete
structures subjected to seismic forces
2) Tolerances for reinforcement placing and fastening in position shall be in
accordance with IS: 456.
3) In case of a conflict between the above Standards and the Specifications given
herein, these Specifications shall take precedence.

11.3 SUBMITTALS
1) Within 28 days from the date of issue of Notice to Commence, but before
procuring or mobilizing to the Site the equipment, the Contractor shall submit to
the Engineer-in-Charge updated and detailed plans and descriptions, consistent
with those submitted with his Tender and any subsequent amendments and
additions agreed to by the Engineer-in-Charge and the Contractor, of the
equipment proposed for the fabrication of reinforcing steel.
2) During the progress of the work, Engineer-in-Charge will prepare reinforcement
drawings which will indicate the main structural reinforcement required in the
particular structure. The Contractor shall notify in writing to Engineer-in-Charge
at least 10 weeks before such drawings are required for each section of work. On
the base of these drawings the Contractor shall prepare the detail bar bending
schedules. All bars shown on the detail reinforcement drawings shall be
identified on the bar lists and all bars shall be defined and dimensioned in clear

114
and unambiguous way and be referenced to the relevant reinforcement drawings.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the correctness of the reinforcement
drawings and bar lists. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer-in-Charge
blue prints and transparencies of the reinforcement drawings and bar lists as
stipulated in the Conditions of Contract.

11.4 MATERIALS
1) All deformed reinforcing bars shall be high yield strength, deformed steel bars
conforming to IS: 1786 Grade Fe500.
2) All plain reinforcing bars shall be mild steel and medium tensile strength steel
bars conforming to IS: 432(Part 1)
3) Wire for tying reinforcing steel shall be black annealed iron wire, or acceptable
equivalent, with a diameter not less than 1.6 mm.

11.5 TESTING
1) Reinforcing steel shall be accompanied by a mill certificate and, when directed
by the Engineer-in-Charge, tested in a recognised laboratory to demonstrate
compliance with IS: 1786.
2) In the course of concrete works the Contractor shall conduct the following tests
on the high yield strength deformed steel bars and plain mild steel bars:
a) One tensile strength for every 1,000 tons or as per standards; acceptance
shall be as per IS: 1608 and IS: 226,
b) Welded joints or mechanical connections wherever used shall be tested to
prove that the joints are of full strength of bars connected

11.6 STORAGE
1) Reinforcing steel shall be stored above the ground in separate groups according
to size and length. Reinforcing steel which has been cut and bent according to
the schedules approved by Engineer-in-Charge shall be marked with a bar
number shown on the schedule, by using weatherproof tag or by placing in
marked bins, and shall be stored in such a manner as to be readily accessible
when required and to facilitate inspection.
2) Reinforcement fabric supplied in rolls shall be straightened into flat sheets
before being placed.

11.7 FABRICATION
1) Contractor shall cut and bend all reinforcing steel in accordance with bar
schedules supplied by him and duly approved by Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Reinforcing steel bars shall be cut and bent at the site of the works or at a
fabricator's plant in an acceptable workmanlike manner in accordance with
Indian Standards. Notwithstanding the above, a bar-bending machine and a
representative stock of reinforcing steel shall be maintained at the Site, sufficient

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to allow minor revisions and additions to be carried out as required by Engineer-
in-Charge.
3) The bars shall be bent cold at temperature greater than 5°C. Bending below that
temperature or warm-bending will only be permitted when adequate precautions
are taken to comply with the corresponding direction issued by the steel
manufacturer for such bending.
4) Reinforcing steel shall not be straightened or rebent in a manner that will
damage the materials. Temporary bending and subsequent straightening of bars
partially embedded in concrete shall not be permitted, except when shown on the
Construction Drawings or with the written approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.
Bars with kinks or bends other than those indicated on the Drawings and
schedules shall not be used.
5) Reinforcement bars, other than tie bars, shall not be spliced at points other than
those shown on the Construction Drawings without the consent of the Engineer-
in-Charge. On occasions when it becomes necessary to alter the position of such
splices, the new position and the type of splice shall be subject to the written
approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.
6) Should the necessity of welding of reinforcement arise, the provisions of the
IS-2751 and Indian Standard's recommendations for welding cold worked steel
bars for reinforced concrete shall be followed.
7) Patent reinforcement splicing methods shall only be used with approval of
Engineer-in-Charge.
8) The Contractor shall not weld any item to reinforcing steel except as approved
by Engineer-in-Charge and in conformance with accepted procedures.
9) Reinforcing bars available from the rejected concrete structures shall not be used
without prior approval by the Engineer-in-Charge.

11.8 PLACING
1) Before being placed in position, the reinforcing steel shall be thoroughly cleaned
of loose mill scale and rust, grease, paint, or other coatings that would reduce
bond. All splashed concrete that has dried on reinforcing steel shall be removed.
2) Reinforcing steel to be incorporated in the works shall be placed accurately in
the positions shown on the drawings and shall be held firmly in place during the
placing and setting of the concrete.
3) Reinforcing steel shall be so placed that there will be a clear distance of at least
50 mm between the reinforcing steel and anchor bolts or embedded metal work,
if not shown otherwise on the drawings or required otherwise by Engineer-in-
Charge.
4) Reinforcing steel shall be maintained in position by the use of small concrete
blocks, steel chairs, steel spacers, steel hangers and other steel supports and ties,
acceptable to Engineer- in-Charge. Wood supports or spreaders shall not be
used. All intersections shall be securely tied except those where the bar spacing

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is less than 300 mm in each direction, where only alternate intersections need be
tied.
5) Binding wire, and steel supports shall not be carried to permanently exposed
surfaces and shall be subject to the same requirements with regard to concrete
cover as for the reinforcing steel.
6) The cover of the reinforcement shall be as shown on the Construction Drawings.
7) All reinforcement shall be inspected in place and approved by the Engineer-in-
Charge before placing the concrete. Concrete placed in violation of this
provision may be rejected and removal required

11.9 TOLERANCE ON PLACING OF REINFORCEMENT


Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer-in-Charge or shown on the drawings,
reinforcement shall be placed within the following tolerances:
1) Protective cover:
For cover up to 50 mm + 6 mm
For cover 75 mm and more + 12 mm
2) Spacing:
For effective depth 200 mm or less + 10 mm
For effective depth between 200 and 2000 mm + 15 mm
For effective depth more than 2000 mm + 25 mm

11.10 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


1) Measurement for payment for reinforcing bars will be of the weight of
reinforcing steel, including splices, as stated in the bar lists furnished by the
Contractor in the course of the work. The weight entered in the bar lists will be
computed using the nominal weight per linear meter of different bar diameters
based on the specific weight of 7850 kg/m3.
2) Payment will be made at the Unit Price per metric ton entered in the Bill of
Quantities, which shall include the entire cost of supply, storage, cutting,
bending, placing, wire clips, ties, separators, chairs, spacer bars, and any other
fastening devices.
3) No extra measurement for payment or payment will be made for the following:
a) Wire for tying reinforcement,
b) Any additional reinforcement or splices required when Contractor's casting
sequences differ from construction joints shown on the Construction
Drawings,
c) Any reinforcing steel placed by the Contractor for his own convenience in
addition to those shown on the Construction Drawings and entered in the
bar lists,
d) Any welding of reinforcement
e) Any reinforcing steel delivered for and testing of the steel
f) Installing the couplers including threading of reinforcing bars.
END OF SECTION B.11

117
SECTION B.12
WATERSTOPS AND JOINTS
List of Contents

12.1 SCOPE OF WORK


12.2 STANDARDS
12.3 SUBMITTALS
12.4 MOVEMENT JOINTS IN GENERAL CONCRETE STRUCTURES
12.5 MATERIALS
12.5.1 PVC Waterstops
12.5.2 Joint Filler
12.5.3 Joint Sealing Compound (Asphalt Seal)
12.5.4 Bituminous Coating
12.5.5 Joint Sealant
12.6 EXECUTION
12.6.1 Movement Joints in General Concrete Structures
12.7 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
12.7.1 Movement Joints in General Concrete Structures

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SECTION B.12
WATERSTOPS AND JOINTS

12.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) The work under this Section include all labour, materials and equipment
required for the supply, fabrication (if any), storage, handling, placing and
splicing of waterstops and other components to be incorporated in the movement
joints in concrete structures as shown on the Construction Drawings, or as
required by Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The work shall include all the necessary supports and ties required for placing
waterstops and other materials.

12.2 STANDARDS
1) Material, testing, placing and sealing of joints shall conform to the requirements
of the following Indian Standards (latest edition):
IS: 456 - Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete
IS: 290 - Specifications for coal tar Black Paint
IS: 11433 - Specifications for one part gun grade Polysulphide based joint
sealants
IS: 1834 - Specifications for Hot applied sealing compounds for joints in
concrete
IS: 1838 - Specifications for Preformed fillers for Expansion joints in concrete
pavement structures
IS: 3400 - Methods of tests for Vulcanised Rubbers
IS: 13360 - Plastics - Methods of Testing
IS: 1972 - Copper plate, sheet and strip for Industrial purposes – Specification
IS: 3873 - Laying Cement Concrete / stone slab lining on slabs
IS: 4461 - Code of practice for joints in surface hydroelectric power station
IS: 3384 - Specification for bitumen primer for use in waterproofing and damp
proofing
IS: 2508 - Low Density polyethylene film
2) In case of a conflict between the above Standards and the Specifications given
herein, these Specifications shall take precedence.

12.3 SUBMITTALS
At least 28 days prior to procuring or dispatch to the Site of the particular item
of work to which the submittal relates, the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer-in-Charge the details covering the properties and performance,
including the certified copies of reports of all tests made by the manufacturers,
along with material samples of the products, of:
a) PVC Waterstops,
b) Joint fillers,

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c) Joint sealing compounds
d) Joint Sealant.

12.4 MOVEMENT JOINTS IN GENERAL CONCRETE STRUCTURES


1) The term movement joint comprises both, the expansion and the contraction
joints in concrete structures. Movement joints shall be constructed at such
locations and to such dimensions as shown on the Construction Drawings or as
directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. The Contractor shall supply and install the
various joint components as specified herein, as shown on the Construction
Drawings and in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
2) No fixed metal embedded in the concrete shall be continuous through a
movement joint except where expressly shown on the Construction Drawing.
3) Expansion joints may be comprised of the following elements:
a) PVC waterstop,
b) Joint filler,
c) Joint sealing compound (asphalt seal),
d) Bituminous coating.
4) Contraction joints may be comprised of the following elements:
a) PVC waterstop,
b) Bituminous coating or other approved bond breaker.

12.5 MATERIALS
12.5.1 PVC Waterstops
1) Waterstops shall be made of extruded polyvinyl chloride (PVC) conforming to
IS: 15058. Material for waterstops shall be clean, homogeneous and free from
porosity and other imperfections.
2) Waterstops will have minimum width of 230 mm for joints. Minimum wall
thickness shall be 8 mm.
3) The wings of the PVC waterstop shall be provided with corrugations or bulbs to
achieve good bond. PVC waterstops in expansion joints shall be provided with
hollow centre bulb.
4) Storage of material prior to placement shall be made in such a way as not to alter
the properties of the material during storage. Water stops shall be stored so as to
permit free circulation of air around them. All materials shall be protected from
contact with oil and grease. Waterstops shall be stored in a place protected from
the direct rays of Sun or to any other heat source.
5) Waterstops shall be joined and fixed in place in accordance with manufacturer's
recommendations to form a continuous watertight barrier. All cross-pieces, T-
pieces and corner-pieces shall be factory produced. All joints shall be welded
with approved, thermostatically controlled electric heat equipment. The
temperature at which the splices are made shall be sufficient to melt but not char
the plastic material. All splices shall be neat with the ends of the joined
waterstops in true alignment. A mitre-box guide and portable knife shall be

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provided for cutting the ends to be joined to ensure good contact between joined
surfaces.

12.5.2 Joint Filler


Bituminous fibre sheet shall be 12 mm thick and shall conform to IS 1838 (Part
1) for preformed expansion joint fillers for concrete paving and structural
construction (non- extruding and resilient bituminous types) as shown on
construction drawings. Depending upon the structural requirements the thickness
of expansion joints may be 24mm or as shown in the construction drawings. In
such cases, two sheets of 12mm thickness shall be placed for forming the joint
of 24mm and shall be paid separately.

12.5.3 Joint Sealing Compound (asphalt seal)


Joint sealing compounds shall be as per the specification for hot-applied sealing
compounds for joints in concrete (IS: 1834).

12.5.4 Bituminous Coating


Bituminous coating shall consist of two (2) layers of coating as per IS: 290.

12.5.5 Joint Sealant


Joint sealant shall be as per IS: 11433.

12.6 EXECUTION
12.6.1 Movement joints in General Concrete Structures
1) Where grouting is not required, the movement joints shall be formed with F1
finish. If grouting is required, joints shall be formed with F2 finish as specified
in section “Concrete”.
2) The Contractor shall supply all necessary supports and ties required for placing
the Metal sealing strip and waterstop and shall position it so that its central axis
coincides with the joint centre. Care shall be taken that Metal sealing strip and
waterstop does not bend or deflect during concreting. Concrete adjacent to the
Metal sealing strip and waterstop shall be thoroughly worked to ensure full
contact with the Metal sealing strip and waterstop but without damaging it. PVC
materials shall be protected from sunlight until installation is completed.
3) In the structures founded on the rock, the Metal sealing strip and waterstops
shall be sealed 500 mm minimum in the drilled or excavated slot below the
effective foundation surface, and the space around the Metal sealing strip and
waterstop in the slot shall be filled with non-shrink grout. Prior to
commencement of concrete placing, the Metal sealing strip and waterstops
placed shall be inspected by the Engineer-in-Charge.
4) Before casting the second part of a movement joint, the whole surface shall be
covered with bituminous coating, bituminous fibre sheet joint filler, or other
approved bond breaker as shown on the Construction Drawings.

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5) Before applying the joint sealant, the joint shall be raked out to a depth as
specified. All laitance, dirt, oil and foreign matter shall be removed from the
joint by sandblasting, compressed air, grinding discs, or other effective means,
and the concrete surfaces coated with an approved suitable primer. Joint sealant
shall be placed after the concrete curing period in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions. The concrete surface temperature shall not be higher
than 30°C at the time of placing, and the concrete shall be surface dry. After
placing, the sealant shall be protected from the effects of water for a period of 10
hours.
6) Sealant that becomes unbonded from the concrete, or cracks, or shows any other
defects before final acceptance of the work, shall be replaced by the Contractor.

12.7 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


12.7.1 Movement joints in General Concrete Structures
1) Measurement for payment will be made for the following items in the units
stated:
PVC water stop Per linear meter placed
Joint sealing compound, (Asphalt seal) Per linear meter placed
Joint filler 12mm thick Per square meter
Joint sealant Per linear meter
Bituminous coating Per square meter

2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price entered in the Bill of
Quantities, which shall include the entire cost of all materials, plant and labour
for furnishing and construction movement joints as specified, all temporary
protection of the joints from damage.
3) Payment will only be made for the movement joints shown on the Construction
Drawings or directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. Additional joints for
Contractor's convenience may be approved by the Engineer-in-Charge, but no
payment will be made for materials used in such joints.

END OF SECTION B.12

122
SECTION B.13
METALWORKS
List of Contents

13.1 SCOPE OF WORK


13.2 SUBMITTALS
13.3 FABRICATION
13.4 WELDING
13.5 SURFACE FINISH AND CORROSION PROTECTION
13.5.1 Painting
13.5.2 Galvanised Steelwork
13.5.3 Fasteners
13.5.4 Anodising
13.6 INSTALLATION
13.7 METALWORKS SUPPLIED AND INSTALLED BY THE CONTRACTOR
13.7.1 Steel Pipes
13.7.2 Miscellaneous Steel Sections
13.7.3 Steel Covers, Frames, and Gratings
13.7.4 Handrails
13.7.5 Railing
13.7.6 Ladders and Climbing Irons
13.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
13.8.1 General
13.8.2 Steel Pipes
13.8.3 Miscellaneous Steel Sections
13.8.4 Steel Covers, Frames and Gratings
13.8.5 Handrails and Railings
13.8.6 Ladders and Climbing Irons

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SECTION B.13
METAL WORKS
13.1 SCOPE OF WORK
1) The work under this Section include all labour, materials and equipment
required for the supply, fabrication, and installation of various metal works as
shown on the Construction Drawings. The specifications contained in this
Section are applicable for all metal works to be carried out by the Contractor
under this Contract.
2) This Section covers the following items:
a) Steel pipes
b) Miscellaneous steel sections
c) Steel covers, frames, and gratings
d) Handrails
e) Railing
f) Ladders, handles, and climbing irons
3) Unless otherwise stated or shown, all miscellaneous metalwork shall be
fabricated from carbon steel sections, plates and bars complying with the
requirements of IS: 2062.
4) Unless otherwise stated or shown, all miscellaneous metalwork shall be painted
as specified hereinafter where specifically so stated, steelwork shall be hot-dip
galvanised.
5) The Contractor shall be responsible for material quality control and shall ensure
compliance of the metal works to the pertinent standards and these
Specifications.

13.2 SUBMITTALS
1) The Contractor shall supply certificates of compliance with specified Indian
Standards or other relevant standards for all materials supplied to the Works.
Manufacturer’s catalogues and samples of materials proposed for incorporation
in the Works shall be submitted for approval, if requested by the Engineer-in-
Charge.
2) From the information given in the Drawings, the Contractor shall prepare, prior
to the manufacture, his own shop drawings showing sections and plans of all
parts, assemblies, connections and supports for all metalwork shown on the
Construction Drawings. Two copies of each drawing, calculation sheet and
schedule of materials shall be submitted to the Engineer-in-Charge for
comments and approval. Within 14 days from the submission, the Engineer-in-
Charge will return such drawings either as approved or with requests for
modifications. Within 7 days the Contractor shall revise the drawings,
calculations and schedules accordingly and resubmit a new set (in two copies) of
these for the final approval.

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3) After the final approval, the Contractor shall deliver one transparency and two
copies of the documents to the Engineer-in-Charge for his files.
4) The approval of shop drawings and calculations shall not in any way relieve the
Contractor of his responsibility and obligations under this Contract, particularly
those relating to the adequacy and accuracy of the final product. Any materials
ordered, or fabrication work performed, before the Contractor's drawings are
approved will be at his own risk.
5) The Contractor shall not be entitled to any time extension based upon the
rejection of his designs or detail drawings if these fail to conform to sound
engineering practises or to the stipulations contained in these Specifications.

13.3 FABRICATION
1) The work shall be shop fitted and shop assembled where possible, and shall
conform to the details on approved Contractor's shop drawings.
2) Workmanship shall conform to the best modern shop and field practice. All
joints and intersecting members shall be accurately fitted and all work shall be
fabricated in true planes (to tolerances as provided on drawings) with adequate
fastenings.
3) Plates and steel sections shall be perfectly straight with smooth surfaces. Edges
shall be sharp, clean and without burrs after the cutting. Thick plates may be
flame cut, provided that the material is not damaged and that the edges of the cut
are ground clean or machined. Plates shall be cold-rolled. Correction of bent
members by heavy blows shall be avoided. Special care shall be taken when hot-
rolling becomes necessary.
4) All members shall be carefully and accurately assembled by welding, screws,
bolts, or rivets as approved. The joints shall be filled, milled, or machined as
necessary to provide closed and perfect connections. All frames shall be
provided with suitable bracing to maintain alignment during transport. Units
shall not be subject to overstressing during transport and erection. Hammering
which would injure or distort the members will not be tolerated.
5) All fastenings, anchors and accessories required for fabrication and erection of
the work shall be provided. Exposed fastenings shall be kept to an absolute
minimum evenly spaced and neatly set out. Wood plugs shall not be permitted.
6) The Contractor shall check the actual dimensions and shapes of existing
concrete openings before fabricating steel frames and metal supporting parts of
steel covers and gratings.

13.4 WELDING
1) All welding shall be carried out by experienced welders using the shielded-arc
method as described in the SP12 BIS Handbook for Gas Welders and BIS
Handbook of Manual Metal Arc Welding for Welders.

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2) Welding rods shall be of the heavily coated type designed for all position
welding, and the size, type and manufacture of the rods shall require the consent
of the Engineer-in-Charge.
3) All welding shall be continuous along the entire line of contact, except where
tack welding is permitted. Bevelling of the materials shall be done as shown on
the approved shop drawings and shall be finished to a smooth and true finish
with an automatic gas cutter or grinder. The use of manual gas cutters shall
require the consent of the Engineer-in-Charge.
4) The surface of the working materials shall be free from slag, moisture, rust, oil,
paint or other impurities. Mill scale which cannot be removed with a stiff wire
brush will be allowed to remain.
5) The face of welds shall be smooth and form a uniform bead. The size and
thickness of weld neither shall be less than specified, nor shall be excessive
build-up or marked irregularities in the surface appearance.
6) Blow holes, slag, overlap, undercut and unsatisfactory melting of welded joints
shall be removed with grinders or by other means and then re-welded. Due care
shall be taken to protect the surrounding part from any injury or damage.
Deformation of members resulting from welding shall be repaired by an
approved mechanical method.
7) Steel which has been previously galvanised shall not be welded.
8) Welding of aluminium shall be done employing a "parent metal" or other
approved filler rods. Surfaces which have been previously treated such as
anodising shall not be welded.
9) The Contractor shall propose the type and carry out the non-destructive testing
of the welds as approved. All joints which are to be watertight shall be tested by
dye penetrant.

13.5 SURFACE FINISH AND CORROSION PROTECTION


13.5.1 Painting
1) All metal components other than stainless steel, aluminium, embedded parts and
those that are required to be galvanised, shall be prepared, primed and painted in
the shop prior to erection.
2) Paints used for both prime and finish coats shall be two component epoxy based,
shall be obtained from the same manufacturer and shall be the best quality of
their kind. They shall be suitable for application in environments where the
relative humidity may exceed 90%. The Contractor shall submit samples of all
paints he proposes to use to the Engineer-in-Charge for approval, who will
select the colour of the finish coats.
3) Prior to painting, steel surfaces shall be sandblasted down to rust degree SA 2-
1/2 according to SIS Standard 055900, to remove all mill scale, weld splatter,
rust and any other deleterious material. Oil and grease shall be removed by an
approved solvent. The surface shall be wiped clean of any dust prior to priming.

126
4) Immediately after cleaning, steelwork shall receive two coats of two component
zinc epoxy primer, each of dry film thickness 0.05 mm. Any primer applied
surface that shows signs of rusting, flaking, powdering or peeling of the prime
coat, or any finish coat, shall be sandblasted to remove the paint bare to the
metal as described above and repainted.
5) After priming, steelwork shall receive a further two coats of two component
epoxy based paint, each of dry film thickness 0.08 mm. The total theoretical
thickness of paint applied, including prime coats, shall be 0.26 mm, but in no
case less than 0.22 mm.
6) All painting work shall be carried out in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations in a clean dust-free environment with temperature and
humidity controlled to comply with these specifications and the
recommendations of the paint manufacturer. All the surrounding works shall be
protected in a suitable manner from paint drops and overspray. All smeared and
damaged surfaces shall be cleaned or repaired.
7) After erection of painted miscellaneous metalwork the Contractor shall make
good any damage to the paint coating in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations. The Engineer-in-Charge may require items which are badly
damaged to be removed, returned to the shop and repainted.

13.5.2 Galvanised Steelwork


1) All steel assemblies required to be galvanised shall, after the steel has been
thoroughly cleaned of rust and scale, be galvanised in accordance with IS: 4759
(Hot dip zinc coating on structural steel and other allied products). The zinc
coating shall be 350 g/m2 minimum. Any galvanised part that becomes warped
during the galvanising operation shall be straightened. Bolts, nuts and similar
threaded fasteners, after being properly cleaned, shall be galvanised in
accordance with ASTM Specification A 153 "Spec, for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip)
on Iron and Steel Hardware". Threads on galvanised bolts and nuts shall be
formed with suitable taps and dies such that they retain their normal clearance
after hot-dip galvanising.
2) After installation on the final place all areas of damage to the galvanised coating
shall be sandblasted and prepared and given 2 coats of approved zinc rich paint.
The preparation of the steelwork surface and application of the paint shall be in
accordance with the paint manufacturer’s instructions.
3) The Contractor shall supply certificates of compliance with the above standards
for all galvanised material delivered to the Site.

13.5.3 Fasteners
1) Fasteners for miscellaneous metalwork including bolts, anchor bolts, cap screws
and nuts shall be of steel unless otherwise stated or shown.

127
2) Studs and anchors for fixing metalwork to concrete shall be of steel and shall be
of the expanding anchor type (e.g. Nelson or Hilti). Grouted or resin types shall
require the consent of the Engineer-in-Charge.

13.5.4 Anodising
1) All aluminium parts exposed to view shall have an anodising finish of uniform
appearance and shall be free from marks and blemishes.
2) Sulphuric acid shall be employed as electrolyte for anodising unless otherwise
directed. The coating thickness shall be 0.02 mm.

13.6 INSTALLATION
1) All items of the miscellaneous metalwork shall be installed in correct position
and alignment. Damaged or defective materials shall not be installed. Damaged
or defective areas of paint or galvanising shall be cleaned and repaired as
directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Metalwork to be embedded in concrete shall be located accurately and shall be
held in correct position and alignment during concrete placing and setting of the
concrete.
3) Unless otherwise provided, the anchor bolts shall be set and held in position
before concrete is placed. Where it is impractical to embed anchor bolts or
anchors for the comparatively light metalwork before the concrete is placed, and
where it is necessary to anchor parts but inserts or anchor bolts have not been
provided, holes shall be drilled in the concrete and approved expansion anchors
shall be installed. All holes for the anchors shall be straight and true to the
diameter recommended by the manufacturer of the expansion anchors. If
necessary, the Contractor shall use diamond bits to achieve true, fitting holes.
When drilling water is used, surfaces of concrete permanently exposed shall be
cleaned immediately to prevent discoloration by the drilling water and cuttings.
4) Supports and base plates shall be levelled or aligned accurately and rigidly
secured in place. Adjustment with steel shims shall be done as necessary. All
spaces under the supports or base plates shall be filled with concrete or shall be
grouted as specified in the Section "Concrete".
5) Each complete unit shall be serviced and tested after installation. The servicing
shall include lubricating, adjusting, cleaning all parts, and all other work and
material required for operation. After each unit has been serviced, it shall be
given an operation test, and adjustments shall be made until the operation of the
unit is approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.

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13.7 METAL WORKS SUPPLIED AND INSTALLED BY THE
CONTRACTOR
13.7.1 Steel Pipes
1) The Contractor shall supply and install steel pipes of various diameters and
fittings in the positions shown on the Construction Drawings or as directed by
the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Steel Pipes used shall be ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) of Steel grade Fe
410 as specified in IS 3589. The pipes of various diameters and thickness shall
also be required
3) Weight of the pipe shall be calculated as per Table 5 of IS 3589.
4) Pipes shall be carefully fastened and supported within the shuttering, in order to
avoid any movement when pouring concrete.
5) Pipes, where not cast into concrete shall be adequately supported by galvanised
mild steel holder bats or other approved means. The distance between pipe
supports shall not exceed 2.0 meters.

13.7.2 Miscellaneous Steel Sections


The Contractor shall supply and install various steel sections for steel trusses,
small galvanised steel sections such as edge protection, angles, frames, bearing
plates, brackets, beads at plastered corners, etc., of various dimensions. Bolts,
screws, anchors and other accessories for interior or exterior purposes shall be
included.

13.7.3 Steel Covers, Frames and Gratings


1) The Contractor shall supply and install all steel hatch covers, frames, gratings
for channels, drains etc., as required by the Engineer-in-Charge or as shown on
the Construction Drawings and specified herein. All items shall be fabricated
according to shop drawings prepared by the Contractor in the course of Works.
2) Covers shall be manufactured from 6 mm steel checker plate with reinforcing
steel sections where required, steel flats and lifting handles. Supporting frames
shall consist of steel angles and welded steel flats provided with continuous
watertight rubber seal. Frames shall be adjusted during installation to ensure a
good fit and water tightness of the cover. The covers shall be placed flush with
finished floors.
3) Steel gratings shall consist of welded steel flats. Mesh size shall be 30x30 mm.
Frames and steel sections as supports for gratings shall consist of steel angle or
channel sections fixed in the concrete. Frames shall be adjusted during
installation to ensure a good fit and even bearing for the grating. Gratings shall
be placed flush with finished floors.
4) Steel covers, frames and reinforcing members for supporting gratings shall be
painted as specified above in this Section. Gratings shall be hot-dip galvanised
and shall be fixed to support platforms using steel screws and fittings.

129
13.7.4 Handrails
1) The Contractor shall supply and install handrails fabricated from galvanised
steel pipes supported on welded steel flats and steel plates as shown on the
Construction Drawings and as specified herein. Material for steel pipes shall be
of standard weight and shall conform to IS: 4736. All items shall be fabricated
according to shop drawings prepared by the Contractor in the course of Works.
2) Handrails shall be installed following the slopes and in the positions shown on
the Construction Drawings and shall be supported to avoid movement when
placing concrete in the blockouts. Handrails shall be painted as specified above
in this Section.

13.7.5 Railing
1) The Contractor shall supply and install steel pipe railings as shown on the
Construction Drawings. Railings shall consist of welded galvanised steel pipes
conforming to IS: 4736. All items shall be fabricated according to shop
drawings prepared by the Contractor in the course of Works.
2) Railings shall be installed indoor and outdoor, horizontal or inclined in the
positions shown on the Construction Drawings and shall be supported to avoid
movement when placing concrete in the blockouts. Steel pipe railings shall be
painted as specified above in this Section.
3) The contractor shall submit the fabrication drawings for the stainless steel
railings to Engineer-in Charge for approval in the course of works.

13.7.6 Ladders and Climbing Irons


1) The Contractor shall supply and install ladders, and climbing irons fabricated
out of steel flats and plain round bars as shown on the Construction Drawings.
Ladders may have protection cages whenever required for safety of personnel.
Fixings and fittings shall be of steel. All items shall be fabricated according to
the shop drawings prepared by the Contractor in the course of Works.
2) Ladders, climbing irons and protection cages shall be painted as specified above
in this Section.

13.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


13.8.1 General
1) Supply and installation by the Contractor when used in this Section shall be
deemed to include the provision of all labour, plant and materials necessary for:
a) Preparation and submittal of the shop drawings, calculation sheets,
schedule of materials, and providing catalogues about, and samples of the
materials
b) Purchasing or manufacturing, including surface and corrosion protection
c) Transporting to Site, including loading and unloading
d) The provision of certificates of compliance with required standards, as
specified

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e) Storing and protecting
f) Transporting to point of incorporation into the Works
g) Incorporating into the Works, including all necessary fasteners, fittings
and accessories, formation of concrete blockouts, and casting into concrete
or grouting
h) Painting
i) Servicing and testing of completed units.

13.8.2 Steel Pipes


1) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of steel pipes will be of
the weight of pipe work installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per kg entered in the Bill of
Quantities.

13.8.3 Miscellaneous Steel Sections


Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of steel sections of
various dimensions will be of the weight installed. Payment will be made at the
Unit Price per kilogram entered in the Bill of Quantities.

13.8.4 Steel Covers, Frames, and Gratings


1) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of steel covers will be
of the weight of steel cover, including frames, installed as shown on the
Construction Drawings. Payment will be made at the Unit Price per kilogram
entered in the Bill of Quantities, which shall include the supply and installation
of suitable steel frames.
2) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of steel gratings will
be of the weight of gratings, including frames, installed. Payment will be made
at the Unit Price per kilogram entered in the Bill of Quantities.

13.8.5 Handrails and Railings


1) Measurement for payment for supply and installation of handrails, railings (GI
pipe or Stainless steel) will be of the weight installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per kg entered in the Bill of
Quantities.

13.8.6 Ladders and Climbing Irons


1) Measurement for payment for supply and installation of ladders, handles and
climbing irons, as shown on the Construction Drawings will be of the weight for
ladder composition with protection cage installed, measured vertically from the
top to the base of ladder,
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price entered in the Bill of
Quantities.
END OF SECTION B.13

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SECTION B.14
NOT USED

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SECTION B.15
BUILDING AND ARCHITECTURAL WORKS
List of Contents

15.1 SCOPE OF WORK


15.2 SUBMITTALS
15.3 NOMINAL SIZES
15.4 FINISHING WORKS
15.5 MASONRY WALLS
15.5.1 General
15.5.2 Materials
15.5.3 Execution
15.6 WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FINISHES
15.6.1 General
15.6.2 Plastering
15.6.2.1 Materials
15.6.2.2 Execution
15.6.3 Tile Works – Floor and Walls
15.6.3.1 General
15.6.3.2 Ceramic Vitrified Tiles
15.6.3.3 Kota Stone
15.6.3.4 Acid Resistant Tiles
15.6.4 Special Floor Finish (Granolithic Concrete)
15.7 CORRUGATED GALVANISED STEEL SHEET ROOFING
15.7.1 CGS Sheets
15.7.2 Slope
15.7.3 Laying and fixing of CGS sheets
15.7.4 Wind Ties
15.7.5 Ridges and Hips
15.7.5.1 General
15.7.5.2 Fixing
15.7.6 Cast Iron Rain Water Pipe and Fittings
15.7.6.1 General

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15.7.6.2 Fixing and Jointing
15.7.6.3 Cast Iron Accessories for Water Pipes
15.7.7 Down spout
15.8 FALSE CEILING
15.8.1 General
15.9 ALUMINIUM DOORS, WINDOWS AND PARTITIONS
15.9.1 General
15.9.2 Aluminium Sections
15.9.3 Float Glass
15.9.4 EPDM Gaskets
15.9.5 Sealant
15.9.6 Glass Panels
15.9.7 Screws
15.9.8 Fittings
15.9.9 Fabrication
15.10 ROLLING SHUTTERS
15.10.1 General
15.10.2 Shutter
15.10.3 Spring
15.10.4 Roller and Brackets
15.10.5 Guide Channel
15.10.6 Cover
15.10.7 Fixing
15.11 PAINTING WORKS
15.11.1 General
15.11.2 Materials
15.11.3 Preparation of Surfaces
15.11.4 Workmanship
15.12 THERMAL INSULATION
15.12.1 General
15.13 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
15.13.1 Masonry Walls
15.13.2 Wall, Floor and Roof Furnishes

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15.13.2.1 Plastering
15.13.2.2 Tile Work
15.13.2.2.1 Ceramic Vitrified Tiles
15.13.2.2.2 Kota Stone
15.13.2.2.3 Acid Resistant tiles
15.13.2.3 Granolithic Flooring
15.13.3 Corrugated Galvanised Steel Sheet Roofing
15.13.3.1 CGS Sheets
15.13.3.2 Ridges and Hips
15.13.3.3 Cast Iron Rain Water Pipes and Fittings
15.13.3.4 Downspout
15.13.4 False Ceiling
15.13.5 Aluminium Doors, Windows and Partitions
15.13.6 Rolling Shutters
15.13.7 Painting Works
15.13.8 Thermal Insulation

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SECTION B.15
BUILDING AND ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

15.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) The work under this Section includes all labour, materials and equipment, and
performance of all operations required for the execution of the finishing and
architectural works inside or outside of power house building.
2) This Section covers the following items:
a) Masonry walls
b) Roofing
b) Wall, floor and roof finishes
c) Tile works
d) False ceiling
e) Doors, Windows, ventilators and partition walls
f) Glass and glazing
g) Painting works
h) Thermal insulation
3) All materials and equipment which will become a part of the Permanent Works
shall be new and of good quality.
4) If the Specification do not contain particulars of materials and works which are
obviously necessary for the proper completion of the work and the intention to
include such is nevertheless to be inferred, all such materials and works shall be
supplied and executed by the Contractor.
5) Similarly, the Contractor shall supply, place and attach to the structure all
timber, metal or other accessories necessary for the proper completion of the
work.
6) The Contractor shall provide and fix all incidental flashings, damp proofing,
weather seals or other approved materials necessary to render the buildings
completely watertight and weatherproof.
7) The Contractor shall furnish, erect and maintain during the work as required all
scaffolding, walkways and other temporary structures required for the execution
of the works.
8) The Contractor shall collect and dispose of all material, debris and rubbish as it
accumulates from time to time as the work proceeds. On completion of this
work, the Contractor shall thoroughly clean interior and exterior of the buildings
and the other works.

15.2 SUBMITTALS
The Contractor shall prepare and submit for approval at least 28 days prior to the
date he wishes to place or confirm purchase order:
a) Lists and schedules of materials to be purchased,
b) Manufacturers' catalogues for the various items specified in this Section,

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c) Samples of materials and hardware with specimens of workmanship,
d) Colour and finish for the various items specified in this Section.

15.3 NOMINAL SIZES


The Contractor shall allow for variations between nominal sizes and actual sizes
where such variation is within the required tolerances or is normal trade practice.

15.4 FINISHING WORKS


Finishing work shall not commence until each or all of the following conditions
have been met to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-Charge:
1) The area concerned and such adjacent areas, which may affect the finishing
work, have been weatherproofed,
2) All construction including installation of permanent plant, fittings and
equipment has been completed,
3) The concrete or other materials have dried out sufficiently. The Engineer-in-
Charge may request a test for dryness to be performed by the Contractor.

15.5 MASONRY WALLS


15.5.1 General
1) The Contractor shall construct masonry walls where shown on the Construction
Drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. All masonry walls shall be
constructed after the structural concrete work has been completed.
2) The work shall include, but not limited to the brickwork.

15.5.2 Materials
1) Masonry units shall be bricks units. The Contractor shall submit samples of
bricks to the Engineer-in-Charge for approval.
2) Cement, sand and water shall be as specified in the relevant section of
"Concrete".
3) Masonry units shall have a moisture content (expressed as a percentage of total
absorption) of not more than 30% at time of delivery. Units made from cinder
aggregate shall not be used.
4) All bricks shall be adapted to the wall thickness and approved by the Engineer-
in-Charge.
5) All bricks shall be uniform in size and shape, deep red in colour and sufficiently
well burnt. They shall be clean and free from flaws, cracks and under burnt
lumps or defects of any kind. The bricks may be local product available in the
vicinity of the Site, but the quality shall conform to a standard acceptable to the
Engineer-in-Charge.
6) Cement mortar shall be 1(cement): 4(sand) mortar.
7) The mortar shall be thoroughly mixed until uniform in colour and shall be used
before it has taken initial set. Mortar, which has partially set, shall not be used,
nor shall more water be added to it.

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15.5.3 Execution
1) The masonry units shall be laid on horizontal courses, true to line and plumb,
and vertical joints shall be staggered with respect to those in the courses next
above and below. No broken bricks and blocks, except as are required as
closures for the proper sizing of courses, cracked or misshapen bricks will be
used in the works. Corners, and at edges of framed openings, bricks shall have
finished return ends. All exposed bricks, which are to be cut, shall be cut with a
carborundum wheel.
2) All units shall be laid with full buttered ends and side joints, and shall be shoved
to bear on a full bed of mortar. All joints shall be 10 mm and cut flush, except
that joints in areas to be plastered shall be raked 7 mm to provide a mechanical
joint for the scratch coat. After initial set exposed joints shall be burlap rubbed.
3) The bricks shall be dampened before scratch or setting bed is placed. The
thickness of mortar setting bed shall not exceed 20 mm.
4) The masonry units shall be stored on platforms to prevent contact with soil and
water and shall be covered with non- staining tarpaulins for protection against
the elements.

15.6 WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FINISHES


15.6.1 General
1) The Contractor shall install finishes on walls, floors and roofs as shown on the
construction drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The work shall include, but not limited to, the following :
a) Plastering
b) Tile Work- Floors and Walls
c) Roof Finish (Cement Mortar)
d) Special floor finish (Granolithic Concrete)

15.6.2 Plastering
15.6.2.1 Materials
1) Cement, sand and water shall be as specified in the relevant section of
"Concrete".
2) Waterproofing and epoxy resin shall be approved by the Engineer-in-Charge and
shall be used in perfect accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
3) The mortar shall be thoroughly mixed until uniform in colour and shall be used
before it has taken initial set. Mortar, which has partially set, shall not be used,
nor shall more water be added.
4) The cement mortars shall be composed as follows:
a) For wall plastering: 350 kg cement per 1 m3 sand and
water,
b) For flooring finish: 500 kg cement per 1 m3 sand and
water

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c) For waterproofing of floor & walls: 600 kg cement 1 m3 sand, water
and Waterproofing agent in
accordance with the
Manufacturer’s instructions,
d) For roof finish: 450kg cement per 1 m3 sand and
water.
15.6.2.2 Execution
1) Concrete surfaces, which are to receive a rendering coat, shall be roughened,
scratched and free from all laitance, scum. Loose carbonate scale, loose
aggregate, dirt and other foreign matter and shall be kept thoroughly wet for 24
hours prior to the application of mortar.
1) Ceiling plaster shall be completed before commencement of wall plaster.
2) All masonry and concrete surfaces to which cement mortar is to be applied
without furring shall receive one coat of an epoxy resin type bonding agent or
other agent approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
3) Plastering shall be started from the top and worked down towards the floor.
4) All corners, arrises, angles and junctions shall be truly vertical or horizontal as
the case may be and shall be carefully finished. Rounding or chamfering of
corners, arrises, provision of grooves at junctions etc. shall be done as per the
directions of the Engineer-in-Charge. Such rounding, chamfering or grooving
shall be carried out with proper templates or battens to the sizes required.
5) When suspending work at the end of the day, the plaster shall be left, cut clean
to line both horizontally and vertically. When recommencing the plastering, the
edge of the old work shall be scrapped, cleaned and wetted with cement slurry
before plaster is applied to the adjacent areas. Plastering work shall be closed at
the end of the day on the body of wall and not nearer than 15 cm to any corners
or arrises. Horizontal joints in plaster work shall not also occur on parapet tops
and copings.
6) The plastering and finishing shall be completed within half an hour of adding
water to the dry mortar.
7) Curing shall be started as soon as the plaster has hardened sufficiently not to be
damaged when watered. The curing shall be carried out for a minimum period of
seven days.
8) The plaster finishes shall be applied in accordance with IS 2402.
9) All cracks which appear in the surface and all portions which sound hollow
when tapped, or are found to be soft or otherwise defective, shall be cut out in
rectangular shape and redone as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
10) The various finishes shall be executed as follows:
a) Exterior wall plastering
On exterior wall plaster shall be applied, by hand or mechanically, to a
total thickness of 20 mm.
b) Interior wall plastering

139
On interior walls plaster shall be applied by hand or mechanically, to a
total thickness of 13 mm.

15.6.3 Tile Works – Floors and Walls


15.6.3.1 General
1) The Contractor shall install tiles on walls and floors as given in specifications or
as shown on the detailed construction drawings according to his shop drawings
approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The top level of structural concrete floor where floor finish is specified shall be
left 40 mm below the finished level. Necessary slope and small drain trenches in
floor finish shall be provided for floor drainage as shown on the detailed
drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
3) Dado shall be provided where indicated on the drawings.
4) The work shall include, but not limited to, the following:
a) Ceramic vitrified tiles (Anti skidding)
b) Kota stone
c) Acid-proof tiles
5) The Contractor shall submit samples of tiles for approval by the Engineer-in-
Charge with respect to quality and colour. Tile samples shall include the
manufacturer’s full colour and texture range of the series specified by the
Engineer-in-Charge.

15.6.3.2 Ceramic Vitrified Tiles


1) Ceramic vitrified tiles (anti skidding) shall be provided in control room, office
room and toilets etc.
2) Ceramic tiles shall be of approved make and shade and shall conform to IS
15622. No cracked, chipped or wrapped tiles shall be used in the works.
Maximum water absorption shall be 6%.
3) All tiles shall be decorative type of approved shade, pattern, texture and design.
Sample and Manufacturers shall be approved by Engineer-In-charge prior to its
use in the work.
4) Tile shall be square of nominal size (600 mm x 600 mm x 12 mm). The top
surface of the tiles shall be glazed. The underside of the tiles shall not have
glaze on more than 5% of the area in order that the tile may adhere properly to
the base. The edges of the tiles shall be free from glaze, if unavoidable shall be
permissible on only upto 50% of the surface area of edges.
5) The glaze shall be free from welts, chips, craze, specks, crawlings or other
imperfections detracting from the appearance when viewed from a distance of 1
meter. The glaze shall either be glossy or matt with non slip type as approved.
6) Before starting the installation of tiles masonry faces where the tiles are to be
installed shall be cleaned thoroughly by removing dirt, loose mortar,
efflorescence etc. and the concrete surfaces shall be brushed to remove all
laitance and roughened to provide a bond for the bedding.

140
8) The sub-base shall be kept damp for minimum two days before commencement
of tiling works. Excess water shall be removed from the sub-base immediately
before commence of tiling work.
8) The bedding for the tile shall be with cement mortar 1:3 (1 Cement and 3 Coarse
sand). The average thickness of the bedding shall be 5mm. while the thickness
under any portion of the tiles shall not be less than 5mm. Mortar shall be spread,
tamped and corrected to proper levels and allowed to harden sufficiently to offer
a fairly rigid cushion for the tiles to be set to enable the mason to place wooden
plank across and squat on it. The surface of the bedding shall be scarified with
wire brush for getting a good bond between the tiles and the bedding. Over this
mortar bedding neat grey cement slurry of honey like consistency shall be spread
at the rate of 3.3 Kg. of cement per square meter over such an area as would
accommodate about 20 tiles. Tiles shall be soaked in water for two hours,
washed clean and shall be fixed in grout one after another, each tile gently being
tapped with a wooden mallet till it is properly bedded and in level with the
adjoining tiles. The joints shall be kept as thin as possible and in straight lines or
to suit the required pattern.
9) After fixing the tiles, joints shall be cleaned of the grey cement slurry with the
coir brush or trowel to a depth of 2mm to 3mm and all dust and loose mortar
removed. Joints shall then be flush pointed with white cement added with
pigment, if required to match the colour of tiles. The floor shall then be kept wet
for 7 days for curing. After curing, the surface shall be washed and finished
clean. The finished floor shall not sound hollow when tapped with wooden
mallet.
10) Pigments to be mixed with mortar for grouting the joints shall conform to
relevant standard.
11) Allowable tolerances shall be as per relevant standards.

15.6.3.3 Kota Stone


1) Kota stone flooring shall be provided in staircase and general circulation area in
the power house building as shown in construction drawings or as directed by
the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The Contractor shall furnish all relevant data concerning manufacturer/
production, location of query, type of stone, available finishes, colour, sizes etc.
and samples of kota stone slab and grout for joints for the approval of Engineer-
in-Charge.
3) The slabs shall be of selected quality, hard, sound, dense and homogeneous in
texture free from cracks, decay, weathering and flaws. They shall be hand or
machine cut to the requisite thickness. They shall be of the colour indicated in
the drawings or as instructed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
4) The slabs shall have the top (exposed) face polished before being brought to site,
unless otherwise specified. The slabs shall conform to the size required.

141
5) Every slab shall be cut to the required size and shape and fine chisel dressed on
the sides to the full depth so that a straight edge laid along the side of the stone
shall be in full contact with it. The sides (edges) shall be table rubbed with
coarse sand or machine rubbed before paving. All angles and edges of the slabs
shall be true, square and free from chippings and the surface shall be true and
plane. The thickness of the slab after it is dressed shall be 25 mm. Tolerance of
+ 2 mm shall be allowed for the thickness. In respect of length and breadth of
slabs tolerance of + 5 mm for hand cut and + 2 mm for machine cut slabs shall
be allowed.
6) Base concrete or the RCC slab on which the slabs are to be laid shall be cleaned,
wetted and mopped. The bedding for the slabs shall be with cement mortar 1:5
(1 cement 5 coarse sand). This shall consist of uniform and smooth layer of
plaster of 30 mm thickness and of mix 1:5 (1 cement: 5 coarse sand), finished
with a floating coat of neat cement. The average thickness of the bedding mortar
under the slab shall be 30 mm and the thickness at any place under the slab shall
be not less than 12 mm.
7) The full quantity of dry mortar required of a room shall be prepared in one lot in
order to ensure uniform colour, wet mortar shall be prepared in the usual manner
as and when required
8) The slabs shall be laid in the following manner:
Mortar of the specified mix shall be spread under the area of each slab, roughly
to the average thickness specified in the item. The slab shall be washed clean
before laying. It shall be laid on top, pressed, tapped with wooden mallet arid
brought to level with the adjoining slabs. It shall be lifted and laid aside. The top
surface of the mortar shall then be corrected by adding fresh mortar at hollows.
The mortar is allowed to harden a bit and cement slurry of honey like
consistency shall be spread over the same at the rate of 4.4 kg of cement per m².
The edges of the slab already laid shall be buttered with cement with or without
admixture of pigment to match the shade of the stone slabs.
The slab to be paved shall then be lowered gently back in position and tapped
with wooden mallet till it is properly bedded in level with and close to the
adjoining slabs with as fine a joint as possible. Sub sequent slabs shall be laid in
the same manner. After each slab has been laid, surplus cement on the surface of
the slabs shall be cleaned off. The flooring shall be cured for a minimum period
of seven days. The surface of the flooring as laid shall be true to levels, and,
slopes as instructed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
Due care shall be taken to match the grains of slabs which shall be selected
judiciously having uniform pattern of Veins / streaks or as directed by the
Engineer-in- charge.
9) Polishing and finishing shall be done in following manner:
The day after the Kota stone tiles are laid all joints shall be cleaned of the grey
cement grout with a wire brush or trowel to a depth of 5 mm and all dust and

142
loose mortar removed and cleaned. Joints shall than be grouted with cement mix
with matching pigment.
The floor shall then be kept wet for a minimum period of 7 days. The surface
shall thereafter be grounded evenly with machine fitted with coarse grade grit
block (No. 60). Water shall be used profusely during grinding. After grinding the
surface shall be thoroughly washed to remove all grinding mud, cleaned and
mopped. The surface shall be covered with cement slurry to fill in grout in joints
that might have fallen off again cured. The second grinding shall then be carried
out with machine fitted with fine grade grit bloc (No 120).
The final grinding with machine fitted with the finest grade grit blocks (No.320)
shall be carried out the day after the second grinding described in the preceding
para or before handing over the floor, ordered by the Engineer-in-Charge.
For small areas or where circumstances so require, hand grinding may be
permitted. For hand grinding the following carborundum stones, shall be used:
1st grinding - coarse grade stone (No. 60)
2nd grinding - medium grade (No 80)
Final grinding - fine grade (No 120)
In all other respects, the process shall be similar as for machine polishing.
After the final polish, oxalic acid shall be dusted over the surface at the rate of
33 gm per m² sprinkled with water and rubbed hard with a namdah’ block (pad
of woollen rags). The following day the floor shall be wiped with a moist rag
and dried with a soft cloth and finished clean. If any stone slab is disturbed or
damaged it shall be refitted or replaced, properly jointed and polished.
After curing, the surface shall be washed and finished clean. The finished work
shall not sound hollow when tapped with a wooden mallet.
10) Preparation of surface, dressing of kota stone slab , laying, fixing, curing,
polishing and finishing of the kota stone slabs in risers of steps, skirting and
dado shall be same as specified for the floor slabs except that first polishing with
coarse grade carborundum stone shall not be done.

15.6.3.4 Acid Resistant Tiles


1) The Contractor shall supply and install acid resistant tiles in the battery room as
shown on the construction drawings and in any other area as directed by
Engineer-in-Charge. The depth of grooves on the underside of the tiles shall not
exceed 3 mm.
2) The tiles shall conform to IS 4457 and shall be laid in accordance with IS 1443
except that cement mortar shall be acid resistant.
3) Tolerances on the length, breadth and thickness of tiles shall be +2 percent.
4) The tiles shall be legibly marked on the back with the name of the manufacturer
or his trade mark, Manufacturers batch number and year of manufacture.
5) Base concrete or the RCC slab on which the tiles are to be laid shall be cleaned,
wetted and moped. The bedding for the tile shall be with cement mortar 1:4 (1
cement : 4 coarse sand). The average thickness of the bedding shall be 20 mm

143
while the thickness under any portion of the tiles shall not be less than 10 mm.
Over the mortar bedding, neat grey cement slurry of honey like consistency shall
be spread at the rate of 3.3 kg of cement per m2 over an area upto 1 m2 and the
tiles shall be fixed in this grout one after another.
6) The tiles shall be soaked in water washed and cleaned prior to fixing in position.
7) The joints shall be kept as thin as possible and in straight lines or to suit the
required pattern.
8) Where full size tiles cannot be fixed these shall be cut to the required size and
their edge rubbed smooth to ensure straight and true joints.
9) The tiles which are fixed in the floor adjoining the wall shall enter at least 10
mm under the plaster, skirting or dado.
10) After the tiles have been laid the joints shall be cleaned off the grey cement
slurry with wire/coir brush or trowel to a depth of 2-3 mm and all dust and loose
mortars shall be removed. The joints shall then be flush pointed with acid
resistant cement added with pigment to match the colour of tiles.
11) The floor shall be kept wet for 7 days after installation of the tiles. The finished
floor after curing shall not sound hollow when tapped with a wooden mallet.

15.6.4 Special Floor Finish (Granolithic Concrete)


1) Granolithic flooring shall be provided in generator floor, service bay and E&M
Workshop.
2) Layout shall be as per approved drawing showing true locations of expansion
joints, formation of panels and deciding method for executing the flooring, other
construction details such as drains and slopes for the items of work.
3) For laying the granolithic flooring IS 5491 shall be referred. Permissible
tolerances shall be as per relevant standards.
4) The Contractor shall submit manufacturer material literature, specifications and
storage recommendations for various materials including hardeners, if required,
and colour pigment.
5) The Contractor shall submit details of miscellaneous items used such as
galvanized strips for embedding in the flooring thickness for expansion joints.
6) Before executing the work, all materials shall be checked for their suitability and
fitness for use by the executing agency and a record for such assessment shall be
maintained for the reference of Engineer-in-Charge. It shall be ensured that the
excess materials shall not be taken out of proper storage space which might have
to be returned in case the entire lot is not utilised, especially the ones which can
get damaged in short exposures.
7) Material for preparation of appropriate mix shall be dumped in a suitable place
to ensure avoidance of mixing of undesirable elements / materials.
8) The granolithic flooring shall consist of 1:1:2, cement: coarse: fine aggregate
mix. The cement shall be mixed with 13 kg of ironite with 50 kg of cement in
dry state before it is mixed with the aggregates in the dry state. All constituents
to granolithic flooring shall be mixed in the dry state before water is added to it.

144
The aggregates shall be of approved type of granite, basalt or quartzite. A
suitable hardener or the colour pigment may have to be added to the flooring
concrete mix as desired by the Engineer-in-Charge.
9) Flooring shall be laid on base concrete. The base concrete shall be normally
provided with the slopes required for the flooring. However, if the same is not
provided in specific cases, then the same shall be adjusted in the granolithic
flooring. Base concrete should be set properly and not loose and cured with
sufficient water.
10) If the cement concrete flooring is to be laid directly on the RCC slab, the top
surface of RCC slab shall be cleaned and the laitance shall be removed and a
coat of cement slurry at 2 kg of cement spread over an area of one square meter
so as to get a good bond between the base and concrete floor.
11) The average thickness of floor shall be 50 mm and at no place it shall be less
than 30 mm while adjusting the slopes of the flooring finish.
12) Flooring of the specified thickness shall be laid in the pattern including the
border / or as given in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
The panels shall generally be of uniform size and no dimension of a panel shall
exceed 2m and the area of a panel shall not be more than 2 m2.
13) Granolithic flooring shall be laid in one operation using glass/plain
asbestos/aluminium/PVC/brass strips or any other strips as required as per
drawing or instructions of the Engineer-in-Charge, at the junction of two panels.
Cement concrete shall be placed in the panels and levelled with the help of
straight edge and trowel. The blows shall be fairly heavy in the beginning but as
consolidation takes place, light rapid strokes shall be given. Beating shall cease
as soon as the surface is found covered with a thin layer of cream of mortar. The
evenness of the surface shall be tested with straight edge and made true to
required slopes. While lying concrete, care shall he taken to see that the panel
strips are not damaged / disturbed by the labourers. The tops of strips shall be
visible clearly after finishing with cement slurry.
14) The finishing of the surface shall follow immediately after the cessation of
beating. The surface shall be left for some time; till moisture disappears from it
or surplus water can be mopped up. Dry cement or cement and sand mixture
shall be sprinkled on the surface to stiffen the concrete or absorb excessive
moisture. Excessive trowelling shall be avoided.
15) Fresh cement shall be mixed with water to form thick slurry and spread at the
rate of 2 kg of cement over an area of one square meter of flooring while the
flooring concrete is still green. The cement slurry shall then be properly
processed and finished smooth.
16) The junctions of floor with wall plaster, dado or skirting shall be rounded off.
The men engaged on finishing operations shall be provided with raised wooden
platform to sit on so as to prevent damage to new work.
17) The curing shall be done for a minimum period of ten days. Curing shall not be
commenced until the top layer has hardened. Covering with empty gunnies shall

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be avoided as the colour of the flooring is likely to be bleached due to the
remnants of cement dust from the bags. The quality of water shall be ensured to
be free for minerals and solids which can damage the natural finishing surface.
18) Flooring in shall be laid only after fixing of other items such as drain cover
frames and railing supports.
19) During cold weather, flooring shall not he done when the temperature falls
below 4°C. The flooring concrete placed shall be protected against frost by
suitable covering. Concrete damaged by frost shall be removed and work redone.
During hot weather, precautions shall be taken to see that the temperature of wet
concrete does not exceed 38°C. No flooring concrete shall be laid within half an
hour of the closing time of the day, unless permitted by the Engineer-in-Charge.
To facilitate rounding of junction of skirting, dado and floor, the skirting/dado
shall be laid along with the border or adjacent panels of floor

15.7 CORRUGATED GALVANISED STEEL SHEET ROOFING


15.7.1 CGS Sheets
1) These shall be of the thickness specified in the description of the item and shall
conform to IS 277. The sheets shall be of 275 grade of coating having minimum
average mass of coating of 275g/m2 in triple spot test and minimum mass of 235
g/m2 in single spot test. The weight of coating shall represent the total weight of
zink on both sides.
2) The sheets shall be free from cracks, split edges, twists, surface flaws etc. They
shall be clean, bright and smooth. The galvanising shall be non-injured and in
perfect condition. The sheets shall not show signs of rust or white powdery
deposits on the surface. The corrugations shall be uniform in depth and pitch and
parallel with the side.

15.7.2 Slope
Roof shall not be pitched at a flatter slope than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal.

15.7.3 Laying and fixing of CGS Sheets


1) The sheets shall be laid and fixed in the manner described below, unless
otherwise shown in the working drawings or directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) The sheets shall be laid on the purlins to a true plane, with the lines of
corrugations parallel or normal to the sides of the area to be covered unless
otherwise required as in special shaped roofs.
3) The sheets shall be laid with a minimum lap of 15 cm at the ends and 2 ridges of
corrugations at each side. The above minimum end lap of 15 cm shall apply to
slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal and steeper slopes. For flatter slopes the
minimum permissible end lap shall be 20 cm. The minimum lap of sheets with
ridge, hip and valley shall be 20 cm measured at right angles to the line of the
ridge, hip and valley respectively. These sheets shall be cut to suit the
dimensions or shapes of the roof, either along their length or their width or in a

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slant across their lines of corrugations at hips and valleys. They shall be cut
carefully with a straight edge chisel to give a smooth and straight finish.
4) Lapping in C.G.S. sheets shall be painted with a coat of approved steel primer
and two coats of painting with approved paint suitable for G.S. sheet, before the
sheets are fixed in place.
5) Sheets shall not generally be fixed into gables and parapets. They shall be bent
up along their side edges close to the wall and the junction shall be protected by
suitable flashing or by a projecting drip course, the later to cover the junction by
at least 7.5 cm.
6) The laying operation shall include all scaffolding work involved.
7) Sheets shall be fixed to the purlins or other roof members such as hip or valley
rafters etc. with galvanised J or L hook bolts and nuts, 8 mm diameter, with
bitumen and G.I. limpet washers or with a limpet washer filled with white lead
as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. While J hooks are used for fixing sheets
on angle iron purlins, and L hooks are used for fixing the sheet to R.S. joists,
timber or precast concrete purlins. The length of the hook bolt shall be varied to
suit the particular requirements.
8) The bolts shall be sufficiently long so that after fixing they project above the top
of the nuts by not less than 10 mm. The grip of J or L hook bolt on the side of
the purlin shall not be less than 25 mm. There shall be a minimum of three hook
bolts placed at the ridges of corrugations in each sheet on every purlin and their
spacing shall not exceed 30 cm. Coach Screws shall not be used for fixing sheets
to purlins.
9) The galvanised coating on J or L hooks, and bolts shall be continuous and free
from defects such as blisters, flux stains, drops, excessive projections or other
imperfections which would impair serviceability. The galvanised coating should
conform to IS 1367 (Pt. XIII) The mass of coating shall be 375 gram per square
meter of the surface and equivalent thickness of the coating shall be 54 μm.
10) Where slopes of roofs are less than 21.5 degrees (1 vertical to 2.5 horizontal)
sheets shall be joined together at the side laps by galvanised iron bolts and nuts
25 × 6 mm size, each bolt provided with a bitumen and a G.I. limpet washer or a
G.I. limpet washer filled with white lead. As the overlap at the sides extends to
two corrugations, these bolts shall be placed zig-zag over the two overlapping
corrugations, so that the ends of the overlapping sheets shall be drawn tightly to
each other. The spacing of these seam bolts shall not exceed 60 cm along each of
the staggered rows. Holes for all bolts shall be drilled and not punched in the
ridges of the corrugations from the underside, while the sheets are on the
ground.
11) The roof when completed shall be true to lines and slopes and shall be leak
proof.

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15.7.4 Wind Ties
Wind ties shall be of 40 x 6 mm flat iron section or of other size as specified.
These shall be fixed at the eaves of the sheets. The fixing shall be done with the
same hook bolts which secure the sheets to the purlins. The ties shall be paid for
separately unless described in the item of roofing.

15.7.5 Ridges and Hips


15.7.5.1 General
1) Ridges and hips of C.G.S. roof shall be covered with ridge and hip sections of
plain G.S. sheet with a minimum lap of 20 cm on either side over the C.G.S.
sheets.
2) The end laps of the ridges and hips and between ridges and hips shall also be not
less than 20 cm.
3) The ridges and hips shall be of 60 cm overall width plain G.S. sheet, 0.6 mm or
0.8 mm thick.

15.7.5.2 Fixing
1) Ridges shall be fixed to the purlins below with the same 8 mm dia G.I. hook
bolts and nuts and bitumen and G.I. limpet washers which fix the sheets to the
purlins. Similarly, hips shall be fixed to the roof members below such as purlins,
hip and valley rafters with the same 8 mm dia G.I. hook bolts and nuts and
bitumen and G.I. limpet washers which fix the sheets to those roof members. At
least one of the fixing bolts shall pass through the end laps of ridges and hips, on
either side. If this is not possible extra hook bolts shall be provided.
2) The end laps of ridges and hips shall be joined together with C.G.S sheet by
galvanized iron seam bolts 25 x 6 mm size each with a bitumen and G.I. washer
or white lead as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. There shall be at least two
such bolts in each end lap.
3) Surface of C.G.I. sheets of ridge and hip sections and the roofing sheets which
overlap each other shall be painted with a coat of approved primer and two coats
of approved paint suitable for painting G.S. Sheets before they are fixed in place.
4) The edges of the ridges and hips shall be straight from end to end and their
surfaces should be plane and parallel to the general plane of the roof. The ridges
and hips shall fit in squarely on the sheets.

15.7.6 Cast Iron Rain Water Pipes and Fittings


15.7.6.1 General
1) The specifications given herein shall apply only to rain water pipes and fittings
which are part of pipe lines fixed on wall face.
2) Cast iron pipes shall conform to IS 1230. The pipes shall be perfectly smooth
and cylindrical. These shall be sound and of uniform castings, free from laps, pin
holes or other imperfections and shall be neatly finished and carefully fitted both
inside and outside. The ends of pipes shall be reasonably square to their axes.

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3) Cast iron rain water pipe shall be of 100/150 mm (internal dia) nominal dia., and
shall be in full length of 1.8 m including socket ends of the pipes, unless shorter
lengths are required at junctions with fittings. The pipe lengths shall be in each
case be with socket. The nominal weight of 1800 mm long pipe without ears
shall be 14 kg and 26 kg respectively for 100 mm dia and 150mm dia pipes.
Thickness of pipes shall be 3mm and 4 mm respectively for 100 mm and 150
mm dia pipes.
4) C.I. sockets shall have internal dia of 114/ 167 mm and internal depth of 65/75
mm for 100/150 mm pipes.
5) The pipes shall be factory painted with tar base composition both inside and
outside which shall be smooth and tenacious.
6) Every pipe shall ring clearly when struck all over with a light hand hammer.
7) When shorter pipes are cut from full lengths they shall be cut with a hacksaw.
8) Allowable tolerances shall be as:

Pipe Socket
External dia + 3.5 mm -
Internal dia - + 3.0 mm
Thickness + 1.0 mm + 1.0 mm
Weight - 10 % -
Length + 13 mm -
Internal depth - + 10 mm
9) The pipes weighing more than the nominal weight may be accepted provided
they comply in every other respect as specified.

15.7.6.2 Fixing and Jointing


1) The pipes shall be either fixed on face of wall or embedded in masonry.
2) Plain pipes (without ears) shall be secured to the walls at all joints with M.S.
holder bat clamps. The clamps shall be made from 1.6 mm thick galvanized
M.S. sheet of 30 mm width, bent to the required shape and size so as to fit
tightly on the socket of the pipe, when tightened with screw bolts. It shall be
formed out of two semi circular pieces, hinged with 6 mm dia M.S. bolt on one
side and provided with flanged ends on the other side with hole to fit by the
screw bolt and nut, 40 mm long. The clamp shall be provided with a hook made
out of 27.5 cm long 10 mm dia M.S. bar, riveted to the ring at the centre of the
semi circular piece. The clamps shall be fixed to the wall by embedding their
hooks in cement concrete block 10 x 10 x 10 cm in 1:2:4 cement concrete mix
for which necessary holes shall be made in the wall at proper places. The clamps
shall be kept about 25 mm clear of finished face of wall, so as to facilitate
cleaning and painting of pipes.
3) The pipes shall be fixed perfectly vertical or to the lines as directed by the
Engineer-in-Charge. The spigot of the upper pipe shall be properly fitted in the
socket of the lower pipe such that there is a uniform annular space for filling the

149
jointing material. The annular space between the socket and the spigot shall be
filled with a few turns of spun yarn soaked in neat cement slurry. These shall be
pressed home by caulking tool. More skins of yarn shall be wrapped if necessary
and shall be rammed home. The joint shall then be filled with stiff cement
mortar 1:2, well pressed with caulking tool and finished smooth at top at an
angle of 45 degree sloping up. The joints shall be kept wet for not less than 7
days by tying a piece of gunny bag, four fold, to the pipe and keeping it moist
constantly.
4) Where pipes are to be embedded in masonry, these shall be fixed in masonry
work as it proceeds. The pipe shall have a surrounding of 12 mm minimum
thickness of mortar at every portion of the external surface. The mortar shall be
of the same mix as is used in masonry. The joint shall be caulked with lead as
soon as the next length of pipe is placed in position. The open end of the pipe
shall be kept closed till the next length is fitted and jointed. The depth of lead
from the lip of socket shall be 25 mm minimum.
5) The spigot end shall butt the shoulder of the socket and leave no gap in between.
The annular space between the socket and spigot will be first well packed with
spun yarn leaving 25 mm from the lip of the socket for the lead. The joint shall
then be lead caulked.

15.7.6.3 Cast Iron Accessories for Rain Water Pipes


1) C.I. accessories such as bends of various degrees, heads, offsets of different
projections, branches and shoes shall conform to IS 1230.
2) Bends shall be of the nearest standard degree as actually required at site. Heads
shall be of the flat or corner type as required. Offsets shall be of the required
projection as directed. The branches shall be single or double as required.
Standard shoes shall be of 205 mm overall vertical length for 100 mm dia pipe
and 275 mm for 150 mm dia pipe.
3) The fittings shall be for 100/150 mm dia C.I. pipes. The thickness of the fittings
and details of spigot and socket shall be same as those of straight pipes.
4) The fittings shall be supplied without ears.
5) The fittings shall be factory painted with a tar basis composition both inside and
outside which shall be smooth and tenacious.
6) Every fitting shall ring clearly when struck all over with a light hard hammer.
7) The fittings shall be of standard size and their individual weights shall be as
given below;
100 mm dia pipe 150 mm dia pipe
Bends (Plain) 4.50 kg/each 9.10 kg/each
Offsets (Plain)
75 mm projection 5.50 kg/each 9.10 kg/each
115 mm projection 5.90 kg/each 9.50 kg/each
150 mm projection 6.40 kg/each 10.40 kg/each
Branches (Plain)

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Single 7.30 kg/each 14.50 kg/each
Double 10.00 kg/each 19.10 kg/each
Standard shoe (Plain) 4.10 kg/each 8.60 kg/each
Heads 6.80 kg/each 11.30 kg/each
8) Permissible tolerances in weight of fittings shall be 5%.

15.7.7 Downspout
1) Downspouts shall be provided as shown on the construction drawings or as
directed by Engineer-in-Charge. Downspouts shall be 100 mm in diameter
polyvinyl chloride pipes provided with adaptable fittings. The downspouts shall
be securely fixed to the walls with steel ring suspenders at adequate intervals.
2) Flexible joints shall be synthetic rubber, 4-ply approximately 80 cm in length
and shall be provided at expansion joint of each downspout. The flexible joints
shall be tightly connected to both ends of the downspouts with adequate metal
bands.
15.8 FALSE CEILING
15.8.1 General
1) False ceiling shall be provided in the Control room, office room, battery room
and toilet as shown on the construction drawings or as directed by the Engineer-
in-Charge.
2) False ceiling shall not be installed until building is enclosed, dust generating
activities are terminated and overhead mechanical / electrical works are
completed, tested and approved.
3) Proprietary moulded anodized aluminium ceiling system shall be installed. The
moulded anodized Aluminium ceiling shall comprise of moulded aluminium
panels including accessories of standard quality and make.
4) The installation shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.
The contractor shall prepare and submit shop drawings showing details and
reflected ceiling plans of suspension and wall support systems for the approval
of the Engineer-in-Charge.
5) The ceiling system shall be capable of supporting all superimposed loads, with
maximum permissible deflection of 1 in 500 of span and maximum surface
deviation of 1 in 1000.
6) The Contractor shall submit manufacturer’s literature and a sample each of
frame work, panels, suspension system components and other accessories for the
approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.
7) The Contractor shall submit manufacturer’s certificates and material
specifications as well as written instructions for storage and installation.

15.9 ALUMINIUM DOORS, WINDOWS, AND PARTITIONS


15.9.1 General
1) The Contractor shall supply and install aluminium doors as required. They shall
be installed in accordance with construction drawings and approved Contractor’s

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shop drawings. The shop drawings shall show full size sections of glazed doors,
windows, ventilators etc. The shop drawings shall also show the details of
fittings and joints. Before start of the work, all the shop drawings shall be got
approved from the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) Actual measurement of openings left at site for different type of door/window
etc. shall be taken. The fabrication of the individual door/windows/ventilators
etc. shall be done as per the actual sizes of the opening left at site.
3) The frames shall be fabricated out of section which have been cut to length,
mitered and jointed mechanically using appropriate machines. Mitered joints
shall be corner crimped or fixed with self tapping stainless steel screws using
extruded aluminium cleats of required length and profile. All aluminium work
shall provide for replacing damaged/broken glass panes without having to
remove or damage any member of exterior finishing material.
4) The holes in concrete/masonry/wood/any other members for fixing anchor
bolts/fasteners/screws shall be drilled with an appropriate electric drill.
Windows/doors/ventilators etc. shall be placed in correct final position in the
opening and fixed to Sal wood backing using stainless steel screws of star
headed, counter sunk and matching size groove of required size at spacing not
more than 250 mm c/c or dash fastener. All joints shall be sealed with approved
silicone sealants.
5) In the case of composite windows and doors, the different units are to be
assembled first. The assembled composite units shall be checked for line, level
and plumb before final fixing is done. Engineer-in- charge in his sole discretion
may allow the units to be assembled in their final location if the situation so
warrants. Snap beadings and EPDM gasket shall be fixed as per the detail shown
in the shop drawings.
6) Where aluminium comes into contact with stone masonry, precast concrete
block work, concrete, plaster or dissimilar metal, it shall be coated with an
approved insulation lacquer, paint or plastic tape to ensure that electrochemical
corrosion is avoided. Insulation material shall be trimmed off to a clean flush
line on completion.
7) The contractor shall be responsible for the doors, windows etc. being set
straight, plumb, level and for their satisfactory operation after fixing is complete.
8) Material, fabrication and dimensions of aluminium doors, windows and
ventilators manufactured from extruded aluminium alloy sections of standard
sizes and designs complete with fittings, ready for being fixed into the building
shall be as per IS 1948. The sizes for doors, windows and ventilators frames
shall not vary by more than ±1.5 mm.
9) Aluminium alloy extruded sections used in the manufacture of extruded window
sections shall conform to IS 733. Hollow aluminium alloy sections used shall
conform to IS 1285.
10) All aluminium doors, frames and hardware shall be to the approval of the
Engineer-in-Charge.

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15.9.2 Aluminium Sections
1) Aluminium sections used for fixed/openable windows, ventilators, partitions,
frame work & doors etc. shall be suitable for use to meet architectural designs to
relevant works and shall be subject to approval of the Engineer-in-Charge for
technical, structural, functional and visual considerations. The aluminium
extruded sections shall conform to IS 733 and IS 1285 for chemical composition
and mechanical properties. The stainless steel screws shall be of grade AISI
304.The permissible dimensional tolerances of the extruded sections shall be as
per IS 6477 and shall be such as not to impair the proper and smooth
functioning/operation and appearance of door and windows.
2) Aluminium glazed doors, windows etc. shall be of sizes, sections and details as
shown in the drawings. The details shown in the drawings may be varied slightly
to suit the standards adopted by the manufacturers of the aluminium work, with
the approval of Engineer-in-Charge.
3) Before proceeding with any fabrication work, the contractor shall prepare and
submit, complete fabrication and installation drawings for each type of glazing
doors, windows, ventilators and partition etc. for the approval of the Engineer-
in-Charge. If the sections are varied, the contractor shall obtain prior approval of
Engineer-in-Charge and nothing extra shall be paid on this account.
4) Standard aluminium extrusion sections are manufactured in various sizes and
shapes in wide range of solid and hollow profiles with different functional
shapes for architectural, structural glazing, curtain walls, doors, window &
ventilators and various other purposes. The anodizing of these products is
required to be done before the fabrication work by anodizing/electro coating
plants which ensures uniform coating in uniform colour and shades. The
extrusions are anodized up to 30 micron in different colours. The anodized
extrusions are tested regularly under strict quality control adhering to Indian
Standard.
5) The powder used for powder coating shall be Epoxy/polyester powder of make
approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. The contractor shall give detailed
programme for powder coating in advance, to facilitate the inspection by
Engineer-in-Charge or his authorized representative.
6) Each aluminium alloy extrusion or performed section shall be thoroughly
cleaned by alkaline or acidic solutions under the conditions specified by
chemical conversion coating supplier and then rinsed. A chemical conversion
coating shall be applied by treatment with a solution containing essentially
chromate ions or chromate and phosphate ions as the active components as
applicable. The amount of the conversion coating deposited depends on the type
used by the conversion coating chemical supplier.
7) The conversion coating shall be thoroughly rinsed either with the solution
specified by the conversion coating chemical supplier or with de-mineralized
water and then dried at the temperature for the time specified by the conversion

153
coating chemical supplier. The contractor shall submit the detail specifications
and application procedure for application of conversion coating for approval of
Engineer-in-Charge. The metal surface after the conversion coating pretreatment
and prior to the application of the coating shall be free from dust or powdery
deposits.
8) The polyester powder shall be applied by electrostatic powder spray method.
Before start of powder coating the contractor shall submit detail specification for
application of polyester powder from manufacturer of the polyester powder for
approval of Engineer-in-Charge. The powder coating shall be applied as per the
specification approved by Engineer-in-Charge.
9) The thickness of the finished polyester powder coating measured by micron
meter shall not be less than 50 micron nor more than 120 micron at any point.
10) The finish on significant surfaces shall show no scratches when illuminated and
is examined at an oblique angle, no blisters, craters; pinholes or scratches shall
be visible from a distance of about 1 m. There shall not be any visible variation
in the colour of finished surfaces of different sections and between the colours of
different surfaces of same section.
11) When a coated test piece is tested using a spacing of 2 mm between each of the
six parallel cuts (the cut is made through the full depth of powder coating so that
metal surface is visible) and a piece of adhesive tape, approximately 25 mm x
150 mm approved by the Engineer-in-Charge is applied firmly to the cut area
and then removed rapidly by pulling at right angles to the test area, no pieces of
the finish other than debris from the cutting operation shall be removed from the
surface of the finish

15.9.3 Float Glass


1) The glass shall be clear float glass and should be approved by the Engineer in
Charge. It shall be clear, float transparent and free from cracks subject to
allowable defects. The float glass shall conform to the IS 14900.
2) The thickness of float glass shall depend on the size of panel. Minimum nominal
thickness shall be 6mm.

15.9.4 EPDM – Gaskets


1) The EPDM Gaskets shall be of size and profile as shown in drawings and as
called for, to render the glazing, doors, windows, ventilators etc. air and water
tight. Samples of gaskets shall be submitted for approval and the EPDM gasket
approved by Engineer-in-Charge shall only be used. The contractor shall submit
documentary proof of using the above material in the work to the entire
satisfaction of Engineer in-Charge.

154
15.9.5 Sealant
1) The sealants of approved grade and colour shall only be used. The silicone for
perimeter joints (between Aluminium section and RCC/Stone masonry) shall be
of make approved by the Engineer in Charge.
2) Before application of sealant all joints and glazing pockets shall be cleaned by
removing all foreign matter and contaminants such as grease, oil, dust, water,
frost, surface dirt, old sealants or glazing compounds and protective coatings.
3) Areas adjacent to joints shall be masked to ensure neat sealant lines. Masking
tape shall not be allowed to touch clean surfaces to which the silicone sealant is
to adhere. Tooling shall be completed in one continuous stroke immediately
after sealant application and before a skin forms and masking shall be removed
immediately after tooling.
4) Backer rod of appropriate size shall be installed and silicone sealant shall be
applied in a continuous operation using a positive pressure adequate to properly
fill and seal the joint. The silicone sealant shall be tooled with light pressure to
spread the sealant against backing material and the joint surfaces before a skin
forms. A tool with convex profile shall be used to keep the sealant within the
joint. Soap or water shall not be used as a tooling aid. Masking tape shall be
removed as soon as silicone joint is tooled.
5) A tolerance of + 3 mm shall be allowed in the width of silicone joints. The depth
of the joints at throat shall not be less than 6 mm.

15.9.6 Glass Panels


Glass panes shall weigh at least 7.5 kg/m2 and shall be free from flaws, specks
or bubbles. All panes shall have properly squared corners and straight edges.

15.9.7 Screws
Screws threads of machine screws used in the fabrication of aluminium doors,
windows and ventilators shall conform to IS 1362.

15.9.8 Fittings
1) Cost of extruded alloy hinges for doors shall normally be of the 50mm
projecting type. Non – projecting type of hinges may also be used.
2) A suitable lock for the door operable either from inside or outside shall be
provided.
3) Stainless steel friction stay of make approved by the Engineer-in-Charge shall be
used. The SS friction stay shall be of grade AISI-304.
4) Lockable handles of make approved by the Engineer-in-Charge and of required
colour to match the colour of powder coated/anodized aluminium window
sections shall be provided window shutters.
5) Heavy duty double action hydraulic floor spring of make approved by the
Engineer-in-Charge suitable for door leaf of weight minimum 100 kg shall be
provided. The top cover plate shall be of stainless steel, flushing with floor

155
finish level. The contractor shall cut the floor properly with stone cutting
machine to exact size and shape. The spindle of suitable length to accommodate
the floor finish shall be used. The contractor shall give the guarantee duly
supported by the company for proper functioning of floor spring at least for 10
years.
6) Minimum 50 micron of required colour polyester powder coated tubular
aluminium handle bar shall be provided. Outer dia of tube shall be 32 mm, tube
thickness 3.0 mm and centre to centre length 2115+5 mm.

15.9.9 Fabrication
1) Prior to fabricating or ordering the aluminium doors, the Contractor shall check
the actual dimensions and shape of existing concrete openings.
2) Frames shall be square and flat, the corners of the frame being fabricated to a
true right angle. Both the fixed and opening frames shall be constructed of
sections which have been cut to length, mitered and welded at the corners.
Where hollow sections are used with welded joints, argon-arc welding or flash
butt welding shall be employed (gas welding or brazing not to be done).
Subdividing bars of units shall be tenoned and riveted into the frame.

15.10 ROLLING SHUTTERS


15.10.1 General
1) The contractor shall supply and install gear operated steel rolling shutters as
required in the service bay. Rolling shutters shall conform to IS 6248.
2) Prior to fabrication or order of the rolling shutters the contractor shall check the
actual dimensions of existing openings. These shall be installed in accordance
with contractor’s approved shop drawings.
3) The rolling shutter shall be of approved make, made of required size of M.S.
laths interlocked together through their entire length and jointed together at the
end by end locks mounted on specifically designed pipe shaft with brackets, side
guides and arrangement for inside and outside locking with push and pull
operation complete including wire springs and M.S. top cover of required
thickness.

15.10.2 Shutter
1) The shutter be built up of inter locking lath section formed from cold rolled steel
strips. The thickness of the sheets from which the lath sections have been rolled
shall be not less than 0.90 mm for the shutters upto 3.5 m width.
2) Shutters above 9 metres width should be divided in 2 parts with provision of one
middle fixed or movable guide channel or supported from the back side to resist
wind pressure.
3) The lath section shall be rolled so as to have interlocking curls at both edges and
a deep corrugation at the centre with a bridge depth of not less than 12 mm to

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provide sufficient curtain of stiffness for resisting manual pressures and normal
wind pressure.
4) Each lath section shall be continuous single piece without any welded joint.
When interlocked, the lath sections shall have a distance of 75 mm rolling
centers.
5) Each alternate lath section shall be fitted with malleable cast iron or mild steel
clips securely riveted at either ends, thus locking in the lath section at both ends
preventing lateral movement of the individual lath sections. The clips shall be so
designed as to fit the contour of the lath sections.

15.10.3 Spring
1) The spring shall be of coiled type.
2) The spring shall be manufactured from high tensile spring steel wire or strips of
adequate strength conforming to IS 4454- Part I.

15.10.4 Roller and Brackets


1) The suspension shaft of the roller shall be made of steel pipe conforming to
heavy duty as per IS 1161. For shutter upto 6 metre width and height not
exceeding 5 m, steel pipes of 50 mm nominal bore shall be used. The shaft shall
be supported on mild steel.
2) Brackets of size 375 x 375 x 3.15 mm for shutters upto a clear height of 3.5
metre. The size of mild steel brackets shall be 500 x 500 x 10 mm for shutters of
clear height above 3.5 m and upto 6.5 m.
3) The suspension shaft clamped to the brackets shall be fitted with rotatable cast
iron pulleys to which the shutter is attached. The pulleys and pipe shaft shall
connected by means of pretensioned helical springs to counter balance the
weight of the shutter and to keep the shutter in equilibrium in any partly open
position.
4) When the width of the opening is greater than 3.5 mtr. The cast iron pulleys
shall be interconnected with a cage formed out of mild steel flats of at least 32 x
6 mm and mild steel dummy rings made of similar flats to distribute the torque
uniformly. Self aligning two row ball bearings with special cast iron casings
shall be provided at the extreme pulley and caging rings shall have a minimum
spacing of 15mm and at least 4 number flats running throughout length of roller
shall be provided.
5) In case of shutters of large opening with mechanical device for opening the
shutter the roller shall be fitted with a purion wheel at one end which in contact
with a worm fitted to the bracket plate, caging and pulley with two ball bearing
shall be provided.

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15.10.5 Guide Channel
1) The width of guide channel shall be 25 mm and the minimum depth of guide
channels shall be as follows:
Clear width of shutters Depth of guide channel
Upto 3.5 m 65 mm
3.5 m upto 8 m 75 mm
8m and above 100 mm
2) The gap between the two legs of the guide channels shall be sufficient to allow
the free movement of the shutter and at the same time close enough to prevent
rattling of the shutter due to wind.
3) Each guide channel shall be provided with a minimum of three fixing cleats or
supports for attachment to the wall or column by means of bolts or screws. The
spacing of cleats shall not exceed 0.75 m. Alternatively, the guide channels may
also be provided with suitable dowels, hooks or pins for embedding in the walls.
4) The guide channels shall be attached to the jambs, plumb and true either in the
overlapping fashion or embedded in grooves, depending on the method of
fixing.

15.10.6 Cover
1) Top cover shall be of mild steel sheets not less than 0.90 mm thick and stiffened
with angle or flat stiffeners at top and bottom edges to retain shape.
2) Lock plates with sliding bolts, handles and anchoring rods shall be as per IS
6248.

15.10.7 Fixing
1) The arrangement for fixing in different situations in the opening shall be as per
IS 6248.
2) Brackets shall be fixed on the lintel or under the lintel as specified with rawl.
Plugs and screws bolt etc. The shaft along with the spring shall then be fixed on
the brackets.
3) The lath portion (shutter) shall be laid on ground and the side guide channels
shall be bound with ropes etc. The shutter shall then be placed in position and
top fixed with pipe shaft with bolts and nuts. The side guide channels and cover
frames shall then be fixed to the walls through the plate welded to the guides.
These plates and bracket shall be fixed by means of steel screws bolts, and rawl
plugs concealed in plaster to make their location invisible. Fixing shall be done
accurately in workmen like manner that the operation of the shutter is easy and
smooth.

15.11 PAINTING WORKS


15.11.1 General
1) The work includes preparing and painting various surfaces as directed by the
Engineer-in-Charge, including protection and finish painting of metal surfaces.

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2) The Contractor shall provide all labour, materials, supplies, equipment and
scaffolding to perform all operations necessary to complete the work.

15.11.2 Materials
1) Colour of paints shall be in accordance with the colour schemes selected by the
Engineer-in-Charge. Exact tones of the colour selected shall be in accordance
with the samples supplied and applied on test areas in the Works approved by
the Engineer-in-Charge.
2) All paint materials shall be delivered to the Site in their original containers, with
labels intact and seals unbroken. All paints shall be of well known registered
brands.
3) All tinting colours and thinning materials shall be of the same brand as the oil
paint specified for the particular area. Tinting colours for oil paint shall be
colours-in-oil, ground in pure linseed oil of the best grade.
4) With the exception of ready mixed materials in original containers, all mixing
shall be done at the Site.
5) The Contractor is responsible to ensure that the storage and handling of paint
material complies with the requirements of pertinent codes and fire regulations.
Proper containers placed outside of the building shall be provided and used for
painting wastes, which shall be properly disposed of or removed from the
premises at the close of each day’s work. No plumbing fixture shall be used for
this purpose.
6) The Contractor shall provide for the purpose of maintenance one unopened 4-
liter can of each type and each colour of paint used, on completion of the work.

15.11.3 Preparation of Surfaces


1) Concrete and masonry work shall be left for one month and any surface defects
repaired before painting.
2) Cracks, holes and other defects in plaster shall be filled or patched with an
approved filling compound. The filling shall finish flush with and in the same
plane as the adjoining surface. Where patches in cement plaster are required, the
surfaces shall be coated with an approved bonding agent, the defects filled with
an approved mortar mix for patching, and the patched areas finished to match
the texture of the cement plaster. Plaster surfaces that will be painted for the first
time shall be uniformly coated with a solution composed of 1 kg of zinc sulphate
to 4 litres of water, to which shall be added 28 g of dry sienna to each 4 litres of
zinc sulphate solution. 24 hours after application of the zinc sulphate solution,
the surfaces shall be thoroughly washed with clear water and allowed to dry
thoroughly.
3) Metal surfaces to be painted shall be clean and thoroughly dry before painting.
Rust, loose scale, oil, grease and dirt shall be removed with approved solvents,
wire brushing or sanding. Metal welds and blisters shall be ground and sanded

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smooth, pits and dents filled and imperfections corrected so as to leave a smooth
surface.
4) Wood surfaces to receive paint shall be cleaned of all dirt, grease, dust or any
other deleterious matter. All surfaces shall be thoroughly sanded and all nail
holes, cracks and any other defects shall be coloured to match the colour of the
finish paint. The finish surfaces shall be smooth, level and uniform, free from
any stains and shall be uniform in colour and shade.
5) The Contractor shall be responsible for and shall rectify any surface finish which
in the opinion of the Engineer-in-Charge is unsatisfactory to receive paint.

15.11.4 Workmanship
1) All paint shall be applied by brush unless spray painting or other method is
specifically approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. Spray-painting equipment
shall be adequate for the work to be performed and shall have suitable air
pressure and paint flow controls.
2) Material shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s printed
directions. Any thinning that may be required shall be added only with the
approval of the Engineer-in-Charge and then with an approved type of thinner
and in the amount recommended by the paint manufacturer.
3) One litre of paint as originally supplied by the manufacturer shall not cover a
greater area when applied by spray gun than when applied unthinned by brush.
Deficiencies in film thickness shall be corrected by the application of additional
coat(s). Application on masonry surfaces may vary according to surface texture
but in no case shall the manufacturer’s coverage rate be exceeded. On porous
surfaces, it shall be the Contractor’s responsibility to achieve a finish
comparable to the manufacturer’s coverage rate by decreasing the coverage or
applying additional coats of paint.
4) The Contractor shall remove all lighting fixture, including canopies, surface
hardware and similar items before painting; safely store them and replace them
when painting is complete. Dripped, spilled or splattered paint shall be cleaned
up promptly. Drop cloths shall be laid to completely cover flooring and all other
work items during painting, and shall remain in position until the paint work is
dry, finished and inspected.
5) The premises shall at all times be kept free from an accumulation of waste
material and rubbish. On completion of the painting, all tools, scaffolding and
surplus materials shall be removed from and about the building, ready for
inspection by the Engineer-in-Charge.
6) Painting shall not be done in the rain, fog or mist, or at any other time
considered unsuitable by the Engineer-in-Charge.
7) All the surrounding works shall be protected in a suitable manner from paint
drops and overspray. All smeared and damaged surfaces shall be cleaned or
repaired to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-Charge.

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15.12 THERMAL INSULATION
15.12.1 General
1) The works shall include the thermal insulation of rooms provided in the top
floor of Control room.
2) Thermal insulation shall be provided in the form of thermal insulation panels.
3) Panels for thermal insulation shall be of synthetic insulating material having a
density of approximately 30 kilograms per cubic meter. The panels shall have a
thickness of 30 mm. organic material like cork shall not be permitted.
Consideration shall be given to the chemical composition of panels
4) Insulating panels shall be laid with staggered joints and with their joints coated
with bituminous paint.

15.13 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


15.13.1 Masonry Walls
Brick work shall be measured in cubic metres unless otherwise specified. Any
extra work over the specified dimensions shall be ignored. Dimensions shall be
measured correct to the nearest 0.01 m i.e. 1 cm. Areas shall be calculated to the
nearest 0.01 sq metre and the cubic contents shall be worked out to the nearest
0.01 cubic metres.

15.13.2 Wall, Floor and Roof Furnishes


15.13.2.1 Plastering
1) Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm and its area shall be
calculated in square meter correct to two places of decimal. Dimensions before
plastering shall be taken.
2) The measurement of plaster shall be taken between the walls or partitions for the
length and from the top of the floor or skirting to the ceiling for the height.
Plaster on ceiling shall be measured together with the plaster on the walls.
3) Thickness of plaster shall be exclusive of the thickness of key i.e. grooves, or
open joints in the masonry work.
4) No deduction will be made for openings or ends of joists, beams, posts, girders,
steps etc. upto 0.5 m2 in area and no addition shall be made either for jambs,
soffits and sills of such openings.
5) Deductions for opening exceeding 0.5 m2 but not exceeding 3 m2 each shall be
made either for reveals, jambs, soffits sills, sills etc. of these openings. When
both faces of walls are plastered with same plaster, deduction shall be made for
one face only and when two faces of walls are plastered with different types of
plaster, deduction shall be made on the sides of the frame for doors, windows
etc. on which width of reveals is less than that on the other side but no deduction
shall be made on the other side. When width of reveals on both faces of wall is
equal, deduction of 50% of area of opening on each face shall be made from area
of plaster.

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6) For opening having door frame equal to or projecting beyond thickness of wall,
full deduction for opening shall be made from each plastered face of wall.
7) For opening exceeding 3 m2 in area, deduction will be made in the
measurements for the full opening of the wall treatment on both faces, while at
the same time, jambs, sills and soffits will be measured for payment. In
measuring jambs, sills and soffits, deduction shall not be made for the area in
contact with the frame or doors, windows etc.
8) Payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per square meter entered in
the BOQ. The rate shall include the cost of all labour, materials, equipments and
facilities involved in plastering.
9) No extra payment shall be made for rounding or chamfering corners, arises,
provision of grooves at junctions etc.

15.13.2.2 Tile Work


15.13.2.2.1 Ceramic Vitrified Tiles
1) Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm before laying skirting,
dado or wall plaster and the area calculated in square metre correct to two places
of decimal. Where coves are used at the junctions, the length and breadth shall
be measured between the lower edges of the coves.
2) Neither deduction nor the extra payment shall be made for the voids not
exceeding 0.2 m2.
3) No deduction shall be made for ends of dissimilar materials or other articles
embedded for areas not exceeding 0.1 m2.
4) Payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per square meter entered in
the BOQ. The unit price shall include the cost of all materials, labour and
equipments involved in laying of the ceramic vitrified tiles on the floors and
walls.

15.13.2.2.2 Kota Stone


1) Measurement shall be made in square meter correct to two places of decimal.
Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm before laying skirting,
dado or plaster. No deduction shall be made nor extra paid for voids not
exceeding 0.20 m2. Deductions for ends of dissimilar materials or other articles
embedded shall not be made for areas not exceeding 0.1 m2.
2) Nothing extra shall be paid for laying the floors at different levels in the same
room. Steps and treads shall also be measured under the item of kota stone
flooring.
3) Nosing for tread shall be measured in running metre and shall be paid extra.
4) Payment for kota stone flooring shall be made at the appropriate unit price per
square meter entered in the BOQ.
5) Extra for the nosing shall be paid at appropriate unit price per m entered in the
BOQ.

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6) The rate shall include the cost of all the materials, labour and equipments
involved in the flooring.

15.13.2.2.3 Acid Resistant Tiles


1) Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a centimetre before laying
skirting, dado or wall plaster and the area calculated in square metre correct to
two places of decimal. Where coves are used at the junctions, the length and
breadth shall be measured between the lower edges of the coves.
2) Payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per square meter entered in
the BOQ. The unit price shall include the cost of all materials, labour and
equipments involved in laying of the acid resistant tiles on the floors and walls.
3) Neither deduction nor the extra payment shall be made for the voids not
exceeding 0.2 m2.
4) No deduction shall be made for ends of dissimilar materials or other articles
embedded for areas not exceeding 0.1 m2.

15.13.2.3 Granolithic Flooring


1) Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a centimetre before laying
skirting, dado or wall plaster and the area calculated in square metre correct to
two places of decimal.
2) Neither deduction nor the extra payment shall be made for the voids not
exceeding 0.2 m2.
3) No deduction shall be made for ends of dissimilar materials or other articles
embeddedd for areas not exceeding 0.1 m2.
4) Payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per square meter entered in
the BOQ. The rate shall include all the material, labour and equipment involved
in the granolithic flooring.

15.13.3 Corrugated Galvanised Steel Sheet Roofing

15.13.3.1 CGS Sheets


1) The length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm. Area shall be worked
out in square meter correct to two places of decimal.
2) The superficial area of roof covering shall be measured on the flat without
allowance for laps and corrugations. Portion of roof covering overlapping the
ridge or hip etc. shall be included in the measurements of the roof.
3) Roof with curved sheets shall be measured and paid for separately.
Measurements shall be taken on the flat and not girthed.
4) No deduction in measurement shall be made for opening upto 0.4 m2 and
nothing extra shall be allowed for forming such openings. For any opening
exceeding 0.4 m2 in area, deduction in measurements for the full opening shall
be made. Cutting across corrugation shall be measured on the flat and not
girthed. No additions shall be made for laps cut through.

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5) Payment shall be made at the unit rate per square meter entered in the bill of
quantities. The rate shall include the cost of all the materials and labour involved
in all the operations described above including a coat of approved steel primer
and two coats of approved steel paint on overlapping of C.G.S. sheets. This
includes the cost of roof sheets, galvanized iron J or L hooks, bolts and nuts,
galvanized iron seam bolts and nuts, bituminous and galvanized iron limpet
washers etc.

15.13.3.2 Ridges and Hips


1) The measurements shall be taken for the finished work in length along the centre
line of ridge or hip, as the case may be, correct to a cm. The laps in ridges and
hips and between ridges and hips shall not be measured.
2) The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials specified above,
including painting, cost of seam bolts and any extra G.I. hook bolts, nuts and
washers, required.

15.13.3.3 Cast Iron Rain Water Pipes and Fittings


1) The pipes shall be measured net when fixed correct to a centimeter and the
fittings shall be measured by numbers.
2) Payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per m for pipes and for each
unit for fittings as entered in the BOQ.
3) The rate shall include the cost of all materials and labour involved in supply and
fixing of rain water pipes including the supply and fixing M.S. holder bat clamps
in walls and the anchoring concrete.

15.13.3.4 Down Spout


1) Down spout shall be measured in numbers.
2) Payment shall be made at appropriate unit price entered in the BOQ.
3) The rate shall include the cost of all materials and labour involved in supply and
fixing of down spouts.

15.13.4 False Ceiling


1) Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm and then the area shall be
calculated in square meter correct to two places of decimal.
2) No deduction in measurement shall be made for openings of areas upto 0.4 m2
and nothing extra shall be paid for making such openings. Deduction of full area
shall be made for opening exceeding 0.40 m2.
3) Payment shall be made at appropriate unit price per square meter of the finished
area as entered in the BOQ.

15.13.5 Aluminium Doors, Windows and Partitions


1) For the doors, window, ventilator and partition frames and shutters, all the
aluminium sections including snap beadings fixed shall be measured in running

164
meter along the outer periphery of composite section correct to a mm. The
weight calculated on the basis of weight of composite section in kg correct to the
second place of decimal shall be taken for payment. The weight shall be taken
after anodizing. The weight of cleat shall be added for payment. The payment
shall be made at the appropriate unit price per kg entered in the BOQ. The rate
shall include cost of all the materials and labour involved.
2) Neither any deduction nor anything extra shall be paid for skew cuts.
3) Glass Panels and Glazing shall be measured separately in m2 and shall be paid at
appropriate unit price entered in the BOQ. The rate shall include the cost all
material and labour including the cost of PVC/ neoprene gasket etc. complete.
4) Separate payment shall be made for the hydraulic floor spring for doors. The
payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price for each floor spring entered
in the BOQ. The rate shall include cost of cutting floors as required, embedding
in floors, brass cover plates, brass pivot, M.S. sheet outer box and slide plates
etc. complete.
5) Nothing extra shall be paid for filling gap in between frames and adjacent
masonry by weather silicon sealant over backer rod of approved quality or as
directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
6) No additional payment shall be made for stainless steel adjustable friction
window stays of approved quality, necessary stainless screws, window fasteners,
powder coated aluminium handles and brass locks on doors etc. The cost of such
items shall be deemed to be included in the unit rate of other items.

15.13.6 Rolling Shutters


1) Clear width and clear height of the opening for rolling shutter shall be measured
correct to a mm. The clear distance between the two jambs of the opening shall
be clear width and the clear distance between the sill and the soffit (bottom of
lintel) of the opening shall be the clear height. The area shall be calculated in
square metres correct to two places of decimal.
2) The payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per sqm entered in the
BOQ. The rate shall include the cost of materials and labour involved in all the
operations including cost of top cover and spring except ball bearing and
mechanical device of chain and crank operation which shall be paid for
separately.

15.13.7 Painting works


1) Painting on exterior and interior walls including columns, beams and ceiling
shall only be measured for payment.
2) The length and breadth of the painted area shall be measured correct to a cm.
The area shall then be calculated in square meter correct to two places of
decimal.
3) Payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per square meter of the
respective item entered in the BOQ.

165
4) Cost of painting various metal surfaces, components of trusses, wooden
surfaces, door /window frames, CGS sheets etc. and other like surfaces except
the wall surfaces shall be included in the respective items.

15.13.8 Thermal Insulation


1) Payment shall be made at the appropriate unit price per square meter of the
respective item entered in the BOQ.
2) Unit price shall include all the cost of manpower and materials including supply
and installation complete as per drawings.

END OF SECTION B.15

166
SECTION B.16
MISCELLANEOUS AND ANCILLARY WORKS
List of Contents

16.1 SCOPE OF WORK


16.2 FENCING AND SECURITY GATE
16.3 PVC PIPES
16.4 STEEL PIPES
16.5 FLOW METER
16.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
16.6.1 General
16.6.2 Fencing and Security Gate
16.6.3 PVC Pipes
16.6.4 Steel Pipes
16.6.4 Flow Meter

167
SECTION B.16
MISCELLANEOUS AND ANCILLARY WORKS

16.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) The work under this section includes all labour, materials and equipment, and
performing all operations required for the execution of miscellaneous or
complementary works described herein.
2) This section covers the following items:
a) Security Gate
b) PVC pipes
3) The extent, type and dimensions of the miscellaneous and ancillary works are
shown on the Drawings or shall be as required by the Engineer-in-Charge.

16.2 FENCING AND SECURITY GATE


1) The Contractor shall supply and install chain link fences and gate at the
locations and to the dimensions as shown on the construction drawings or as
directed by the Engineer-in-Charge. They shall be constructed according to
approved Contractor’s shop drawings showing details of all fencing
components, fittings, materials, accessories and construction.
2) Fencing shall be manufactured by a reputed company regularly engaged in the
manufacture of chain link fencing, to be approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
3) Zinc coated steel wire fence material shall meet the requirements of IS:
2721.chain link fabric shall be 4mm steel wire woven in a 50mm mesh and hot-
dip galvanized after weaving.
4) Posts, top and brace elements ,and gate frames shall be of hot-dip galvanized
standard weight seamless steel pipes conforming to IS 4736 and shall have
following minimum outside diameters:
a) Intermediate posts: 50mm
b) Top and Brace:40mm
c) Corner and Pull Posts:75mm
d) Gate Posts:100mm
e) Gate Frame/Braces:60/32mm
5) Intermediate post shall be placed every 3 to 3.5m.Pull posts shall be executed
every 15m.Every post shall be equipped with pipe head covering and fastenings
for wire tensioning. Posts shall be set plumb and in alignment.
6) Chain link fabric for gates shall be as specified for fences. Each gate leaf shall
be equipped with one pair of heavy hinges that will allow a full gate opening
between gate posts. The hinges shall be designed to not twist or turn under gate
action and shall allow the gate swing a full 180 degree. Hinges shall be of hot-
dip galvanized ductile iron or malleable iron.
7) Security gate shall be equipped with a heavy latching device and cylinder door
lock. Locking bars to secure gates in open and closed position shall be provided.

168
Double wing gates shall be provided with one safety stop fixing the wing in its
closed position by means of a vertical shaft. The locks and other rotating
materials shall be brass or bronze.
8) Barbed wire on the top of the fence shall be 3-strand 4 –point wire, tack-welded
to extension arms at top of each post.
9) Posts shall be set concrete M20/40 compacted to that no movement will occur
after installation of the fence. Posts shall be set in blockouts and grouted. The
blockouts shall be protected from standing water and freezing.

16.3 PVC PIPES


1) PVC Pipes of various sizes may be required for various applications.
2) PVC Pipes used shall conform to IS: 4985 (Unplasticised PVC pipes for potable
water supplies). PVC Pipes used shall be Class 4 i.e working pressure 8 kg/cm²
as per Table 1 of IS 4985.
3) The pipes may be required to be embedded in Concrete, embankment or any
other material.

16.4 STEEL PIPES


1) Fabricated Steel Pipes of various sizes may be required for diversion of
ecological release from the dam during construction.
2) The work shall include supply, fabrication and installation of the pipes as shown
in the construction drawings.
3) Material for fabricated steel pipes shall conform to IS 2041.

16.5 FLOW METER


1) Flow meter shall be ultrasonic clamp type suitable for 1.3m dia pipe for local
display/remote signalling.
2) The flow meter shall be provided with following features:
a. Temperature range : -24.8oC to 33oC +1%
b. Maximum measuring error : +1% of the measured
value
c. Repeatability : less than + 0.2%

16.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


16.6.1 General
Supply and installation, when used in this Section shall be deemed to include the
purchasing or manufacturing, provision of all labour, plant, materials, and
performing all operations required for the execution of the work specified in this
Section.

16.6.2 Fencing and Security Gate


1) Measurement for the payment for the supply and installation of fencing will be
of the length of fencing installed. Payment will be made at the unit price per

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linear metre entered in the Bill of Quantities, which shall include bracing,
tensioning and welding.
2) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of gates will be in
weight of gates installed including all accessories. Payment will be made at the
unit Price per MT entered in the Bill of Quantities.
3) The excavation and concrete for the foundations will be paid separately at the
Unit Prices applicable for such work.

16.6.3 PVC Pipes


1) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of PVC pipes of
various diameters will be of the length of pipe work installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per linear meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall include cost of pipes, fittings, joining and
installation.
3) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of half PVC pipes of
various diameters will be of the length of pipe work installed.
4) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per linear meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall include cost of pipes, fittings, joining and
installation.

16.6.4 Steel Pipes


1) Measurement for payment of the supply, fabrication and installation of steel
pipes will be in weight of pipe actually installed.
2) Payment shall be made at appropriate unit price entered in the Bill of Quantities.

16.6.5 Flow Meter


1) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of flow meter shall be
no. of units installed.
2) Payment shall be made at appropriate unit price entered in the Bill of Quantities.
END OF SECTION B.16

170
SECTION B.17
SLOPE PROTECTION
List of Contents

17.1 SCOPE OF WORK


17.2 ROCK PAVING
17.2.1 Material
17.2.2 Execution
17.3 STONE PITCHING
17.3.1 General
17.3.2 Material
17.3.3 Execution
17.4 GABIONS (WIRE CRATES)
17.4.1 Materials
17.4.2 Execution
17.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
17.5.1 Rock Paving
17.5.2 Stone Pitching
17.5.3 Gabions (Wire Crates)
17.5.4 Exclusions

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SECTION B.17
SLOPE PROTECTION

17.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) Work under this Section include all labour, materials, equipment and services
required to protect the slopes either excavated or those of fills and backfills and
nallah training works.
2) This Section covers the following measures:
i) Rock paving
ii) Stone Pitching
iii) Gabions (Wire crates)
3) The Contractor shall place the various items specified herein as protection to
slopes or lining to ditches to the lines and thicknesses and in the locations
shown on the Construction Drawings, or as directed by the Engineer-in-Charge.
4) Excavation, Concrete, and drainage work etc. which may also be required for
the slope protection, are specified in other Sections of these Specifications.

17.2 ROCK PAVING


17.2.1 Materials
1) Fragments of rock for paving shall be selected from required excavation or
quarries. They shall be chosen such that they have a reasonably flat upper
surface when laid. Stones for dry rock paving shall not have a round or spherical
form and shall be of regular shape. Stones for rock paving in mortar shall be not
less than 150 mm thick and not less than 3,000 mm2 in area.
2) Mortar for rock paving in mortar shall comprise 3 parts of clean fine aggregate
to one part of cement by volume. Fine aggregate and cement shall comply with
the requirements specified in the Section "Concrete".

17.2.2 Execution
1) The Contractor shall place selected pieces of rock on a mortar bed and fill the
joints with mortar. Experienced masons, duly qualified in their trade shall
perform the work.
2) Prior to placing, the rock shall be cleaned of all adherent soil, dust and earthy or
organic impurities, and wetted sufficiently to saturate it, but leaving the surface
in a damp condition.
3) Rocks shall be placed on a mortar bed of minimum thickness of 50 mm and
carefully arranged in such a way that the minimum of voids remains between
rocks, no continuous horizontal or vertical joints exist, and the largest rocks are
evenly distributed.
4) After rock placing, the joints shall be completely filled with mortar. Splashing of
exposed rock surfaces with mortar shall be avoided, and where splashing does
occur, the surface of the rock shall immediately be cleaned down with a sponge
and clean water.

172
5) Finished surfaces shall be adequately protected against rainfall until the mortar
has set. After setting, mortar shall be raked out to a depth of approximately 15
mm from the face of the rock, and the rocks sponged off along their edges.
6) Joints and weep holes shall be provided in the locations and in accordance with
the details shown on the Construction Drawings, or as directed by the Engineer-
in-Charge.

17.3 STONE PITCHING


17.3.1 General
Stone pitching without cement mortar shall be used along with concrete grid
beam as shown in drawings or as directed by Engineer-in-charge.

17.3.2 Material
1) Stones used for stone pitching shall be rounded or sub angular cobbles selected
from river or from required excavation or quarries with sufficient base area to be
stable. The specific gravity of stones shall not be less than 2.5.
2) Cobbles and rocks shall be free of cracks, seams and other defects that would
increase their susceptibility to destruction by erosive action. Individual cobbles
or rock fragments shall be rounded and well graded in size between 120 and
300 mm. Flat rock fragments shall not be used.
3) All the stones should have a reasonable uniform size and shall be not less than
300 mm along the length and thickness not less than 150 mm.

17.3.3 Execution
1) The stone pitching shall be laid over graded filter within the area bounded by
concrete grid beam as shown in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer-in-
charge.
2) The stone pitching shall be laid as per IS: 4515 (Code of practice on Stone
pitched lining for canals)

17.4 GABIONS (WIRE CRATES)


17.4.1 Materials
1) Gabions (or wire crates) shall have a volume varying between 1 and 4 m3,
depending on the local requirement. They shall be rectangular in shape and
constructed of double twisted galvanized mild steel wire formed into a
hexagonal shaped mesh, of area between 5,000 and 8,000 mm2. Corners shall be
reinforced with larger diameter galvanized wire.
2) Gabions shall be either prefabricated or assembled at the required place of
installation, and then filled with cobbles or rock fragments.
3) The iron wire for gabion construction shall conform to IS 16014:2012. The
galvanised coating on wire shall conform to IS 4826. The wires shall have the
following minimum diameters:

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Net and tension rods 3 mm
Wires for corner reinforcement 5 mm
Seam wires 2 mm

4) Fill material shall comprise cobbles or rock fragments that are dense, sound and
resistant to abrasion. Cobbles and rocks shall be free of cracks, seams and other
defects that would increase their susceptibility to destruction by erosive action.
Individual cobbles or rock fragments shall be rounded and well graded in size
between 120 and 200 mm. Flat rock fragments shall not be used.

17.4.2. Execution
1) Gabions shall be assembled, connected together and filled as shown on the
Drawings and described herein.
2) Foundation surfaces upon which gabions are to be placed shall be reasonably
smooth and even, with excessive high spots removed and voids filled with small
rock fragments. Gabions to be placed at the toe of slopes shall be laid in a trench
at least 250 mm deep.
3) Gabions shall be secured in position by tying to adjacent gabions, and where laid
on slopes, shall be fixed to the slope surface by 2 m long hardwood stakes driven
through the gabions into the ground at 2 m interval. Internal galvanized wire
tension rods shall be provided to reduce distortion of the cages.
4) After several gabions have been placed in position adjacent to one another they
shall be securely tied together continuously at their corners over their full height
and filled by hand with cobbles and rock fragments as specified. Once full, the
cage lid shall be placed in position and securely tied around its whole perimeter.
5) Further gabions to be added, either above or adjacent to those already placed,
shall be securely and continuously tied to existing gabions along all edges of
contact before filling.

17.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


17.5.1 Rock Paving
1) Measurement for payment will be of the volume of rock paving, placed to the
lines and thicknesses shown on the Construction Drawings or those determined
by the Engineer-in-Charge. The actual surface area will be determined by
survey. No deduction shall be made against the voids.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per cubic meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall include for the cost of furnishing, handling,
transportation, and placing of paving materials including sand and gravel or
mortar bedding.

17.5.2 Stone Pitching

174
1) Measurement for payment will be of the volume of stone pitching, placed to the
lines and thickness shown on the Construction Drawings or those determined by
the Engineer-in-Charge. The actual surface area will be determined by survey.
No deduction shall be made against the voids.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per cubic meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall include for the cost of furnishing, handling,
transportation, and placing of pitching materials

17.5.3 Gabions (Wire Crates)


1) Measurement for payment and payment will be made separately for wire crates
and for filling with boulders.
2) Measurement for payment for the wire crates will be of the area of the crates
placed in situ. Payment will be made at the Unit Price per square meter entered
in the Bill of Quantities which shall include all labour, equipment, and materials
required for manufacturing, handling, transportation and placing of wire crates.
3) Measurement for payment for the filling with boulders will be of the volume of
placed gabions. No deduction will be made for voids. Payment will be made at
the Unit Price per cubic meter entered in the Bill of Quantities which shall
include all labour, equipment, materials, required for furnishing, handling,
transportation, and placing of rocks and boulders..
1) Foundation excavation, blinding concrete and weep holes will be measured for
payment separately and paid for at the appropriate Unit Prices provided in other
Sections of these Specifications.

17.5.4 Exclusions
1) No separate measurement and payment shall be made for the wire crates/
Gabions laid by the contractor at access roads to quarries and borrow areas, for
the installation of contractor’s stationary plants and other infrastructural
establishment and the cost thereof is deemed to be included in the respective unit
rates.
2) No separate measurement and payment shall be made for the Rock paving,
concrete blocks and /or Masonry walls constructed by the contractor at access
roads to quarries and borrow areas, for the installation of contractor’s stationary
plants and other infrastructural establishment and the cost thereof is deemed to
be included in the respective unit rates.

END OF SECTION B.17

175
SECTION B.18
NOT USED

176
SECTION B.19
SERVICE WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE SYSTEM AND SANITARY
INSTALLATION
List of contents

19.1 SCOPE OF WORK


19.2 SUBMITTALS
19.3 STANDARDS
19.4 SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS
19.4.1 Water Supply
19.4.2 Sewage Drainage
19.5 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
19.5.1 Identification of Materials
19.5.2 Transportation and Handling
19.5.3 Material Standards
19.5.4 Materials Schedule
19.5.4.1 Piping
19.5.4.2 Water Supply Components & Sanitary Fixtures
19.6 EXECUTION
19.6.1 General
19.6.2 General pipe installation
19.6.3 Installation of Water Supply and Fittings
19.6.4 Joints and Connections
19.6.5 Sleeves
19.6.6 Fixture, Equipment Support and Fastenings
19.6.7 Hangers, Anchors & Guides in Buildings
19.6.8 Floor, Wall and Ceiling Plates
19.6.9 Cleaning and Painting
19.6.10 Earthning of Metal Parts
19.6.11 Metal Tapes
19.6.12 Marking on Pipe Material
19.7 TESTING OF INSTALLATIONS
19.7.1 General

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19.7.2 Fixtures and Fittings
19.7.3 Water Supply Systems
19.7.4 Drainage Systems
19.7.5 Defective Work
19.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
19.8.1 Pipe Work
19.8.2 Water Closet Unit
19.8.3 Wash Basin Unit
19.8.4 Service Sink Unit
19.8.5 Urinal Unit
19.8.6 Kitchen Unit
19.8.7 Septic Tank
19.8.8 PVC Water Tank
19.8.9 Globe Valves
19.8.10 Check Valves
19.8.11 Safety Valves
19.8.12 Drawoff Taps

178
SECTION B.19
SERVICE WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE SYSTEM AND SANITARY
INSTALLATION

19.1 SCOPE OF WORK


1) The Contractor shall furnish all materials, equipment and supply all labour
necessary for the complete installation, testing and operation of the plumbing
and sanitary systems for the power house in accordance with the
Tender/Construction Drawings consisting of, but not limited to, the following:
a) PVC water tank
b) All service water, plumbing and sanitary fixtures, fittings, trims and
accessories,
c) Portable sealed sewerage treatment unit,
d) Pipe hangers and inserts,
e) Painting of exposed pipes and appurtenances and asphalt protective
coating and covering for all pipes laid underground
f) Any work involved in providing the complete operation of the domestic
water supply system,
g) Supply of water for construction and testing purposes, and testing the
installations.
2) The Tender Drawings do not indicate pipes, fittings and valves. All such items,
whether or not specifically mentioned or indicated, shall be furnished and
installed if necessary to complete the system in accordance with the best
practice of the plumbing trade and to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-
Charge.
3) All dimensional locations of fixtures, equipment and floor drains, risers and
pipe chases shall be verified on the architectural drawings and manufacturers
catalogues.

19.2 SUBMITTALS
1) The Contractor shall submit for approval complete list of materials to be
incorporated in the Works, samples of materials with specimen of
workmanship, colour and finish, manufacturers catalogues at least 28 days
prior to the date he wishes place or confirm orders.
2) The Contractor shall prepare all necessary shop and erection drawings and data
covering equipment to be installed.
3) In addition, he shall furnish the manufacturer's schematic diagrams and
instructions for installation, servicing and repairs.

19.3 STANDARDS
The work is to be in full accordance with the requirements of all governmental
agencies having jurisdiction thereof as well as of all relevant Indian Standards.

179
19.4 SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS
19.4.1 Water supply
1) The source of water needed for domestic purposes shall be from the existing
water supply for the Kishanganga Dam control building as directed by
Engineer-in-Charge. The water shall be diverted from the source by gravity.
2) PVC water tank of 1500 litre capacity shall be provided for storage of water.
2) Water for domestic purposes will be supplied to the toilets, washroom,
workshop and kitchen etc. of the building by gravity.

19.4.2 Sewage System


1) Suitable size Septic tank shall be provided at suitable location for collection
and treatment of sanitary sewage.
2) Design data for sewerage system:
a) No. of employees : 10 persons
b) Sewage pp/day : 150 litres
c) Retention time : 3 days

19.5 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


19.5.1 Identification of materials
1) Each length of pipe fitting, trap, fixture and device used in the plumbing
system shall have cast, stamped or indelibly marked on it the manufacturer’s
trade or name, and the weight, type and class of product, when so required by
the standards mentioned above.
2) All plumbing fixtures and fittings installed without the above trade marks shall
be removed and replaced with properly marked fixtures and fittings by the
Contractor.

19.5.2 Transportation and handling


Any pipe and plumbing material damaged by improper handling and
transportation shall be marked for identification. Rejected material shall be
promptly removed from the work site and replaced by the Contractor.

19.5.3 Material standards


1) The principal basis for reference for the equipment, materials and labour
employed in the construction, fabrication, delivery, installation and testing of
the water supply and sewerage system shall be the appropriate Indian
Standards.
2) General requirements for sanitary fixtures shall be the following:
a) Where required by the Engineer-in-Charge and at any time, a fixture
sample of each type designated on the drawings shall be submitted for
approval. The samples shall be completely fitted and set up at the
building or in some other convenient approved place. All fixtures of
poorer quality than the approved samples will be rejected.

180
b) Plumbing fixtures shall be of the best quality as fabricated by
manufacturer of established reputation. All ceramic fixtures shall be best
quality regular selection, white vitreous china thoroughly fused,
producing a white material which, when fractured, shall show a
homogeneous mass with close grain and free from pores. All surface
coming in contact with walls, floors, or surfaces of other fixtures shall
reasonably flat.
c) Enamelled cast iron shall be the best quality and thickness necessary to
form fixtures of the best commercial grade manufactured. Porcelain
enamel coat on the surfaces required to be enamelled shall be applied so
that the enamel shall be smooth, of even thickness, white and free from
craze, discoloration and chips. Exterior exposed surfaces not required to
be enamelled shall be treated with one coat of filler at the factories. The
Contractor shall be responsible for any revisions of connections required
to adapt the roughing sleeves and openings to the particular fixtures he
proposed to use.
d) All fixtures shall have the manufacturer's guarantee label or trade mark
indicating first quality.
e) All fixtures requiring hot and cold water shall have the cold water tap on
the right hand side of the fixture and the hot water tap on the left hand
side.
f) All fixtures shall be of the same manufacture, unless otherwise directed
by the Engineer-in-Charge.

19.5.4 Material Schedule


19.5.4.1 Piping
1) Water supply main pipe and service connections to main pipe:
a) Pipes and fittings shall conform to applicable Indian standard for a
nominal pressure of 10 bars.
2) Pipes for water distribution lines:
a) All water circulation piping within the buildings shall be galvanised steel
pipes of standard weight.
b) Fillings shall be of malleable iron, except that exposed final connection
at fixtures shall be made of chromium plated brass pipe or fitting.
Suitable adapters shall be used where a change in materials is made.
3) Sanitary drainage system:
a) All piping and fitting within the buildings shall be of hubless,
centrifugally spun cast iron pipe including all necessary stainless steel
connection with gaskets made of elastomer.
b) Short fixture connections and vent pipes shall be of polypropylene pipe
spigot and socket type, sealed with rubber rings.

181
c) Adapters gaskets, etc. which come in contact with waste material shall be
resistant to all commonly used acid, alkali, hydrocarbon, solvents and
water.

19.5.4.2 Water Supply Components & Sanitary Fixtures


1) PVC water tank 1500 litre capacity (1no.) conforming to IS 12701.
2) Maintenance free globe valves (2nos.), with soft seat, made of cast iron,
nominal pressure 16 bars, suitable for domestic water systems.
3) Check valves(2nos.), made of cast brass, hot pressed brass or bronze, swing
type metal valves, suitable for domestic water systems, nominal pressure 25
bars, both ends female threaded.
4) Bronze spring safety valves (2nos), enclosed type with steel spring, inlet
connection male, outlet connection female taper, suitable for domestic water
systems, made of brass, nominal pressure 16 bars.
5) Draw-off taps(6nos), made of brass, with loose handles and hose union,
nominal pressure
6) Water closet units (western type) consisting of following components and
accessories:
a) 1 WC bowl, made of vitreous china, colour white, wash down type,
overall size approx. 600 x 350 mm, with integrated S-or P trap, floor
standing
b) 1 low hanging cistern, made of vitreous china, content 9-11 litre, incl.
fixing material
c) 1 chromium plated, metal flush pipe Nominal Dia. 32mm, incl.
escutcheons and unions
d) 1 chromium plated brass ball valve Nominal Dia. 15mm, incl. chromium
plated copper connection pipe Nominal Dia. 15mm and escutcheon
e) 1 heavy duty plastic seat with cover, colour black, incl. fixing material
f) 1 set of bowl fixing material
g) 1 ablution faucet, self closing flush type Nominal Dia. 15mm, made of
chromium plated brass, with 70 cm flexible chromium plated metal hose
Nominal Dia. 15mm and escutcheon
h) 1 chromium plated metal paper holder, incl. fastening material
i) 1 chromium plated double coat hook, incl. fastening material
j) 1 plastic closet brush set
k) 1 chromium plated metal hand bar approx. 30 mm dia. incl. fastening
material
7) Wash basin units consisting of following components and accessories:
a) 1 wash basin, made of vitreous china, overall size approx. 600 x
520 mm, colour white, with overflow and front spray edge
b) 1 water tap, made of chromium plated brass, Nominal Dia. 15mm, with
trecorn-deluxe handle, marked blue, swivel tube spout and jet regulator

182
c) 1 waste fitting, made of chromium plated brass, Nominal Dia. 32mm,
with chain stay, chain and plug
d) 1 p-trap, made of chromium plated brass, Nominal Dia. 32mm, seal
75 mm, with adjustable inlet pipe and escutcheons
e) 1 angle stop valve, made of chromium plated brass, Nominal Dia.
15/10mm, incl. chromium plated service copper pipe Nominal Dia.
10mm and escutcheon
f) 1 crystal-porcelain mirror, size 600 x 500 mm, incl. chromium plated
clips and fixing material
g) 1 soap tray, made of chromium plated brass, incl. fixing material
h) 1 electric hand-dryer

8) Service sink units consisting of following components:


a) 1 sink bowl, made of white fire clay, with hard wood pad at the front
edge and stainless steel lift-up bucket grid
b) 1 wall tap Nominal Dia. 15, made of chromium plated brass, projection
approx. 150 mm, with jet regulator, handle marked blue, incl. escutcheon
c) 1 wall tap as before, however handle marked red
d) 1 waste fitting Nominal Dia 40, screen type, made of chromium plated
brass
e) 1 plastic P-trap Nominal Dia 50/40, with 75 mm seal and adjustable
inlet pipe, colour white
f) 1 set of built-in cantilever brackets of white enamelled cast iron and
fixing material
9) Urinal unit consisting of following components:
a) 1 urinal bowl made of vitreous china, colour white, with integrated P- or
S-trap, wash out type, wall hung, with semi concealed overflow
b) 1 flush valve Nominal Dia 15 made of chrome. plated brass
c) 1 metal connection pipe Nominal Dia15, chromium plated with
escutcheon
d) 1 connection piece Nominal Dia 50 to sewage pipe including;.
escutcheon
e) 1 set of fastening material
10) Kitchen unit consisting of following components:
a) 1 top and sink unit made of stainless steel, with one bowl, incl. one-hole
single lever sink mixer Nominal Dia 15, with swivelling cast spout,
projection 240 mm, cup strainer and trap Nominal Dia 40, mixer, strainer
and trap made of chromium plated brass, counter top with integral back
splash
b) 1 15l capacity wall mounted electrical water heater (geyser) of reputed
make, with cut-off function & outlet fitting Nominal Dia 15, chromium
plated.

183
c) 1 upper wall-mounted cabinet 1,050 x 600mm, made of sheet steel,
finishing colour white, with 3 hinged doors, cabinet furnished with flush
double bottoms
d) basic construction shall be made of 0.75mm sheet steel, door front, liners
and shields shall be of min. 0.90mm sheet steel, internal gaskets and
bracing shall be of 1.5mm sheet steel, finishing colour white
e) Strainer baskets flanged Nominal Dia 100, nominal pressure 16,
consisting of flange body, stainless steel basket, grooved drive stud, hex.
bolts and nuts.

19.6 EXECUTION
19.6.1 General
1) All installation work shall be performed in a first-class, neat and workmanlike
manner by personnel skilled in their trades to the satisfaction of the Engineer-
in-Charge.
2) Following piping systems shall be installed:
a) Domestic water supply system,
b) Sanitary waste and vent system.

19.6.2 General Pipe Installation


1) The arrangement, positions and connections, of pipes, fixtures, drains, valves,
and the like shall be as shown on the Construction Drawings and or as directed
by the Engineer-in-Charge. Pipes shall be laid or fixed in as straight and direct
lines as possible, forming right angles or parallel with building walls and other
pipes, and neatly spaced. Pipe risers shall be erected plumb and true.
2) All horizontal runs of piping, except where concealed in partitions, shall be
kept as high as possible and close to walls. A minimum slope of 1% shall be
maintained on all sewage, waste and drain lines.
3) Pipes or other apparatus shall not be installed in a manner which interferes
with the full swing of the doors or windows.
4) All screwed pipe shall be reamed smooth before installation. Pipes shall not be
bent, flattened, split or injured in any way.
5) Unless otherwise approved in special cases, reducing fittings shall be used in
making reductions in sizes of pipes. Bushing will not be allowed without the
consent of the Engineer-in-Charge.
6) Friction type wrenches and vices shall be used on all copper tubing and brass
piping. Pipe showing tool marks shall be removed and replaced with new
materials. Where chrome plated piping is installed, the pipe shall be cut and
threaded so that no unplated pipe threads are visible when the work is
completed.
7) Fixture connections, concealed in building construction, shall be carried to
points above floor, broken out close to the underside of fixture and risen,
exposed, to the fixture.

184
8) Protective pans shall be provided under and over individual pipes passing high
voltage electrical bus ducts or switchgear equipment.
9) Exterior piping shall not be installed in water or when trench or weather
conditions are unsuitable for the work.

19.6.3 Installation of Water Supply Pipes and Fittings


1) The piping shall be extended to all fixtures, outlets and equipment. The cold
water piping shall be installed with a fall toward a drain down point situated
on the downstream side of the main shut-off valve. The ends of pipes and
outlets shall be capped or plugged and left ready for future connections.
2) The branch cold water piping to the various fixtures shall not be less than
stated below:
Water closet tank 10 mm dia.
Urinals, flush-o-meter type 15 mm dia.
Service sink 15 mm dia.
Lavatories 10 mm dia.
Shower 15 mm dia.
Hose bib 15 mm dia.
3) Cast bronze union shall be installed at the connection to all equipment so that
they may be conveniently disassembled.
4) Upon completion of the water system, all lines and valve seats shall be flushed
out to clear the system of particles and dirt.

19.6.4 Joints and connections


1) Fixture connections:
a) Where space does not permit the use of standard fittings in conjunction
with cast-iron flanges, special short-radius fittings shall be provided,
b) Connections between fixtures and flanges on soil pipes shall be made
absolutely air and watertight with an approved sealing compound; rubber
gaskets or putty will not be permitted for these connections,
c) Fixtures without outlet flanges shall be set at the proper distance from
floor or wall to make first class joint with the use of closet-setting
compound or gasket,
d) No fixtures shall be set in place until the Engineer-in-Charge has
examined and approved the setting.
2) Accessible contraction-expansion joints in piping shall be provided where
necessary. Horizontal runs of pipe over 15 m in length shall be anchored
midway along the run to force expansion and contraction equally towards the
ends.

19.6.5 Sleeves
1) Sleeves shall be provided for all pipes passing through floors, walls and
concrete pits.

185
2) Sleeves shall have an internal diameter at least 25 mm larger than the external
diameter of the pipe being sleeved. Pipe insulation must be continuous through
the sleeve. Sleeves shall be installed as construction progresses and secured in
place during pouring of concrete.
3) Pipes passing through membrane waterproofed floor and roof slabs shall be
flashed, and roof couplings provided at a suitable level above the roof slabs to
terminate flashings.

19.6.6 Fixture, Equipment Supports and Fastenings


1) All fixtures and equipment shall be supported and fastened in a safe and
satisfactory manner.
2) Inserts shall be securely anchored and the anchors shall be properly set in
mortar. Inserts shall be installed flush with the finished wall and shall be
completely concealed when the fixtures are installed.
3) Where through bolts are used, they shall be provided with plates or washers at
the back and set so that heads, nuts and washers will be concealed by plaster.
Exposed bolts, nuts, cap nuts and screws shall of the chromium plated brass.
4) All plumbing fixtures and accessories shall be installed so as to afford access
for cleaning. All brackets, cleats, plates and anchors required to support the
fixtures shall be fixed rigidly in place. Water closets shall be set on Bol-wax.
5) All installed plumbing fixtures and accessories shall be kept clean and in
working order and be adequately protected. The Contractor shall not make use
of the installed facilities without approval of the Engineer-in-Charge.
6) All fixtures shall be provided with individual control stops so that each fixture
may be separately controlled without affecting any other fixture. All flush
valves shall be equipped with vacuum breaking devices.
7) All surface mounted soap dispensers shall be installed with a 100 mm
minimum clearance above the unit for filling.

19.6.7 Hangers, Anchors & Guides in Buildings


1) All piping shall be rigidly supported by means of approved hangers and
supports, to support and maintain the pipe in the required position and to
prevent vibration. Supports shall be positioned to allow for expansion and
contraction.
2) Horizontal runs of pipe shall be supported on adjustable wrought iron or
malleable iron pipe hangers spaced one pipe length, but not exceeding 3.50 m
apart. Vertical runs of pipe shall be supported by wrought-iron clamps or
collars.
3) Hangers for water pipes shall be the split-ring type with 9 mm iron rods. Pipe
hangers shall be thoroughly cleaned and painted with one coat of asphalt
varnish.

186
4) Pipe hangers shall be fixed to concrete or masonry with approved steel fixings
of the expanding anchor type or steel inserts cast into place. Expanding anchor
type fixings shall be installed to develop their full strength. Inserts shall be cast
steel and shall be of a type to receive a machine bolt or nut after installation.
Inserts shall permit adjustment of the bolt and shall be installed before the
concrete is poured.
5) Chromium-plated pipes shall have a clearance of not less than 18 mm or more
than 25 mm where run on the face of plaster and shall be supported where
required by cast-brass supports finished to match the pipe.

19.6.8 Floor, Wall and Ceiling Plates


Where uncovered, exposed pipes other than ferrous pass through floors, finished
walls or finished ceilings shall be fitted with chromium-plated plates. Ferrous
pipes shall be fitted with cast-iron or steel plates. Plates shall be large enough to
completely cover the hole around the pipe and shall be square, octagonal or
round, with the least dimension not less than 37 mm larger than the diameter of
the pipe.

19.6.9 Cleaning and Painting


1) Prior to painting, all exposed metal surfaces shall be free from grease, dirt or
other foreign material. Chrome or nickel-plated pipes and fittings shall be
polished upon completion.
2) Pipe hangers, supports and all other iron-work in concealed spaces shall be
painted with one coat of red lead and a finish coat of oil enamel paint.
3) All exposed soil, waste and vent piping or cast-iron works that are asphalt or
tar-coated shall be given two coats of shellac and two coats of oil based paint.
4) All exposed pipes shall be adequately and durably identified by distinctive
coloured paints as follows:
a) Cold Water Pipe Blue
b) Hot Water Pipe Red
c) Vent Pipe Green
d) Fire line Red

19.6.10 Earthing of Metal Parts


The Contractor shall ensure electrical continuity of all pipeline network and all
metal appliances, installed by him and to which all other metal parts of the
installation have be connected.

19.6.11 Metal Tapes


Non-metallic pipelines shall be laid with a continuous metallic tape for easy
detection after installation. The tape (or wire) shall be of corrosion resistant metal
and shall be placed on the top of the pipeline.

187
19.6.12 Marking on Pipe Material
1) The following indications have to be marked on all pieces and on the pipes at
1.00 m distance from the socket or. joints:
a) quality indication
b) manufacturing marks, brand name or trademark
c) nominal diameter
d) year of manufacture
e) corresponding number of the schedule
2) In case of spigot pipes, the spigot end has to show the control marks for
connection.

19.7 TESTING OF INSTALLATIONS


19.7.1 General
1) The test programme shall include a complete visual inspection of the whole
plumbing system and verification or performance as stipulated in the material
specification.
2) All supply documents, operating instructions, acceptance documentation and
maintenance regulations shall be checked to ensure that they correspond with
equipment described and also all certificates such as that of the inspection
authorities, test certificates and data about quality, temperature and pressure
shall be submitted.

19.7.2 Fixtures and Fittings


1) The type and the catalogue number of the sanitary fixtures shall be checked.
2) All equipment in general including the accessories shall be checked for service
ability, correct operation and freedom from damage.
3) The flow and water capacity shall be checked on the full connection of
lavatories, WC's etc. and also the draining capacity shall be measured at the
same time.
19.7.3 Water Supply Systems
1) Visual inspections shall be made of the entire network for the water systems
with regard to laying, fixing, suspension of pipes and fixtures, particularly the
arrangements of the fixed points and the separation of the individual
connections in the various parts of the system. The laying and sealing the
water connections lines to the buildings and through walls shall be checked.
2) The satisfactory function of all dirt traps, valves, aeration and venting valves,
check-valves, compensators, pressure gauges, pressure reducers, thermostats,
thermometers, level controls, protective filters, pumps, etc., shall be checked.
3) The test programme shall also cover:
a) Checking of type, thickness and professional laying of the piping
insulation,
b) Checking number, form and inscription of the equipment labelling,

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c) Checking of all pipe and flanged connections to supply tanks, devices,
distributors, water-heaters, air-conditioning devices, drainage and vents
for symmetry and lack of strain,
d) Performance of pressure test for the entire network, including fixtures,
e) Checking of the filter medium in all filters for kind and quantity,
f) Checking of water quality with the aid of chemical analysis and
bacteriological test results.
4) On completion of the pipe work installation or sections thereof as required,
pressure test shall be made before the application of insulation. The pressure
tests shall be taken by sectors. All equipment and accessories shall be provided
and the Engineer-in-Charge shall be given notice that the work is ready for
testing. Pipes shall be filled slowly with potable water to exclude all air. Tests
shall be made by pumping up the system to the required pressure then closing
the valves between the pump and the section under test. The valve shall remain
closed for the duration of the test and pump shall be disconnected. Test
pressure of maximum working pressure plus 50% shall be applied as detailed
for a period of hours or longer, at the discretion of the Engineer-in-Charge.
There must be no measurable loss of pressure for at least 30 minutes. If, at the
end of period, there is no drop in pressure and no evidence of leak or other
faults, the test will be considered satisfactory. Should any fault be revealed by
the test, leaks are to be recorded. Faults shall be made good and the pipe work
retested as many times as necessary until satisfactory results are obtained.

19.7.4 Drainage Systems


1) The entire system of waste, drain and vent pipes shall be checked and tested
with water whenever possible, otherwise with air. Wooden plugs shall not be
permitted for tests. The following will be covered:
a) Check the piping by means of the separation system, in relation to the
specified capacity,
b) Check each connection for dimensions and draining capacity,
c) Check the drain line for laying, fixing, compliance with specification,
d) Check the practical arrangement of the fixtures, fixing points,
suspensions, cleaning openings, vents, pit covers and ground inlets,
e) Check all the covers and openings, paying special attention to the
separation system for waste/sewage and the storm water,
f) Generally clean water and apparatus shall be provided for testing.
2) The following test methods shall be used:

a) Air testing:

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All open ends of pipe work shall be plugged and water seals of all
sanitary appliances fully charged. Tee piece shall be connected to the
installation by a flexible tube passed through a water seal, or by fitting to
a test plug. Tee piece shall have cock on each branch, one branch
connected to manometer. Air or smoke shall be introduced through other
branch until a pressure equal to 38 mm water gauge register on the
manometer scale. A period for temperature stabilisation to be allowed
after which pressure has to be maintained without loss shall be not less
than three minutes.
b) Water testing:
All the openings in the piping system shall be tightly closed by inserting
testing plug so that heavy rubber gasket fits snugly all around the
opening. The highest point will be left open to supply water and may be
raised if necessary by temporary jointing, develop a minimum static head
of 0.5 bar for of water at each section of the system. Water is filled to the
point of overflow and any drop in the level of water will indicate a leak
that will be found by inspection. The water level will be checked for no
drop for at least 15 to 30 minutes. Higher stacks will be tested in
sections, starting from the top section and then connecting top section to
next lower section.
3) Testing shall be carried out as soon as practicable after completion of each
drainage stack. All concealed work shall be tested before being finally
enclosed.

19.7.5 Defective Work


1) If inspection or test shows, any defect, such defective work or material shall be
replaced and the inspection and tests repeated until satisfactory to the
Engineer-in-Charge.
2) All repairs to piping shall be made with new materials at the expense of the
Contractor. No caulking of screwed joints or holes will be accepted.

19.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


19.8.1 Pipe work
1) Measurement for payment for the supply and installation of the various sizes
of pipes for water supply and sewerage system including insulations if any of
the pipes will be of the length of pipeline actually installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per linear meter entered in
the Bill of Quantities, which shall also include all fittings, fixings, valves, joint
treatment and testing and commissioning of pipeline.
3) The excavation, concrete and backfilling of the trenches required for pipes will
be paid separately at the Unit Prices applicable for such work.

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19.8.2 Water Closet Unit
1) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of water closet units
along with all its accessories as per specifications shall be for the number of
units installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation of all
fittings, fixings, valves, joint treatment and testing and commissioning of the
unit.

19.8.3 Wash Basin Unit


1) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of wash basin units
along with all its accessories as per specifications shall be for the number of
units installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation of all
fittings, fixings, valves, joint treatment and testing and commissioning of the
unit.

19.8.4 Service Sink Unit


1) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of service sink units
along with all its accessories as per specifications shall be for the number of
units installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation of all
fittings, fixings, valves, joint treatment and testing and commissioning of the
unit.

19.8.5 Urinal Unit


1) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of urinal units along
with all its accessories as per specifications shall be for the number of units
installed.
2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation of all
fittings, fixings, valves, joint treatment and testing and commissioning of the
unit.

19.8.6 Kitchen Unit


1) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of kitchen units
along with all its accessories as per specifications shall be for the number of
units installed.

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2) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation of all
fittings, fixings, valves, joint treatment and testing and commissioning of the
unit.

19.8.7 Septic Tank


1) Measurement and payment shall be made for respective item of works as
included various sections of these specifications.
2) Payment for the respective item will be made at the appropriate Unit Price as
entered in the BOQ.

19.8.8 PVC Water Tank


3) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of PVC water tank
as per specifications shall be for the number of units installed.
4) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation.

19.8.9 Globe valves


5) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of globe valves shall
be for the number of units installed.
6) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation.

19.8.10 Check Valves


7) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation of check valves for
the number of units installed.
8) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation.

19.8.11 Safety Valves


9) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation safety valves shall
be for the number of units installed.
10) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation.

19.8.12 Drawoff Taps


11) Measurement and payment for the supply and installation drawoff taps shall be
for the number of units installed.
12) Payment will be made at the appropriate Unit Price per unit entered in the Bill
of Quantities, which shall include entire cost of supply and installation.

END OF SECTION B.19

192
Part-B
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(E&M WORKS)

193
B-I: GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

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1 GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

1.1 General

The Contractor shall strictly observe this General Technical Specification


in conjunction with the Particular Technical Specifications. The contractor
shall carry out all works in a skilled and workman like manner in
compliance with modern methods of engineering. All design, calculations,
materials, works, manufacturing and testing shall conform to the latest
applicable standards.
In addition, the Contractor shall abide to all applicable regulations
regarding the execution of construction and installation work, and shall
follow all instructions issued by the competent authorities, and the
Engineer in-Charge.
The particular technical specifications shall take precedence over the
general technical specifications in case of any contradiction. Clause
number cross-references refer to the volume in which they occur unless
stated otherwise.

1.2 Scope of Work

The scope of work in this Contract covered by the Electrical-Mechanical


Works General Technical Specification is established in the Particular
Technical Specifications. In addition to this, the Contractor shall prepare
the detailed design, construction and installation drawings as well as
calculations, material specifications, operating and maintenance
instructions, etc., for the works as stipulated in the Particular Technical
Specifications.
These Specifications include the performance of all works and the
provision of all labours, materials, permanent and temporary equipment,
tools, accessories for transport to the site, including loading, unloading, if
necessary reloading at the port of arrival, intermediate storage, protection
of the Works from the effects of the weather, cleaning, drying, storage at
site and preservation related works, complete installation, painting, testing
and commissioning of all works and accessories of the works.
The Contractor shall make competent and experienced staff available for
the training and assistance of the operating staff during commissioning
and trial operation. The period provided for testing and commissioning is
established in the Special Conditions.
The Contractor shall supply the O&M Instruction Manuals in a number and
at a time as stated in the General and Special Conditions of Contract.

1.2.1 Standards for General Application

i) ISO International Standards Organisation


ii) IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
iii) IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
iv) IS Indian Standards
v) AISI American Iron and Steel Institute
vi) ANSI American National Standards Institute

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vii) ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
viii) ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ix) AWS American Welding Society
x) BS British Standards
xi) IIW International Institute of Welding
xii) CMAA Crane Manufacturers Association of America
Notwithstanding reference made to various standards all equipment and
works as per provisions and requirements of relevant and latest Indian
Standards shall be acceptable.

1.2.2 Material Standards

Materials shall be new and of first-class quality, suitable for the purpose,
free from defects and imperfections, and the classifications and grades in
conformance with the latest issue of the respective relevant standard.
Material to other standards may be used if approval by the Engineer in-
Charge has been obtained. Material specifications, including grade or
class data, shall be shown on the appropriate detail drawings submitted
for review.
If using stock material not specifically prepared for the works under this
Contract, the Contractor shall submit evidence that the material complies
with approved standards and that the material is adequate for the
intended use.
The Contractor shall indicate in the Technical Data Schedules, the
materials and applicable standards for all major parts of the supply.
The materials shall be carefully selected for the intended purpose and due
consideration of the site conditions and the tropical environment. Higher-
grade material shall be used where ordinary material is insufficient.

1.2.3 Electrical Standards

The following basic standards for electrical works or any other approved
standard shall be applied:
i) IS (Indian Standards)
ii) Standards issued by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
iii) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
For specific standards see the Particular Technical Specifications.

1.3 Units of Measurements

The international SI-system of units shall be used for documents,


calculations, correspondence, drawings, etc., relevant to the Tender and
the subsequent Contract.

1.4 Works Identification System

An approved, uniform Works identification system shall be applied for all


mechanical, electrical and Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Works to be
agreed upon during detailed design.

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1.5 Time Schedule

According to the relevant articles in the General and Special Conditions of


Contract, the progress of the work shall conform to the basic Programme
of Work on which the Contract is based. The "Programme" to be
submitted shall include the following information
i) Design work
ii) Shop work
iii) Testing and inspection of works
iv) Transport to the Site
v) Storage at site
vi) Preparations at the Site
vii) Interdependence with work of other Contractors
viii) Erection and commissioning
ix) Acceptance testing
x) Handing over
xi) Removal of erection equipment and clearing of the Site

2 DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE

2.1 General

Design, manufacture and construction requirements shall generally be as


described below besides complying with the specific requirements
elaborated in particular technical specification

2.2 Design and Construction Requirements

The following directions, information and technical requirements for


layout, design and manufacture shall be observed as far as they are
applicable to the Works to be offered. The technical requirements of the
General Technical Specifications are valid for all parts of the Works
except where they are modified by additional and/or special requirements,
specified in the Particular Technical Specifications.
Whenever a Contractor deviates from these Specifications, he shall
furnish the data called for in the Technical Data Schedules and give a
summary of and the reasons for all deviations in the "List of Deviations’’.
Failure to accomplish this may cause the elimination of his Tender,
especially when a major deviation is involved.
Any changes of the design of any part of the Works, which may become
necessary after signing the Contract, have to be submitted in writing to the
Engineer in-Charge for approval, being sufficiently substantiated and
justified.
The parts of the Works shall be designed and arranged so that they can
be easily inspected, cleaned, erected and dismantled without involving
large scale dismantling of other parts of the Works. They shall be
designed, and manufactured in accordance with the latest recognised
rules of workmanship and modern engineering practice.

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The regulations, standards and guidelines listed in these Specifications
shall be observed in the design, calculation and manufacture of the
Works.
All parts of the Works shall be suitable in every respect for continuous
operation at maximum output efficiency under the climatic conditions and
operating conditions prevailing at the Site.
Since the power house is located at an elevation higher than 2000 m and
low temperature range in order of -200C, necessary altitude correction
factor and suitability for operation in extreme low temperature conditions
would be considered for equipment. The units are supposed to operate
throughout the year and in isolated mode of operation. One unit is to be in
standby mode as such necessary provisions to start the unit in icy
condition need to be suitably incorporated
Special attention shall be given to Works, parts of which are delivered by
different manufacturers. Problems arising in this connection shall be
solved by the Contractor and be defined in writing.
All live, moving and rotating parts shall be adequately secured in order to
avoid danger to the operating staff.
Manufacturers shall take appropriate measure to prevent the ingress of
dust into any Works (such as bearings, relays, control and measuring
equipment, etc.), which may be endangered thereby.
Suitable lifting eyes and backing-out bolts shall be provided where
required or where they will be useful for erection and dismantling.
All design details and layout matters shall be discussed in periodic
meetings with the Engineer in-Charge. The first design meeting between
the contractor and the Engineer in-Charge shall take place within 30 days
after the date of signing of the contract or placement of the order. Further
design meetings shall take place as agreed between the participants until
the design work is completed.

2.3 Allowable Stress

The layout of the parts of items of works shall fundamentally consider the
most severe conditions to which they will be subjected during testing and
operation.
If different stress values are given in the General/Particular Technical
Specifications or in the relevant standards and regulations, then the more
stringent values shall be applicable.
The dimensions of the parts which are exposed to repetitive and
alternating stresses as well as to impacts and vibrations shall take into
account the safety measures approved in practice.

2.4 Design Criteria

The plant equipment shall be designed for the worst possible combination
of the following loading conditions as applicable:
i) All static and dynamic hydraulic loads,
ii) All loads due to dead weight and frictional forces,
iii) Seismic or wind loads, and
iv) Other loads.

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2.4.2 Seismic Conditions

Stresses resulting after including the seismic loads, as per relevant zone,
shall not exceed permissible stresses.

2.5 Standardisation of Works

Every effort shall be made to standardise parts and minimise costs of the
Works throughout the Works in order to facilitate keeping stocks,
maintenance, replacement, inter-changeability, etc.
The Engineer in-Charge, therefore, reserves the right to request the
different contractors to use uniform types or makes of works & materials.
The contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra payment due to this
request. This request shall especially be applicable to small mechanical
and electrical works such as:
i) Valves
ii) Thermometers
iii) Pressure gauges
iv) Flow meters
v) Water level gauges
vi) Terminals & terminal racks
vii) Indicating instruments & meters
viii) Auxiliary relays
ix) Contractors, fuses
x) Motor protection switches
xi) Control devices
xii) Lights, bulbs, plugs, sockets
xiii) Limit switches
xiv) Level switches
The types or makes to be used shall be decided later by the Engineer in-
Charge. All instrument scales shall be written in the ruling language of the
contract and in the international SI- System of units.

2.6 Safety

2.6.1 Safety of personnel

Where specific standards are not mentioned by the Employer, all


equipment and services provided under this contract shall abide by
international standards commonly accepted in the hydroelectric utility
industry for safety of personnel whether involved with operation or
maintenance. All operations and routine maintenance interventions shall
be completely safe and designed to be carried out under normal
conditions of access and while the equipment is operating.

2.6.2 Safety of operation

All equipment and services provided under this contract shall abide by
commonly accepted standards for safety of operation.

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The overall design shall comprise a substantial degree of conservatism,
especially with respect to the selection of the design parameters and of
the components critical to the safety and reliability of the operation.

2.6.3 Handling provision

Lifting lugs, brackets, eyes, and other items required for attaching lifting
devices shall be provided on all the major components of the equipment
weighing more than 24 kg for safe handling. All slings and lifting devices
required for attachment to the components and assemblies and to a crane
hook for safe handling during erection and later disassembly shall be
furnished.

2.6.4 Availability and reliability

The Contractor shall design each equipment, system or subsystem to


provide a high level of availability and reliability.
The “Electrical & Mechanical Works” shall be designed, constructed and
integrated using components and systems which have been proven in
other plants of similar application and have shown low failure rates in such
applications.

2.6.5 Interchange-ability

The Contractor shall optimise the various systems and subsystems to


minimize the number of different components and associated spare parts.
Equipment fulfilling the same or similar functions at various locations shall
whenever possible use the same material.
Homologous parts shall be interchangeable without needing any
adjustment.
All equipment, parts and elements of mass production shall be
standardized. These pieces of equipment, parts and elements shall
include but not be limited to the following: motors, pumps, flanges, bolts,
nuts and threads, valves, gauges and detectors, electrical instruments
and measuring devices, flow meters, terminal and terminal boxes,
primary, secondary and auxiliary relays, contactors, fuses and switches,
lamps, bulbs sockets push buttons, lubricants, control modules, I/O
modules, etc.
Where the equipment supplied under this Contract comprises identical
pieces of equipment each of their corresponding removable parts shall be
fully compatible and interchangeable for use in the other, without
adjustment to the remaining parts.
The Contractor shall coordinate the supply of his sub-contractors to
achieve a great degree of standardization throughout the “Electrical &
Mechanical Works” and the stock of spare parts.

2.7 Identification Plates

2.7.1 General

Each important part to be delivered under this Contract shall be equipped


with permanent identification plates in readily visible locations. Whether a
part shall be considered as important in this respect shall be decided by
the Engineer in-Charge.

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The identification plates shall be protected during erection and especially
during painting. Damaged or illegible identification plates shall be replaced
by new ones. The identification plates of non-corroding, non-disintegrating
material (except manufacturer's nameplates of small standardised
components) shall be inscribed in the Contractual language.
The inscription shall be printed, stencilled, or hand-written, but in any
case, waterproof, oil-proof and wear-resistant. Works (machines,
transformers, etc.) nameplates shall be either of the enamelled type or be
of stainless steel covered after stamping with a transparent paint.
Wording, size and material of all labels and plates shall be subject to the
Engineer in-Charge's approval.

2.7.2 Manufacturer's Nameplates

The following data shall be shown in accordance with the relevant


standards:
i) Manufacturer’s name and address
ii) Work's serial number and date of manufacture
iii) Main design data.
As a general rule, standardised components, such as small or medium-
sized electric motors, transformers, instruments, etc., may be delivered
with the manufacturer's standard nameplate.
The design of the Manufacturer's nameplates for the main components
such as gates, cranes, valves, hoists, servomotors, pumps etc., shall be
submitted for the Engineer in-Charge's approval sufficiently in advance.

2.7.3 Functional Plates / Instruction Plates

Each part appearing under a certain symbol or number in functional


diagrams, piping diagrams, in the Operation and Maintenance
Instructions, etc., shall be equipped with a plate showing the same symbol
or number.

2.8 Colour Coding For Electrical Connections

Live parts of electrical connections shall be colour coded as follows:

Conductor Coding Symbol Colour


Designation Alphanumeric

A.C. network 3 phase Phase 1 R Red


Phase 2 Y Yellow
Phase 3 B Blue
Neutral N Black
A.C. single phase Phase P Red
Neutral N Black
Earth E Green-yellow
D.C. supply Positive a Red
Negative b Black

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2.9 Workmanship

2.9.1 Finished Surfaces

Where the finish is not indicated or specified, the type of finish shall be
most suitable for the surface to which it applies and shall be consistent
with the class of fit required. Surfaces to be machine-finished shall be
indicated on the shop drawings by symbols.

2.9.2 Unfinished Surfaces

Unfinished surfaces shall be true to the lines and dimensions shown on


the drawings and shall be chipped or ground free of all projections and
rough spots.

2.9.3 Protection of Machined Surfaces

Machine-finished surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned of foreign matter.


Finished surfaces of large parts and other surfaces shall be protected with
wooden pads or other suitable means. Unassembled pins or bolts shall be
oiled or greased and wrapped with moisture-resistant paper or protected
by other approved means.

2.9.4 Painting Systems

Painting system shall generally be as per standard practice of the


manufacturer but shall be approved during detailed engineering.

2.9.4.1 Painting Materials

The Contractor shall provide a complete, reliable coating system. Coating


materials shall be standard products of a paint manufacturer with proven
experience in the field of corrosion protection of the type of works to be
supplied.
The Contractor shall submit for the Engineer in-Charge's approval full
details of the preparation, type of materials, methods and sequences he
proposes to use to comply with the requirements for the protection of the
Works.
Painting of the repainted surface shall be in accordance to the relevant
standard and shall be detailed by the Contractor for Engineer in-Charge’s
acceptance.

2.9.4.2 Galvanising

Unless otherwise specified, all structural steel including ladders,


platforms, hand rails and the like and all exterior and interior steel
surfaces of outdoor Works, as well as bolts and nuts associated with
galvanised parts shall be hot-dip galvanised, electrolytically galvanised or
sheradized, as may be appropriate to the particular case.

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3 MECHANICAL WORKS AND STEEL STRUCTURES

3.1 General

All mechanical Works and steel structures of any mechanical or electrical


installation shall comply with this General Technical Specification and the
requirements of the Particular Technical Specification.
The Works shall be of an approved, reliable design providing the highest
possible degree of uniformity and interchange-ability.
All Works shall be pre-assembled in the manufacturer’s premises to an
utmost extent.
Revolving parts shall be truly balanced both statically and dynamically that
when running at normal speed and at any load up to the maximum, there
will be no vibration due to lack of such balance.

3.2 Materials

Materials shall be new and of high-grade quality, suitable for the purpose,
free from defects and imperfections, and of the classifications and grade
meeting specification requirement and shall be subjected to acceptance
by the Employer. Material specifications, including grade or class shall be
shown on the appropriate Contractor's detail drawings submitted for
review.
All materials or parts used in the equipment shall be tested in conformity
with the standards accepted by the Employer.
Certified Material Test Report for the materials of major/important
components and/or materials for special application shall be furnished to
the Employer as soon as possible after the tests are performed. Each test
certificate shall identify the components for which the materials are used
and shall contain all information necessary to verify compliance with the
contract.

3.3 Bolts, Screws, Nuts, etc.

All bolts, studs, screws, nuts, and washers shall be to the ISO standard
(metric system) except other standards will be considered for specific
applications. The extent to which other standards are proposed shall be
indicated by the Contractor.
Where mild steel bolts and nuts are used, they shall be of the precision
cold forged washer faced type if commercially available in the size
required. Alternatively, approved hot forged bolts and nuts, machined so
that the undersides of bolt head and nut are faced and parallel to one
another when assembled, may be used. In the latter case, a suitable fillet
shall be machined between the bolt head and shank. All parts, other than
structural steel work, bolted together, shall be spot faced on the back to
ensure that nuts and bolt heads bed down satisfactorily. Bolts machined
from bar stock shall not be used without approval of the Engineer in-
Charge. All bolting material shall be adequately treated against corrosion
before dispatch from the workshop. Mild steel nuts and bolts shall be zinc
or cadmium plated. Stainless steel bolts, nuts washers and screws shall
be used in water or when exposed to high humidity, for holding renewable
parts and parts made of stainless steel.

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All bolts or studs which will be subject to high stress and/or temperature
shall be of approved high tensile material with nuts of approved material.
All bolts and studs larger than 60 mm in diameter, which are not
accessible for tightening, and untightening by commercially available
pneumatic impact wrenches shall be drilled for heaters or shall have an
extension for pre-tensioning by hydraulic tools.
Washers shall be provided under bolt heads and nuts unless otherwise
approved by the Engineer in-Charge. All ferrous nuts and bolts on Works
items where dismantling may be required during the life of the Works shall
have their threads coated with an approved anti-seize compound. When
in position, all bolts or studs shall project through the corresponding nuts
by at least one thread, but this projection shall not exceed three threads,
unless more length is required for adjustment. All nuts and set screws
shall be securely fastened, to prevent loosening due to vibrations, using
spring washers, lock nuts, split pins, self-locking inserts or 'Loctite' as
appropriate for the purpose and material used.
The Contractor shall supply the net quantities plus 5 percent of all
permanent bolts, screws and other similar items and materials required for
installation at the Site. Any such rivets, bolts, screws, etc., which are
surplus after the installation of the Works has been completed shall
become spare parts and shall be wrapped, marked and handed over to
the Employer.

3.4 Corrosion resistant bolts and nuts

Corrosion resistant steel or bronze shall be used for bolts and nuts when
either or both are subjected to frequent adjustment or frequent removal,
such as adjusting bolts for packing glands on removable screens or
strainers, on adjustable bearings, rubber seal holders, etc. Bolts on
manholes shall be of high-strength stainless steel. Protective measures
against electrolyte corrosion shall be foreseen where necessary.

3.5 Lubrication, Lubricants, Fuel

Efficient means of lubrication, suitable for use under Site conditions, shall
be provided for all moving parts.
The contamination of the air, water and soil by lubricants and fuel shall by
all means be avoided by applying of an appropriate design and layout of
the Works in conformity with the latest recognised standards for modern
engineering practice.
The number of different lubricants, transformer oils, oils for pressure
systems, etc., used in the items of Works throughout the Works shall be
limited to a minimum in order to facilitate keeping stocks and
maintenance.
The Employer reserves the right to request the use of certain types of
lubricants, oils, etc. The Contractor shall not be entitled to claim extra pay-
ment for this request. All different types of oils, lubricants, etc., shall be
subject to the written approval of the Engineer in-Charge.
Unless otherwise stated in the Particular Technical Specifications, the first
oil or grease filling for bearings, pressure oil systems, transformers, etc.,
including the necessary quantity for flushing and for the first oil change
shall be included in the Tender Price.

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3.6 Piping, Fittings, Valves and Heat Exchangers

3.6.1 General

Unless otherwise stated, all piping fitting, valves shall be designed for at
least 1.5 times of the working pressure but minimum for "nominal
pressure" PN 10 and tested with 1.5 times of the design pressure.

3.6.2 Valves

Generally, valves shall be leak-proof in either flow direction (except for


non-return valves) when the design pressure is applied.
Valves shall close clockwise and be provided with position indicators and
padlock kit. The drive units of motor-driven valves shall also be provided
with hand wheels for manual operation. The hand wheel shall be operable
under all conditions and shall be independent of the motor drive. Further,
it shall not be rigidly coupled to the motor drive and shall not compulsory
turn when the motor is energised.
To facilitate operation, large valves and gates shall be provided with by-
pass lines for pressure balancing, if required.
All valves shall be readily accessible for both operation and maintenance,
and where necessary for ease of operation the spindles shall be extended
and an approved form of pedestal hand-wheel provided at convenient
operating floor level.
Shut-off valves shall be suitable for opening and closing against full
unbalanced pressure, including closure against free discharge. If
necessary, bypasses are to be provided to meet these requirements.

3.6.3 Piping and Fittings

All required piping shall be furnished complete with flanges, joints,


expansion joints, gaskets, packing, valves, drains, vents, pipe
suspensions, supports, etc.
Metric flanges shall be used throughout. Welded flanges shall be weld-
neck or slip-on flanges. The raised face shall be machined. Joints
between stainless and normal steel flanges shall be of the insulated type.
If the piping crosses over joints of civil structures of different settlement,
the piping shall be provided with flexible joints to allow for vertical,
horizontal, and angular deviations.
Piping installation shall be sloped to prevent trapping of air bubbles.
Where required suitable venting system shall be provided.
Adequate clearance shall be given to parallel pipes to allow for easy
maintenance without disturbing other lines. All overhead piping shall have
a minimum clearance of 2.00 m from operating floors and platforms.
Where required water piping shall be provided with anti-condensation
insulation with vapour proof cover.
Piping shall be of heavy duty class carbon steel confirming to ASTM A53/
ASTM A106 or equivalent IS as per Employers approval confirming to the
requirement. Pipe sizes < 100 mm and all sizes of oil pressure pipes shall
be seamless type. The minimum pipe wall thickness shall be the normal
or standard wall thickness as stated in the applicable standards.

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Bends and flanged shall preferably be of the forged type below DN 200.
Mitered/Fabricated bends and flanges shall be allowed for larger sizes.
All piping shall be acid-treated to guarantee clean surfaces, completely
free from welding residues. This treatment shall be applied to workshop
and site manufactured piping. The entire piping arrangement shall be
subjected to the pressure test in section at the site.
Oil pipes shall generally not be embedded in concrete. Oil pipes crossing
civil structures shall be routed through sleeves embedded in the concrete.
All oil piping shall be hydrostatically tested at a pressure 100 % greater
than the maximum working pressure. As far as possible, oil pipes shall be
prefabricated in the Contractor's workshop. They shall be welded except
at terminal points and as necessary for erection and future dismantling.

3.6.4 Pipe Supports and Hangers

All pipe work and accessories shall be mounted and supported in a safe
and neat manner.
All brackets, stays, frames, hangers and supports for carrying and staying
the pipes, including their fasteners shall be included in the supply and
completed by the Contractor at the Site. Pipes and fittings shall be
supported at or near flanges wherever possible.
Supports and hangers shall be designed and arranged so that any pipe
can be withdrawn without disturbing the others.
All heavy valves and other mountings shall be supported independently of
the pipes to which they connect, to the satisfaction of the Engineer in-
Charge.
The Contractor shall supply drawings showing the location of each major
anchor and support and the weight to be carried by that support.

3.7 Mechanical Instruments

All mechanical parts of instruments shall be suitably protected against


shocks and vibrations, heat, humidity and splash water, etc.
Pressures gauges shall be provided with a damping liquid, e.g., glycerine,
to compensate vibrations. Pressure gauges without damping means are
not permitted, unless approved by the Engineer in-Charge.

3.8 ELECTRICAL WORKS

3.8.1 General

The electrical items of works of any electrical or mechanical installation to


be provided under this contract according to the Particular Technical
Specifications shall - if not stated otherwise therein-fulfil the requirements
of this Section.
All components shall be of an approved and reliable design. The highest
extent of uniformity and interchange-ability shall be reached. The design
shall facilitate maintenance and repair of the components.
The works shall be pre-assembled to the highest possible extent in the
Contractor or Sub-Contractor's workshop, complete with all devices and
wired up to common terminal blocks.

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The power supply and control cables shall be laid up to these common
terminal blocks. The required control and protection devices, instruments,
etc., within the different scopes of work shall be supplied and connected
by the relevant Contractor.
Unless otherwise agreed, ratings of main electrical Works (infeeds, bus-
ties) as selected or proposed by the Contractor, whether originally
specified or not, shall generally include a safety margin of 10% under
consideration of the worst case to be met in service. Prior to approval of
such basic characteristics, the Contractor shall submit all relevant
information such as consumer lists, short circuit calculations, de-rating
factors, etc.

3.9 Standards

The design, manufacture and testing of all Works and installations shall
strictly comply with the latest edition of the relevant IEC publications.

3.10 Colour Code

In general, the colour code for electrical Works shall be as described in


the Particular Technical Specifications.
The manufacturer's painting systems shall be used to the maximum
possible extent, but shall by all means be subject to the approval of the
Engineer in-Charge. Final coats of paint shall be matching adjacent
installations, where required.

3.11 Electric Motors

3.11.1 General

All motors shall be of approved manufacture and shall comply with the
requirements of this Chapter. Motors of the same type and size shall be
fully interchangeable and shall comply as far as applicable to IEC
standard motor dimensions.
The general construction shall be stiff and rigid; no light metal alloy
casings will be accepted. All precautions shall be taken to avoid any type
of corrosion.
All motors shall be fitted with approved types of lifting hooks or eyebolts
as suitable.
AC motors shall have squirrel cage type rotors.

3.11.2 Motor Voltages and Power Ratings

The service voltages and corresponding power ratings for electric motors
to be used in the Project shall be as follows:
A) Motors up to 0.75 kW
1 Service voltage single-phase a.c. 240 V, 50 HZ
2 Mode of starting Condenser
B) Motors intended to work on the d.c. System
1 Service voltage 110 V D.C.

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2 Mode of starting Resistor

3.11.3 Rating

The rating of the motors shall be adequate to meet the requirements of its
associated equipment. The service factor, being the ratio of the installed
motor output to the required power at the shaft of the driven machine at its
expected maximum power demand, shall be applied as follows:

Sl. No. Power Demand of Driven Machine Service Factor


1 Up to 5 kW 1.2
2 More than 5 kW 1.1
A.C. motors shall be capable of operating continuously under rated output
conditions at any frequency between 95% and 105% of the rated
frequency and/or with any voltage variation between 90% and 110% of
the nominal voltage. A transient over voltage of 130% of the nominal
voltage shall as well be sustained.

3.11.4 Starting

A.C. motors shall be designed for direct on-line starting. They shall be
capable of being switched on without damage to an infinite busbar at
110% of the nominal voltage with an inherent residual voltage of 100%
even in phase opposition. For starting the motors from the individual main
and auxiliary busbars, a momentary voltage drop of 20% referred to
nominal voltage should be taken into consideration. With 85% of the
nominal voltage applied to the motor terminals, each motor shall be
capable of accelerating its associated load to full speed with a minimum
accelerating torque of 5% of full load torque.
The maximum starting currents (without any tolerance) shall not exceed
the following values: -
i) 6 times of rated current for L.V. motors
ii) 2 times of rated current for D.C. motors (by means of starting
resistors)
Generally, all motors shall be able to withstand three cold starts per hour,
equally spaced. Each L.V. motor shall be capable of withstanding three
successive starts under the same conditions or once every twenty
minutes without detrimental heating.
Motors for frequent automatic starting shall have an adequate rating. In
the motor list the Contractor shall state the frequency of starts permitted in
compliance with the motor design.

3.11.5 Windings and Insulation Class

The insulation of all motors shall be of class F but maintain in operation


the temperature limits of class B materials. It shall be suitable for
operation in damp locations, for occasional contact with corrosive gases
and vapours and for considerable fluctuations in temperature.
The stator winding shall be suitably braced to withstand the forces due to
direct-on-line starting and transfer conditions as mentioned before. The
winding envelopment and tails shall be non-hygroscopic. The stator

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winding shall withstand the maximum fault current for the period
determined by the associated protective devices.
The rotor winding (if applicable) shall be designed to give trouble-free
continuous service including repeated direct-on-line starting. The rotor
shall be subjected to a 120% over speed test for 2 minutes without
showing any winding dislocation.

3.11.6 Terminal Boxes and Earthing

The terminal leads, terminals, terminal boxes and associated equipment


shall be suitable for terminating the respective type of cables as specified
in these General Technical Specifications and in the Particular Technical
Specifications.
The terminal boxes shall be of ample size to enable connections to be
made in a satisfactory manner. Supports shall be provided at terminal
boxes as required for proper guidance and fixing of the incoming cable.
The terminal boxes with the cables installed shall be suitable for
connection to supply systems with the short-circuit current and the fault
clearance time determined by the motor protective devices.
A permanently attached connection diagram shall be mounted inside the
terminal box cover. If motors are provided for only one direction of
rotation, this shall be clearly indicated.
Terminal boxes shall be totally enclosed and designed to prevent the
ingress of moisture and dust. All joints shall be flanged with gaskets of
neoprene or similar material. For motors above 1 kW, the terminal box
shall be sealed from the internal circuit of the motor.
Depending on the size, the terminal box of L.V. motors shall be fitted
either with an approved cable sealing-end or with a gland plate drilled as
required and provided with suitable fittings for cable fixing and sealing.
Such openings shall be temporarily plugged or sealed during
transportation.
For earthing purposes, each motor shall have adequately sized bolts with
washers at the lower part of the frame. In addition, each terminal box shall
contain one earthing screw. Each equipment/panel shall be earthed by at
least two separate earthing strips.
The cable termination philosophy to be adopted shall be such that
extensive grouping of signals by large scale use of field-mounted group.
JB’S at strategic locations (where large concentration of signals are
available, e.g. switchgear) is done. Termination / Junction boxes shall
have either maxi- terminal or cage clamp type terminals

3.12 Cubicles and Panels

All control cubicles/panels, switch gear panels and other cubicle/panel


enclosures shall be UL/Lloyds register of shipping/VDE approved and
would be of cold rolled sheet steel. Cubicles/panels shall have full
modularity along X-Y-Z axis made out of folded profile based structure
with reference to the requirement of combinability of the panels which
shall be finalized during detailed design with respect to the layout. All
load bearing members of the panel shall be 2.5 mm and non load bearing
member shall be 2.0 mm. Any partition provided in the panel can be 1.5

209
mm. The structural frame shall have provision at a regular interval to
facilitate retrofitting components without need of drilling holes.
In case of junction boxes, small starter panels and marshalling kiosks
shall be made out from a single sheet of thickness not less than 2mm
which should have minimum weld interface except weld seal at the
enclosing envelope. Door specification however, remain the same as of
cubicles/panels having specific PU seal with reference to the IP class
mentioned in the specification either under GTS or PTS.
Cubicles shall be fitted with close fitting, hinged, lift-off doors capable of
being opened through minimum 120 deg. The doors shall be provided
with door handles with integral lock and master key. The doors shall have
PU seal for perfect sealing and longer life.
Cubicles and panels shall be vermin proof. Removable gland plates shall
be supplied and located to provide adequate working clearance for the
termination of cables. Under no circumstances shall the floor/roof plate be
used as a gland plate. The cables and wiring shall enter from bottom or
top as approved or directed by the Engineer in-Charge.
The cubicles and panels shall be adequately ventilated, if required, by
vents or louvers, and shall be so placed as not to detract from the ap-
pearance. All ventilating openings shall be provided with corrosion-
resistant metal screens or a suitable filter to prevent entrance of insects or
vermin. Space heating elements with thermostatic control shall be
included in each panel.
Where cubicles are split between panels for shipping, terminal blocks
shall be provided on each side of the split with all necessary cable exten-
sions across the splits. These cable extensions shall be confined within
the panels with suitable internal cable ducts.
The standard phase arrangement when facing the front of the motor
control centres and switchboard shall be RYB from left to right, from top to
bottom and front to back. All instruments, devices, buses and other
equipments involving 3 phase circuits shall be arranged and connected in
accordance with the standard phase arrangement, where possible.
Electrical clearances shall conform to applicable standards and shall not
require cutting away of adjacent framework.
All instruments, control knobs and indicating lamps shall be flush mounted
on the panels. Relays and other devices sensitive to vibration shall not be
installed on doors or hinged panels, and no equipment shall be installed
on rear access doors.
The instrument and control wiring, including all electrical interlocks and all
interconnecting wiring between sections, shall be completely installed and
connected to terminal blocks by the manufacturer.
The arrangement of control and protection devices on the panels and the
exterior finish of the panels shall be subject to the approval of the
Engineer in-Charge. The interior of all cubicles and panels shall have a
matt white finish preferably.
Switched interior light and socket outlets shall be provided for all cubicles
and control panels.
All cubicles and control panels shall be provided with nameplates,
identifying the purpose of the panel and all of its components.

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3.12.1 Starters and contactors

Motor starters and contactors shall be equipped with short circuit


protection and local disconnecting devices. Preferably, all starters shall
be from one manufacturer. The control circuit voltage shall be obtained
from a 415/240 V isolating transformer with primary circuit breaker and
secondary fuse. The secondary winding of this transformer shall be
grounded. The operating coils of the contactor shall be connected
between the grounded side of the transformer and the control contacts.
Starters and contactors shall comply with IEC 292.1 and be suitable for
direct on-line starting, uninterrupted electrical duty, and capable of 30
operations per hour. They shall be installed in ventilated enclosures for
indoor installation and weatherproof enclosures for outdoor installation,
unless otherwise approved by the Engineer in-Charge. The enclosures
shall be complete with locks, cable sealing boxes, conduit entries, cable
gland plates, bus bars, internal wiring, terminal boards, etc. as required by
the duty of the starter or contactor.
Starters and contactors shall be of minimum size compatible with motor
size and capable of satisfactory operation, without damage, for a period of
5 minutes at a voltage 25 percent below nominal, at nominal frequency.
Thermal type overload and phase failure protection shall be provided with
starters for motors of 7.5 kW or greater. For motors of less than 7.5 kW,
suitable rated 3-phase thermal overloads will be acceptable. Ammeters to
read current in one phase shall be provided for motors above 7.5 kW.
Each starter shall have sufficient number of auxiliary contacts required for
interlocking and indication purposes plus two spare convertible contacts
for Owner's use.

3.12.2 Moulded Case Circuit Breakers

All moulded case circuit breakers shall be of 2 or 3-pole type as required,


having thermal time delay and instantaneous trips with "On-Trip-Off",
indicating/operating mechanism. Circuit breakers used in combination
type motor starters or contactors shall have the operating mechanisms
interlocked with the starter or contactor cover so that the cover cannot be
opened unless the circuit breaker is open. The breakers shall comply with
applicable section of IEC 157/1 or equivalent standards.

3.12.3 Control relays

Relays used as auxiliary control devices in conjunction with motor starters


and magnetic contactors shall be of the type designed for machine tool
application featuring contact convertibility. All contacts shall have a
minimum thermal current rating of 10A over a range of 6 to 600 V AC.

3.12.4 Pilot devices

Pilot devices such as selector switches, push-button starters and


thermostats shall be of heavy duty type and, where mounted outdoors,
shall be housed in weather proof enclosures specially designed for the
environment.
All electrical contacts for control, alarm and shutdown shall have a thermal
current rating of not less than 10 A at 110 V DC.

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3.12.5 Terminal blocks

All terminal blocks shall be mounted in an accessible position with the


spacing between adjacent blocks not less than 100 mm and space
between the bottom blocks and the cable gland plate being a minimum of
200 mm. Sufficient terminals shall be provided to allow for the connection
of all incoming and outgoing cables, including spare conductors. In
addition, 20 percent spare terminals shall be provided. In enclosed
cubicles, the terminal blocks shall be inclined toward the door for
facilitating terminations.
Terminals shall be of the channel mounting type and shall comprise a
system of individual terminals so that terminal blocks can be formed for
easy and convenient cabling consistent with the high reliability required of
the circuits.
Terminal blocks shall be provided with shorting links and paralleling links
where applicable and mounting identification numbers and/or letters.
Terminal blocks shall be disconnecting link type for CT, PT and incoming
supplies AC/DC & for balance fixed link type conforming to the applicable
standards. The smallest size to be used shall be as per requirement and
not more than two conductors shall be connected under one terminal
clamp.
Terminal identification shall be provided corresponding to wire number of
connected leads.
Circuit terminals for 415 V AC shall be segregated from other terminals
and shall be equipped with non-inflammable, transparent covers to
prevent contact with live parts. Warning labels with red lettering shall be
mounted thereon in a conspicuous position.

3.13 Labels and Plates

3.13.1 General

Labels and data plates shall be provided in accordance with applicable


standards and as detailed hereunder.
The proposed material of the labels, size, exact label lettering and
proposals for the arrangement of the labels shall be submitted to the
Engineer in-Charge for approval.
Where applicable, designations in the selected local language shall
appear above or to the right of the designation in the Contract language.
The translations into and writings in the local language shall be submitted
for approval.

3.13.2 Equipment Labels and Instruction Plates

Labels written in the Contract language shall be provided for all


instruments, relays, control switches, push buttons, indication lights,
breakers, etc. In case of instruments, instrument switches and control
switches, where the function is indicated on the device, no label is
required. The label shall be fixed close to the devices in such a way that
easy identification is possible. Fixing on the dial glass of instruments will
not be accepted. The wording shall conform to the wording used in
engineering documents.

212
Each separate construction unit (cubicle, panel, desk, box, etc.) shall be
identified by its Works identification number. Cubicles and similar units
shall also bear this identification number on the rear side if rear access is
possible. The overall designation of each unit shall be given in the
Contract language and, if required, also in a selected local language.
These labels shall be made of anodised aluminium / stainless steel with
black engraved inscriptions, arranged at the top section of the units.
Manufacturer's trade labels shall, if desired, appear in the bottom section
of the units.
All Works inside cubicles, panels, boxes, etc., shall be properly labelled
with their item number. This number shall be the same as indicated in the
pertaining documents (wiring diagrams, Works list, etc.).
Instruction plates in the Contract and selected local language, the
sequence diagrams or instructions for maintenance shall be fitted on the
inside of the front door of the electrical switchboards.

3.13.3 Warning Labels

Warning labels shall be made of synthetic resin with letters engraved in


the Contract and selected local language, where required in particular
cases.
For indoor circuit breakers, starters, etc., transparent plastic material with
suitably contrasting colours and engraved lettering would be acceptable.
Details are stated in the Particular Technical Specifications or will be
decided during detail engineering.

3.13.4 Labels for Conduits, etc.

The material shall be non-corrosive and the description be done with 4


mm high letters/figures.

3.13.5 Labels for Cables

Each cable when completely installed shall have permanently attached to


each end and at intermediate positions as may be considered necessary
by the Engineer in-Charge, non-corrosive labels detailing identification
number of the cable, voltage, and conductor size.
The cable identification numbers shall comply with those of the cable list.

3.13.6 Rating Plates

Generator, Turbine, EOT and Generator Transformers rating plates and


other technical data/informative plates shall be of stainless steel suitably
protected after engraving with a transparent paint resistant to aggressive
atmosphere and solar radiation.

4 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT

4.1.1 Temperature Measurements

All wells for capillary type thermometers, resistance temperature sensors


and thermocouples shall be of the weld-in type. Wells for thermometers
and temperature sensors of the screw-in type shall be restricted to
measuring points for lubrication oil, and to such measuring points where

213
welding is not suitable, e.g., at cast-iron parts. Shop-welded thermometer
wells shall be covered by screw caps for protection during transportation
and erection.
Resistance thermometers and thermocouples shall be equipped with
waterproof connection heads. Thermometer arrangements shall be such
that the connection heads do not become warmer than 80 C, and the
measuring inserts are easily exchangeable.
The temperature sensors shall be selected in such a way to minimise the
number of different spare inserts. Resistance thermometers shall be used
as far as possible and shall generally be of type Pt 100.
The use of dial-type contact thermometers shall be restricted to bearing
metal and oil temperature measuring. In all other cases, thermocouples or
resistance thermometers and electric contact modules (monitors) shall be
used. Glass thermometers or similar will not be accepted as contact
thermometers.

4.1.2 Pressure Measurements

1) Pressure gauges shall be shock and vibration-proof (filling with


glycerine) and shall be equipped with toothed wheels and toothed
segments of the machined type. They shall completely be made of
stainless steel.
2) Higher than rated pressure shall not deteriorate the pressure gauge or
affect its calibration. The pressure gauges shall be equipped with a
radial-connecting stud, to allow the mounting on a gauge holder.
3) The accuracy for the pressure gauges and pressure switches shall not
be less than +/-0.5% FSR. The error for pressure transmitters shall be
limited to 0.5%.
4) All casings shall be dust and watertight made of stainless steel having
preferably IP 67 protection class and be provided with toughened
glass.

4.1.3 Electrical Measurements

All Electrical instruments shall be of flush mounted design, dust and


moisture-proof. A.C. ammeters and voltmeters shall have digital type
system of not less than 0.5 accuracy class for connection to the
secondary side of instrument transformers. D.C. measuring instruments
shall have digital type systems of the same accuracy. Watt meters shall
be suitable for unbalanced systems and accuracy of energy meters
should be of 0.2S for tariff and others minimum 0.5 % accuracy class or
better.
All indicating instruments shall generally withstand without damage a
continuous overload of 20% referred to the rated output value of the
corresponding instrument transformers. Ammeters shall not be damaged
by fault-currents within the rating and fault duration time of the associated
switchgear via the primaries of their corresponding instrument
transformers.
All instruments and apparatus shall be capable of carrying their full load
currents without undue heating. All instruments and apparatus shall be
rear connected, and the enclosures shall be earthed. Means shall be
provided for zero adjustment of instruments without dismantling.

214
4.1.4 Limit Switches

Limit switches shall be provided for each gate, valve or gantry to


automatically stop the motor at both ends of travel. Additional switches
shall be provided where necessary for control, interlocks and indication.
Limit switches shall be mounted suitable for easy adjustment and for
rigidly locking in position after being adjusted. They shall be of heavy-duty
rating and have two changeover contacts suitable for 110 V D.C.
operations.
Switch fixings shall be positive and shall be unaffected by vibration. At the
same time they should be capable of easy adjustment to suit changing
parameters of the associated plant.
Particular attention shall be paid to potentially harmful environmental
conditions, including water, oil, dust, dirt, temperature variations and
differential expansions. Where switches operate through linkages,
precautions shall be taken to eliminate variations of settings and incorrect
operations resulting from wear or tolerances.

4.1.5 Contact Devices

Contacts of level switches, pressure switches, temperature switches, limit


switches, and of all other devices shall be of the snap action type (SPDT).
Contact devices for interlocking systems shall be separate, i.e., contact
devices serving commonly for interlocking and other purposes will not be
accepted.

4.2 Protection Systems

Electrical/Mechanical Protection and Interlocking Systems shall be


provided for all works components and individual systems to ensure a
safe and reliable operation and to limit harm and damage to personnel
and works to an utmost extent.
The primary functions of these facilities shall be to disconnect selectively
faulty sections of the systems prior to influence or damage to other works
and to maintain operative systems as far as possible.
Moreover these devices shall facilitate the duty of the operation staff and
prevent mal-operation.

5 TRANSPORT AND INSTALLATION

5.1 General

Shipping, loading, transportation, unloading, storage, erection and test


running shall be performed by the Contractor.
From the time of manufacturing until commissioning all parts of the plant
shall be protected and insured at the Contractor's expense against
damage of any kind. Parts, which are damaged during transport, storage,
erection or trial operation, shall be replaced at the Contractor's expense.
The Contractor shall provide the Engineer in-Charge with complete
packing lists of each performed shipment.

215
5.2 General Notes on Installation Work

All transportation and handling of the plant from the place of storage to the
place of installation shall be carried out by the Contractor. He shall
provide all hoisting equipment, staging and scaffolding, winches and wire
ropes, slings, tackles and all other appliances and temporary materials.
The erection staging and scaffolding shall be provided with coverings and
barriers and shall guarantee safe working conditions.
The Contractor shall comply with all applicable and approved safety
regulations while carrying out the works on Site and with all reasonable
requirements of the Engineer In-Charge. This stipulation shall in no way
release the Contractor from any obligation concerning his liability for
accidents and damages. He shall be responsible for adequate protection
of persons, plant and materials against injuries and damages resulting
from his operations.
The plant or parts to be installed shall not be overstressed during the
process of installation.
The Contractor shall be responsible that the installation of all plant is
properly executed to the correct lines and levels and in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions and the Contract requirements.
The alignment of the plant shall be done exactly; the tolerances indicated
by the Manufacturers or in the drawings shall be kept.
Setting of parts to be aligned shall be performed by means of fine
measuring instruments. All erection clearances and settings shall be
recorded. Copies of these records shall be given to the Engineer in-
Charge. After alignment, the parts shall be held firmly in position by
means of set pins, fitted bolts, etc.
All parts to be embedded in concrete shall be set accurately in position
and shall be supported rigidly to prevent displacement during the placing
of concrete. Adjusting screws and bolts shall be drawn tight and secured
adequately. Steel wedges shall be secured by welding. Wooden wedges
shall not be used.
The Contractor shall verify carefully the position of all parts to be
embedded before concrete is poured. All important measurements and
dimensions shall be recorded. Copies of these records shall be given to
the Engineer In-Charge for checking and approval before items are built-in
to the Works.
After concreting, the control measurements shall be verified again,
indicated in the above-mentioned records and submitted to the Engineer
in-Charge.
The Contractor shall provide all necessary anchors and braces to ensure
the alignment and stability of the parts to be installed. All temporary
anchors and bracings shall take care of all dead load, wind load, seismic
and erection stresses, e.g., during concreting, and shall remain in place
until they can be removed without endangering the stability of the plant.
Welding, torch-cutting and drilling work on the plant to be erected shall
only be carried out with the approval of the Engineer In-Charge only for
modification if any.
If for installation purposes auxiliary structures have been attached to the
plant, they shall be removed after completion of work and the surface
restored to proper condition by grinding and repainting.

216
Special care shall be taken not to damage surfaces of galvanised or
specially treated plant during erection. Care shall be taken to prevent or
remove any rust streaks or foreign matters deposited on galvanised or
otherwise finished surfaces during storage or transport or after installation.
Glass parts or other parts, which can easily be damaged, shall be
provided with suitable protective sheaths or coverings during installation.
Machined or bare metal surfaces, which are to receive no coat of paint,
shall be protected during transportation, storage and erection by a
suitable anti-corrosion film.
All power tools preferably be operated pneumatically. They are to be
handed over at the end of the installation work in good condition in
accordance with the Engineer In-Charge's instructions.
After erection, the works shall be finally painted, in accordance with the
painting specification, and any damaged paintwork shall be restored.
The Contractor shall keep the site in clean condition during erection and
commissioning time. On instruction of the Engineer In-Charge he shall
remove waste from the place of installation to the defined deposit site at
his own cost.

5.3 Civil Site Work

The following works shall be carried out as part of the civil works contract
and is not included within the scope of work covered by the equipment
specifications.
i) All concrete work, including reinforcement and form-work, and all
grouting required for filling in, around and under the various parts
of the works to be embedded in concrete.
ii) All necessary excavation and backfilling / concreting required for
installing the plant in its final position, unless otherwise stated in
the Particular Technical Specifications.
iii) Building in of all required parts into the first stage concrete. The
readiness of such parts shall be communicated to the Engineer in-
Charge and they shall be delivered in due time by the Contractor
unless otherwise specified or agreed in the Contract.
iv) Providing and grouting the blackouts for all anchoring and foundation
bolts needed to support and fix the plant in its final position.
v) All protective measures, e.g., pumping, etc., to keep the various parts
of the plant and the erection site free from water during the time of
erection.
vi) Provision of cable and pipe ducts, trenches, block-outs, drilling for
grounding system etc., in accordance with the drawings supplied
by the Contractor and supervised by the Contractor.
vii) Adequate safety covers and protective measures against injury or
damage to the Contractor's employees and equipment and to the
works due to any operations of the civil contractor.
viii) Anchors may be provided with concrete pads & with embedded
plates, of appropriate size at mutually agreed height(s) and
spacing on upstream and downstream walls.

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ix) Embedded plates and hooks in ceiling, walls etc. may be kept in the
scope of civil.
The Contractor shall level and adjust all parts of the equipment on the
foundations and after each item is set up and the Engineer in-Charge's
approval obtained, grouting or concreting will be carried out by other
contractors and verified by the Contractor. The Contractor shall be
responsible for ensuring that such work is carried out to his satisfaction
and that level and adjustments made by him are not disturbed by the
grouting operation. The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that
the positions, levels and dimensions of the Works are correct according to
the drawings notwithstanding that he may have been assisted by the
Engineer in-Charge in setting out the said position, levels and dimensions.

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B-II: PARTICULAR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(PTS)

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1 GENERAL TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

1.1 Introduction

Particular Technical Specifications (PTS) elaborated in various sections


specify the detailed technical requirements for the design, manufacture,
quality assurance, quality control, shop assembly, shop testing, delivery at
site, site storage and preservation, installation, commissioning,
performance testing, acceptance testing and guarantee for two years of
the Electrical & Mechanical works covered under this contract. The
quality assurance and testing requirements for each section are specified
separately in “Quality assurance and Testing Specifications (QTS)”.
This section provides the general technical requirements applicable to all
sections hereafter specifying the detailed technical specifications for
respective equipment/ system forming E&M installation of the project.

1.1.1 Completeness of system / equipment / item

The work to be carried out as per the scope defined in respective sections
shall be all in accordance with the requirements, conditions, appendices
etc. given in Technical Specifications (GTS, PTS, TDS, QTS and Contract
Drawings) together with those stated in General Conditions of Contract
(GCC) and Special Condition of Contract (SCC).
It is not the intent to specify herein all aspects of design and construction;
nevertheless, the equipment and installation/works shall conform in all
aspects to high standard of engineering, design and workmanship and
shall be capable of performing in continuous commercial operation in a
manner acceptable to the Employer, who will interpret the meaning of the
specification and drawings and shall have a right to reject or accept any
work or material which in his assessment is not complete to meet the
requirements of this specification and/or applicable Indian / International
standards mentioned elsewhere in this specification.
Any such system/equipment/items, which are not explicitly mentioned in
specification but are functionally necessary/advisable as per best
national/international practices for smooth operation of powerhouse, shall
be deemed to be included in the scope of work and the Contractor shall
provide the same without any extra cost.

1.1.2 Priority of documents

The documents forming the Technical Specifications are to be taken as


mutually explanatory of one another. If there is an ambiguity or
discrepancy in the documents, the Employer shall issue necessary
clarification or instruction to the Contractor and the priority of the
documents shall be as follows:
i) Particular Technical Specification,
ii) Guaranteed Technical Particulars in Technical Data Sheets,
iii) General Technical Specification,
In case of dispute in interpretation, Employer’s interpretation shall be final
and binding.

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1.1.3 Interfacing with sub-contractors/manufacturers/vendors

The Contractor shall ensure the functional and physical compatibility of


supply at each physical interface among various sub-contractors/
manufacturers/vendors in order to ensure efficient, reliable and safe
operation of the whole system/scheme.
The limits of the supply and the definition of interface indicated by any
sub-contractor shall in no way release the Contractor from his obligation
to fulfil the scope defined in specifications.
The Contractor shall ensure co-ordination among various sub-contractors,
to verify the continuity and the coherence between their scopes and shall
be accountable to the Employer for fulfilment of the scope defined in the
specifications. The Contractor shall also resolve all interfacing
requirements among various sub-contractors for execution of the work as
per scope of contract.

1.2 Project Arrangement / Layout

1.2.1 Brief description of the project

Dam Toe Power House Of Kishanganga H.E. Project is located on the


Dam Toe of Kishanganga H.E.P., near the village Gurez in J & K.
The installed capacity of Dam Toe Power House Of Kishanganga H.E.
project has been proposed as 1.6 MW comprising of three units of 800
KW (Two nos. used as main unit while one no. used as standby) each
driven by horizontal Francis turbine operating under design head of 20.8
m.

1.2.2 Main project features

The project shall comprise of following major components:


i) The water conductor system comprises of 1.3 m diameter, 110 m
long (approx.) penstock which trifurcates into three horizontal
branches of 0.92 m diameter (minor change in dia. of unit
penstock can be done by contractor as per their standard
design/requirement) to feed three individual units of 800 KW each.
ii) A surface Power house housing one common butterfly valve, three
(3) main inlet valves of butterfly type, horizontal – shaft generating
units, each comprising of a Francis turbine directly coupled to a
synchronous generator and other related auxiliaries,
iii) A vertical lift gate at the intake in dam is provided for repair and
maintenance of the penstock and valves.
iv) 3 nos. 3.3/11 kV three phase generator transformers,

1.2.3 Salient features

Some of the features of the project are described below:

1 FRL/MDDL EL 2390.0 m/EL 2384.5 m


2 Centre Line of the Turbine EL 2365.5 m ( minor change
in elevation can be done by
contractor as per requirement)
3 Rated net Head 20.8 m

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4 Turbine Type Francis
5 Installed Capacity 2.4 MW (3 X 0.8 MW)
6 Maximum Output of plant 1.6 MW (only two machines
are envisaged to run at a time
with a maximum output of 1.6
MW)
7 Generation voltage 3.3 kV
8 Transmission voltage 11 kV
9 Type of Power House Surface
10 Type of Switchgear Indoor 11 kV Switchgear
11 GSU Transformer 1000 kVA, Three Phase, 50
Hz, 3.3/11 kV ONAN type.
12 Method of connection between XLPE Cable
GSU transformer and 11 kV
switchgear

1.3 Operating Requirement / Specification

The equipment/system to be supplied under this contract shall be suitable


for continuous operation under varying parameters as allowed in latest
“Indian Electricity Grid Code” and “Indian Electricity Rule” as well as in
isolated mode of operation.
The equipment/system shall be designed to operate continuously without
any problem under  10 % voltage variation and  5% frequency variation.
Temperature rise/ variation limit for equipment shall be determined
considering the above variation. Frequent start/ stop requirement of all
equipment for daily operation shall be taken into consideration while
designing.
Since the power house is located at an elevation higher than 2000 m and
low temperature range in order of -24.80C, necessary altitude correction
factor and suitability for operation in extreme low temperature conditions
would be considered for equipment. The units are supposed to operate
throughout the year and in isolated mode of operation. Necessary
provisions to start the units in icy/freezing conditions need to be suitably
incorporated.

1.3.1 Auxiliary voltages

The electrical equipment like switchboards, MCCB, Surge Protection


Devices, motors, contactors, relays, luminaries, heaters, switches,
sockets, Terminal Blocks, Power outlets etc. should be rated for any of the
following voltages:
A) AC power
Three-phase system with grounded neutral for feeding three-phase and
single-phase equipment (connected between phase and neutral), type
TN-C 415/240V ± 10% and 50Hz ± 5%. All motors and other electrical
apparatus should be designed to work continuously under ±5% frequency
variation and ±10% voltage variation.
B) DC power

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i) 110V +10% and -15 % DC Systems, however breaker tripping coil
to operable even at -20%, ungrounded, with earth fault detection
for the supply to main control circuits for switchgear, protection
circuits and to other larger essentials loads,
ii) Other voltage systems eventually needed, shall be generated from
the above systems by means of dc/dc converters, inverters etc.

1.4 Performance Guarantee

The Contractor shall guarantee that the equipment offered shall meet the
ratings and performance requirements stipulated for various equipments/
systems covered in these specifications.
The Contractor shall demonstrate all the guarantees covered herein
during functional guarantee / acceptance tests. The Contractor shall
conduct the guarantee tests at site in presence of Employer on any one
unit selected by the Employer for such tests.

1.5 Design and Construction

1.5.1 Design Criteria

The following design criteria shall be considered mutually complementary


of one another and shall be applied by the Contractor to all aspects of the
equipment and services supplied under this Contract.

1.5.1.1 Maximum allowable stresses

A) General
Adequate factors of safety shall be used throughout the design, especially
in the design of parts subject to alternating stresses, vibration, impact, or
shock. The design of the equipment shall include seismic loads as
specified in the clause 1.5.1.5 “seismic design”. Under the most severe
conditions of loading expected in normal operation, stresses in the
materials shall not exceed the values listed below except that
appropriately lower values shall be used where loading characteristics
could cause fatigue failure or excessive deflections. The design stresses
for materials not listed herein shall be selected by the Contractor, but the
maximum stresses in tension or compression shall not exceed one-third of
the yield strength or one-fifth of the ultimate strength.
B) Direct or combined steady stresses
1) For materials used in the construction of the equipment, unless
otherwise specified, the maximum stress due to maximum normal
rated load operating conditions shall not exceed one-third of the
minimum yield point or one-fifth of the minimum ultimate strength of
the material, which ever is lower.
2) Maximum unit stresses in rotating parts of the turbine due to maximum
runaway speed or in parts under hydrostatic test conditions shall not
exceed two-thirds of the minimum yield point.
3) Maximum unit stresses in rotating parts of the generator due to
maximum runaway speed shall not exceed three-quarters of the
minimum yield point.
4) Maximum unit stresses in parts of that equipment which is subject to
the maximum normal operating conditions, shall not exceed the values
in the following table:

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Material Maximum allowable stresses

In Tension In Compression
Gray cast iron 1/10 U.T.S 70 Mpa
Carbon cast steel and alloy The lesser of 1/5 The lesser of 1/5
cast steel U.T.S. or 1/3 Y.S. U.T.S. or 1/3 Y.S.
Carbon or alloy steel
forgings or alloy steel 1/3 Y.S. 1/3 Y.S.
plates for principal parts

U.T.S. = Ultimate Tensile Strength


Y.S. = Yield Strength
5) Maximum stresses in shear shall not exceed 21 MPa in cast iron, nor
60% of the allowable stresses for other materials, except that the
maximum shear stresses in the generator main shafts and shut-off
valve stems shall not exceed 50 % of the allowable stress in tension.
6) Thermally or hydraulically pre-stressed bolts such as coupling bolts,
bolts for connecting of Butterfly valve body halves, bolts for pre-
tensioning of Generator-stator metal sheets etc. are exempted from
the limitations imposed and stresses up to 80 % of Yield stress are
allowed in such cases.
7) Parts subject to water pressure shall be designed to the applicable
provisions of ASME Code and welding shall be as specified herein
and in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code
Section 8, Division 2.

1.5.1.2 Water characteristics

Water of Kishanganga River carries sediment load during monsoon.


The characteristics of the water of Kishanganga River at Dam site of Dam
Toe Power House of Kishanganga H. E. Project are as follows:
a) Maximum temperature --------
b) Minimum temperature --------

1.5.1.3 Atmospheric condition

The temperature and humidity in the area of the project are as follows:
Maximum temperature 330C
Minimum temperature -24.80C
Maximum relative humidity --------
Minimum relative humidity --------
However, the data shall be subject to final verification during detail
engineering.

1.5.1.4 Transportation limitations

For shipments, the Manufacturer shall pack the items to meet size and
weight restrictions of the Indian railways and road systems.

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1.5.1.5 Equipment and facilities layout

As shown in drawings supplied by the Employer, the Employer has


established for his own purposes, a preliminary layout of the facilities.
The Contractor shall verify and submit to the Employer, arrangement and
layout, optimised for the actual equipment supplied under this contract,
respecting the key dimensions, elevations and concrete outline of the
powerhouse that shall remain same as shown in contract drawings and
confirm the same in “Technical Data Sheets”.

1.5.1.6 Control and monitoring

The system shall be controlled and monitored by the Control, Monitoring


and Relaying panels. The details of control and monitoring requirement
are defined in “Control, Monitoring and Relaying System”.

1.5.2 Colour schedule

Colour standard references to major equipment / system shall be as


mentioned in Annexure-I enclosed at the end of this chapter. The interior
of all cubicle and panels shall preferably have a matt white finish unless
specified otherwise.

1.5.2.1 Electrical equipment enclosures

Unless otherwise specifically called for or described in these Contract


documents all electrical appliances shall conform to the applicable IEC
Publications.
The cubicles and enclosures shall be of protection class IP 40 or higher
according to their location. For outside installation and area which are
humid, corrosive, and prone to dripping and/ or spray of water, the
protection class of cubicles shall be IP 65. Cubicles housing electronic
cards/modules such as of unit control boards/local control boards, digital
governors, static excitation equipment shall be of protection class of IP
5X.
Cables shall have at least 1100 V PVC insulation except for
instrumentation system for which 650V ratings are acceptable.
Wiring shall terminate at terminal blocks at one side only. Where tap
connections are required, they shall be made on terminal blocks. Wiring
shall be neatly arranged and laid in wire ways accessible from the front
door. The wire ways shall not be filled more than 70 %.
Each cubicle shall be provided with an earthing bar (PE) of sufficient cross
section carrying any possible fault current without undue heating. All
metallic parts of the cubicle not forming part of the live circuits, all
instrument transformer terminals to be earthed and other earthing
terminals as well as all cable screens and PE-wires shall be connected to
the earthing bar.
All internal equipment and wiring shall be neatly and clearly marked as
indicated on the schematic and wiring diagrams. Internal wiring and
cables shall be marked with sleeve type engraved marking. Marking
system and marking material shall be subject to approval by Employer.
Identification of the respective conductors shall be in accordance with the
requirements of IEC publication 60204. In cable, having five conductors or
more the individual conductors shall be numbered throughout the entire

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length. In cables having less than five conductors colour coding in
accordance with IEC Recommendations 60204 shall be used.

1.5.2.2 Terminal Blocks

Control circuits and power circuits shall be completely separated by use of


divided or separate terminal blocks
The screw type modular Terminal Block should be manufactured as per
IEC-60947-7-1. The insulating material of Terminal Block should be of
polyamide 6.6 meeting VO/V2 immflamability Class as per UL94. All metal
parts including screws should be of copper alloy. The Terminal Block
should be suitable for mounting on both ‘DIN’ as well as ‘G’ type rail. All
the metal parts should be captive and touch proof. The Terminal Block
should have screw locking design so that it can withstand vibration level
up to 5g and also prevent accidental loosening of conductors. The
terminal blocks shall also have necessary accessories like end clamp,
separation plates etc.
Unless otherwise specified terminal blocks shall be suitable for connecting
the following conductors on each side.

1 All circuits except CT /PT circuits Minimum of two of 2.5 sq. mm


copper flexible
2 All CT/ PT circuits Minimum of 2 nos. of 6/4 sq.
mm copper flexible

At least 20% spare terminals shall be provided on each panel/ cubicle/


box and these spare terminals shall be uniformly distributed on all
terminals rows.

1.5.2.3 Control switches, indicating lamps and instruments

A) Measuring converters
The converters shall be suitable for direct connection to the secondary
circuits of the potential and current transformers used, or other sensors,
each as they apply. The converters shall be static type, having all
accessories to provide an output signal of 4-20 mA, filtered DC.
For the measuring converters the following minimum requirements shall
be fulfilled:
i) Current transducers shall be single-phase, of accuracy class 0.2 or
better.
ii) Voltage transducers shall be single-phase of accuracy class 0.2 or
better.
iii) W and VAr transducers shall be two elements, three-phase.
Accuracy class of the transducers shall be 0.2 or better.
B) Measuring transformers
Potential transformer secondary windings shall be rated 110/3 V
Current transformer secondary windings shall have a rated current of
1A/5A.

1.5.2.4 Cautionary signs

Caution and warning signs must be displayed in English, Hindi and local
language.
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Identification plates and instruction plates shall preferably be bilingual i.e.
English and Hindi/ local language.

1.6 Record and Documentation

1.6.1 Documentation / record of the work/activities

The documentation/ records of the work under this contract for future
reference shall be included in the scope of work.
The Contractor shall document all the major activities, milestones related
to installation of powerhouse from commencement of work under this
contract and shall maintain the documentation/record in chronological
order till the completion of the job specified under the contract.
The Contractor shall submit six copies of above documentation/records in
hard copy and soft copy to the Employer after completion of work under
this Contract. The Contract shall be deemed as completed only after the
Contractor submits the same.

1.6.2 Design memorandum

The Contractor shall prepare and submit to the Employer a “Design


Memorandum” of the proposed equipment/system fulfilling the contract
specification/requirement given in respective section for approval prior to
submission of any drawings and documents. The memorandum shall
include the design philosophy, methodology, system description, input
parameters for design, standard and codes, design and selection criteria,
equipment data, material specification, major technical features, basic
arrangement/ layout etc.

1.6.3 Design Calculations

In addition to the drawings or whenever the contractual documents do so


require, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer in-Charge for
checking, the appropriate calculations for determining the main sizes,
stress levels, dimensions and operational characteristics, safety factors,
clearly indicating the principles on which the calculations were based. The
calculations shall include the formulae, standards, test results, basic
assumptions, etc. Submission of computer calculations without baseline
information such as derivation of the calculation method, applied formulas,
definition of variables and constants, explanation of abbreviations etc., will
not be accepted.

1.6.4 Design Drawings

The Design Drawings shall include outline drawings, assembly


manufacturing drawings of components, erection drawings, piping
diagrams and piping arrangement drawings, etc., showing the dimensions
including fitting tolerances, surface finish, design and data of all
constructions, apparatus and Works to be furnished under this Contract.
The drawings shall - where applicable - substantially conform to the
Tender Drawings and shall show:
i) Details of manufacturing of major single work pieces specially
manufactured for this Contract.
ii) Assembly of the Works in plan and elevation with main dimensions

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iii) Sub-assembly of the principal components of the Works with
overall dimensions, adjustment and clearance tolerances,
numbers of corresponding detail drawings
iv) Sub-assemblies in which the Contractor proposes to ship the
Works
v) All necessary details of the parts connecting to the Works supplied
by others
vi) Location and sizes of auxiliary connections for oil, grease, water,
air, electrical power etc.
vii) Location and size of the instruments and accessories provided
viii) Methods of lubrication and sealing
ix) Instructions for heat treatment, pressure tests, surface preparation
and anti-corrosive protection
x) Full details of parts for which adjustment is provided or which are
subject to wear
xi) Method and sequence of installation, field joints, erection and
lifting devices, jacks, grout plugs, anchoring details, etc., if not
shown on foundation drawings.

1.6.5 Operation and Maintenance Manuals

The Operation and Maintenance Manuals shall be provided in five (5)


hard bound copies along with DVD or any permanent storage device (five
sets), and shall contain the following information in sufficient detail to
enable the Employer to maintain, dismantle, reassemble, adjust and
operate the Works with all its items of Works and installations:
1) Table of Contents
2) List of Illustrations
3) Introduction
The Introduction shall contain:
a) A brief general description of the Works items
b) A brief description of the use of the Works items
c) Definitions of technical terms used in subsequent graphs of the
instruction book
d) A complete list of all items used in accordance with the Works
Components Identification System.
4) Detailed Description
Detailed description shall contain a complete and accurate description of
the Works, all components and ancillaries, their assembling and
dismantling. An accurate list stating clearances, tolerances, temperatures,
fits, etc. shall be included.
5) Operating Principles and Characteristics
A brief summary of the technical operating principles of the Works,
including diagrams, circuit diagrams, sequence diagrams, piping, etc.
6) Operating Instructions
The instructions shall be accurate and easy to understand, and shall
contain the sequence of individual manipulations required for operation.

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The information shall be presented in such a manner that the contents of
this paragraph can be used for instructing personnel in the operation of
the Works. Tables, lists and graphic presentations should be used
whenever possible for making the description readily understandable. An
appropriate trouble-shooting list shall be included in this chapter.
7) Testing and Adjustment
The entire testing and adjustment procedure required for the Works after
overhauls and during operation shall be described.
8) Maintenance Instructions
This section is divided into six paragraphs:
i) Preventive maintenance, indicating the inspections required at
regular intervals, the inspection procedure, and the routine
cleaning and lubricating operations, the regular safety checks and
similar steps.
The maintenance instructions shall include a tabular (or in other approved
form) summary of the required activities sorted according to
a) Daily
b) Weekly
c) Monthly
d) Quarterly
e) Yearly
f) (Or other) cycles as applicable.
This document shall provide the maintenance engineer with brief and yet
fully comprehensive information including all references to the applicable,
detailed service and maintenance instructions.
ii) Repair and adjustment, describing the inspections, fitting and
dismantling of parts, fault tracing as well as repair and adjustment
procedures.
iii) Spare part lists, containing all the necessary data for ordering
spare parts. These lists shall include all spare parts, those to be
supplied and those not to be supplied under the present Contract.
The prices for spare parts shall be indicated in the list. Detailed
drawing for each item of spare parts shall be supplied. The above
list should include minimum and maximum quantities of spares to
be maintained by the project.
iv) Tool lists, containing all necessary data for identification of tools to
be delivered under the present Contract.
v) List of suppliers and alternative suppliers and addresses.
vi) As-built drawings

1.6.6 Operation and Maintenance Manual Drawings

Each kind of drawing aforementioned shall have a uniform size. The final
size of drawings for the Operation and Maintenance Manual shall be
decided by the Engineer in-Charge. Catalogue sheets, illustrations,
printed specifications, etc., shall be checked and prepared by the
Contractor in such a way that the figures, statements and data valid for
the delivered sizes and types of the Works concerned are clearly marked.

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All figures, statements and data valid for sizes and types not delivered
must be crossed out.

1.6.7 Technical documentation

All the technical documents and drawings required to be furnished under


this contract as per clause 2 “General Technical Specifications” shall be
prepared in internationally accepted software of latest version used for
preparation of documents and drawings.
The Contractor shall submit six (6) copies (or as required) of drawings
along with copy in electronic form media for approval / review as per
“General Conditions of Contract”. At the time of completion of contract, the
Contractor shall submit six hard copies along with five copies in electronic
form in DVD media, of approved and as built drawings together with
operation and maintenance manual.
All the drawings and documents shall be submitted in presentable folders
properly bound and catalogued for easy retrieval / reference. Drawings
shall be submitted in A0 / A2 /A3 and all documentation in A4 size. All
drawings shall be digitally printed/ plotted. Ammonia print/ blue print shall
not be accepted.

1.7 Delivery, Installation and Commissioning

1.7.1 Packaging, handling and site storage

The Contractor shall pack all the consignment in sea worthy packaging,
wherever required, strong enough to withstand rough handling during
transit. Machine surface shall be suitably protected against scratches,
corrosion, shocks, impact etc. Packages shall be suitably and distinctly
identified for type of handling and kind of storage.
The packaging and storage of electronic equipment shall be strictly in
accordance with internationally accepted standards. Electronic equipment
shall be packaged, shipped and stored in anti-static packing. All packages
shall be stored indoor. Packages containing electronic equipment shall be
stored in humidity controlled environment.

1.7.2 Installation

The Contractor shall follow the requirements of installation elaborated in


“Section 5 - Transport and Installation” of “General Technical Specification
(GTS)”.
The Contractor has to do all the work related to assembly, erection,
testing and commissioning complete in all respects. All necessary tools,
plants, labour, materials including consumables for performing installation,
testing and pre-commissioning shall be provided by the Contractor.
The Contractor shall submit the necessary data/information, layout and
foundation/support drawings well in advance.
The Contractor shall provide and install the concrete inserts/embedment;
support steels and/or components for foundation/supports purpose as per
approved erection drawings and coordinate the activities with civil
contractors to keep his activities in synchronism with civil work. All
installation for foundation shall be verified and accepted by the Employer.

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The Contractor shall use anchor fasteners for installation of piping,
fixtures, mountings, conduits, cabling, panels etc. Chipping of concrete
and/or taking support from reinforcement bars shall not be allowed.
The design, location and approval tests of anchoring rings for the fixing of
lifting apparatus necessary for assembly and dismantling of equipment
and plant accessories shall be the responsibility of the Contractor.

1.7.2.1 Installation procedure

The Contractor shall submit six copies of all detailed programs and the
procedures to be adopted for erection / installation, testing and
commissioning well in advance, before start of erection activities/
installation, for approval of the Employer.
The installation procedure shall also have a section “site quality
assurance plan” containing erection data sheets for various components.
These sheets should specify site measurements/ inspections required to
be made for ensuring proper installation.

1.7.2.2 Field welding

The Contractor shall select the proper filler material with respect to parent
material for all field welded connections and shall specify it on the
applicable drawing, together with the detail design of the field weld joint.
All cutting, chamfering, and other shaping of metals necessary for the field
connection shall be done as far as possible in the shop. Adequate
temporary bolted field connections shall be provided to hold the
assemblies rigidly and in proper alignment during shop and field
assembly.

1.7.2.3 Cable laying

Wiring between equipment enclosures shall be made with cables, laid in


trenches and/or cable trays and in cable conduits. All material for cable
laying such as cable trays supports and fastening material shall be
furnished and placed by the Contractor. Cables shall be properly fastened
and marked where they enter enclosures by either cable clamps or
nipples.

1.7.2.4 Installation records

The Contractor shall maintain the installation records including installation


quality control (QC) records of each activity to ensure quality of installation
as per specification/requirement. The QC record shall clearly show the
achieved erection tolerances vis-à-vis the allowable limits. The installation
records shall be submitted to Employer for approval/ acceptance to
establish completion of installation milestones as per program of
performance. All installation records shall be compiled and submitted to
the Employer before taking over the respective unit. Completion certificate
for any work shall be issued only after approval / acceptance of complete
installation records.

ANNEXURE-I

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STANDARD PAINTING SCHEDULE/ COLOUR GUIDELINES

Sl. DESIGNATION COLOUR REF.


NO. COLOUR
1 EOT Crane Yellow RAL 1004
2 EOT Crane Power Supply Pearl White RAL 1013
Box
3 Control monitoring & Relaying Pearl White RAL 1013
panels
4 Main inlet valve Green RAL 6029
5 Generator enclosure Pearl White RAL 1013
6 LAVT / NGT / Transformers Grey RAL 7035
7 Oil Sump Tank Grey RAL 7035
8 Oil Pressure Tank Orange RAL 2000
9 Cooling water system, Green RAL 6029
Cyclone separators etc.
10 Oil purifying system (Tank, Orange RAL 2000
Pumps etc.)
11 Oil Piping Orange RAL 2000
12 Water Piping Green RAL 6029
13 DC Boards, Invertors, Grey RAL 7035
Charger
14 Main Terminal Box Grey RAL 7035
15 Illumination Board Grey RAL 7035
16 Distribution Boxes, Starter Grey RAL 7035
Panels Etc.
17 11 kV switchgear/SAB Pearl White RAL 1013

Note: - Colour schedule mentioned on the relevant drawings of the


equipment shall be reconfirmed from Employer during detail engineering.

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2 TURBINE AND ACCESSORIES

2.1 Scope of Work


Scope of work under this section covers the provision of labour, tools,
plants, materials and performance of work necessary for the design,
manufacture, quality assurance, quality control, shop assembly, shop
testing, delivery at site, site storage and preservation, installation,
commissioning, performance testing, acceptance testing, handing over to
owner and guarantee for two years of three (3) sets of horizontal shaft
Francis Turbines as per the specifications hereunder, each complete with
all auxiliaries, accessories, spare parts and warranting a trouble free safe
operation of the installation.
The scope of work shall be a comprehensive functional system covering
all supply and services including but not be limited to following:

2.1.1 Horizontal shaft Francis turbine and accessories

1) 3 Sets of Horizontal Francis type turbines each of 850 KW (to deliver


rated generator output of 0.8 MW) rated capacity with intermittent
standard overloading capability at 20.8 meter rated head complete with
essential auxiliaries like lubrication equipment, oil, water and pressure
piping, instruments, controls, safety devices etc, as per detailed
specifications.
2) 3 Sets of Governing system, comprising of digital governor and speed
sensing devices, emergency shutdown system etc.
3) 3 Sets of OPU system common for MIV and Governor comprising of sump
tank, main and standby pumps and Nitrogen oil pressure accumulator.
4) 3 Sets of butterfly type inlet valves of diameter matching with that of spiral
inlet diameter with complete operating mechanism. Matching piece in
upstream of MIV to match with unit penstock diameter will also be in
scope of supply. Necessary coordination in this regard with penstock
supplier shall be done by the contractor.
5) 1 Set of penstock butterfly valve of 1.30m dia.
6) 3 Sets of cooling water system complete with filters, cyclone separators,
piping instruments etc.
7) Flow meters in the common penstock line for feedback to SCADA system
as well as for control of bypass gate.
Flow meter shall be Ultrasonic clamp type suitable for 1.3m dia. pipe for
local display/remote signaling to control for regulation of bonnet gate shall
be provided with following features:
Temp. range: -24.8oC to 33oC ±1%
Max. measuring error: ±1% of the measured value
Repeatability: ±0.2%
8) One set of equipments (pumps, pipes, fittings, valves etc.) for the
drainage system.
9) One (1) lot of Turbine oil, grease etc. for first filling of all components with
10% extra quantity, in non-returnable drums, for all Three (3) units,
10) All necessary control, monitoring, safety and metering
instruments/devices/systems including interfacing with plant control &

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monitoring system for 03 units, common butterfly valve and all auxiliary
systems etc.
11) One set of special tools, slings, consumables (as required & approved
during detailed engineering) etc.
12) Mandatory spares in accordance to clause 2.8 of this section
13) Tools and instruments in accordance to clause 2.9 “Tools and
Instruments” of this section
Any other item(s) not mentioned specifically but necessary for the
satisfactory completion of scope of work defined above, as per accepted
standard(s) / best international practices.
2.2 Specific Parameters and Layout Conditions

2.2.1 Water conductor system

The main components of water conductor system are as follows:

Full reservoir level EL 2390.0 m

Minimum draw down level EL 2384.5 m

Gross head 28.0 m

Rated head 20.8 m

Elevation of penstock centre line EL 2365.0 M

Rated Unit Discharge 4.5 m3/sec

Tail Water level EL 2362.0 M

Diameter of each penstock pipe 0.92 M

Permissible speed rise 50%

Permissible pressure rise 40%

Since the power house is located at an elevation higher than 2000 m and
low temperature range in order of -24.80C, necessary altitude correction
factor and suitability for operation in extreme low temperature conditions
would be considered for all the equipments. Necessary provisions to start
the units in icy conditions also need to be suitably incorporated.

2.2.2 Design Considerations

2.2.2.1 Power House Lay out

The project is envisaged as a surface power house having three


horizontal-shaft generating units, each comprising of a Francis turbine
directly coupled to a synchronous generator.
The tentative layout and cross section drawings are given in tender
drawings volume. The bidder is required to see them with care & mention
if any change in size of power house is required. In the event of no
comment in respect of this clause, no change will be accepted after
award. The centre line of the turbine has been considered at EL

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2365.50m (minor change in elevation of centreline can be done by
contractor as per requirement).
The units are supposed to operate throughout the year and in isolated
mode of operation i.e. not connected to the grid.

2.2.2.2 General Handling methodology

All the equipments will be unloaded in service bay at EL 2370.0 with the
help of EOT crane.

2.2.2.3 Special design considerations

The turbine shall be designed for direct coupling to 900 KVA, 0.90 power
factor, 50  5% Hz, synchronous horizontal shaft generator.
Inertia constant of generating unit at rated output shall be more than 1
kW-Sec/kVA.
The turbine manufacturer shall co-ordinate with the generator supplier so
that the generator to be coupled to the turbine is matched in respect of
speed, runaway speed, moment of inertia, over load capacity, coupling
and other relevant requirements.
The Project is situated in Himalayan Region where the silt content is very
high during high flow periods. The Turbines are expected to operate under
high silt concentration. Accordingly the contractor shall take suitable
measures including selection of materials for all under water components,
which will help to resist silt abrasion and enable easy and quick
maintenance/replacement of worn out components.

2.2.2.4 Noise

The maximum noise level at any place at 1.0 m (one) distance shall not
exceed 90 dB.
2.3 Rating and Functional Characteristics

2.3.1 Turbine rating

Each turbine shall have a rated output of not less than 850 KW with
intermittent standard overloading capability to deliver generator output of
900KVA at 0.90 pf (with intermittent standard overload capability), at shaft
coupling and at rated speed when operated at a rated net head of 20.8 m.
The turbine would have output higher than the rated output when
operating at heads higher than the rated head. The supplier may offer his
nearest standard design. The maximum output both at minimum and
maximum heads shall be stated in the offer.

2.3.2 Rated speed

The speed of the units shall be to ensure positive suction head in the
standard operating range.

2.3.3 Pressure Rise and speed rise

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The maximum pressure rise at turbine inlet, considering the effect of water
hammer under worst conditions of load acceptance/rejection and governor
closing/opening times shall be indicated by the Contractor. However, the
pressure rise shall not be more than 40% and speed rise shall not be
more than 50% of the synchronous speed under any worst condition.
The speed rise & pressure rise calculations shall be submitted along with
the technical bid. Submission of graphs shall not be acceptable; the same
should be supported by sample calculations with all supported references
& referred documents.
The turbine manufacturer shall co-ordinate with the generator
manufacturer and shall make all necessary provisions for limiting the
speed and pressure rise to above mentioned values.

2.3.4 Runaway speed

The maximum runaway speed of the unit under any combination of head
and load conditions shall be stated in the tender. The turbine shall be
capable of running safely at maximum runaway speed without any
damage to its parts for a period of not less than 20 minutes for every such
occurrence, with cooling water supply on.
2.4 Performance Guarantee
The generating units along with all auxiliaries and accessories shall be
capable of performing intended duties under specified conditions. The
Contractor shall guarantee the reliability and performance of the individual
equipment as well as of the complete system.
Field tests shall form the final basis to establish fulfilment of guarantee of
the turbine and for purposes of liquidated damages and rejection of the
plant.

2.4.1 Guaranteed output

The rated output of the turbine at rated head shall be stated and
guaranteed. The bidders shall also guarantee the efficiency of the offered
turbine along with the technical bid.
The bidders shall submit a certificate that efficiency guaranteed by them
for the prototype under offer have been arrived at on the basis of model
test reports, CFD Tests, scaled up by Moody's formula for Francis turbine.
The bidder shall also necessarily guarantee other hydraulic performances
like cavitation, vibration, hydraulic thrust, runaway speed etc.
However, rated turbine output should not be less than 850 KW at rated
net head of 20.8 m.

2.4.2 Guaranteed efficiency

The weighted average efficiency of the turbine shall be guaranteed at the


rated head of 20.8 m in accordance with the following formula for purpose
of penalty and rejection limit and bid evaluation:
Teff av= 0.6 X Teff 100 + 0.2 X Teff 80 + 0.2 XTeff 60
Where Teff av = Weighted average efficiency of the turbine. T eff 100, Teff 80
and Teff 60 are efficiencies of turbines at 100 percent, 80 percent and 60
percent rated output at respective rated head of the station. Min
acceptable efficiency is 90%.

236
The intention of purchaser is to buy a time proven design. It is expected
that due to short delivery time, already tested designs shall be offered.
Achievement of cut off efficiency shall be proved by the bidder duly
supported by calculation based on curves of model tests/CFD along with
tech. bid.

2.4.3 Cavitation pitting guarantee

The contractor shall guarantee the runner against excessive pitting


caused by cavitation for 18 months from the date of commissioning or
8000 hours of operation whichever is earlier.
Excessive pitting shall be defined as the removal of metal from the runner
of a weight of W=0.15 D2 per 1000 hrs. of operation where D is the
discharge diameter of runner in meter and W is the weight in Kg. If the
18 months of guarantee period expires before completion of 8000 hours of
operation, the guarantee shall apply to the actual hours of operation
proportionately.
In case of cavitation pitting exceeding the guarantee, the contractor shall,
at his cost, take corrective measures such as modification of design,
finish, replacement, repair, etc. and the turbine after modifications etc.
shall be subject to cavitation guarantee as for the original equipment. The
contractor shall be required to replace the runner in case of excess
removal of metal during guarantee period.

2.4.4 Critical & Plant Sigma

Calculations for critical & plant sigma shall be submitted with the bid.
Values of critical sigma as determined from cavitation model tests, as per
IEC 60193A shall be given in the form of curves for different heads of
operation. Plant sigma curves as recommended by the manufacturer
shall also be plotted on it clearly to show that safety margin is available.

2.4.5 Stresses and Factor of Safety

All parts of turbine shall be designed and constructed to safely withstand


the maximum stresses during normal running and runaway and short
circuit conditions, out of phase synchronising and brake application. The
maximum unit stresses of the rotating parts shall not exceed two third of
the yield point of the material. For other parts, the factor of safety based
on yield point shall not be less than 3 at normal conditions. For over-load
and short circuit conditions a factor of safety of 1.5 on yield point shall be
permitted.

2.4.6 Output & Efficiency Test

Field test for guaranteed output and efficiency shall be conducted on any
of the three units, to be decided by the owner at a later date. The test
shall be carried out as per provisions of IEC60041. Any deviation from
provisions of tests in IEC 60041 should be clearly stated in the offer.
Bidder shall furnish details of test methods, provisions to be made for field
testing, calibration of instruments for the purpose of test and all other
relevant details. Contactor shall be under obligation to accept these tests
for the purpose of liquidated damages.

2.4.7 Liquidated damages for shortfall in output and efficiency

237
For any shortfall in the tested values of rated output and the weighted
average efficiency of turbine vis-à-vis the corresponding guaranteed
values respectively, shall be computed as follows:

A) Output

For each one tenth of one percent Equivalent to ₹ 1,47,000


(0.1%) shortfall in tested value of rated
output of not less than 850KW at a
design head of 20.8m vis-à-vis
corresponding guaranteed value

B) Weighted average efficiency

For each one tenth of one percent Equivalent to ₹ 1,47,000


(0.1%) shortfall in tested value of
weighted average efficiency vis-à-vis
corresponding guaranteed value

For fractional values of shortfalls in percentage, the liquidated damages


amount will be computed on pro-rata basis.
The liquidated damages on account of shortfall of output and weighted
average efficiency shall be computed separately. The total amount of
liquidated damages shall be the sum of these two multiplied by number of
turbines i.e three (3).
No tolerance limits shall be permissible over the calculated value of rated
output. However, tolerance in computation in efficiency shall be in
accordance with the IEC 60041-1991 for field acceptance tests for
hydraulic turbines.

2.4.8 Rejection limit

The Employer reserves the right to reject the turbine if the tested values of
either weighted average efficiency or the rated output fall short by two (2)
per cent or more of the corresponding guaranteed values during field
acceptance tests after allowing agreed tolerances in computation of
efficiency.
2.5 Design and Construction

2.5.1 Standards

The design of turbines and associated auxiliaries and ancillary


equipments shall conform to the best modern practices.
All the materials and equipments covered under this specification shall
comply with the latest editions of the relevant Indian Standards prevailing
on the date of award and in their absence any other internationally
accepted standard which ensures equal or better quality. Where the
equipment conforms to any other standard, the salient point of difference
between the standard adopted and the above mentioned standards shall
be clearly brought out in the tender
Reference Standards:

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IEC: 60308 Governing system
IS12800(Part-III) Small, Mini & Micro Hydroelectric Power Houses.
IEC: 60994 Vibrations
IS: 7326 Penstock & Turbine inlet butterfly valve for hydro power station
ANSB: 49.1 Turbine generator shaft coupling Cooling System:
IS: 3486 Cast iron spigot & socket drain pipes
IS: 10864 Recommendations for heat exchanger gasket
IS: 13095 Butterfly valves for general purpose
IS: 14014 Gate globe & check valves
IS: 1710 Vertical Turbine pumps
IS: 780 Sluice valves
IS: 1293 Mild steel tubular & other wrought steel fittings
IS: 4721 Drainage & Dewatering of surface hydel power station
IS: 210 Grey iron fittings
IS: 5402 Non-return valves
IS: 325 Three phase induction motors
IS: 10118 Switchgear & control gear selection
IS: 8544 Motor starters
IS: 4237 Switchgear & control gear general requirements
IS: 6392 Steel pipe fittings

2.5.2 General Arrangement and Construction

The turbine shall be of the spiral casing type so constructed as to allow all
the removable parts to be dismantled conveniently. The design shall
permit easy removal of rotating parts without disturbing the guide
apparatus.
All associated equipments shall be neatly arranged and shall be readily
and easily accessible for operation and maintenance. Necessary
walkways, ladders, handrails, chequered plates, platforms etc. required
shall be provided by the contractor

2.5.2.1 Runner

The runner shall be of 13 chromium-4 Nickel stainless steel conforming to


ASTM- 743 CA6-NM stainless steel. The composition of the material and
the source of runner casting shall be stated in the tender. The runner shall
be cast integrally of stainless steel. The runner will be ultimately a one
piece construction. The runner will have adequate number of blades
which shall be polished and ground smooth and shall be free from
roughness, cracks, high spots, etc. The finished machine and ground
runner shall be statically balanced in the works before dispatch. For
runner of diameter more than 1000 mm renewable wear rings shall be
provided.

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2.5.2.2 Shaft and Coupling

The turbine shaft (if applicable) shall be of forged carbon steel or alloy
steel conforming to relevant ISS/IEC/BSS. Wherever the flanges are
integral with the shaft the same should conform to American standard
ANSI 49.1- 1967. For large size shafts, tubular construction of proven
design will also be considered. The turbine shaft shall be connected to the
runner on one side and to the generator shaft on the other side.
Alternatively there can be only one common shaft for both turbine and
generator. The shaft shall be of sufficient size to transmit torque without
excessive vibration or any distortion.
The sleeve on the shaft for shaft seal shall be of stainless steel and
removable type.
The turbine manufacturer shall coordinate with the generator
manufacturer for proper design and construction. The final alignment of
the shaft at the site shall be the responsibility of the contractor.

2.5.2.3 Bearings

The turbine bearing (if applicable) should be pad type or sleeve type
Babbitt lined, oil lubricated having either self-lubrication or forced type
lubrication.
The turbine shall be provided with adequate number of bearings. The
bearings shall be designed to withstand operation at maximum runaway
conditions with cooling water supply on (if cooling water is provided)
for a period of not less than 20 minutes and also for operation at normal
speed without cooling water supply for 20 minutes. The bearings shall be
provided with dial type & resistance type thermometer with provision for
alarm annunciation and shut down on excessive bearing temperatures
etc. The number and type of bearings shall be stated in the tender.

2.5.2.4 Shaft Seal

The shaft seal shall be of the stuffing box/carbon ring with self-lubricated
packing and lantern ring. Any other suitable type of shaft seal will also be
considered. The seal shall effectively prevent leakage of water along the
shaft under all operating conditions and at stand still and prevent entry of
air. In case the location of the seal is below maximum tail water level, an
inflatable rubber seal shall be provided for attending the main seal without
dewatering the draft tube. A stainless steel sleeve shall be provided on
the shaft where it passes through the seal.
Arrangement for providing cooling water supply to the seal, if required,
shall also be made.

2.5.2.5 Spiral Casing and Speed Ring

The spiral casing shall be fabricated from welded steel plates and shall be
within transport limitation. The case shall be designed to withstand
maximum water pressure including water hammer and shall be complete
with anchors, supports, sole plates, turn buckles, hold down rods, all types
of clamps etc. The speed ring shall be of low alloy cast steel or of welded
plate steel and shall be in suitable number of sections. The assembled
stay ring shall be suitable for welding on to the casing.

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A pressure meter of high precision shall be installed at the inlet of spiral
casing after MIV. A precision type discharge measuring instrument for the
unit shall also be supplied and installed. The value of head & discharge
thus obtained shall be used to determine the actual output of the turbine.

2.5.2.6 Draft Tube

Each turbine shall be provided with a draft tube liner/suction bend of


welded construction of structural steel. The draft tube cone shall have
machined flange for bolting with the runner chamber. Drain box and drain
pipes for dewatering the draft tube (if applicable) shall be included in the
scope of supply. The design of the draft tube shall be such as to ensure
the best overall efficiency for the turbine and stable and pulsation free
operations of the machines.

2.5.2.7 Guide Vanes

The guide vanes shall be made from stainless steel. If required, sleeves of
stainless steel at the bearing and sealing surfaces shall be provided. The
guide vane bushes shall be of the self lubricating type with protective
seals or shall be suitable for grease lubrication. In case of grease
lubrication, arrangement for manual/automatic grease/ self lubrication to
all bushes shall be made.

2.5.2.8 Operating Mechanism

The operating mechanism shall have ample strength to withstand the


maximum load that can be imposed on it by the most severe operating
conditions. All working points with relative motion shall be bronze bushed,
grease lubricated/self lubricated. Means shall be provided for adjusting
the position of the individual guide vanes to ensure close contact with
adjacent guide vane in the closed position.
Each guide vane shall be individually connected to the regulating ring
through suitable levers and links. Shear pins/breaking link or some other
suitable arrangement shall be provided on each guide vanes to protect
guide vane and to provide alarm on foreign body getting wedged between
guide vanes.
The regulating ring shall be fabricated from welded steel plates. It shall be
supported on outer casing of side cover on bronze strips with provision for
grease/self lubrication.

2.5.2.9 Guide Vane Servomotor

The guide vanes shall be operated by single double acting oil operated
servomotors of adequate capacity. The servomotors shall be capable of
moving the guide vanes smoothly during full opening and closing in
required time. Standard available hydraulic cylinders of approved make,
proven design and of suitable material can also be used as servomotor.
Operation by one servomotor shall also be acceptable if it is of proven
design.

2.5.2.10 Side Cover

The side cover shall be of cast steel or welded plate construction.


Suitable replaceable labyrinth rings or similar sealing arrangements shall
be provided in the covers.

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2.5.3 Main Inlet Valves

For maintenance of turbines and for emergency isolation of the turbine,


Main inlet valve of butterfly type with a diameter matching with that of
spiral inlet diameter with complete operating mechanism. Matching piece
in upstream of MIV to match with unit penstock diameter will also be in
scope of supply. MIV would be housed in the power house..
These valves shall be suitable for all operating conditions of transient and
maximum water hammer. These inlet valves shall be operated by oil
pressure and closed by oil pressure / counter weight, so that it is capable
of being closed under all emergencies. All associated equipments such as
servomotor, counter weight etc., shall be included in the supply. The main
inlet valve shall close automatically under normal and emergency
shutdown conditions. These valves will be complete with inlet pipe, outlet
pipe with expansion joint, sealing arrangement, by pass arrangement for
equalisation of pressure on either side of the valve, body drain valve,
valve open, close and intermediate position indicator etc.
For isolating the machines during maintenance of main inlet valves, an
electrically operated penstock butterfly valves with dia 1.30 m would also
be provided immediately before trifurcation of the penstock and would be
housed in the power house. Provision for manual operation of penstock
butterfly valve shall also be provided.
MIV and penstock butterfly valve shall be designed for a pressure of 5
kg/cm2 & shall be tested for 7 kg/cm2 for 30 minutes.

2.5.4 Governing Equipment

Each turbine shall be equipped with digital governing system conforming


to IEC 60308. The governing system shall be of proven design capable of
maintaining control of speed under all conditions of heads and loads and
unit operation in isolated/islanding mode. Such governing system shall be
complete with actuator unit comprising speed responsive element,
restoring mechanism having adjustable temporary and permanent droop
setting, load limiting device, speed level control etc. The unit is to run in
isolated mode of operation and necessary provisions in governor shall be
made.
A toothed wheel mounted on the generating unit shaft with speed pick ups
or its equivalent is normally used as input to speed sensing device.
Standard protections like over speed device, brake control, emergency
shut down and alarms etc. shall be provided in the governing systems.

2.5.4.1 Oil Pressure System (Common for Governor & MIV)

A common nitrogen based oil pressure system for governor & MIV shall
be provided in each unit. The pressure oil system shall comprise of
nitrogen cylinder bank, sump tank, pressure accumulator, two numbers of
electrically operated oil pumps - one for normal running and another
acting as 100% standby for each unit. Provision for emergency shutdown
of the unit without any oil pump running shall be made. Pressure Gauges,
pressure switches, NRV, Solenoid valves, backup valves etc. shall be
provided as may be necessary. Provision in the scheme shall be so
made that outage of any pump shall not effect running of units.

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2.5.5 Drainage System

Drainage sump for station drainage system is provided at EL 2364.00m.


The equipments for the drainage system shall include at least 02nos. of
submersible pumps (one main and other acting as standby), necessary
piping, fittings/gate valves/non return valves, level/ float switches,
controls, accessories etc. The pumps shall discharge the water into the
river. The pump shall be of adequate rating to cope up with station
drainage comprising of leakages/seepages from walls,pipes,MIV, guide
vane, bushes etc. The rated head and discharge of pumps will be decided
during detail engineering with respect to worst condition that can occur.

2.5.6 Cooling Water System

The cooling water for generator and turbine bearing coolers, turbine shaft
seal and for other equipments of all units in the power house needing
cooling water shall be provided by directly tapping from penstock after
penstock inlet valve with two gate valves in series (one valve should be
motorized) with necessary pressure reducers or booster pumps to make a
common header for all units. The cooling water system shall be redundant
and complete with auto backwash filters, cyclone separators, fine mesh
filters. Necessary flow meters, pressure switches & pressure gauges etc.
shall be provided in individual units.

2.5.7 Turbine Instrumentation, Control and Safety Device

Each turbine shall be provided with a complete set of instruments,


gauges, controls and safety devices for monitoring the condition of the
unit during normal running and emergencies. The instruments and gauges
for the turbine include pressure gauges, level indicators etc. These shall
be placed near the locations of apparatus and in the panels or both. The
safety devices shall comprise equipment and devices for sensing
abnormal operating conditions, for giving visual and audible annunciation
and shut down the unit. An indicative list of these instruments, control, and
safety devices is given below. The items, quantities and locations are to
suit the requirements for safe and satisfactory operation of the generating
units and the auxiliary systems.
All the instruments, indicators, gauges, controls, safety devices etc., shall
be complete with necessary detecting elements, auxiliary relays etc.

LIST OF INSTRUMENTS/SAFETY DEVICES/CONTROL


1. Position of main inlet valve & penstock butterfly valve
2. Pressure of shaft seal cooling water
3. Pressure of oil pressure system
4. Oil level in oil accumulator
5. Oil level in sump tank
6. Unit speed indicator
7. Speed/load setting indicator.
8. Pressure on turbine inlet side

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9. Pressure of draft tube
10. Guide vane position indicator
11. Pressure in penstock before inlet valve
12. Pressure in penstock after inlet valve
13. Turbine bearing temperature-metal & oil
14. Gate limit and gate position indicator.
Note: The above list is indicative only. Items shall be finalized during
detailed engineering so as to meet the minimum requirement for
satisfactory monitoring and control of generating units.
CONTROLS
1. Governor speed droop control
2. Governor speed/power level control
3. Speed/powerlimit setting
4. Speed position change
5. Manual speed control
6. Main inlet valve and penstock butterfly valve control
7. Emergency stop
8. Turbine start
9. Turbine stop
10. Control for governor oil pump motor
11. Control for stand by governor oil sump
12. Speed no load device
13. Butterfly inlet valve opening and closing
14. Manual turbine gate control
15. Gate limit control
16. Auto/manual selection switch
Note: The above list is indicative only. Items shall be finalized during
detailed engineering so as to meet the minimum requirement for
satisfactory monitoring and control of generating units.

SAFETY DEVICES (FOR ALARM SHUT DOWN)


1. Governor oil pressure low
2. Low oil level in governor oil pressure receiver
3. Low oil level in governor sump tank
4. Over speed
5. Manual Emergency shut down
6. Turbine bearing temperature high
Note: The above list is indicative only. Items shall be finalized during
detailed engineering so as to meet the minimum requirement for
satisfactory monitoring and control of generating units.

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2.6 Drawings, Documents and Design Calculations

2.6.1 Design Memorandum

The Contractor shall submit to Employer a design memorandum prepared


in accordance to clause 1.6 “Record and Documentation” of "General
Technical Requirements.”

2.6.2 Drawings and documents

The Contractor shall submit all the drawings and documents in


accordance with requirements stipulated in clause 1.6 “Record and
Documentation” of "General Technical Requirements.”

2.6.3 Design calculation

The Contractor shall submit the design calculation in accordance to


Clause 1.6 “Record and Documentation” of "General Technical
Requirements” covering at least the following, for review / acceptance.
The following drawings shall be furnished by the Contractor:
a) Drawing of the main cross section of the turbine showing the various
component parts/assemblies of the turbine.
b) Layout drawings of the power house showing the overall dimensions
and layout of turbines, clearly indicating unit spacing, dimensions of spiral
casing, draft tube etc. and all important elevations.
c) Schematic drawings of piping system, control system and
instrumentation.
d) Physical and schematic drawings and descriptive literature on the
governor and its mechanism.
e) Charts/curves showing performances characteristics of the turbine.
f) Curve showing areas and velocities at different sections of the draft
tube.
g) A list of tests to be performed at site on subassemblies and
equipments.
h) A complete list of equipments, auxiliaries etc. covered in the offer.

2.6.4 Guaranteed Technical Particulars

The contractor must furnish following details within three weeks of award
of contract:
a) Horizontal force on spiral case foundation
b) Horizontal force on penstock anchorage
c) Horizontal force on inlet valve anchorage
d) Hydraulic Axial thrust
e) Counter Axial thrust
f) Axial load
g) Vertical force on spiral casing foundation
h) Vertical force on draft tube foundation
i) Vertical force on inlet valve anchorage

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2.7 Delivery, Installation and Commissioning
The Contractor shall follow the requirements of Delivery, Installation and
commissioning elaborated in clause 1.7 “Delivery, Installation and
commissioning” of “Section 1 - General Technical Requirements.”
2.8 Spare Parts
Specified spare parts to be supplied under this section are as follows:

S.no. Items of spare Qty.

I TURBINE

1 Runner 1no.
2 Wearing rings(statonary )if any 1 set
3 Wearing rings(moving) if any 1 set
4 Shaft seal packings if any 2 sets
5 Guide vane stem packings 1 set
6 Shear pins/friction clutch/coupling components rod 1 set.
support
7 Guide vanes 1 set.
8 Guide vane Servomotor 1No.
9 Packings & sealings all types and sizes 2 sets
10 Guide vane bearing bushes 1 set
11 Bushes/bearings for regulating mechanism 1 set
II OIL PRESSURE VESSEL, SUMP TANK, AND
PUMPS

1. Oil pump 1 no.


2. Filter for oil 1 set
3. Solenoids valve 1 set
4. Level switches 1 set
5. Pressure switches 1 set
6. Pump unloader valve 1 set
7. Safety relief valve 1 set
III INSTRUMENTS AND SAFETY DEVICES

1 Resistance type temp. detectors 2 nos.


2 Level switches 1 set
3 Dial type thermometers 1 set
4 Pressure gauge/pressure swiches 1 set

IV DRAINAGE SYSTEM

1 Drainage pump. 1 no.


2 Level switch for drainage sump 2 nos.

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V COOLING WATER SYSTEM

1 Cyclone Separator, Pump, Auto backwash filter 1 no. each


cartridge, fine mesh filters, type
2 Flow meters, pressure gauges 1 no. each
type

One set means total quantity used in one unit.


2.9 Tools and Instruments
The Contractor shall supply all necessary tools and instruments etc. for
installation, repair and maintenance.

2.9.1 Special tools

All special tools, slings, lifting devices, jacks, turnbuckles, foundation


plates/bolts etc. required for erection of the equipment shall be listed and
supplied by the contractor. Welding electrodes as required for site welding
and paints etc. for finishing coat shall also be supplied by the contractor.
2.10 Quality Assurance and Testing
The Contractor shall follow the quality assurance and testing requirements
specified separately in “Quality assurance and Testing Specifications
(QTS)”.

247
3 GENERATOR

3.1 Scope of Work

Scope of work under this section covers the provision of labour, tools,
plants, materials and performance of work necessary for the design,
manufacture, quality assurance, quality control, shop assembly, shop
testing, delivery at site, site storage and preservation, installation,
commissioning, performance testing, acceptance testing, handing over to
Owner and guarantee for two years of Three (3) sets of generators, as
per the specifications hereunder, each complete with all auxiliaries,
accessories, spare parts and warranting a trouble free safe operation of
the installation.
The scope of work shall be a comprehensive functional system covering
all supply and services including but not be limited to following:

3.1.1 Generator and auxiliary system

Three (3) sets of direct driven, horizontal shaft synchronous generators,


each having a rated output of 900 KVA, 0.90 p.f, 3.3 KV, 3 phase, 50 Hz
(with standard intermittent overloading capability) with open ventilation air
coolers complete with rotor, shaft, thrust and guide bearings, brackets,
and other components etc., conforming to the latest edition of IEC
standards
Each generator shall be equipped as follows and in accordance with the
specifications described in the preceding clauses.
 Generator stator complete with frame, sole plates, core, winding with
accessories and terminals etc.
 Generator rotor complete with shaft, rim, poles with windings and
accessories etc.
 One set of Bearings.
 One set of Anti-condensation space heaters.
 One set of Air guides.
 One set of Excitation and voltage regulation equipment.
 One set of Resistance type temperature detectors.
 One set of Dial thermometer with electrical contacts for alarm and trip
for bearings.
 One no. of Multi-point temperature indicator.
 One no. of Neutral grounding cubicle.
 One no. of Line Terminal Cubicle.
 One set of Brakes.
 One set of Mechanical over-speed devices with electrical contacts.
 One set of Bearing oil coolers, if applicable.
 One set of brake dust collection system, if applicable.
 One set of all required oil, air and water pipes, fittings, valves,
pressure gauges and flow relays,

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 Suitable fire protection system
 One set of interconnecting cables, termination, etc. between various
parts,
 Oil for first filling of bearings (if required), braking system and any
other auxiliary system as per applicability etc. with 10% extra quantity
in non-returnable drums,
 One set of Instruments, controls and safety devices for generators.
 Coordination and Provision of necessary contacts and/or ports for
integration with plant Control, Monitoring & Relaying system.
 One set spares to clause 3.11 “Spares Parts” of this section.
 Tools and instruments in accordance to clause 3.12 “Tools and
Instruments” of this section
Any other item(s) not mentioned specifically but necessary for the
satisfactory completion of scope of work defined above, as per accepted
standard(s) / best international practices.

3.2 Specific Parameters and Layout Conditions

3.2.1 Layout and General Arrangement

General arrangement of the Power House and generating units has been
outlined in the layout drawings. Various levels of Power House mentioned
in layout drawings are to be maintained by the Contractor during detailed
design.
The generator manufacturer shall coordinate with the turbine supplier so
that the generator is matched to turbine in respect of speed, runaway
speed, moment of inertia, overload capacities, coupling and other relevant
requirements. Speed increaser can also be provided in between Turbine
& Generator to use high speed generator.
The generator shall be horizontal shaft synchronous type. The design and
construction of turbine and generator shafts shall be adequately
coordinated at the time of generator and turbine design and
manufacturing.
Since the power house is located at an elevation higher than 2000 m and
low temperature range in order of -24.80C, necessary altitude correction
factor and suitability for operation in extreme low temperature conditions
would be considered for all the equipments. Necessary provisions to start
the units in icy conditions also need to be suitably incorporated.

3.2.2 Design considerations

The generator shall be capable of delivering rated output at rated power


factor. The contactor may offer his nearest standard design with output
not less than rated continuous power, as defined in clause no. 3.3.1. The
generator will be connected to the turbine directly. Each generator shall
be star connected and the three main and three neutral leads shall be
brought out of the stator frame for insertion of current transformers for
protection, metering and surge protection apparatus. The generator
neutral shall be grounded suitably and the generators shall be designed to
safely withstand any mechanical/magnetic stresses resulting from either a
three phases or single phase fault.

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The units are supposed to operate throughout the year and in isolated
mode of operation i.e. not connected to the grid.

3.3 Rating and Functional Characteristics

3.3.1 Rating

The generators shall be of the horizontal shaft water wheel driven


alternating current type. The direction of rotation shall be clockwise when
viewed from turbine end. The rating and other details of the generator are
given below:

1. Construction type Horizontal Shaft.

2. No. of phases 3
900 (with intermittent
3. Rated continuous power, (kVA) standard overload
capability)
5. Generator voltage, (kV) 3.3 ± 10 %

6. Frequency, (Hz) 50 (± 5%)


Combine Voltage & Frequency
7. ±10%
variation
8. Rated Power factor, (cos) 0.9

9. Range of Power factor, (cos) 0.8 to 1


matching with turbine speed
10. Rated speed, (rpm)
for positive suction.
Insulation class of stator and rotor
11. F
winding
12. SCR Greater than 0.8

13. Inertia Constant Greater than 1

3.3.2 Capacity and temperature rise

The generator shall be capable of delivering continuous rated power at


the rated power factor over the ranges of 90% to 110% of rated voltage
and 95% to 105% of rated frequency without exceeding the maximum
permissible temperatures.

3.3.3 Speed Rise

The moment of inertia of the generator together with the moment of inertia
of the turbine and flywheel (if any) shall be such that the maximum
momentary speed rise is as per IS. The speed rise shall match with the
turbine. The generator manufacturer shall coordinate with the turbine
manufacturer to limit the speed rise to this value. The value of GD2 may
be mention in technical bid.

3.3.4 Noise Level

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The noise level should not exceed 90 dB when measured at a distance of
1 (one) meter from any component of the generator.

3.3.5 Insulation and Temperature Rise

Insulation of generator shall be as follows:


i) Stator Winding insulation corresponding to class F insulation.
ii) Rotor Winding insulation corresponding to class F insulation.
The generator shall be capable of delivering rated output continuously at
any voltage and frequency in the operating range at rated power factor
without exceeding the following values of temperature rise over air
temperature.
a) Stator winding 80o C
b) Rotor winding
i) Single layer 90o C
ii) Multi-layer 80o C

3.3.6 Cooling System

The generator shall be natural air cooled, self ventilated type. The air
passages in the stator, rotor, fans and coolers shall be designed to give a
smooth and quiet flow of air.

3.3.7 Brakes

For stopping the generating units quickly, each generator shall be


provided with hydraulic brakes which will be operated automatically. The
generator brake shall consist of a suitable number of brake shoes which
will operate against a polished segmental steel brake track bolted to rotor
or to any other component such as flywheel etc.

3.4 Performance Guarantee

The generator along with all auxiliaries and accessories shall be capable
of performing intended duties under specified conditions. The Contractor
shall guarantee the reliability and performance of the individual equipment
as well as of the complete system.

3.4.1 Efficiency and Guaranteed output

The minimum accepted weighted average efficiency for the generator is


95%. Weighted average efficiency is defined as
ηgAv = 0.6 ηg100 + 0.2 ηg80 + 0.2 ηg60
Where,
ηgAv = Weighted average efficiency
ηg100 = Efficiency at 100 percent of rated (900) KVA and 0.90 p.f
ηg80 = Efficiency at 80 percent of rated (900) KVA and 0.90 p.f
ηg60 = Efficiency at 60 percent of rated (900) KVA and 0.90 p.f

Within the limits of temperature rise specified in clause 3.3.5 and the rated
continuous output of the generator 900 KVA, 0.9 p.f. at rated head of 20.8
m shall be guaranteed under penalty with a rejection limit of minus 2 per
cent for the rated generator terminal conditions.

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The penalty for output and efficiency shall be computed separately and
the total amount of penalty shall be sum of two multiplied by number of
generators i.e. three (3).
A) Output
For each one tenth of one percent (0.1%) Equivalent to ₹ 3,89,900
shortfall in tested value of rated output
vis-à-vis corresponding guaranteed value.
B) Weighted Average Efficiency
For each one tenth of one percent (0.1%) Equivalent to ₹ 389,900
shortfall in tested value of weighted
average efficiency vis-à-vis corresponding
guaranteed value.
No tolerance shall be permitted over test figures of output. The output of
the generator shall be measured at site with meters installed on the plant
without any (+) or (-) tolerance. i.e. measured values will not be changed
for inaccuracies of meters. Tolerance in determination of efficiency shall
be as per relevant Indian Standard.
For fractional values of shortfalls in percentage, the liquidated damages
amount will be computed on pro-rata basis.
Efficiency & performance test at site will be conducted as per IS: 4722 &
IEC 60034.

3.4.2 Rejection limit

The Employer reserves the right to reject the generator if the tested
values of either weighted average efficiency or the rated output fall short
by two (2) per cent or more of the corresponding guaranteed values
during field acceptance tests after allowing agreed tolerances in
computation of efficiency.

3.5 Design and Construction

3.5.1 Standards

The system and equipment shall be designed, built, tested and installed to
the latest revisions of the following applicable standards. In the event of
other standards being applicable they will be compared for specific
requirement and specifically approved during detailed engineering for the
purpose:

S.No. Standards Description

1. IEC 60034 Rotating electrical machine


2. IS 4722 Rotating electrical machine- specification
3. IEC 60137 Insulating bushing for alternating voltage
above 1000V
4. IS 14773 Mechanical Vibration of non reciprocating
machines.

3.5.2 Construction

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3.5.2.1 Stator

The stator frame shall be of cast iron/fabricated steel construction. The


frame shall be designed to withstand bending stresses and deflections
due to its self-weight and weight of the complete core to be supported by
it.
The stator core shall be built up of segmental punchings of low loss, non-
oriented steel sheets and end plates. Each punching shall be carefully
deburred and insulated on both sides with high quality varnish to reduce
losses in the core.
The stator winding shall be of multi-turn or single turn type and shall be
insulated with Class F insulation. The stator winding shall be star
connected.with both ends of conductors of each phase brought out of the
stator
Sufficient nos. embedded temperature detectors of resistance type shall
be provided for stator winding/core and located symmetrically.

3.5.2.2 Rotor

The design and construction of rotor shall be in accordance with the best
modern practice. The factor of safety at maximum runaway speed based
on yield point of material shall not be less than 1.5.
Necessary flywheel effect shall be incorporated into the rotating parts of
the generator and shall be determined in consultation with the turbine
manufacturer. In case requisite moment of inertia is not available from the
rotor, a separate flywheel shall be provided, to furnish the additional
flywheel effect required.

3.5.2.3 Field Winding

Field winding shall consist of fabricated field coils or any other type with
adequate provision for cooling purpose.

3.5.2.4 Damper Winding

The field poles shall be provided with adequate damper windings to


ensure stability under fault conditions and to meet I2t value of 20.

3.5.2.5 Shaft

The generator shaft shall be made of the best quality forged carbon steel
properly heat-treated. The shaft shall be of adequate size to operate at all
speeds including maximum runaway speed and shall be able to withstand
short circuit stresses without excessive vibrations or distortion. The
generator shaft shall be accurately machined all over and polished where
it passes through the bearings and accessible points for alignment
checks. Generator shaft shall have suitable provision for coupling to
turbine shaft. Alternatively the generator shaft may be extended to have
turbine runner mounted on it.

3.5.2.6 Fans

Axial flow fans are to be mounted at each end of the rotor for ventilation
purposes.

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3.5.2.7 Bearings

The generator bearings shall be Pad type oil lubricated/sleeve type oil
lubricated bearings having either self lubrication or forced lubrication.
Bearings shall be adequately insulated to prevent any harmful circulating
currents. The thrust bearings shall be suitable to take axial thrusts in both
the directions. The bearings shall also be designed to withstand operation
at runaway speed for a period of 20 minutes. Thermometers, pressure
gauges, flow relays, etc. as required shall be provided.

3.5.2.8 Ventilation

The generator shall be provided with screen protected enclosures.

3.5.2.9 Heaters

Space heaters of adequate rating shall be provided for maintaining air


temperature surrounding the stator, above the ambient during any
prolonged shutdown period.

3.5.2.10 Oil (if required)

The tenderer shall indicate this requirement and shall give his
recommendations with detailed specifications regarding type of oil/grease
to be used for lubrication of generator bearings. The oil used for
generator bearing lubrication, etc. shall be identical with that used for the
pressure oil system of governor/MIV. The generator and turbine
manufacturers shall coordinate to ensure that their recommendations
regarding oil are identical. Oil shall be suitable for operation in sub-zero
temperature conditions. The first filling of oil with 10 percent extra shall be
supplied along with the generator.

3.5.2.11 The Flywheel

A separate flywheel of ample dimensions shall be supplied in case the


required moment of inertia for limiting the speed rise/runaway speed is not
available for the generator rotor exciter, etc. The flywheel shall be
coupled directly to the generator and to the turbine. Necessary provision
for receiving the piston of the brake cylinder on application of brakes shall
be made in the flywheel.

3.5.2.12 Generator Fire Protection

Suitable type fire detection and protection system shall be provided for
Generator.

3.6 Excitation System

Brushless excitation system may be offered by the bidder alongwith all


auxiliaries and accessories.

3.6.1 Generator Field Discharge Equipment

A totally enclosed field air circuit breaker/contactor, draw out type,


complete with auxiliary contacts, capable of breaking, the maximum field
current that can occur under conditions of normal operation or when

254
interrupting the transient D.C. component of the field current due to a
three phase fault at generator terminals, without generating dangerous
over voltage, shall be furnished with each set of excitation equipment.
The field circuit breaker/contactor shall be suitable for both manual and
electrical operation.
The field circuit breaker/contactor discharge contacts, discharge resistors,
or other equipment, shall be mounted together to form a self supporting
assembly of the excitation control equipment of each generator. A
suitable hinged door, locking handle, inspection window foundation bolts
etc. shall be provided with each excitation cubicles.

3.6.2 Automatic Voltage Regulator

An automatic voltage regulator complete with an enclosed master


element, one auto and one manual channel, voltage adjusting rheostat,
contactors, etc. shall be provided with each generator for the automatic
control of the generator exciter. The voltage regulator shall be of anti-
hunting type. It shall also be capable of maintaining the generator terminal
voltage at a pre-set value and at the same time share the reactive KVA
of the load with two similar units.
The voltage regulator shall be sensitive to the change of plus or minus
0.5(one half) percent of normal voltage(average of 3 phases) of the
generator when operating under steady load conditions for any load or
excitation within operating range and shall initiate corrective action without
hunting.
After the initial maximum voltage following any load rejection up to 110
(one hundred and ten) percent of rated load, the automatic voltage
regulator shall restore the terminal voltage to a value not more than 5(five)
percent above or below the voltage being held before load rejection and
shall maintain the voltage within these limits throughout the period of
generator overspeed. The voltage regulator shall be provided with cross-
current compensating devices for parallel operation of generators.
A voltage adjusting rheostat suitable for manual and also for motor
operation by remote control shall be furnished with each voltage regulator
equipment. The range of the voltage control shall extend from 90(ninety
percent to 110(one hundred and ten) percent of rated voltage of
generator.

3.7 Line Terminal and Neutral Grounding Cubicles

The generator supplier shall supply terminal cubicle for each machine
housing surge capacitor, potential transformers, current transformers,
lightning arrestors, cable boxes, etc. The cubicle shall be complete with
necessary tapings for excitation system, etc.
The generator supplier shall supply neutral grounding cubicle for each
machine housing the neutral grounding transformer, secondary loading
resistor, current transformers, cable boxes, etc.
The cubicles shall be made of sheet steel, suitably compartmentalised
with doors and shall be furnished complete with base mounting
arrangement, foundation bolts, etc. The internal illumination for cubicles
shall be provided with CFL lamps with Door switch Copper/aluminum
conductors of appropriate size shall be used for bus bars and connections
in the cubicles. The bus bar and main connecting conductors shall be
suitably insulated to make them compatible with generator temperature

255
rise and insulation. The support insulators for the bus connectors shall be
provided as required. Copper earth bus of adequate cross section shall
be provided in the cubicle.

3.7.1 Potential Transformers (3.3 KV)

The potential transformers shall be single phase, epoxy cast resin dry
type units with sufficient no. of cores required for protection, metering and
synchronisation etc. Potential transformer shall be protected on primary
and secondary side by current limiting fuses. The PT shall conform to IS:
3156.

3.7.2 Current Transformers (3.3 KV)

The current transformers shall be epoxy cast resin dry type units
conforming to IS: 2705. The current transformers shall be designed to
withstand the thermal and magnetic stresses resulting from the maximum
short circuit current.
The technical requirement and location of the CTs are given in the single
line drawing. The generator supplier shall supply suitable transformers for
the protection scheme and these shall be installed in the neutral
grounding and line terminal cubicles.
The current transformers shall be suitable for metering and protection as
per single line diagram

3.7.3 Lightning Arrestors

The lightning arrestors shall be heavy duty indoor station class non-linear
resistor (ZnO type )suitable for repeated operation to limit voltage surges
on alternating current power circuits and to interrupt power follow current.
The arrestors shall conform to IS:3070 (latest edition) part-1. The nominal
discharge current of lightning arrestors shall not be less than 10 KA.

3.7.4 Surge Capacitors

The surge capacitors shall conform to the latest edition of IS:2834 and
shall be rated 0.25 micro farad. The capacitors shall be connected in
parallel with lightning arrestors and shall be provided with a built in
discharge resistor. The capacitors shall be suitable for indoor mounting.

3.8 Generator Instrumentation and Control

The generator supplier shall supply all equipments for instrumentation and
safety relating to the generator. These, together with the equipments
supplied by the turbine supplier, shall constitute a complete and
coordinated set of instruments, gauges, and safety devices for control of
the units during normal running and in emergency.

3.9 Drawings, Documents and Design Calculations

3.9.1 Design memorandum

The Contractor shall submit to Employer a design memorandum prepared


in accordance to clause 1.6 “Record and Documentation” of “Section 1-
General Technical Requirements.”

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3.9.2 Drawings and documents

The below mentioned drawings containing all the information required for
designing the civil works, static & dynamic loads ,Base frame details with
sections etc. shall be supplied within one month of the placement of the
letter of award. It is desired that common Base frame for turbine &
generator shall be adopted for proper co-ordination/
i) General arrangement and overall dimensions of the generators,
exciters, (where applicable and bearings, and showing positions of
main and neutral terminals.
ii) Description of lubrication system along with drawings.
iii) Physical and schematic drawings of excitation system and AVR along
with descriptive literature.
iv) Graphs showing predicted characteristics of generators.
v) Generator layout drawings showing overall dimensions and layout of all
ducts, cables, piping, relative positions of auxiliaries,etc.
vi) The Contractor shall also provide other calculations as required by the
Employer for his approval of the Contractor’s design.

3.10 Delivery, Installation and Commissioning

The Contractor shall follow the requirements of Delivery, Installation and


commissioning elaborated in clause 1.7 “Delivery, Installation and
commissioning” of “Section 1 - General Technical Requirements.”

3.10.1 Site Erection

The contractor shall depute experts in erection, testing and


commissioning of generator, excitation equipment and other associated
equipments for complete erection testing and commissioning of
generators and associated equipments.

3.11 Spare Parts

Specified spare parts to be supplied under this section are as follows:

S.NO. DESCRIPTION QTY.


1
Brake liners/pads/shoes 3 sets
2
Bearing Liners/bush 2 sets
3
RTDs 1 set.
4
Dial thermometers 1 set.

5 Excitation Breaker 1 set.

6 AVR cards, diode, thyristors of each type 1 set.

7 L.A. 1 no.

8 Surge Capacitor 1 no.

257
9 Speed sensing probe 1 set.

One set means total quantity used in one unit.

3.12 Tools and Instruments

The Contractor shall supply all necessary tools and instruments etc. for
installation, repair and maintenance.

3.12.1 Quality Assurance and Testing

The contractor shall follow the quality assurance and testing requirements
specified separately in “Quality assurance and Testing Specifications
(QTS)”.

258
4 GSU TRANSFORMERS

4.1 Scope of Work

Scope of work under this section covers the provision of labour, tools,
plants, materials and performance of work necessary for the design,
manufacture, quality assurance, quality control, shop assembly, shop
testing, delivery at site, site storage and preservation, installation,
commissioning, performance and acceptance testing, handing over to
Owner and guarantee for two years of GSU transformers as per the
specifications hereunder, each complete with all auxiliaries, accessories,
spare parts and warranting a trouble free safe operation of the installation.
The scope of work shall be a comprehensive functional system covering all
supply and services including but not be limited to following:

4.1.1 3.3/11 kV Generator step up (GSU) transformer

i) Three (3), 1000 KVA, 3.3/11 KV, KNAN three phase generator step-up
(GSU) transformers complete with all necessary items such as on load
tap changer, bushings, termination arrangements, undercarriage, current
transformers, cooling arrangements, instrumentation, valves, piping,
mounting plates, hardware, fittings, accessories etc.,
ii) Coordination and Provision of necessary contacts and/or ports for
integration with plant Control, Monitoring & Relaying system.
iii) Spare parts in accordance to clause 4.8 “Spare Parts” of this section.
iv) Tools and instruments in accordance to clause 4.9 “Tools and
Instruments” of this section
Any other item(s) not mentioned specifically but necessary for the
satisfactory completion of scope of work defined above, as per accepted
standard(s) / best international practices.

4.2 Specific Parameters and Layout Conditions

4.2.1 Layout and General Arrangement

The power generated by each generator will be stepped up to 11 kV level


by 3.3/11 kV, 1000 KVA three phase step-up transformers. The
transformers shall be located in Power house at machine hall level.
The generator step-up transformers (GSU) shall be of proven design for
intended duty specified to ensure a high reliability and availability. All the
control and instrumentation panels / devices shall be so arranged that these
are easily visible and conveniently and safely accessible from the front.
The transformers shall be of KNAN cooling. Transformer LV winding shall
have delta connection and shall be connected to the respective generator
through 3.3 kV XLPE cables. A suitable Oil / Air bushing at LV end of the
transformer shall be provided along with cable terminal box. The HV side of
the transformer shall have star connection with neutral directly grounded.
HV side shall be connected to 11 kV indoor switchgear located in the power
house building through 11 KV XLPE cables. The 11 KV bushings shall also
be housed inside cable terminal box.

259
4.2.2 Operating conditions

4.2.2.1 Normal operation

The units are supposed to operate throughout the year and in isolated
mode of operation i.e. not connected to the grid with operating parameters
within the following ranges:

Sl. No. Parameter Normal range

1 HV and LV side voltage 90 % to 110 % of rated value

2 Frequency 47.5 Hz to 52.5 Hz

3 Power factor 0.9 overexcited to 0.9 under


excited

4 Combined voltage & ±10%


frequency variation

4.2.2.2 Over fluxing requirement

The over fluxing requirements are the following:


U f
/  1.1
Ur fr in a continuous functioning mode
U f
/  1.25
Ur fr during 1 minute of functioning
U f
/  1.4
Ur fr during 5 sec of functioning
Ur – Rated voltage; U – Operating voltage
fr – Rated frequency; f – Operating frequency

4.2.2.3 Switch-on

Normally the transformer shall be switched on from LV side i.e., generator


end. However, the transformer shall also be able to be directly energized by
switching on from HV side without the use of a line choking coil and without
damage or other adverse effect on the transformer while the operating
parameters are within the following values:

1 Parameter Range

2 HV side voltage 80 % to 110 % of rated Voltage

3 Frequency 47.5 Hz to 52.5 Hz

4.2.2.4 Switch-off

It shall be possible to switch-off simultaneously any one or combination of


the generating units either manually or automatically whatever may be the
operating condition of these generating units. The Contractor shall take into
account the worst-case situation when calculating either LV or HV side over
260
voltages on the transformer. The transformer shall be able to withstand
without damage such over voltages or an under voltage, at least equal to
1.4 times the rated voltage at the terminals for a duration of 5 seconds,
whichever is worse.

4.2.3 Design considerations

Since the power house is located at an elevation higher than 2000 m and
low temperature range in order of -24.80C, necessary altitude correction
factor and suitability for operation in extreme low temperature conditions
would be considered for equipment with necessary provisions to start the
unit in icy condition.

4.3 Rating and Functional Characteristics

1 No. of phases Three

2 Installation Indoor

3 Rated continuous kVA at maximum 1000


ambient temperature of 33°C

4 Minimum % Impedance at , Rated MVA 5 as per IS 2026


and Rated frequency Part V

5 Type of cooling KNAN

6 Winding material Copper

7 Type of conservator Without Air cell type

8 Max. flux density at rated voltage and Not to exceed 1.9


frequency Tesla

9 Connection of Transformer

(a) - HV winding Star with neutral


directly earthed

(b) - LV winding Delta

(c) Vector group YNd11

10 Type of bushing

(a) - HV terminal Oil/Air

(b) - LV terminal Oil/Air

(c) - Neutral terminal Oil/Air

11 Rated frequency, Fr 50 Hz

12 Voltage ratio 3.3/11 kV

13 Rated voltage, Ur

261
(a) - H.V. winding 11 kV

(b) - L.V. winding 3.3 kV

14 Highest voltage, Um

(a) - H.V. winding 12 kV

(b) - L.V. winding 3.6 kV

15 Power frequency withstand voltage

(a) - H.V. winding / Bushing 28 kV(r.m.s)

(b) - L.V. winding / Bushing 10 kV (r.m.s)

(c) - H.V. neutral / Bushing (minimum) 17.5 KV (rms)

16 Lightning impulse withstand voltage

(a) - H.V. winding / Bushing 75 kV(peak)

(b) - L.V. winding / Bushing 40 kV (peak)

17 Short circuit apparent power of the 500 MVA on HT


system side (as per IS 2026
Part V)

18 Maximum temperature rise with a


reference maximum ambient
temperature of 33C

(a) -Top oil (Measured by thermometer) 40C

(b) - Winding (Measured by resistance 45C


method)

19 Insulation

(a) - H.V. winding Class A (Uniformly


insulated)

(b) - L.V. winding Class A (Uniformly


insulated)

20 Voltage withstand capacity during 1.4 times the rated


sudden disconnection of load voltage for 5
seconds

21 Noise level As per NEMA TR- 1


standard

22 H.V. Neutral Bushing CT

(a) CT ratio 100/1

262
(b) No. of CT cores for each transformer 2

(c) Accuracy PS

23 Total Losses (no load losses and load ≤10 KW


losses)

Above values shall be guaranteed at -24.8°C and at an altitude of 2400 m.

4.4 Performance Guarantee

The GSU transformers along with all auxiliaries and accessories shall be
capable of performing intended duties under specified conditions. The
Contractor shall guarantee the reliability and performance of the individual
equipment as well as of the complete system.

4.4.1 Guaranteed losses and liquidated damages for shortfall in losses

The fixed losses shall be as low as is consistent with the modern design
technique, reliability and economical use of material. However the total
losses (no load losses and load losses) shall not be more than 10 KW.
The no load loss in Kilowatts at rated voltage and rated frequency, load
losses, and total losses in Kilowatts at rated output, rated voltage and rated
frequency shall be guaranteed under penalty for each generator
transformer. For the purpose of penalty computations the test figures of the
no load and total losses will be compared with the corresponding
guaranteed figures. The penalty shall be levied at the rates mentioned
below:

Iron losses (no load loss) ₹. 487400/KW


Copper losses (load loss) ₹.410800/KW

The penalties shall be separately evaluated from:


(i) The excess of the test figures of the no load loss in KW over the
corresponding guaranteed value.
(ii) The excess of the test figures of the load losses in Kilowatts over the
corresponding guaranteed figures.
No tolerance shall be permitted over the test figures of the losses. For
fraction of a KW the penalties shall be applied pro-rata. If the test figures of
the losses are less than the guaranteed values no bonus will be given.

The purchaser reserves the right to reject any transformer, if during tests at
works, the total no load loss or total load loss exceeds the guaranteed
values by more than 15% individually or the total (no load plus load)losses
exceeds by more than 10%.

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The Contractor shall clearly indicate whether the figures given for
guaranteed losses in the schedule of guaranteed technical particulars are
firm or with tolerance. If tolerances are applicable, the limits for the same
should be indicated. In the absence of any information to this effect, the
figures for losses will be increased by 15% to make them firm.

4.5 Design and Construction

4.5.1 Standards

The system and equipment shall be designed, built, tested and installed to
the latest revisions of the following applicable standards. In the event of
other standards being applicable they will be compared for specific
requirement and specifically approved during detailed engineering for the
purpose:

S.No. Standards Description

1 IEC 60076 Power transformers


2 IEC 60137 Insulated bushings for alternating voltages
above 1000 V
3 IEC 60044 -1 Current transformers.
4 NEMA TR-1 Transformers, Regulators and Reactors
5 IEC 60186 Voltage transformers
6 IEC 60404-2 Methods of measurement of the magnetic
properties of electrical steel sheet and strip by
means of an Epstein frame
7 IEC 60296 Specification for unused mineral insulating oils
for transformer and Switchgear.
8 IEC 60354 Loading guide for oil immersed power
transformers

In case the equipment conforms to other internationally acceptable


standards which ensure equivalent or better performance than that
specified under Clause 4.5.1 then English version of such standards or the
relevant extracts of the same shall be forwarded with the tender and the
salient features of comparison shall be brought out separately in additional
information schedule.
The electrical installation shall meet the requirements of Indian Electricity
Rules and IS: 1886 'Code of Practice' for installation and maintenance of
transformers as amended upto date

4.5.2 Core

The core shall be constructed from Cold Rolled Non Aging Grain Oriented
Silicon Steel Laminations.
The design of the magnetic circuit shall be such as to avoid static
discharge, development of short circuit paths within itself or to the earthed
clamping structure and the production of flux components at right angles to
the planes of the laminations which may cause local heating.
Every care shall be exercised in the selection, treatment and handling of
core steel to ensure that, as far as is practicable, the laminations are flat
and the finally assembled core is free from distortion.

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Oil ducts shall be provided where necessary to ensure adequate cooling.
The winding structure and major insulation shall not obstruct the free flow of
oil through such ducts. Where the magnetic circuit is divided into pockets by
cooling ducts parallel to the plane of the laminations or by insulating
material above 0.25 mm thick, tinned copper strip bridging pieces shall be
inserted to maintain electrical continuity between pockets.
The insulation structure for the core to bolts and core to clamp plates shall
be such as to withstand a voltage of 2500V AC for one minute.
All parts of the core shall be of robust design capable of withstanding any
shocks to which they may be subjected during lifting, transport installation
and service.
All steel sections used for supporting the core shall be thoroughly sand
blasted or shot blasted after cutting, drilling and welding. Any non-
magnetic or high resistance alloy shall be of established quality.
Adequate lifting lugs shall be provided to enable the core and windings to
be lifted.
Adequate provision shall be made to prevent movement of the core and
winding relative to the tank during transport and installation or while in
service.
The supporting framework of the cores shall be so designed as to avoid the
presence of pockets which would prevent complete emptying of the tank
through the drain valve, or cause trapping of air during oil filling.

4.5.3 Windings

The low voltage winding (3.3KV) shall be fully insulated and the high
voltage winding (11 KV) shall have uniform insulation as defined in IS:
2026. The neutral point of H.V. winding shall be insulated as per IS
recommendation. The winding shall be made of Copper.
The winding shall be designed to reduce to a minimum out-of balance
forces in the transformer at all voltage ratios.
The insulation of transformer windings and connection shall be free from
insulating compounds which are liable to soften, ooze out, shrink or
collapse and be non-catalytic and chemically inactive in transformer oil
during service.
The stacks of windings shall receive adequate shrinkage treatment before
final assembly. Adjustable devices shall be provided for taking up any
possible shrinkage of coils in service.
The coil clamping arrangement and the finished dimensions of any oil ducts
shall be such that it will not impede the free circulation of oil through the
ducts.
No strip conductor on edge shall have a width exceeding six times its
thickness. The conductors shall be transposed at sufficient intervals in
order to minimise eddy currents and equalise the distribution of currents
and temperatures along the windings.
The windings and connections of all transformers shall be braced to
withstand shocks which may occur during transport, or due to switching
short circuit and other transient conditions during service.
Coil clamping rings, if provided, shall be of steel or of suitable insulating
material. Axially laminated material other than bakelite paper shall not be
used.

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4.5.4 Bushings

The HV winding of each transformer, shall terminate on 12 KV, weather


proof, oil communicating porcelain type bushings. The neutral star point of
HV windings shall be brought to 12 KV oil communicating porcelain type
bushings on the tank and the LV winding shall terminate on 3.3 KV plain
porcelain type bushings/epoxy type bushing.
The electrical and mechanical characteristics of bushings shall be in
accordance with IS: 3347 and IS: 2099. H.V. bushings shall be provided
with arching horns.
Clamps and fittings, made of steel or malleable iron shall be galvanised. All
bolt threads shall be greased before erection.
Special precautions shall be taken to exclude moisture from paper
insulation during manufacture, assembly, transport and erection. The
surface of all paper insulators shall be finished with non hygroscopic
varnish which cannot be damaged easily.
The bushing flanges shall not be of re-entrant shape which may trap air.
The bidder shall provide suitable cable termination box for cable termination
on 3.3 KV (LV) & 11KV (HV) side of the transformer suitable for termination
of 3.3KV & 11KV XLPE cables respectively.
Suitable terminal connectors/bimetallic connectors as required on LV & HV
bushing shall be supplied alongwith the bushing.

4.5.5 Tank

The transformer tank and cover shall be of welded construction and


fabricated from tested quality low carbon steel plates of adequate
thickness. The tank shall be reinforced by stiffeners of structural steel for
general rigidity. The tank shall have sufficient strength to withstand, without
permanent distortion, during:
i) filling under vacuum and full vacuum of 760mm when without oil
ii) continuous internal gas pressure of 0.35 atmosphere with oil at operating
level.
iii) mechanical shocks during transportation, short circuit forces.
The tank cover shall be bolted to the tank. Inspection covers shall be
provided on the tank cover. Each inspection cover shall be of sufficient size
to afford easy access to the lower end of the bushings, core & coil.
The tank cover shall be provided with pockets for a thermometer and for the
bulbs of oil and winding temperature indicator. The pockets for the oil
temperature indicator shall be located in the zone of maximum oil
temperature and it shall be possible to remove the instrument bulbs without
lowering the oil in the tank.
Lifting eyes or lugs shall be provided on all parts of the transformer
requiring independent handling during assembly or dismantling. The tank
shall be provided with two suitable copper alloy or any other suitable
material lugs for the purpose of grounding.
The transformer tank, fittings and all accessories shall be designed to
withstand seismic acceleration
The transformer tank shall be equipped with the following valves of
appropriate size with standard screw connections for external piping :

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i) One upper oil filling valve (inlet)
ii) One filter cum drain valve (outlet) for complete drainage of the Tank with
padlocking arrangement.
iii) One filter valve shall be located at the top of the tank. The opening of
this valve shall be baffled to prevent aeration of the oil and shall have
padlock arrangement.
iv) Two Sampling valves one at top and other at bottom.
v) Conservator oil filling & Drain valve.
All bolts and nuts used in connection with the tank and fittings shall be
galvanised.
As far as possible the transformer tank and its accessories shall be
designed without pockets where gas may collect. Where pockets cannot
be avoided, pipes shall be provided to vent the gas off.

4.5.6 Under Carriage

The transformer tank shall be supported on strong structural steel base


equipped with forged steel or cast steel single flanged wheels suitable for
moving the complete transformer completely filled with oil. The number and
spacing of the wheels shall be specified on a drawing to be submitted with
the tender.

4.5.7 Earthing Terminals

Two earthing terminals capable of carrying the full load short-ckt current for
4 seconds, shall also be provided. Provision shall be made at positions,
close to earth, at the bottom two corners of the tank for connecting earthing
terminals to the tank structure to suit local conditions.

4.5.8 Tap Changing Equipment

Each transformer shall be provided with an on load tap changer for varying
its effective ratio of transformation without producing phase displacement.
The OLTC tap changer shall be provided on the H.V. side to vary the HV
voltage from (-) 10.0% to (+) 5% in the steps of 2.5% of rated voltage.
Under conditions of external short circuit, tap changing equipment shall be
capable of carrying the same current as the transformer winding.

4.5.9 Transformer Cooling System

Each transformer shall be equipped with KNAN cooling system with radiator
type heat exchangers. Radiators, connected directly to the tank shall be
provided with machined or ground flanged inlet and outlet branches. Drain
plugs shall be provided at the bottom and air release plug shall be provided
at the top of each radiator for draining and filling. Lifting lugs, inlet and
outlet valves for oil alongwith necessary oil pipings and valves shall also be
provided. All radiators shall be earthed to safeguard the personnel from any
voltage occurring due to induction effect.

4.5.10 Control Panel and Annunciation Schemes

Sufficient No. of contacts for the following annunciation and alarms/trips


shall be provided on the initiating relay/device:
i) Oil temperature high - alarm

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ii) Oil temperature high - trip.
iii) Winding temperature high - alarm.
iv) Winding temperature high - trip
v) Oil and gas relay - alarm
vi) Oil and gas relay - trip
vii) Low oil level - alarm
viii) High oil level - alarm
ix) Pressure relief valve - trip

4.5.11 Fittings and Accessories

Each transformer shall be provided with the following fittings and


accessories:
i) Dial type indicating thermometer for oil of robust pattern mounted in
marshalling box to read the temperature of the hottest part of oil. It shall
be fitted with alarm and trip contacts.
ii) Two dial type winding hot spot temperature indicators, one for each
winding (H.V. and L.V. windings) of the transformer. These shall be of
the indicating type, responsive to the combination of top oil temperature
and winding current, calibrated to follow the hottest spot temperature of
the transformer winding. The winding temperature indicators shall be
fitted with alarm and trip contacts.
iii) Provision for remote indication of windings and oil temperature.
iv) Pocket on tank cover for thermometer.
v) One No. magnetic type oil gauge with low and high level alarm contacts
shall be provided on conservator tank.
vi) Gas and oil actuated relay (Buchholz Relay) with alarm and trip contacts.
vii) Conservator with oil-filling hole,cap and level alarm switch
viii) Silica gel breather with oil seal.
ix) Pressure relief device capable of resealing with Alarm/ trip contact.
x) Two earthing terminals.
xi) Marshalling box for housing control equipment and terminal connections.
xii) Air release plugs
xiii) Complete wiring upto the marshalling box with PVC Copper Cables of
650/1100V grade 2.5 mm sq.
xiv) Inspection cover.
xv) VALVES as per clause 4.5.5.
xvi) Diagram and rating plate.
xvii) Lifting lugs for lifting the complete transformer assembly filled with oil.
xviii) Lifting eyes or lugs on all parts of the transformer requiring
independent handling during assembly and dismantling.
xix) Skids and pulling eyes on both sides.
xx) KNAN cooling (radiators) accessories.
xxi) Anti Earthquake clamping Devices.

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xxii) Neutral Bushing CT.
xxiii) Under carriage.
xxiv) Pressure relief device

4.5.12 Conservator Vessel, Oil Gauge and Breather

Without air cell type conservator complete with drain valve shall be
provided in such a position as not to obstruct the electrical connections to
the transformer and shall have adequate capacity between highest and
lowest visible levels to meet the requirement of expansion of the total cold
oil volume in the transformer and cooling equipment from the minimum
ambient temperature to 100 degree Celsius. The minimum indicated oil
level shall be with the feed pipe covered with not less than 15mm depth of
oil and the indicated range of oil level shall be from minimum to maximum.
The conservator shall be designed so that it can be completely drained by
means of the drain valve provided, when mounted as in service.
The conservator shall have two filter valves, one at the bottom at one end
and other at the top on the opposite end, in addition to the valves specified
for the main transformer tank.
One no magnetic type oil gauge with low and high level alarm contacts and
glass level gauge shall be provided. The oil level at 30 degree Celsius shall
be marked on the gauge.
The oil connection from the transformer tank to the conservator vessel shall
be arranged at a rising angle of 3 to 9 degrees to the horizontal up to the
Buchholz relay and shall consist of 80mm dia. pipe as per IS:3639.
A valve shall be provided at the conservator to cut off the oil supply to the
transformer, after providing a straight run of pipe for at least a length of five
times the internal diameter of the pipe on the tank side of the gas and oil
actuated relay and at least three times the internal diameter of the pipe on
the conservator side of the gas and oil actuated relay.
Each conservator vessel shall be fitted with a breather in which silica gel is
the dehydrating agent and designed so that:
a) The passage of air is through a dust filter and silica gel.
b) The external atmosphere is not continuously in contact with the silica
gel.
c) The moisture absorption indicated by a change in colour of tinted
crystals can be easily observed from distance.
d) All breathers shall be mounted above ground level.

4.5.13 Gas and Oil Actuated Relay

Each transformer shall be fitted with gas and oil actuated relay equipment
conforming to IS: 3637 having alarm and trip contacts, which close
following oil surge or low oil level conditions.
Each gas and oil actuated relay shall be provided with a test cock to take
flexible pipe connection for checking the operation of the relay.
To allow gas to be collected at ground level, a pipe approximately 5mm
inside diameter shall be connected to the gas release cock of the gas and
oil actuated relay and brought down to a point appropriate height above
ground level, where it shall be terminated by a cock.

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The design of the relay mounting arrangement, the associated pipe work
shall be such that mal-operation of the relays shall not take place under
normal service conditions.
The pipe work shall be so arranged that all gases arising from the
transformer shall pass into gas and oil actuated relay. The oil circuit
through the relay shall not form a delivery path in parallel with any
circulating oil pipe, nor shall it be tied into or connected through the
pressure relief vent. Sharp bends in the pipe work shall be avoided.
Adequate clearance between oil pipe work and live metal shall be provided.

4.5.14 Pressure Relief Device

The pressure relief device shall be provided of sufficient size for rapid
release of any pressure that may be generated within the tank and which
might result in damage to the equipment. The device shall operate at a
static pressure of less than the hydraulic test pressure for transformer tank.
If a diaphragm is used, it shall of suitable design and situated above max oil
level.

4.5.15 Neutral Current Transformer

One Number two core current transformer of suitable rating shall be


provided by the manufacturer for each generator transformer. The C.T.
shall conform in all respects to relevant ISS/IEC.

4.5.16 Valves

All valves shall be of gun metal or cast steel. All valves shall be heavy duty
gate valves except flow regulating valves which shall be globe type. They
shall be full way type with internal screws and shall open when turned
counter clockwise when facing the hand wheel.
Means shall be provided for pad-locking the critical valves in the open and
close positions.
Each valve shall be provided with flanges having machined surfaces.
Flanges for valves and Buchholz relay and threads for valves shall comply
with the requirements of IS: 3639 and IS:554 respectively.

4.5.17 Anti -Earthquake Clamping Devices

Each transformer shall be rigidly mounted on wheels resting on suitable


concrete foundation. The complete transformer shall be rigidly anchored
through assemblies to the foundations using anti earthquake clamping and
locking devices. The scope of supply shall include the requisite foundation
bolts/clamping bolts and locking devices and all other accessories.

4.5.18 Marshalling Box

A sheet steel, vermin proof, well ventilated and dust proof marshalling Box
shall be provided with each transformer, to accommodate:
a) Temperature indicators.
b) Terminal glands and gland plates for incoming and outgoing cables.
c) Terminal boards for current transformer secondary and control
equipment.

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d) Illumination lamp with Door switch and 5/15Amp, 240 Volt Multipoint
socket with switch.
The temperature indicator shall be so mounted that the dials shall be visible
without opening the marshalling box.
To prevent internal condensation, an approved type of metal-clad heater
shall be provided, controlled by a thermostat and switch.
All incoming cables shall enter the box from the bottom. The gland plate
and associated compartment shall be sealed in a suitable manner to
prevent the ingress of moisture.
Undrilled gland plate shall be provided for accommodating glands for
incoming and outgoing cables.
All load bearing members shall be of more than 2.0 mm C.R.C.A. and
others more than 1.5 mm thick.

4.5.19 Control Wiring

All controls, alarms, indicating and relaying devices and secondary


terminals of CTs provided with the transformer shall be wired upto the
terminal blocks inside the marshalling box.
All devices and terminal blocks within the marshalling box shall be clearly
identified by symbols corresponding to those used on applicable schematic
or wiring diagrams. Not more than 2 wires shall be connected to one
terminal. At least 20% spare terminals shall be provided.
Cables for C.T. circuit shall be 4 mm2 and other control cables shall be of
2.5 mm2 Cables.

4.5.20 Joints and Gaskets

All gaskets used for making oil tight joints shall be of proven material such
as granulated cork, bonded with synthetic rubber.

4.5.21 Insulating Oil

The transformers and all associated oil-filled equipments shall be supplied


alongwith the first filling of oil and 10 (ten) percent of oil quantity specified
on rating plate as spare, in non-returnable drums (Sealed container). The
oil shall be synthetic easter K3 class as per IS 16081 and IS 13503 and it
shall be free from moisture and have uniform quality throughout.

4.5.22 Drying and Filling Of Oil

The transformers shall be dried out by an appropriate method at the


manufacturer's works.
Clear instructions shall be included in the maintenance manual regarding
special precautionary measures, which shall be taken before applying the
specified vacuum treatment. The maximum vacuum which the complete
transformer filled with oil can safely withstand without any special
precautionary measures, shall also be stated in the maintenance manual.
After erection and complete oil filling of the transformer at site, steps
required to be taken to release all air, which might have been trapped within
the tank and pipe, shall be detailed.

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4.5.23 Cleaning and Painting

Before painting or filling with oil, all ungalvanised parts shall be completely
cleaned and made free from rust, scale and grease and all external rough
surfaces of casting shall be filled by metal deposition. The interior of all
transformer tanks and other oil- filled chambers and internal structural steel
work shall be cleaned of all scales and rust by sand blasting or other
approved method.
Except for nuts, bolts and washers, which may have to be removed for
maintenance purposes, all external surfaces shall receive a minimum of
three coats of paint. The primer coat shall be applied immediately after
cleaning. The second coat shall be an oil paint of weather resisting nature
and of a shade or colour easily distinguishable from the primary and final
coats and shall be applied after the primer coat has been touched up where
necessary. The final coat to be given at site shall be of a glossy, oil and
weather resisting non-fading paint.
All interior surfaces of mechanism chambers and kiosks except those which
have received anti-corrosion treatment shall receive three coats of paint
which shall be applied to the thoroughly cleaned metal surfaces. The final
coat shall be of light coloured anti condensation mixture. Any damage to
paint work occurred during transport and erection shall be made good by
thoroughly cleaning the damaged portion and applying the full number of
coats of paint that had been applied before damage was caused.

4.5.24 Lables

Labels shall be provided for all apparatus such as relays, switches, fuses,
etc. contained in cubicles or marshalling box.
Descriptive labels for mounting indoor or inside cubicles and kiosks shall be
of material that will ensure permanence of the lettering. Labels mounted on
dark surface shall have white lettering on a black background. Danger
Notices shall have red lettering on a white background. All plates shall be
of a material which will not get corroded.
Labelling shall be clear, concise and adequate. Labels shall be supplied as
far as possible in the standard sizes. The labels for mounting outdoors shall
be weather and corrosion proof. The letters/diagrams thereon shall be
formed by etching or any other such process which will ensure permanence
of the lettering/marking

4.6 Drawings, Documents and Design Calculations

4.6.1 Design memorandum

The Contractor shall submit to Employer a design memorandum prepared


in accordance to clause 1.6 “Record and Documentation” of “General
Technical Requirements”.
The technical details would include but not limited to – details of core
construction, insulation of yoke clamps – leg plates – core laminations, flux
shields, flux density at rated voltage and frequency for limb-yoke-shields,
winding type, conductor insulation, oil circulation including velocity in
windings, duct sizes adopted, short circuit capability, current density in
winding and in earth fault conditions and maximum partial discharge
expected.

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4.6.2 Drawings and documents

The Contractor shall submit all the drawings and documents in accordance
with requirements stipulated in clause 1.6 “Record and Documentation” of
“General Technical Requirements”.

4.6.3 Design calculation

The Contractor shall submit the design calculation in accordance to Clause


1.6 “Record and Documentation” of “General Technical Requirements”
covering at least the following, for review / acceptance.
i) Temperature rise,
ii) Size of cooling system,
iii) Ability to withstand short circuit, Design Review in respect of ability to
withstand dynamic effect of short circuit for all GSU transformers,
iv) Design of oil soak pit with gravity based oil water separator arrangement.

4.7 Delivery, Installation and Commissioning

The Contractor shall follow the requirements of Delivery, Installation and


commissioning elaborated in clause 1.7 “Delivery, Installation and
commissioning” of “General Technical Requirements.”

4.7.1.1 Operation and Maintenance Manuals

Six (6)) copies of erection, operation and maintenance manuals shall be


supplied. The manuals shall be bound volumes and shall contain all the
drawings and information required for erection, operation and maintenance
of the transformer. The manuals shall include amongst others, the
following particulars:
a) Marked erection prints identifying the component parts of the generator
transformer as dispatched, with assembly drawings.
b) Detailed dimensions, assembly and description of all components,
auxiliaries etc.
c) Detailed views of the core and winding assembly, winding connections
and tapings, tap changer construction, etc. These drawings are required
for carrying out the overhauling operation at site.
d) The tenderer shall supply complete details of testing facilities available at
manufacturer's works.

4.7.1.2 Erection, Testing and Commissioning at Site

The Contractor shall also be responsible for the assembly, erection, testing
and commissioning at site of all transformers.

4.8 Spare Parts

Specified spare parts to be supplied under this section are as follows:

S.No. Description Quantity

1. H.V. bushing 1 no.


2. L.V. bushing 1 no.

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3. Neutral bushing 1 no.
4. winding temp indicator 1 no. of each type
5. Magnetic oil level gauge 1 no.
6. Dial type thermometer 1 no. of each type
7. RTDs for remote temperature indication 1 set
8. Pressure relief valve 1 no.
9. Gas & oil actuated relay 1 no.
10. Oil temperature indicator 1 no.
11. Breather 1 no.
Packing
The transformer shall be shipped with the tank filled with oil.
All parts shall be adequately marked to facilitate field erection. Boxes and
crates shall be marked with the contract number and shall contain packing
lists showing the parts contained therein.

4.9 Tools and Instruments

The Contractor shall supply all necessary tools and instruments etc. for
installation, repair and maintenance.

4.9.1 Oil Testing Kit

One No. oil testing kit (BDV) of (0-50) KV completes in all respects and
suitable for running on 230/415 V A.C shall also be supplied by the
Contractor. “No oil immersed transformer shall be included in this kit and
shall be dry”.
One no. testing kit for measuring moisture /water content in ppm, of oil
sample shall also be in the scope of the Contractor. Consumables for this
kit should be indigenously available.

4.10 Quality Assurance and Testing

The contractor shall follow the quality assurance and testing requirements
specified separately in “Quality assurance and Testing Specifications
(QTS)”.

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5. CONTROL, MONITORING AND RELAYING SYSTEM
5.1 SCOPE OF WORK
Scope of work under this section covers the provision of labour, tools, plants, materials and
performance of work necessary for the design, manufacture, quality assurance, quality
control, shop assembly, shop testing, delivery at site, site storage and preservation,
installation, commissioning, performance and acceptance testing, training of Employer’s
personnel, handing over to owner and guarantee for two years of control, monitoring &
relaying system as per the specifications hereunder, complete with all auxiliaries,
accessories, spare parts and warranting a trouble free safe operation of the installation.
The scope of work shall be a comprehensive functional system complete in every respect
including but not be limited to following:
i. Three (3) sets of Unit Control Boards (UCB) each consisting of single controller, I/O
cards, 12’’ size HMI, Unit & GT protection, annunciation system, along with all
necessary accessories for control, monitoring and protection of generating units,
ii. One (1) set of panel (LCB) for control, monitoring & Relaying for 11 kV indoor
switchgear, two nos. 500 KVA, 11 kV/415 V SATs, 415 volt Station auxiliary board,
Penstock butterfly valve, TRC gates and Drainage pumps.
iii. Two (2) nos. of operator workstation.
iv. One no. of historian.
v. Portable engineering station.
vi. Network cables.
vii. Emergency shutdown systems one for each individual unit and complete plant.
viii. Spare parts in accordance to clause 5.5 “Spare Parts” of this section.
ix. Tools and instruments in accordance to clause 5.6 “Tools and Instruments” of this
section
Any other item(s) not mentioned specifically but necessary for the satisfactory completion
of scope of work defined above, as per accepted standard(s)/best international practices.
5.1.1 Detail Scope of Supply
i) UCB for Generating Unit and Transformer
Unit will be operated in Auto & Manual mode from local panel and also remotely from
control room. In manual mode, operation of the unit shall be possible from UCB even with
controller failure. Units will synchronize with each other and will continuously run in isolated
mode of operation i.e. not connected to Grid. Following items shall be incorporated in each
UCB panel and number of panels in UCB for control, monitoring and protection shall be
finalized during detailed engineering to suit operational ease and aesthetics.
 Controller for auto operation.
 Human Machine Interface of 12‘’ diagonal size.
 Necessary I/O cards.
 Network interface from controller to control room through UTP /Fiber optic.
 Indicating Push buttons for operational mode selection (Remote/local, Auto/Manual).
 Indicating Push buttons and set of auxiliary relays etc. required for manual operation
(On/Off, Start/Stop).

275
 Energy meter 0.2S class for energy audit and accounting purpose (CT ratio 200/5) at 3.3
kV level.
 SEM meter 0.2S class as standby meter for tariff metering (CT ratio 75/5) at 11 kV level
(to be placed in 11 kV breaker panel.)
 Protective Relays to cover the protection requirement as specified in clause no. 5.3.20.
 High speed Master trip relays (for lock-out, Hand Reset).
 High Speed Master trip relay (for non-lockout, Hand Reset).
 Set of auxiliary relays for generator transformer troubles alarm & trip functions (Buchholz
etc.).
 Set of Test terminal blocks for potential and current circuits.
 Miniature circuit breakers with under voltage alarm relay, fuses, terminal boards etc.
 DC fail relay.
 Generator circuit breaker (11kV incoming breaker from GT) trip coil supervision relays.
 Synchronism check relay and synchroscope and Equipments required for auto
synchronizing.
 Control switch to operate the Generator HV breaker (11 kV incomer breaker) along with
necessary interlocks through synchronizing relay shall be provided.
 Indicating meters for guide vane positions, current, voltage, limiters and temperature,
Kilowatt meter, KVAR meter & Power factor meter etc.
 Annunciators flush mounted type and of the illuminated engraved window type grouped &
inscribed as required complete with audible alarm aux. relays, "TEST" "ACCEPT" &
"RESET" push buttons as specified in specifications.
ii) Local control board for 11KV breakers, 11KV/415V SATs, 415 V SAB & Drainage
pump.
 Provision to indicate the current, voltage Kilowatt, KVAR, energy & power factor meter
etc. at different voltage levels.
 Human Machine Interface of 12 ‘’ diagonal size.
 Necessary I/O cards.
 Network interface from controller to control room through UTP cables/Fiber optic.
 Indicating Push buttons for operational mode selection.
 Indicating Push buttons required for manual operation.
 One No. SEM meter 0.2S class for tariff metering (CT ratio 200/5) at 11 kV level in each
11 kV Line breaker (to be placed in 11 kV breaker panel.)
 One No. Energy meter 0.2S class for at 11 kV level (CT ratio 50/5) in each 11 kV SAT
breakers (to be placed in 11 kV breaker panel.)
 Set of Trip relays and auxiliary relays for SAT troubles alarm & trip functions (Buchholz
etc.).
 D.C. fail relay
 Control switches for breaker operation etc.
 Multi point annunciators flush mounted and of the illuminated engraved window type
grouped & inscribed as required complete with audible alarm aux. relays, "TEST"
"ACCEPT" & "RESET" push buttons as specified in specifications.
 One set of necessary test terminal blocks for current and potential circuits.
 Drainage pumps On/OFF, level faults etc.

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 Penstock butterfly valve monitoring.
 TRC gates monitoring.
LCB for auxiliary control shall have provision for
Integration of signals of HM equipment in coordination with the HM contractor. These
signals will be made available by HM contractor to the power house control system.
Integration of these signals will be in the scope of E&M contractor.
 Gate position indication of Penstock intake bulkhead gate.
 Bye pass service gate position.
 Reservoir level and sensor fault indication
 Tail water level and sensor fault indication
 Interlocking of machine with TRT gate position
 Additional signals if required in coordination with HM contractor.
Auto operation of bye pass service gate shall be possible from operator workstation in
power house control room. Necessary logic shall be built in controller for Auto operation of
bye pass service gate to ensure release of requisite downstream discharge under all
conditions based on discharge signals from flow meter in common pipe line (in scope of E
& M Contract) and bye-pass pipe (in scope of HM Contract). In addition manual remote
operation of bye pass service gate shall also be possible from operator work station in
power house control room.
(iii) Relaying System as per clause no. 5.3.20

5.2 Specific Parameters and Layout Conditions

5.2.1 General:
i) Three nos. horizontal shaft Francis turbine-driven generators each having a rating of
900KVA, 0.9 P.F, 3.3kV will be installed in the Power Station. The voltage from all
generators will be stepped up to 11 kV by three nos. three phase 1000 KVA Generator
transformers. The transformers have been planned to be suitably placed in Power House.
The connection from Generator to Generator transformer will be through 3.3 kV XLPE
copper cable. The generated power would be evacuated through two Nos. 11 kV feeders.
ii) The electrical layout of the generating station including the transformers, transmission lines,
high and low voltage switchgear relaying and metering equipment are shown in the single
line relaying and metering drawing no. NH/DEM/KSH/PRM for Kishanganga small HP.
iii) The 11 kV, 3.3kV, 415V systems will be 50 Hz 3 phase and solidly earthed. 3.3/11KV main
step-up transformers will be connected in delta on the LV side and in star on the HV with
the neutral points solidly earthed. The main transformer will be provided with OLTC with
variation from -10% to + 5%in steps of 2.5%. The 11/0.415 kV Station auxiliary
transformers shall be delta-star connected.
iv) The parameters of Current and Voltage transformers proposed to be used for protection
and metering covered under this specification are given in the respective specifications.
The contractor shall check and specifically state that these current and voltage
transformers fulfil the requirements of the relays and meters with matching ICTs & IVTs , if
required, same shall deemed to be covered in the scope of work.

v) AC SUPPLY

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AC supply shall be 415 Volts, 3 phase, 4 wire, 50 Hz, grounded neutral The supply is
subject to voltage variation of 10%.

vi) DC SUPPLY
DC supply shall be 110 Volts. Two-wire supply will be available from the station battery
through the DC distribution Board.
Since the power house is located at an elevation higher than 2000 m and low temperature
range in order of -24.80C, necessary altitude correction factor and suitability for operation in
extreme low temperature conditions would be considered for equipment. The units are
supposed to operate throughout the year and in isolated mode of operation. Necessary
provisions to start the unit in icy condition need to be suitably incorporated.

5.2.2 Electrical Panel Area


UCBs and 11 kV panels shall be housed in the electrical panel area and will be placed
together for ease of operation. The panels will be kept in the non-air conditioned area, as
such equipments such as controller, cards etc. shall be designed to cater the stringent
temperature conditions. All controls, protection, indications, annunciations and alarms
relating to generating units, transformers and outgoing 11 kV lines will be located in the
control panels as detailed in the specifications. Due attention shall be given by the
contractor to attain a neat, compact, integrated and functional layout of the equipment.
It is proposed to have simplex type of control and relay panels. All instruments, controls,
indications and alarms shall be accommodated on the control panels. The design and
arrangements of the equipment on panels and the dimensions of the panels shall be co-
ordinated so as to offer maximum facility in functioning.
The generating units will be controlled from the UCB in local mode and from control room in
remote mode for starting, stopping and normal running. Some controls, instruments,
annunciation etc. will be duplicated or additionally provided on the governor. The
contractor shall co- ordinate with the various manufacturers of the generating units, 11 kV
switchgear, station service boards and transformers etc for necessary provisions in their
panel.
5.3 Design and construction
5.3.1 Standards
The system and equipment shall be designed, built, tested and installed to the latest
revisions of the following applicable standards. In the event of other standards being
applicable they will be compared for specific requirement and specifically approved during
detailed engineering for the purpose:

S. No. Standard Description

1 IEC 60255 Electrical Relays

2 IEC 60326 Printed Boards


3 IEC 60446 Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface,
marking and identification, identification of conductors
by colours or numerals
4 IEC 60478 Stabilized power supplies, DC output

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S. No. Standard Description

5 IEC 60625 Interface system for programmable measuring


instruments
6 IEC 61000 Electromagnetic compatibility for industrial process –
measurement and control equipment
7 IEC 61131 Programmable controllers
8 IEC 61643-1 Surge Protection Devices
9 IEC 61689 Instrument transformers.

5.3.2 Simplex Control and Relay Panels


The simplex type of vertical cold rolled sheet steel control and relay panels shall be
provided for mounting of control and protective equipment respectively. The control panels
would comprise mountings of HMI, control switches, illuminated push buttons, meters,
annunciations and other indications etc.
The vertical type steel panels shall also have doors in the rear and shall be complete with
foundation frame and foundation bolts. The control and relay panels shall be modular and
readily extendable in either direction.
The material of the control and relay boards shall be cold rolled sheet steel. All the control
and relay boards shall be sufficiently reinforced to provide resistance to vibration and
rigidity during transportation and installation and shall be of IP5X protection class.
The bottom of the panels shall be suitable for erection on flush concrete floor and securing
to it by means of evenly spaced anchor bolts projecting through the base channel members
of the frame. The base channel members and anchor bolts shall form part of the supply.
The control & relay panels shall be vermin proof and shall be suitable for tropical climate.
All holes and extension windows in panels shall be blanked and access doors shall be
linked with compressible liners at the edges.
Control and Power cables shall enter from bottom of the panels and will be routed on trays.
The contractor shall also supply and erect the channel base, suitable anchor bolts, nuts,
lock nuts and washers etc.
All control panels shall be powder coated with RAL 1013 shade of minimum 70 micron
thickness and interior finish shall be matt white finish.
5.3.3 Control, Monitoring & Relaying Panels
Only the main relays and equipment are specified in this section and any other equipment/
devices required for the control & protection of the equipment / power station complete in
all respects including internal wiring, terminal blocks, cubicle heaters, name plates, circuit
labels, fuse blocks, safety earthing, cubicle lighting, etc. shall also be provided. The
necessary auxiliary relays and devices, control switches, timers etc. on the basis of
schemes are to be provided. If, however on development of designs, it is found necessary
to add certain additional auxiliary relays and devices either due to difference in schemes or
due to different manufacturing practices or due to any other reasons, these shall be
included in the scope of supply without extra cost to the purchaser.
All necessary auxiliary current transformers for matching of protective relays and auxiliary
potential transformers for synchronising and control schemes shall be provided without
extra cost.

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Equipment, to be mounted on the control and relay panels has been generally specified.
The suitable adjustment and addition may be done by the purchaser in these, depending
upon the availability of space, convenience and overall satisfactory performance of the
scheme.
5.3.4 Space Heaters
Tubular space heaters suitable for connection to single phase, 240 volts AC supply shall be
provided at the bottom of the panels etc., to prevent condensation of the moisture. The
wattage loss shall be low enough to keep the surface temperature well below the
permissible limits.
5.3.5 Miniature Circuit Breakers & Fuses
Miniature circuit breakers shall be provided for AC and DC control circuits in each panel.
These shall be mounted in an easily accessible position.
Suitable fuses of HRC type and links shall be provided in various control, protection and
indicating circuits. Fuse bases and carriers shall be mounted inside the cubicles at easily
accessible positions. The fuse carriers and bases shall have imprints of fuse current rating
and voltage rating. Fuses in the PT circuits shall be provided with phase circuit labels.
5.3.6 Test Blocks
Semi-flush mounting type, back connected test blocks with contacts suitably rated shall be
provided for routine checks/testing except where draw-out relays and meters are used. The
current terminals shall be provided with links or other devices for shorting the terminals of
current transformer leads before interrupting the normal circuits without causing open
circuit in CT secondary.
5.3.7 Safety Earthing
Earthing of non-current carrying metallic parts or metallic bodies of the equipment on the
panels shall be done with soft drawn single copper conductor of suitable size. A copper
ground bus extending the entire length of the panel shall be provided. Suitable clamp-type
terminals for connecting both ends of the earth bus to the station grounding system will be
provided. The neutral point of star connected LV winding of instrument transformers shall
be connected with the main earth bus of the panel earthing system.
5.3.8 Control Panel Lighting and Convenient Outlets
The panel interior shall be illuminated by suitable fluorescent tubes/CFL connected to 240V
AC single-phase supply. These lights shall be operated by door operated push button
switches.
At-least one no. of 5 amps three pin sockets and one no. of 15 amps, 3 pin power plug
convenient outlets shall be provided at convenient points in each control/relay panel.
5.3.9 HMI
12” diagonal touch sensitive HMI shall be provided on each UCB and LCB for local
operation, viewing different mimic, alarms and events.
5.3.10 Control and Selector Switches
The control and instrument switches shall be preferably indicating push button operated
type with plates clearly marked to show operating position and suitable for flush mounting.
The control switch of the breaker shall be of spring return to neutral type. The control spring
shall be strong and robust enough to prevent inadvertent operation due to light touch.

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The spring return type switch shall have spring return from close and trip positions to
'AFTER CLOSE' and 'AFTER TRIP' positions respectively. The necessary indicating lamps
will be provided for indication of circuit breaker close, open and auto trip conditions.
Synchronising switches shall be of lockable type with common key. Synchronising
switches shall have sufficient contacts to cater for all the contingencies. One contact of
each switch shall be connected in the closing circuit of the respective breaker so that the
breaker cannot be closed until the switch is turned to 'ON' position. Voltage to
synchronising panel shall be on through synchronising switches.
Control switches shall be of a best design suited for function with handles designed to
provide convenience in control. Their types, number of contacts etc. shall be coordinated
with the requirements of the respective control circuits. Provision for key interlocking of a
control circuit shall be made wherever specified.
Each switch/push button shall bear clear inscription identifying its function e.g.
'Synchronizing', 'Ammeter switch' etc. If any switch/device does not bear this inscription,
separate nameplate giving its function shall be provided for it. Switches shall also have
clear inscriptions for each position indication e.g., 'Trip-Neutral-Close' 'ON-OFF' etc.
Discrepancy switches shall have provision for flashing indications while in wrong position,
corresponding to the actual position the breaker/isolator and shall have steady indication,
when right position is selected and a push button provided for this purpose is pressed.
5.3.11 Indicating Lamps
Indicating lamps shall be LED type. The supply voltage for these lamps shall be 110 Volt
DC unless otherwise stated. Lamp covers/lenses shall be preferably screwed type, and
moulded from the heat resisting materials.
5.3.12 Annunciator System
Luminous multi-point annunciator with suitable number of ways for projecting visual and
audible signals in case of fault shall be provided on the control panels wherever specified.
The annunciator shall be back connected flush mounting, dust tight and tropicalized and
shall be complete with audible warning device, auxiliary relays and apparatus as required
to complete the annunciator system. It shall be suitable for operation on 110 V DC supply.
The display unit shall consist of a rectangular frame enclosing the specified number of
individual facia, each of which shall be preferably approximately 50 mm x 25 mm in size.
Each facia shall be in the form of a window inscribed with the specified legend describing
the fault condition to be indicated in such a manner as to show white lettering against dark
background, without haze or blur when illuminated from behind. Each facia shall be
separately lit and inscription shall be, as nearly as possible invisible when it is not
illuminated. Each alarm point provided shall be an independent point for each abnormal
condition displayed, and the wiring of all the points shall be done in such a way that each
alarm will operate independently of the other without causing any mal-operation of other
points of the annunciator.
The following facilities shall be provided with each of the annunciator points:
i) It shall be possible to use either "Normally closed" or "Normally open" type contacts as
initiating contacts with all the annunciator points.
ii) Provision shall be included with each annunciator point for remote indication at other
control boards.
iii) Provision shall be made for a separate hooter for trip alarms and a buzzer for non-trip
alarms.

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i) A "test" push button shall be provided close to the "reset" button to illuminate all the
facias on the associated display unit for as long as the "test" button is held depressed.
It will be the responsibility of the contractor to provide all the alarms and annunciation
relays/flasher relays/auxiliary relays, etc. required for the safe and efficient operation of the
power station. General description of alarm requirements is given in the specifications but
the contractor shall include any other alarms that he considers necessary. The details of
the annunciations to be provided in the main control board shall be as per approved
drawings.
The suitable number of annunciator points for different panels will be provided by the
contractor as per the approved drawings/bill of materials.
An AC operated relay with AC bell and AC indicating lamp with reset push button shall be
supplied for annunciation of DC supply failure.
Alarm horns, flicker light relays, necessary auxiliary relays any other auxiliary equipment
required to complete the annunciation system shall be provided.
5.3.13 Synchronising Equipments
Both auto & manual synchronising facilities shall be provided by the contractor. Auto
synchroniser & check synchroniser relay shall be provided in each UCB with the provision
to adjust voltage and frequency and command to close the 11kV breaker. Synchronising
trolley equipment which will be common for all three units shall comprise of following
equipments:
i) Two volt-meters (incoming & running)
ii) Two frequency meters (incoming & running)
iii) One synchroscope
iv) Two synchronising lamps
v) Selector switches
vi) Phase shifting transformers if required
Necessary auxiliary potential transformers to match the phase shift and ratio of voltage
shall also be supplied by the contractor, wherever necessary.
Synchronising switches shall be mounted near each circuit breaker control switch. These
switches shall be of the lockable type with a common key, two stage ("Off"-all contacts
open, "Synchronise" - all contacts closed), with four contacts suitable for use with a
removable handle. Two removable handles shall be furnished, one of which will be kept as
spare. Contacts provided in each shall be connected in the closing circuit of the respective
breaker so that the breaker cannot be closed until the switch is turned to the "synchronise"
position. Switches shall be arranged so that the handle will be removable only in the 'OFF'
position. Synchronising scheme shall have provisions for dead bus charging also.
The synchronising scheme shall be subject to Purchaser's approval.
5.3.14 Meters
Meters shall be of flush mounted, digital type with back-connected terminals. All digital
meters and transducers shall be of accuracy class 0.5 and 0.2 respectively. However
Digital energy meters used for tariff metering shall be of accuracy class 0.2S.
Meters shall be compensated for temperature errors and factory calibrated to directly read
the primary quantities without the use of additional multiplying factor. Multiplying factor if
unavoidable shall be multiple of 10 and shall be subject to Purchaser's prior approval.

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Current coil of the meters shall have continuous over load capacity of 20% for both
accuracy and thermal limits. Also current coil shall withstand at least 10 times rated current
for 0.5 sec without loss of accuracy.
5.3.15 Terminal Blocks
Terminal blocks shall have bases and barriers moulded integrally with brass inserts and
shall be suitable for 660 volt service. Individual studs and screws with retainer type
washers or cable terminals shall be furnished for each incoming and outgoing circuit.
5.3.16 Panel Wiring
Insulated wires for panel wiring shall have stranded copper conductors with 600-V, fungus
resistant, FRLS insulation. Conductors shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 2.5
sq.mm with the exception of electronic or instrumentation circuits which shall have a
minimum cross-sectional area of 0.5 sq. mm. Screen cables used for RTDs connection
from junction box to UCB shall be of minimum cross- sectional area of 1.5 sq mm. Extra
flexible wire shall be used for connections to equipment on hinged frame.
Not more than two wires shall be terminated on any one stud or terminal. Each terminal
point on the terminal block shall be indelibly labeled in accordance with wiring designations.
All incoming wiring to the panel shall terminate on terminal blocks and shall be grouped
according to their functions as follows:
Current transformer group & potential transformer group (disconnecting TB's to be
provided)
Relaying group, control group, metering group, annunciation group, D.C. supplies and AC
supplies.
5.3.17 Control Room Equipments

Operator workstations

The operator consoles shall assist the operator for an easy operation and control of
power station and shall allow to print out and to show on the displays, all relevant
signals, events, alarms, status, status changes, abnormalities, history data and plant
conditions on request or immediately in case of alarm.
In the control room two operator workstations with desks shall be provided.
The configuration of each workstation shall be:
 VDUs of at least 22”, LED backlit flat screen and flicker-free,
 Dual Processor CPU with highest CPU clock speeds and Mother Board Front
Side Bus speeds available at the time of supply,
 Minimum of 4 GB RDRAM,
 Two (2) or more – Hard Disk Drives with latest technology each of at least 500
GB capacity,
 HD-DVD writer,
 USB (2.0 or higher, available at the time of procurement) hub and ports,
 key board with all functions,
 Pointing device such as optical mouse.

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5.3.18 Historian

Historian for one year data storage shall be provided.


The configuration of shall be:
 VDUs of at least 22”, LED backlit flat screen and flicker-free,
 Dual Processor CPU with highest CPU clock speeds and Mother Board Front
Side Bus speeds available at the time of supply,
 Minimum of 4 GB RDRAM,
 Two (2) or more – Hard Disk Drives with latest technology each of at least 900
GB capacity,
 HD-DVD writer,
 USB (2.0 or higher, if available at the time of procurement) hub and ports,
 key board with all functions,
 Pointing device such as mouse.

5.3.19 Portable engineering station (movable)

One portable engineering workstation with all features and accessories to maintain,
reprogram, check the status and test the programmable controllers, loaded with all
software & system configuration settings necessary for the purpose, shall be included in
the scope of the supply. In addition to this, this station will be equipped with necessary
software & ports to programme test, data downloading & analysis for Protection relays,
Governor and Digital voltage regulator described in other chapters of this document.
The portable engineering station shall be having the following, but not limited to
features apart from others mentioned above:
 At least 500 GB Hard disk with latest technology
 At least 4 GB of RAM
 DVD R/W
5.3.20 Operation and Control of Generating Units
5.3.20.1 General
The generating units are envisaged to be operated in isolated mode i.e. not synchronized
to the Grid. However the units may be synchronized with each other. The control of the
generating units shall be from UCB in local mode and from control room in remote mode.
5.3.20.2 Starting and Stopping Sequence of Generating Units
A) The following mode of operation of Generating unit shall be possible:
 Local Auto
 Local Manual
 Remote
In Local mode unit can be run in wither in Auto or manual. In Auto mode (either from UCB
or from control room) the unit will start by single command after checking of necessary
starting, sequence interlocks and will be loaded to predefined load. Similarly sopping will

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also be in automatic sequence. In addition to normal stopping, provision shall also be made
for emergency stopping with the help of shielded push buttons on UCB as well as from
control room.
In manual mode, operation shall also be possible even in case of problem in unit controller.
Necessary indication & pushbuttons need to be provided on the UCB.
B) Starting Sequence
The generating units are designed to run on generating and isolated mode only. The pre-
checks before starting of the units needs to include following checks in addition to other
checks/conditions as per approved schemes.
All tripping relays of the respective unit to be reset.
All DC & AC supplies of the respective control and relay panels to be "ON".
MIV "Open", Tail race gate "Open", Cooling water pump "ON", Governor "OK", pressure at
the inlet of MIV “OK”.
Brakes released
Unit Breaker "Open"
Necessary contacts for the above purpose shall be provided in the control and relay panels.
The auxiliary relays and the complete scheme for the starting sequence is to be provided in
the governor/unit control board.
C) Starting of Unit
The sequence of operation during starting of the unit shall be as under:
Auto mode selection
All start conditions healthy
Start command “On”:
Start relay actuates
Electric motor of the gate limiter is switched ON and moves the limiter to starting position.
Guide vane apparatus opens upto starting position.
Unit speed reaches 80% of the rated value, the governor control ON.
When the speed reaches 90% of nominal speed field breaker closes.
Blocking of the thyristor gate control unit is cancelled and regulator takes the function of
regulating the voltage.
Unit is connected to 11KV bus through auto/manual synchronization.
Unit is loaded with speed adjuster and gate limiters.
D) Normal Automatic Stopping of the Unit
The sequence of operation during stopping of the unit shall be as under:
Stop command.
Unit stop relay is energized.
The electric motor of the gate limiter is switched 'ON' for closing the gate apparatus. Micro
switch contacts switches OFF the electric motor at the end of travel.
Main slide valve of Governor moves to closing.

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Guide vane opening being in accordance with idle run of the unit, the generator is
disconnected from 11 kV bus. The governor settings change in accordance with the unit
idle run operation. Output changer moves into idle run position.
The unit speed having dropped to 70% of the rated value, the governor relay is switched
OFF.
When speed drops to 35% of the rated value, speed relay actuates generator-braking
circuitry. Stop relay is switched OFF.
Automatic control system is switched off.
E) Controlled Shut-Down
Initiating contact shall energize the auxiliary relay for controlled shut down. This auxiliary
relay energizes the controlled action shut down relay, thereby energizing the stop relay and
reducing the load fast, unit breaker opens at no load position rest other stop sequence
remains the same as in the case of Unit Shut Down in normal condition..
F) Emergency Shut-Down
Initiating contact energizes the master trip relay for emergency shutdown. Emergency
valves operates for guide vane closing, MIV closing and Breaker opening at the same time
and at full load.

5.3.21 Protective & Relaying System

Protection system for each unit as given below is indicative only. However, all protections
as per relevant IEC standards applicable for this size/rating of the machine shall be
provided.
Electrical Protections:
87G Generator differential protection,
87GT Generator-transformer over all differential protection
46 Negative phase sequence protection,
50/51G Generator over current instantaneous and time delay protection,
32 Reverse power protection,
40 Loss of field protection,
21G Generator back up impedance protection with timer,
59/81 Volt per hertz protection,
59G Generator over voltage protection instantaneous and time delay,
27 Generator Under voltage protection,
81 Under/over frequency alarm,
95FF Voltage transformer fuse failure monitoring,
64G1 95% stator earth fault protection (time delay),
64F Rotor (Field) earth fault protection,
59F Field over voltage Protection,
64R Generator transformer restricted earth fault protection,

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51NGT Generator transformer neutral over current protection,
Mechanical Protections:
26G Generator winding temperature alarm and trip,
38 Bearings metal & oil temperature alarm and trip,
39 Generator Vibration alarm and trip,
71 Bearings oil level alarm and trip,
71T Transformer oil level alarm and trip,
63 Transformer Buchholz Protection,
49T Generator transformer winding temperature alarm and trip,
26T Generator-transformer oil temperature alarm and trip,
Transformer oil pressure protection,
The protection scheme / logics shall be suitably designed with provisions for automatic
inclusion / exclusion and modification of various protection functions relevant to continuous
running of unit in different operating states and during transition period from one stable
state to other. The same shall be properly co-ordinated with control and monitoring system
Provision of additional protections required if any for completeness of the system shall be
the responsibility of the contractor.
Excitation Transformer protection
Three (3) sets (Two sets used as main unit while one set used as standby) of protection
equipment for excitation transformer covering
49 Transformer winding temperature alarm and trip relay,
(50/51) Instantaneous and time delay over current protection
XLPE Cable Link
3.3 kV XLPE cable Link from Generator to Generator Transformer and 11 kV XLPE cable
from GT to 11 kV switchgear shall be covered under overall Differential Protection.
11kV Switchgear protection
Two (2) sets of 11 kV SAT feeders protection covering
50/51 Over current protection.
Two (2) sets of 11 kV Transmission line feeder bay protection covering
67/67N Directional over current and earth fault protection,
Station Auxiliary Transformer Protection:
Two (2) sets of protection equipment for Station Auxiliary Transformer (500KVA,
11kV/415V)
49 Transformer winding temperature alarm & trip protection
26 Transformer oil temperature alarm & trip protection
63 Transformer Buchholz Protection
Protection of 415 V switchgear,
27 Under voltage protection in incomers

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50/51/51N Over Current & Earth fault Protection
Other protections and provisions
AC and DC supplies system for power house,
Necessary ICTs, relay panels, marshalling boxes, isolating and shorting links, etc,
Provision of necessary contacts and/or ports for integration Control and Monitoring system,
5.3.22 Protective Scheme Performance Requirements
The protection relays shall be as fast in operation as possible, so as to maintain the
maximum stability under fault conditions. The protective scheme shall be such that it will
provide suitable protection for the individual line and equipment protected and at the same
time ensure proper operation of the entire protective system. The system shall be designed
to isolate only the faulty circuit and to avoid indiscriminate tripping of healthy circuits. The
protective scheme shall not be susceptible to incorrect operation as a result of transient
phenomenon, which may arise during disturbances on the system.
Special attention shall be given to the problem of providing a reliable and high-speed earth
fault protection. The phase faults should also be cleared in the minimum possible time in
order to minimise fault damage and to maintain synchronous stability.
5.3.23 Relays
The relays shall be of flush or semi-flush mounting types numerical type. . They shall
comply in all respects with the requirements of relevant standards and shall be suitable for
operation under tropical climatic conditions specified in special conditions of contract.

5.3.22.1 Numeric Relays for Integrated Protection:

The numerical relay shall have at least following features


i) The relay used in protection system shall be of the numerical, and plug in type arranged
in protection cubicles. All relays including all ancillary devices, such as interposing
transformers, tripping matrix and relays, test facilities, power supply units, etc. with all
circuits shall comply with IEC 60255 Recommendation,
ii) There shall be one RS 232 port/USB port on front and one RS 485 on rear. The front
port shall be used to connect the laptop locally for any change in settings/ downloading
the data etc. and the rear port shall be used to inter connect the relays and for remote
setting/auto extraction of disturbances/events etc., The RS 232/USB and RS 485
cables connecting with the controller must be provided with surge protection devices as
per IEC 61643-21.
iii) The relay shall have preferably front panel back lit display,
iv) The relay shall have self-monitoring features.
v) All major numerical relays shall have an inbuilt disturbance recorder and event
recorder.
vi) DR shall have at least 8 Analog and16 Digital channels with a scan rate of minimum
1000 Hz. The output of DR should be available to enable replay on Numerical test kits.
Software and hardware shall be provided for analysing the records.
vii) In addition to inbuilt disturbance recorder the relay shall have features of MW, MVAR,
current and voltage display.
viii) The event recorder shall be capable of storing a minimum of 256 digital signals
including time marker with a resolution of one millisecond.

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Each relay shall be provided with dust tight, removable transparent covers or covers with
glass windows. The relays shall be mounted inside the panel, glass door with suitable
sealing & locking arrangement shall be provided for monitoring the status of relays. No
relay shall be mounted at the door of the panel. IP class of protection panel shall be IP54.
The operation of the relays shall be practically free from errors due to norma